,.,..~TY QOFTHE VIRGIN ISLANDS
A GRICUL TURE
FEB. 16, 17, 18,
ANNALY FARMS ST. CROIX
Box 1576, Frederistked
"Breeders Of Purebred Senepol Cattle"
Bulls for sale
Heifers for sale.
"EAT FRESH ISLAND BEEF"
MESSAGE FROM GOVERNOR MELVIN H. EVANS
OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES
On behalf of all Virgin Islanders, I
extend best wishes for every success of the
Agriculture and Food Fair of the U. S.
Virgin Islands on this, its fourth annual
occurrence on St. Croix.
The revival of this traditional fair has
become a special highlight for Virgin Is-
landers of all ages as well as an authentic
display of Virgin Islands talent and hos-
pitality for our many visitors.
This always impressive event allows us
all to renew once again our appreciation
of our Virgin Islands culture. My special
appreciation to the other participating
islands is expressed herein.
I strongly recommend that every Virgin
Islander participate in his own way in
this exhibit of the unique products of our
Islands and our people. And I strongly
commend the Agriculture and Food Fair
for giving us this opportunity.
Melvin H. Evans, M.D.
MESSAGE FROM MR. RUDOLPH SHULTERBRANDT
PRESIDENT OF THE AGRICULTURE AND FOOD FAIR
the problems of our educational system, and the
n -problems of local commerce and industry. It is
our hope that this Fair will serve to stimulate
our viewers, through the exhibits, to the many
possibilities that may be employed to solve
these problems and make a better life for the
inhabitants of our islands.
Welcome to our Fourth Agriculture and Food
This year our Fair is of special significance
because of the increased needs of our islands.
The attainment of the goals expressed in our
theme, "Better Living Through Agriculture, Educa-
tion and Industry", is the foremost desire of all
At this time, our people must live with the
problems of high food prices and food shortages,
At this period our citizens' enthusiasm for op-
portunities to produce food is at an all-time high.
This is good and necessary for the expansion of
the agriculture industry. Our Department of Edu-
cation is responding well to the crises developed
by the population explosion of the islands,
and the demands for meaningful education in a
changing world. Our Department of Commerce
continues to attract light manufacturing industries
of a non-polluting nature as one alternative to
supplementing the tourist-oriented industries.
Agriculture is one field through which we can
initiate positive action. Agriculture gives us the
opportunity to set goal which are attainable,
specific, measurable and appreciative. Let us re-
cognize this potential, restructure and direct our
resources toward agricultural expansion.
The strengthening of Agriculture, Education and
Industry, with the support of other agencies, is
one way to better the lives of all of us who reside
here in the Virgin Islands.
OF THE 1973 FAIR COMMITTEE AND JUDGES
Here in the Virgin Islands we commonly com-
plain about our shortage of water, yet how many
of us realize that we normally get more than
thirty six (36) inches of rain per year and this
means that each acre of land receives an average
of more than one million (1,000,000) gallons of
water from rain each year.
The Virgin Islands have a surface area of 85,000
acres and some quick calculations show that
these islands receive over eighty-five billion
(85,000,000,000) gallons of rain water each year.
To help visualize what a large quantity of water
this is, imagine that if all houses had a cistern
with a capacity of twenty thousand (20,000)
gallons, the rain water received would be enough
to fill the cisterns of 4,250,000 houses. To explain
it still another way, it is generally estimated that
the average person uses about 60 gallons of
water per day or almost 22,000 gallons per year;
if all our rain water was collected, it would be
enough to satisfy the needs of nearly 4 million
Although our rainfall pattern tends to be erratic,
a hundred year (1872-1971) average for the
Christiansted, Kings Hill and Frederiksted rain
stations showing the distribution of rainfall by
month is presented in Table 1.
During this period the average annual rainfall
was 44.9 inches with a high in 1933 of 68.5
inches and a low in 1967 of 28.2 inches.
.W* t -.-tte
Conservation, V. I. Dept. of Agriculture
It is obviously impossible to utilize all of the
rain water that we receive but we should be
aware of its great value and conscientiously
comply with the Virgin Islands law which re-
quires that all buildings must have a cistern with
a minimum capacity of ten (10) gallons for each
square foot of roof area, and all gutters and
spouts must be maintained in working condition.
What happens to all this wonderful rain water
that we receive each year? Well, over 90% is
lost to evaporation and transpiration by plants.
The rest of the water ends up in cisterns, or it
percolates down to the groundwater where it can
later be utilized by wells, or it is stored in dams,
or it runs off into the sea. We cannot do much
about the water that is lost to evaporation and
transpiration, and we are certainly happy for the
water that ends up in our cisterns, wells and
dams, but we need to do more about the billions
of gallons of water that run into the sea each
During the past thirty years two-hundred and
seventy-eight (278) dams have been built in the
Virgin Islands. These dams have a total storage
capacity of over five hundred million (500,000,000)
gallons. In an average year these dams prevent
the loss of about a quarter of a billion gallons of
water to the sea. The water thus retained either
percolates into the ground where it can be utilized
by wells, or it is stored on the surface where it
can be utilized by livestock and wildlife and for
In business in St. Croix since 1934
Will Buy and Sell Land
Will Buy and Sell Beef Cattle
Post Office Box 68
Frederiksted, St. Croix
U. S. Virgin Islands 00840 Tel. 772-0412
SOME TIPS FOR GROWING FRUIT TREES IN THE VIRGIN ISLANDS
Darshan S. Padda, Ph. D.
Department of Agriculture, St. Croix
The fact that St. Croix was once considered a
garden of West Indies amply demonstrates the
agro-climatic suitability of these islands for grow-
ing horticultural crops. During 1972 we imported
4,190,368 pounds of tropical fruits like citrus,
mangoes, avocados, bananas, etc., at a cost of
$593,581.00 (see Table 1). All these fruits can be
easily grown here.
The development of economic horticulture will
not only save huge amounts of money going out
of islands but will also provide a profitable and
respectable vocational career for island youth. We
are all aware that most of present day youth
problems stem from lack of purposeful and pro-
ductive vocational alternatives. In addition, food
is a basic need of every human being and there-
fore growing food should be everyone's business.
The higher prices of food are not likely to come
down due to ever increasing purchases of U. S.
products by Japan and other industrial countries.
It is therefore high time that we seriously start
developing food production on the islands to en-
sure a constant supply of food at reasonable
prices to our population.
We can produce most of the eight million pounds
of fresh vegetables imported last year, provided
WEST INDIAN PAPAYA
ways and means to develop water resources are
explored. The production of vegetable crops on
the islands was discussed by me in 1973 Agri-
culture and Food Fair Booklet. In this article pro-
duction of papaya, mango, avocado, banana, and
citrus is discussed. The day length and monthly
temperature ranges are suitable for growth of
all these trees, fsee Table 21
The quantity and value of different fresh tropical fruits imported from
different places into the Virgin Islands during 1972.
FRT N. Y. C. MIAMI SAN JUAN COUNTRIES
POUNDS VALUE POUNDS VALUE POUNDS VALUE POUNDS VALUE
Oranges 7470 644 60706 6768 615921 89157 -
Tangerine 16800 2624 -
Grapefruit 15920 2572 188773 22625 14570 8256
Lemons 10300 1290 -
Lime 132286 4422 -
correctly. 2736 650 -
CITRUS 7470 644 219212 15052 824230 115056 14570 3256
Avocados 140451 19466
Mangoes 29590 4201
Bananas 856848 110757
Plantains 78869 9807
Fruits. 2017633 315092 1500 750
TOTAL 7470 644 219212 15052 2841863 430148 1121828 147787
use needs special care and Agriculture Depart-
ment's Staff should be consulted before the use.
The Papaya Orchard should be sprayed regular-
ly with a combination of Malathion and Dithane
M-45. This mixed spray will take care of fungus
diseases, scale and other aphids that spreads
Male trees that can be recognized from flowers
having long hanging stems should be removed
from the Orchard as these trees will not bear
fruits. The bearing trees are either female (with
round fruits) or hermaphrodites (with pear
shaped fruits). Both round and pear shaped fruits
have same flavour and are acceptable in the
Papaya is a fairly drought resistant plant and
can grow in the Virgin Islands without irrigation.
However with irrigation yields can be increased
tremendously. Low cost irrigation systems are
available and persons interested in commercial
production of Papaya are advised to visit with
the Department of Agriculture for detailed infor-
Marketing: Fruits should be picked twice a week.
All the defective or malformed fruits should be
separated and used for feeding the pigs.
Limited market for good quality "Solo" Papaya
exist in the Virgin Islands Hotels. But large
quantities have to be shiped to mainland markets.
H. Schnell and Company, Inc. has offered us a
market for 25,000 boxes of "Solo" Papaya every
week. This demand cannot be met unless we
have enough acerage.
The marketing division of Department of Agri-
culture will assist in demonstrating maturity stage
for harvest, grading, packing and shipping. So if
you are ready to work in the field and have
good agricultural land, you can enroll as one
of our cooperating grower and make use of our
Mango is a fruit par excellence. It is universally
considered one of the finest fruit in the world.
The mango is probably a more important fruit in
the tropics than is the apple in the temperate
The climate and most of the Virgin Islands soils
are suitable for mango growing. A very good
market exist in the Virgin Islands for "jullie"
mangoes. But for export to mainland planting of
new Florida varieties that have been selected for
attractive external appearance, excellent eating
quality and productivity are recommended. The
varieties that bear good crops include Tommy
Atkins, Irvin, Kent and Keitt. United States im-
port more than 600 thousand flats (10-12 Ibs.)
every year from Mexico, Haiti, Dominican Re-
public and Honduras.
Seed selection and planting: There are two main
types of mango, the Indian and the Indochinese.
!ndochinese types have polyembryonic seed and
generally come true from seed and therefore this
is a common method of their propagation in
many parts of the tropics. Indian varieties are
monoembryonic and do not come true from seed.
Veneer-grafting and chip-budding are the most
common and successful methods for the propaga-
tion of these varieties. Plant spacing depends
upon the depth of soil, variety and management
practices. In the Virgin Islands 45x45 ft. plant
spacing is recommended as the trees are likely
to be kept for long time and disease control and
cultural practices are to be performed by ma-
After planting care: Grafted trees will begin to
bear 3-4 years after planting. Formative pruning
of young trees is not necessary. After several
years of production, it is desirable to cut back
the tops and sides of the trees occasionally to
reduce spraying and harvesting costs and to les-
sen storm damage. The best time for this opera-
tion is summer after harvest. The period of
development from flowering to fruit maturity is
ANIMAL WELFARE IN ST. CROIX
The St. Croix Animal Welfare Center, Inc., is a
non profit organization dedicated to the humane
care and control of unwanted or stray animals on
St. Croix. It is a member of the American Humane
Association formed in 1971. The center has ac-
quired a plot of land at Clifton Hill, donated by
Mr. Frank Weisner, where it plans to erect a
permanent facility. Plans for such a facility have
been donated by Mr. Frank Blaydon. Most of the
centers activities have been fund raising to date,
they include an auction, a Christmas Dinner-Dance
and an annual Clambake, a very popular event.
The center also operated for sometime, a Bring
and Buy shop where new and used articles were
offered for sale. Due to lack of space the Bring
and Buy is no longer in operation but we plan
to open again as soon as working space is found.
The Center boasts a membership of more than
350, renewable annually. At present the center
has approximately $23,000 and a grant of $20,000
has been awarded by the Virgin Islands Govern-
ment. Construction will begin sometime in
January on a temporary shelter which we hope
will be operational within the next 6 months.
We also plan to acquire a mobile unit, which will
be used for pickup of unwanted, injured or
diseased animals. Anyone who has been on St.
Croix will realize that our biggest problems are
overpopulation and neglect. We plan to work
with locol veterinarians and the Department of
Agriculture to help solve these problems.
Future plans include establishing an educational
program geared toward children and adults alike
on the importance of proper care and maintenance
of household pets. We feel the St. Croix Animal
Welfare Center to be an extremely important en-
deavor for St. Croix and we actively solicit par-
ticipation of members and non-members in all
our events and we encourage attendance at our
meetings. We meet each first Monday of the
month at Dr. Pendalls office at Golden Rock.
Donations may be made in any amount and are
tax deductible as is your membership donation.
Memberships start at $5.00 per adult and 500
per child. Sponsor $25.00, and Patron $100.00.
All donations may be mailed to The St. Croix
Animal Welfare Center, Inc., Box 6910, Sunny
Isle. For further information call Laura Mooey at
We hope you feel, as we do, that St. Croix needs
an animal Shelter, and we need your help making
this need a reality.
FERTILIZER CO., INC.
G. P. O. BOX 3128
SAN JUAN, PUERTO RICO 00936
HERBICIDES INSECTICIDES FUNGICIDES
SULFURIC ACID AND OTHER INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS
The Most Modern Supermarkets
in the Virgin Islands!
SOILS OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS
V. I. Soil and Water Conservation District
As the sugar cane harvest dwindled throughout
the Virgin Islands and was phased out commer-
cially in 1966, scrub plants and low forest cover
replaced the once-productive growth. Many Is-
landers quickly lost sight of the fertile potential
of their soils as the fields closed in with cassia,
tan-tan and other brush growth.
In reality the soils of the Virgin Islands are
quite fertile. From the lush pasture lands of An-
naly on St. Croix to the intensively cultivated
terraced slopes of Dorothea on St. Thomas and
the formerly cultivated hillsides near Annaberg
on St. John, one may see examples of how our
soils were used in both the past and the present.
Fruit orchards, tree plantations, vegetable gar-
dens, landscape plantings and nurseries have
thrived on the soils of the Virgin Islands. Newer
uses of our fertile lands center around sorghum
planting for grain and silage and commercial-scale
There are differences in Virgin Islands soils
from one section of our islands to the other. Each
soil has its own treatment needs. Two excellent
publications deal with these differences and give
practical information in coping with the charac-
teristics of each soil type. The St. Croix Garden
Club's publication, YOUR GARDEN IN THE VIRGIN
ISLANDS, devotes a section to the importance of
soil in the development of the home garden.
In that book, Dr. Richard Bond divides the soils
into five broad categories as follows:
A. Soils formed from volcanic rock,
B. Soils formed from marl,
C. Heavy clay soils,
E. Tidal flats and swamps.
These five soil groups cover the full range of
soil conditions to be found in the Virgin Islands.
Dr. Bond discusses the locale, productivity and
treatment needs of each of these categories.
A more detailed treatment of the soils of the
Virgin Islands may be found in the SOIL SURVEY:
VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES. This
book is the result of the work of the Soil Con-
servation Service's professional soil scientists,
who mapped the upper sixty inches of the earth's
crust throughout the Virgin Islands. This publica-
tion discusses agricultural productivity, engineer-
ing uses and the processes of formation of our
soils. Copies of this publication are available
without charge from the Soil Conservation Ser-
vice, USDA, Box 131, Kingshill, St. Croix.
In summary, the soils of the Virgin Islands are
indeed fertile. They must, however, be utilized
and treated according to their characteristic
needs. Conservation practices, fertilization and
the addition of water have been the primary me-
thods used to treat soil needs. Soil and water
conservation are necessary throughout the Virgin
Islands in order that we may realize the full
agricultural potential of our soils.
FOR THE MASTER DAIRYMAN
MASTER MIX FEED
I FOR THE MASTER DAIRYMAN
POSSIBILITIES OF OYSTERS FARMING IN THE VIRGIN ISLANDS
M. L. FORBES, Ph. D.
College of the Virgin Island St. Croix
Three species of true oysters (family Os-
treidae) are native to the Caribbean, including
the Virgin Islands. Ostrea frons uses hooks on
the shell to grasp the sea whips on which it
grows. Ostrea equestric grows on shells at the
bottom of bays. Both species are very small and
Only the mangrove oyster, Crassostrea rhizo-
phorae, is ever abundant enough or large enough
to merit consideration as food. Even it is now
very scarce due to overfishing. Its native habitat
is the aerial roots of the red mangrove trees that
border many of our shores. The oysters grow
only between high and low tide marks, where
one can easily see them from a boat.
Perhaps some day some enterprising person
will begin farming oyster in our waters. The prin-
ciple is easy enough, because in protected bays
where mangrove oysters already occur, their
swimming larvae will attach to any object in the
intertidal zone such as sticks, boards, and rocks.
In six to eight months, the oysters are large
enough to eat. Until that day, we must be content
with the imported oyster (canned, frozen, or in
the shell) from the supermarket.
THE MOST COMPLETE LINE OF
SascO -=E e
EQUIPMENT SERVICES, INC.
Telephone 782-1991 G.P.O. BOX CD San Juan, P. R. 00936
INDUSTRY, AGRICULTURE & EDUCATION
Martin Marietta Alumina is a Virgin Islands Corporation
dedicated to providing truly equal employment opportunity.
Works with the government to assure compliance with Virgin
Island laws and their social objectives, with educational
institutions to assist them in providing a diversified and
qualified reservoir of native talent, and with the island groups
themselves to foster both the desire and availability of their
people for entrance into our industrial society.
______CMMhMM~M MCCM~ MM M h
FEASIBILITY STUDIES ON VARIOUS AGRICULTURAL
ENTERPRISES IN THE VIRGIN ISLANDS
FENTON B. SANDS, Ph. D.
Director, V.I. Agricultural Experiment Station
and V.I. Extension Service College of the Virgin Islands
During the mid part of 1973, the newly
created Virgin Islands Agricultural Experiment
Station, College of the Virgin Islands sponsored
a series of feasibility studies. These investiga-
tions were financed totally by Federal funds made
available to the Station under the provisions of
the Hatch Act, Amended. These studies were ac-
complished by contracting with teams composed
of highly qualified professional economists, agro-
nomsts, and animal husbandrymen selected from
the leading agricultural institutions and organiza-
tions on the mainland.
The objective of these feasibility studies was
to determine the agricultural enterprises, both
plant and animal, that have economic potential
on the Virgin Islands. It is the author's conviction
that the agricultural industry must be economical-
ly sound in order to be viable.
The studies have shown that the key to a viable
livestock industry is the production of or a supply
of cheap animal feed. Because of our erratic rain-
fall, one of the most promising animal feed grains
is sorghum. This plant can give a $50.00 per acre
net return in 7 8 months, even when given an
extremely low value of $3.50 per hundred pounds.
If grown for silage, the net return is not quite
When valuing locally produced sorghum at
$3.50/100 Ibs., far below the cost of importing
the grain ,it appears that a saving of about $1.60
to $1.75/100 Ibs. could be realized on feed rations
made from locally produced grain in a centralized
feed processing plant as compared with imported
complete rations from Puerto Rico. This seems
encouraging. Locally processed feed would keep
a large amount of money on the islands, and at
the same time, provide employment opportunities
that do not now exist. Projections are that by
1975 feed use will amount to 4,775 tons per year.
(See: "Grain Sorghum and Forage Production
Utilization Potential in St. Croix, U.S.V.I.").
We have always considered sugar cane for pro-
ducing only sugar and rum. A recent study has
shown that using it in the form of comfith (shred-
ded cane after removal of rind) as an energy feed
source for beef cattle and other ruminants can be
profitable. (See: "An Evaluation of Sorghum and
Sugar Cane as an Energy Source for Animal Feed
Under St. Croix Conditions").
Another study has shown that during June 1973
when large eggs sold at prices above 90 cents
per dozen, efficient producers could make a satis-
factory return in poultry. (See: "Economic Analy-
sis and Feasibility of Poultry in the Virgin
Islands"). Where hogs are concerned, if costs of
purchased feed can be reduced significantly (see
above note on sorghum) and management prac-
tices improved to the desired levels, hog produc-
tion could be a viable part-time enterprise. (See:
"Economic Analysis and Feasibility of Hogs in the
Dairying, unlike the other sectors of the agri-
cultural economy, has been increasing, and rising
population and incomes indicate a potential for
further growth. The studv of this enterprise
shows that significant economies can be realized
by moving from a 50-cow operation to a 75-cow
herd. Prices of milk and feed were found to be
the major factors influencing profits. Changes in
land costs and wage rates were relatively less
significant. (See: "Profitability of Diary Farming
in St. Croix, Virgin Islands").
Our study of the beef industry shows that it
should be encouraged if for no other reason than
to reduce the cost of holding land pending its
development for "higher" economic uses. Data
presented indicate that well run operations can
cover out-of- pocket costs which include repairs
and maintenance facilities and management in-
come. Moreover, the relatively inexpensive beef
produced is a much needed source of protein for
the lower income segment of the population.
Also, very importantly, beef cattle operations,
occupying as they do a comparatively large area
of land, play a vital role in preserving island
aesthetics. (See: "Profitability of Beef Production
in the U.S. Virgin Islands").
"The Marketing of Livestock and Livestock Pro-
ducts in the Virgin Islands" pointed out some
interesting facts, one of which showed goat meat
to be the most profitable meat to raise. The
market for locally grown livestock products has
not been fully tapped.
The study on the production and marketing of
fruits and vegetables also revealed a number of
very interesting facts. The comprehensive econo-
mic evaluation of these two enterprises cons-
tructed budgets (cost and returns) for the most
important fruits and vegetables grown on the
Virgin Islands. This was done for conditions of
average rainfall and for dry years. The anticipated
profit on production of fruits and vegetables even
under conditions of 80% of average yield, and
increases of 25% in production costs, was 9.0
cents/lb. for mangos; for papayas, 4.0 cents/lb.;
for pineapples, 2.7 cents/lb.; for tomatoes, 4.1
cents/lb.; okra, 3.1 cents/lb.; and onions, 1.2
cents/lb. On the other hand, given the same
conditions as stated above, some losses could be
expected with other varieties of vegetables. For
details, see "Resource Limitations, Current Pro-
duction and Marketing Practices, and Projected
Requirements for Fruits and Vegetables, Virgin
Islands, U.S.A." The large local and tourist popu-
lation provide a ready market for locally produced
products which can command a premium price.
This should provide an attractive challenge to
These feasibility reports have also revealed
the areas where lack of training and education
on the part of the farmers have limited produc-
tion. These subjects have now become part of
the new program of the V.I.. Extension Service.
At the same time, the lack of information about
the response of crops and livestock in this en-
vironment, which also limit production, has been
recognized. These gaps in our knowledge have
become the basis for the planned research pro-
gram of the V.I. Agricultural Experiment Station.
Thus these studies have given more direction to
the efforts of the Extension and Research Pro-
grams of this land-grant institution. More impor-
tantly, the results of these studies are expected
to be beneficial to full part-time farmers, as well
as to potential investors.
It has been impossible in the space allowed to
do justice to reviewing all of these studies. It is
therefore suggested that the interested reader
write to or call in person at the Virgin Islands
Agricultural Research Station, College of the
Virgin Islands, for a copy of the reports) that
he or she might wish to have. They are all being
edited and should be printed early this year.
Christiansted, St. Croix 773-4466
One Stop Shopping for All Island Needs
Sporting Goods Cigarettes and Liquor
Beach Supplies Imported and local Perfumes
Cameras and Accessories
Developing Equipment and Film Processing
Stay awhile and enjoy our Restaurant
SUNNY ISLE SHOPPING CENTER
MANY THANKS TO
THE DEPARTMENT OF
Produced Daily On St. Croix
SLA fFrom Six Purebred Dairy
~~ I R Grade A Fresh Milk
S* Non Fat Skim Milk
Fresh Whipping Cream
SK Sour Cream
Cottage Cheese and
24 Ice Cream and
Sherbert Flavors Made
I Ask For Island Dairies
Products At Your Local
Stop At The Golden Cow in
ST. CROIX, VIRGIN ISLANDS
PAST AND PRESENT
- A COMPARISON
LENA A. SHULTERBRANDT
V. I. Dept. of Education
The theme of this year's fair "Better Living
Through Agriculture, Education, and Industry" is
a matter that is discussed between young and
old quite often. The senior citizens contend that
it was better living when they were young. The
young folks say the present is better. The senior
They could go on listing and comparing prices
without stating that incomes at that time were
very low, $10.00 per week for laborers, and $15.00
The younger folks claim the senior citizens diet
was inadequate; but was it really inadequate?
We have senior citizens today, who lived off the
local fare without high blood pressure, with their
own teeth and able to read and write at age 93
without glasses. They did not enjoy the con-
veniences, the education, and nutritional aids that
are available today, during their youth.
citizens view the situation in terms of cost; the
young folks; convenience.
We very often hear senior citizens complaining
about the cost of food. They remember quite
nostalgically, and according to a cost comparison
the prices look as fallows:
$1.10 per doz.
171/2 per lb.
250 per Ib.
900 per Ib.
300 per lb.
300 per lb.
300 per Ib.
500 per Ib.
600 per Ib.
1.19 per lb.
500 per bunch
900 per Ib.
800 per Ib.
800 per Ib.
1.50 per Ib.
1.25 per Ib.
1.39 per lb.
1.65 per lb.
1.15 per lb.
300 per Ib.
35, per lb.
30: per lb.
During the time of the senior citizen's youth,
the cooking was done on coalpots or on tripods
of iron or stone. Tin cans and aluminum plates,
board spoons, sea fan egg beaters, calabash and
canary containers were some of the utensils and
tools used. Baking was done in kerosene can
ovens, cast iron pots or brick ovens.
Cooking was done in 5 Ib. butter tins, aluminum
pots and saucepans, kerosene pans and coppers
were often used for quantity cooking, and heavy
cast iron ware was used for frying or pressure
The water table of the Virgin Islands was at a
higher level than now, because guts were running
throughout the islands and very often it rained so
hard that the dirt roads were impossible for
walking or with animal carts. Due to the high
water table, land available for food production,
there was very little construction going on, more
local grown foods were available.
Many fruits and vegetables that we see very
little of today were available. To name a few,
guinea almond, cashew, tamarind, seaside grapes,
gennep, sorrel, locust, lady fingers, seven year
bananas, truba tomatoes, mami apple, guava
berries, bell apple, custard apple, sweet limes,
gooseberry, sweet tamarind trees, oranges, tan-
gerines, melons, coco plum, plum citaire, lemons
were big and lucious when in season. There was
so much kallaloo available that it was often dried
and shipped as cren cren to relatives in the
The older folks can be heard sighing for a good
fat smoked herring to dip their fungi on, for a
piece of roast sausage, fry's batter, shark meat
balls, turtle meat balls and soup, turtle eggs,
and a nice stew fish head to suck on, or a nice
piece of corn pork or fish, a good piece of local
pork for dove pork and okra fungi, horse shoe
quelbe tart or hot benye for breakfast.
Doing Business 35 Years
The younger folks boast of their modern con-
veniences, such as electric gas stoves that have
built in ovens. Solar cooking for the hot climate.
Refrigerators, freezers for saving left overs or
pre-cooking foods for future uses. The time saved
in cooking by pre-cooked foods, canned foods,
frozen foods, pressure cookers, water less
The modern utensils such as electric mixers,
toasters, slicers, can openers, all make cooking
a joy. The beautiful Melmac ware, stainless steel
utensils, better pots, frozen ware and plastic,
anything you name is readily available and shows
off food at its best. Pre-cooked foods, in boxes,
cans, bottles and T.V. Dinners cut cooking time
to 25 minutes. The modern indoor kitchens are
furnished with every imaginable time saving
The senior citizens are the first persons re-
quested whenever real Cruzan foods are to be
prepared. They have the menus and recipes that
many younger folks cannot prepare. Their menus
to many outsiders seem to be not nutritious, but
when particular menus and recipes are analyzed
it is known that they did know something about
What is your opinion? Was it better then than
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POULTRY IN THE VIRGIN ISLANDS & ITS OUTLOOK FOR THE FUTURE.
By MRS. LEELIA PADILLA
Member St. Croix Agricultural advisory committee
Through the years natives and residents of the
Virgin Islands always raised chickens to a small
degree. This was done from necessity since at
one time all food was grown here and refrigera-
tion was almost unheard of. As the years passed
this picture changed. Refrigeration arrived on a
mass scale and imported provisions took over.
From this it would appear that people would have
less and less interest in poultry but this is not
strickly true! The quality of our imported eggs
and poultry are not comparable to our fresh eggs
and poultry. People are becoming more and more
aware again of the necessity of raising their own
food and poultry and that they do not need large
acreage or expensive equipment. People in all
spheres of life seem to get satisfaction out of
raising foul for food and/or profit.
At the present time we have only three (3)
medium sized commercial egg farms in St. Croix
but our need is great and we hope that the youth
will see the need and start more egg production.
We have many experienced personnel in our local
Agriculture Department who will work with any-
one who has a real desire to work in farming.
As for broilers, we do not have even one first
class broiler plant on the three (3) islands! We
should get busy and develop large and small
broiler operations before outsiders do. We say
that we want a piece of the action well the
action is there for us to get, without a large in-
vestment or much experience, simply by planning
poultry and food to grow.
As you sound out people today in the Virgin
Islands you find that they are planning to start
or continue with layers or broilers as a food
supply. People are definitely interested in a small
plot of ground with chickens and a garden for
more security and to provide a pleasant and
profitable hobby. Many people supplement their
supplies of high protein food by having a small
flock and we feel that this is feasible in the
We can see from the food shortages and high
prices that we must go back to the land and
raise at least half of our food if we are to survive
well in light of current trends in food prices and
People choose chickens because they provide
more pleasure and profit for the work and invest-
ment required than any other animal; they res-
pond quickly to good care.
With our new policy of producing our own grain
it would be much cheaper to feed farm animals
in general. Our projected sorghum program looks
very encouraging and our Commissioner of Agri-
culture, Rudolph Shulterbrandt and his able staff
are earnestly trying to focus attention on our
need for home grown foods and poultry. Why
don't you see the Local or Federal Station and
see what they can offer in help and information
in raising poultry and produce. We are very op-
timistic about everyone participating and making
the most of our climate and potential for raising
our native foods.
We are importing very large quantities of eggs
every year from outside but we can easily grow
and market our own eggs.
Under our present zoning laws anyone occupy-
ing a quarter of an acre of land, which would be
in our R-1 & R-2 Zones, could participate in a live
stock program and farming. Naturally in areas as
small as these, animals should be kept confined
to cages or a small enclosed area. And of course
common courtesy requires that they be housed
in such a way that they will not be nuisance to
neighbors. This usually means keeping no male
bird or roosters beyond the fryer stage, because
of the disturbance caused by the crowing.
The question is what can be expected of a
small flock in the way of food production whether
in town or on the farm. The Department of
Agricultural suggests that a flock of fifteen (15)
hens and fifty (50) baby chicks, which could be
duplicated by any family on the average condi-
tions, would provide enough eggs say six per
day and one pound of meat every other day
during the year. Combined eggs and food would
total 375 pounds per year, and this is a conser-
vative figure. If the family is of an average size
- say five people there will be enough to sell
from time to time.
Once you have decided you definitely want to
have the pleasure and food which a small flock
of chickens can provide, the next question is how
to get started. The planning begins and goes on
to three (3) stages as follows:
1. Instructions and know how which you will
have to study ahead which will enable you
to carry off your planned program.
2. Equipment needed and house plan.
3. The purchase of chickens from a reliable
and reputable source (we strongly suggest
that you contact our local Department of
Agriculture and follow their suggestions).
For a small home type operation of fifteen
birds and fifty (50) baby chicks we would need
an approximate initial investment of THREE HUN-
DRED DOLLARS (300.00) for the construction of
a house and minimum equipment. (This of
course could be reduced depending upon our in-
genuity, the skills you have and materials that
you might have on hand or would be able to
utilize). The purchase of the birds would require
an investment of approximately SIXTY FIVE DOL-
LARS ($65.00) which would provide fifteen (15)
laying hens at approximately $3.00 each and fifty
(50) day old chicks at about $0.35 each. To main-
tain the fifteen (15) laying chicks by feeding only
commercial feed would cost about $0.33 per day;
and to bring the baby chicks to maturity would
run you approximately another $0.33 per day; to
maintain them after maturity together with the
first fifteen (15) hens will run you approximately
$1.45 per day. However this is considering only
commercial feed at its highest price but our aim
is not to depend on commercial feeds but to use
our local food, that is being produced and to
supplement it with what we have naturally on the
island such as papaya etc. and other grasses and
feeds. Should you operate this program using our
local sorghum program and local foods sup-
plemented occasionly by commercial grains your
cost to maintain the chicks and to produce the
eggs and food will be reduced considerably say
50 to 70%. Thus with fifteen (15) laying hens and
fifty (50) chicks which will mature to either
layers or fryers as you wish would produce 180
dozen eggs per year in addition to meat you
can easily figure your cost and savings in ad-
dition to the gain in taste and flavor.
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"DAWN'S PROMISE OF BEAUTY"
EUGENE THOMAS, St. Croix
It was the muffled sound of argument that
awakened me. There was a slight ache behind
my forehead as I listened, sorting out and se-
parating the muffled sound into two sounds.
The first cry was shrill, feminine, cross and
indignant. The second low and male, calm and
placating. My head was buried deep in the pillow,
so deep that when I turned I could not see the
old clock on the wall. The pillow was handmade,
stuffed with white fowl feathers. I lifted myself
slightly on my forearm and was able to make
out the time. It was four forty-two A.M.
I got dressed and walked down the stairs to-
wards the lobby, where I saw the enraged couple
being confronted by the night clerk, who seemed
very calm. I passed by thinking that it had been
years since I had heard a lovers' quarrel so early
in the morning. As I walked through the main
door onto the unpaved road, I looked back and
saw the name, "Clover Crest Hotel".
About two hundred yards downhill was the
main road, paved with disconnected stone slabs.
The silence and vastness of the rustling greenery
that witnessed my passing conspired to stir a
vague fear in me. Sweat trickled down from my
I stopped at the large wooden gate at the en-
trance to the property, and sat on it. It was then
that I experienced a peace of mind unequaled,
It was before six, yet the country-side had al-
ready begun to come to life human voices,
the clattering of donkeys and their masters going
to market, the shrill squeals of pigs, the escalated
squawks of chickens and cocks resounded from
At mid-afternoon the previous day, the rain had
come down in huge drops, joyous, bouyant, turn-
ing to an avalanche of sweet water as the big-
bellied clouds emptied themselves on the land.
And, as I sat there, I saw fresh dark sheets of
rain sweep across the sea, casually passing over
a frigate and rushing on towards the land, surging
up the valleys to the slopes of the high green
hills. In the distance a church bell had struck
six-thirty and the sun had already begun peering
through the firey bougainvillea, the deep red hi-
biscus, and a mango tree, heavily laden with the
green, unripe fruits. A mongoose emerged from
the bushes, sent by Mother Nature (perhaps) to
rescue me should a snake approach. But as I
raised my hand and waved at it, it disappeared
into the bushes.
I got down from the gate and started the walk
back up the unpaved road toward the Hotel. It
was then that I appreciated fully the deep satiety
that follows prolonged, intense internal unrest.
It led me to smile to myself as I looked over the
green fields to the sea.
This was truly "Dawn's Promise of Beauty".
THE AMATEUR GARDENER IN THE VIRGIN ISLANDS
Marjorie Kunstadter Blue Mountain Farm, St. Croix
What is a green thumb? It is a combination of
factors; luck, the amount of rainfall, the type of
soil, experience, patience, and the pleasure
derived from seeing plants grow. All this is
possible, and with the natural beauty of flowering
trees and bushes planted by birds, not man; the
inspiration is there to emulate!
This article is dedicated with respect and ad-
miration to a botanist of great knowledge, a
teacher of rare patience, a lover of all growing
things, the late Alphonso Nelthropp.
How to "make do". Without peat moss, which
in my opinion is "too hot" for the tropics, I re-
commend the use of guinea grass, cut up fine,
When planting, make a soft bed for the tiny
roots. Dig a hole twice as wide as the container
in which the plant was started. Put in the guinea
grass and some pen manure which has been
treated for nematodes. Press the earth firmly
around the young plant to keep out the air from
the roots, and with sufficient water, plant can
Get rid of the ant nests! They transmit disease
from one plant to another, can ruin young roots,
and carry away seeds. Chlordane* is a useful
chemical for these pests but often it is not avail-
able, and is always expensive.
Your farmer friend can help with natural fer-
tilizers. One can use rabbit, horse, cow, goat and
chicken manure. Dry it, treat it for nematodes,
mix it with rotted leaves or garden trash. Consult
the Department of Agriculture as to the amount
When the birds and bats start attacking the
ripe papaya and tomatoes, tie small empty tin
cans on strings across the garden area. The flash
of the tin cans and the noise will discourage
When the leaves of the hibiscus or any other
ornamental start to turn yellow, they may be suf-
fering from iron deficiency. Take a bucket of old
nails, -allow to rust in water, and pour the water
on the roots and leaves at dusk twice weekly.
This may cure the malady.
A good potting mixture is half sand and half
soil. Use sea sand if no gut sand is available and
wash with fresh water to remove the salt. If a
tree appears to be suffering from rot at the base,
coat with crude coal tar; it may save the tree.
When water is scarce and rain fall is slight,
develop a cactus garden. There are many different
and attractive varieties: yukka, rabbit ear, candle-
labra, century, night bloomers, snake plants,
spider and spanish bayonet, to mention a few.
Pandamus, broad or narrow leaf, varigated or
plain require little water.
Where sea spray and salt are in the air; and
so many plants cannot tolerate salt, use sea
grapes, palms, and lovely sea vines for ground
cover. Check out the plants that you plan to grow
and find out if they can tolerate the conditions
of your garden and prosper there. Never try to
beat the elements unless one is sufficiently ex-
perienced to make the attempt!
For the neophyte in an area with average rain-
fall and adequate soil use the following foliage
bushes and trees that are so decorative and re-
latively easy to grow: croton, ordinary hibiscus,
boganvillea, cup of gold, a hardy and enormous
vine with dramatic yellow flowers. Mahogany,
African tulip, ceder and Parkinsonian are rapidly
growing trees and each one is distinctive.
It is the hybird hibiscus and the grafted speci-
men that causes grief with the beginers.
There is the yellow ceder, a bush or small tree
that grows wild along our roadsides, and so easy
to grow from seeds! Properly spaced and shaped
it can enhance a garden. The spider lilly will and
can grow almost anywhere. It's broad, ever green
leaves will fill a garden corner with no effort to
the gardener. It is to keep out the "evil eye" that
every astute gardener should appreciate.
Propagation can be frustrating for the amateur.
A little Rootone on the cutting in a tin can that
has good drainage may be helpful. The soil should
be kept moist and the young plant should be
protected from the direct sun. Be extremely care-
ful when the plant is sufficiently mature to trans-
plant it into the permanent home. Try not to
disturb the small roots, as shocking them can
result in their demise.
Grass is always a problem in the tropics. Try
ground cover. There are so many from which to
choose and they often grow wild. Guinea and
hurricane grasses, cut short, are not objectionable
and may develop into an attractive lawn.
Follow the same principles when growing ve-
getables, Beans, pumpkins, kohlrabi, cabbage,
lettuce, cucumbers and tomatoes are among the
easiest to grow. Also, okra and eggplant are
relatively easy to produce.
"One must crawl before one can walk." It is
the same with growing ornamentals or food stuff.-
and so gratifying to succeed
clnqgr~Lllrr-lr~ u~L~)(~(I)(I~ ITmrT)~II
(They wouldn't come back)
ALUMINUM (you wouldn't like it)
DRINK REFINED OIL
(bad for ulcers)
BUT YOU CAN----
EAT FRESH BEEF
("No problem" with the cows)
DRINK FRESH MILK
(good for the day after)
CANE GARDEN FARM-ST. CROIX
REGISTERED HOLSTEIN PUREBRED SENEPOL
REGISTERED CHAROLAIS THOROUGHBRED HORSES
SPEECH NOTES -
MRS. FRANCES CHRISTENSEN
The period I am about to speak of covers from
about 1870 to 1963.
About 1870 to 1890 St. George was comprised
of several estates. These estates were Mountain,
Welbegaard, Sallys Fancy and, of course, St.
The owner at that time was Mr. Alexander
Fleming. He managed them until about 1890. He
was an uncle of the present Salwyn Fleming. He
died in the 1890's, and his brother, William
Fleming, took over the estates and managed
them for the Fleming family until the turn of the
century. Then they ran into financial difficulties
bankruptcy and were to be sold at public
auction when Mr. George Latimer decided to buy
them. The price was set at $90,000.00 for the
My parents came to live at St. George in 1901.
My father was employed by Mr. Latimer as a
carpenter, mason and cooper. His work was to
assemble hogsheads and barrels which wete
used for sugar and rum which were shipped to
Denmark, our mother country. The factory was
going full capacity from 1901 untii 1915.
The sugar they made was called muscovado.
It was like the dark brown sugar that Pueblo
sells. I didn't know how the rum tasted, but our
St. George Village Botanical Garden
Open House October 27, 1973
S Mrs. Frances Christiansen stands
outside the house where she
was born in St. George Estate,
l and shows the plum tree that
S) provided an outdoor dining area
for her family.
parents made a drink by brewing the flowers of
a plant we called sorrel (sorrel pods or flowers
ripen about late October or early November),
sugar, spices and rum. This was used at Christmas
time. It's like a liqueur, and they gave it to us
There was a carpenter shop. It repaired bull
and mule carts they may have built them too.
There was a blacksmith shop where they re-
paired ploughshares, the metal parts of harnes-
There was a saddler shop where harnesses
were made and repaired. I remember the saddler's
name was Sammy.
There was a lime kiln where they burned cer-
tain types of rocks, conch shells and molasses
and, after processing it, it came out a very white
powder. This was used for washing or painting
the buildings. They also mixed it with ashes, sand
and gravel to use as a cement substitute. This
kiln can be seen north of the ruins and west of
the overseer's house; all other shops were south
of the factory, and some ruins can also be seen.
Even though St. George was the headquarters
for these estates, Mr. and Mrs. Latimer always
lived at Estate Mountain. My two older brothers,
James and Joe, were their houseboys at different
times. The Latimers gave me my first doll for
Mr. Latimer had his office under the manager's
house which was just a few steps from the fac-
tory. Mr. and Mrs. Blackwood lived in this house
with their family. Amy Blackwood McKay was
Mr. Latimer also had a relative overseeing there
after the Blackwoods left. I don't remember his
real name, but he was nicknamed Tiperreery. They
also had an adopted daughter Mrs. Juanita
St. George was a very fertile place. There was
lots of water which was supplied by a spring at
Ming Gut, and Mountain also got its supply from
there by a fanmill which ruins can also be
seen. The guts were very deep and flew to join
Diamond Gut. One of my childhood companions
was drowned in one of these guts trying to
gather plums; she slipped in. Mr. Latimer burned
down the plum tree.
There was a Caribe settlement north and west
of Ming Gut. Relic hunters spent many hours
digging in search of them. Falmer Anderson was
one of these hunters.
There was a cemetery named Ming Gut Ce-
mentery or # 3 where people from Mountain
were buried. There was #5 cemetery for the
people of St. George southwest of the bridge.
Three of my brothers and one sister were laid
to rest there.
Most indelible in my mind as a child was when
my father took me in the factory to see the en-
gines and two balls spinning around at terrific
speed. Then I was given sugar syrup to drink.
Sling was its name. The first time I had too much
and got sick from it. After that they made sure
I was given a limited amount. This occurred on
weekends when the factory was not operating at
In 1916, on October 9th, came the hurricane.
It began to rain and blow very hard. My father
loosened the horse, tied down the cart and buggy
and left everything in God's hands. (Later they
were found in the cane field.) After many hours
of confinement and fright we saw the partition
open up, and there were my brother and all the
other people living on the south side. They came
in our rooms, and then they started taking down
the northern partitions until all the people were
together in the center where we stood until
it was over.
Then men on horses came to say we must
close up and take refuge at Diamond School for
the storm was coming again in a short while. My
father took me and my brother to the school.
My mother was left gathering her other sons and
daughters-in-law. Before they got to the door the
storm was on them. It took all the men that were
there to close the half of the west door. After,
some large stones began falling in the other end
of the school. However, they survived.
Early in 1916 there was the first strike or-
dered by the then labor leader, Hamilton Jackson,
and others. It was for the people to get better
wages. The wages for a laborer were $1.00 per
week from 6:00 A.M. to 6:00 P.M., 5 days a
week. Three cents were taken out of the $1.00
for sick benefits or to pay doctor bills.
After the strike was settled, the wages were
raised to $1.20 per week and later to $1.50 per
week. The strike lasted 6 weeks. All those who
struck were ordered to leave the estates.
My father did not strike and so was allowed
to stay, but after the hurricane he left the Lati-
mers as they could not decide on better wages
for him. He was given better wages at Lower
Love where he was head carpenter-mason for
Lower Love, Castle Burk, Golden Grove and Ad-
venture. He later moved to Adventure where there
were new houses on the hill, but he held the
All children around the St. George area attend.
ed Diamond School. When I began school the
headmaster's name was Teacher Karr. Being one
of the smaller children, I was not taught the
Danish language; only the higher classes were
About 1918 or 1919 Mr. Latimer leased the St.
Georges Enterprise to the Bethlehem Concern W.I.
Sugar Factory for 10 years with option for another
10 years. By this time Borg of Allen, Welbegaard
was severed by sale, for they only cultivated
Mountain and St. George and trucked the cane
to the Bethlehem Factory.
Deed of March 16, 1931: from Mr. Robert
Skeoch, V. Wulff and Densil Noll, Trustees for
the W.I. Sugar Factory of Mountain, St. George
and Sallys Fancy in liquidation to Mr. George
Deed dated June 1, 1940: from Mr. Latimer to
Mr. John Albert Fleming, Sr.
Deed of Conveyance dated November 24, 1948:
from Mr. John A. Fleming, Sr. to John Fleming, Jr.
Warranty Deed dated April 22, 1951 from Mr.
John Fleming, Jr. was given to the following:
C. S. Jones, J. Mc.A. Weble, R. Maushel, M. B.
Dierssen, G. R. Jennings and J. P. Baker.
Warranty Deed dated December 9, 1963: Lake-
side Manufacturing, Inc.
Most all here will know what has taken place
in the 10 years from 1963 to 1973.
26 A COMPANY STREET
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THE PASO FINO COMES
INTO HIS OWN
JANE F. OHMEIS, St. Croix
There is a breed of horse on St. Croix that has
been here hundreds of years, certainly over 400
years, and how could we be more Cruzan that
He has been used as a soldiers mount, a work
horse, a parade horse of great style, and a
pleasure horse. Old time Cruzans will remember
him as the breed used by the overseers in the
cane fields, chiefly because of his great stamina
and ability to go for hours at the same easy gait
without tireing either himself or his rider.
This is the Paso Fino Horse, who should be so
well known here but whom we seem to have
neglected and allowed to deteriorate by our lack
of knowledge of his fine background and many
In the United States the Paso Fino is known
only recently and is called the "new horse that
is 400 years old", and his popularity has grown
so rapidly there, both as a pleasure horse and a
show horse, that there is no doubt that we will
see Paso Fino classes at the National Horse
Show in the near future. This is an animal that
has been on St. Croix since the days of Columbus
and how little we know about him!
Following is a general description of the Paso
Fino Horse and his gaits. If you have a horse that
fits this description, even remotely, and you wish
to learn more about him, his handling and training,
the St. Croix Horse Show Association will be
holding a Clinic on the Paso Fino at the Agricul-
tural Fair, Estate Lower Love, on Saturday & Sunday
Feb. 16th & 17th. Mr. Marvin Frederickson, quali-
fied judge and expert on the Paso Fino will be
here from Puerto Rico, by invitation of the As-
sociation, to conduct this teaching event. On
Sunday afternoon, Feb. 17th there will be a Mini
Show for Paso Finos' only, sponsored by the As-
sociation and judged by Mr. Frederickson, after
which there will be a question and answer time
with the Judge.
Notices will be sent out to all St. Croix Horse
Show Members. Because of insurance it is man-
datory that all those entering this event must be
Members of the St. Croix Horse Show Associa-
tion. Dues are $2.50 for adults and $1.00 for
Juniors, under eighteen years. If you wish to join
please contact Mrs. Ann Rogers at 773-4231.
Entry fee for the entire Paso Fino event, 2
days, will be $10.00. Post entering will be pos-
sible on Saturday A.M. but fee will be $12.00. Post
entering for Sundays Mini Show only will be
. l l ,. -.**
THE PASO FINO HORSE
GENERAL IMPRESSION: Light horse of great
natural grace, showing plenty of spirit but well
controlled. No extreme museling.
HEAD; Ears; short and often curved inward at tip.
Eyes; widely spaced and large.
Profile; sometimes convex above nostril,
nostrils large and flared when alert,
straight flat brow.
Neck; Medium length, high carriage, usual-
Forehand; Shoulders sloped with good
depth through heart, moderate width at
chest, withers defined but not pro-
Back; Varies with breeding, but should not
be outstandingly long or short.
Croup; Sloping and well rounded at rump
with tail set low.
Legs; Straight and delicate in appearance.
Wild sickle hocks seem to aid the gait
but should not be pronounced.
Name and Tail; As long and full as pos-
Size; 13 to 15.2 hands weight is from
700 to 1100 Ibs. Full growth is not
attained until the 5th year for they
mature slowly and are a long lived
breed. Some have been known to live
oven 30 years.
Color; Every color can be found but the
Blacks, Bays, Chestnuts and Palomino
are the most common.
GAITS; Esentially a broken pace; a lateral gait as
opposed to the diagonal gait of the trotter. The
sequence of movement being right rear, right fore,
left rear, left fore, the kind foot striking a fraction
of a second before the front, thus eliminating the
jarring effect of the true pace and causing the
rider a minimum up and down motion. The same
gait is performed at three speeds collection of
carriage decreasing as the speed increases.
Paso Fino; Very slow and with extreme collection,
steady unbroken rythm.
Paso Corto; More relaxed form, ideal for trail and
pleasure, executed with only mild collection
on loose rein. Most Paso Fino Horses prefer
this gait to walking.
Paso Largo; This is the speed form of the same
1, 2, 3, 4, gait. The rider should appear almost
motionless as in the other gaits.
Other speeds and gaits possible, such as the
Sobre Paso or the Andadura (the gallop which
is really a pace) we can learn more about at the
St. Croix Horse Show Association Clinic and Mini
Show at the Agricultural Fair at Est. Lower Love
on Feb. 16th & 17th.
We expect to have a wonderful time learning
about this Paso Fino breed who has been on our
Island since Columbus landed here. The Horse
Show Association has invited Mr. Marvin Fre-
derickson, Judge and expert on these animals,
from Puerto Rico.
Join the Association, and enter your horse in
the clinic and Mini Show.
Hannah's Rest, Frederiksted, St. Croix, V.I.
Phone: 772 0155
TIRES, AUTO PARTS, ACCESSORIES, INC.
Basin Triangle, Christiansted, St. Croix, V.I
Salutes to the Virgin Islands Department of Agriculture
on the occasion of the
World Wide Fashions
Town & Country
Post Office Station
The Donut Shop
Sunny Isle Twin Theaters
Sunny Isle Interiors
1st National City Bank
Ole's Snack Bar
AND FOOD FAIR
The Unique Shop
Bata Shoe Store
Kenney's Shoes Store
V. 1. Police Station
V. 1. Lottery Sales
Good Samanten Bakery
Logan's Pet Supply
Hughe's Photo Studio
Terry's Children Wear
People's Drug Store
Grand Union Super Market
Sylvia's Magazine Store
Kentucky Fried Chicken
VIRGIN ISLAND 4-H YOUTH PROGRAM
It has been wisely said that the most important
commodity of any country is its youth. Nowhere
is this truer than here in the U.S. Virgin Islands.
With over 14,0001 young people between the ages
of eight and nineteen, it is important that we
provide opportunities for meaningful learning ac-
tivities for these youth to help them help them-
selves to be better prepared to take their right-
ful place as useful and productive citizens in our
The Cooperative Extension Service of the USDA
and the landgrant College of the Virgin Islands
has long been a leader in providing such opportu-
nities for all youth from all walks of life through
the 4-H youth program.
The 4-H program is part of the nationwide in-
formal educational system of the Cooperative
Extension Service a three way partnership of
the local government, the landgrant Universities,
and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Local
people determine 4-H programs.
Friends of 4-H also give valuable advice and
financial aid. About a fourth of the money spent
on 4-H programs comes from non-tax sources -
from individual donors, businesses and organiza-
To guide 4-Hers, over 400,000 public spirited
men and women -many of them parents- serve
as volunteer local leaders. These leaders are
trained, counseled and assisted by professional
Extension personnel who in turn have at their
fingertips the vast stores of knowledge of the
Universities and the U.S. Department of Agricul-
These leaders advise and encourage 4-Hers in
planning and carrying out projects. They teach
them new subject matter, attend club meetings,
and most important, have a genuine interest in
boys and girls and a desire to facilitate their
We know through research that learning takes
place relative to our five senses: sight, smell,
LOCAL 4-H WITH A PAIR OF NEW ZEALAND
RABBITS RABBIT PROJECT.
touch, taste, and hearing. We also know that the
more senses that are involved in a learning situa-
tion, the greater the retention of information.
The following table will give you an idea how
learning and retention of information takes place.
We learn approximately
1% by taste
11/2% by touch
31/2% by smell
10% of what we hear
50% of what we see
90% of what we do
11% by hearing
83% by sight
With this in mind, 4-H has structured its pro-
gram to allow for the maximum of physical in-
volvement of youth. "To Learn by Doing," which
is the 4-H slogan.
1 1970 Virgin Islands census.
4- H Youth
Here in the U.S. Virgin Islands, approximately
500 youth are "learning by doing" by participating
in 4-H club and school activities. Girls are learning
to sew and the importance of food and nutrition.
Safety, health, citizenship, and ecology are po-
pular with both boys and girls, as well as animal
and garden projects.
In becoming involved in such programs as 4-H,
youth learn much more than the subject matter
has to offer. Confidence, pride in accomplish-
ment, the development of a value system, and a
feeling of self-worth are only a few of the intan-
gible assets gained by 4-H members.
The basic philosophy of 4-H is to provide a
program that can make a significant contribution
to the mental, physical, moral and social develop-
ment of boys and girls.
ST. CROIX YOUTH EXAMINE TRACTOR
PREPARING LAND FOR VEGETABLE PROJECT
YOUTH LEARN WHAT THEY LIVE
If a youth lives with criticism,
he learns to condemn.
If a youth lives with hostility,
he learns to fight.
If a youth lives with fear,
he learns to be apprehensive.
If a youth lives with pity,
he learns to feel sorry for himself.
If a youth lives with ridicule,
he learns to be shy.
If a youth lives with jealousy,
he learns to feel guilty,
If a youth lives with tolerance,
he learns to be patient.
If a youth lives with encouragement,
he learns to be confident.
If a youth lives with praise,
he learns to be appreciative.
If a youth lives with approval,
he learns to like himself.
If a youth lives with recognition,
he learns to have a goal.
If a youth lives with honesty,
he learns what truth is.
If a youth lives with fairness,
he learns justice.
If a youth lives with friendliness,
he learns the world is a lovely
place in which to live.
If a youth lives with acceptance,
he learns to love.
With what are your youth living?
from a selection by D. L. Law.
VETERINARY SERVICES ORGANIZED TO FIGHT DISEASE OUTBREAKS
The field structure of U. S. Department of
Agriculture's Veterinary Services Program was
recently realigned to make its animal health pro-
grams more responsive to the needs of livestock
and poultry industries and the public.
Under the realignment, the 47 field offices were
reduced to 19 area offices under five regional
directors. For example, in my Southeast Region,
Area 10 with Dr. W. W. Bird in charge -
covers Florida, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.
The streamlined structure was needed to give
us a flexible, hard-hitting team to fight animal
disease outbreaks. We needed this structure to
offset the loss of almost 20 percent of our em-
ployees since 1967. Having cut down on numbers
of office personnel, we will be able to fill some
of the field positions. During this same time, we
were faced with such emergency outbreaks as
Venezuelan equine oncephalomyelitis, hog cho-
lera, screwworm, cattle scabies, cattle fever ticks,
and exotic Newcastle disease.
Exotic Newcastle disease is a contagious and
deadly virus disease affecting all species of birds.
The virus causes bleeding in the intestines and
reproductive organs, along with severe diarrhea.
It kills many of the birds it infects and cuts pro-
duction and shortens the lives of the birds it
There are different forms of Newcastle rang-
ing from the relatively domestic forms of New-
castle which have been in the United States
since the 1940's to the highly lethal exotic form.
The milder forms can be controlled with vaccines.
The deadly exotic Newcastle virus causes losses
ton J. Tillary, Director Southeastern Region
I and Plant Health Inspection Service U.S.D.A.
even in vaccinated poultry and a death rate which
may approach 100 percent in unvaccinated flocks.
Cases of exotic Newcastle disease in the
United States date back to 1950. Each was intro-
duced usually in imported pet birds. But each
was also isolated and quickly eliminated. How-
ever, in November 1971 a shipment of infected
pet birds brought the disease to the commercial
poultry flocks of southern California.
Moving from flock to flock, the disease
threatened to spread throughout the country.
Responding to the crisis, Secretary of Agriculture
Earl L. Butz declared a national animal disease
emergency. His action mobilized over 1,000 people
and made federal funds available to battle the
Stopping exotic Newcastle required the quaran-
tine of more than 45,000 square miles in southern
California and the destruction of more than 11
million poultry and other birds.
Less than 18 months after the emergency was
declared, the last area quarantine was removed.
By November 2, 1973, the last quarantine on a
farm in southern California was removed. Now
the federal-state agencies are engaged in a sur-
veillance program to make sure that exotic New-
castle has been eradicated from southern Califor-
However, we know that the disease can easily
return. Isolated cases have been detected in se-
veral states. So far, it appears that each has been
contained and eradicated.
The first cases of exotic Newcastle disease
were diagnosed in Puerto Rico in game and com-
mercial chickens in late 1971. The entire Com-
monwealth was quarantined on January 11, 1972.
Investigations show that the disease has infected
poultry in many parts of the island, making
LA GRANGE FARMS
FREDERIKSTED, ST. CROIX
tractor FORD 4500
TRACTORES FORD Y FORDSON
FOOD HABITS OF THE MONGOOSE '
== == = == = == = F .-
DAVID NELLIS, Ph. D.
Wild Life Biologist, Dept. of Agriculture
The mongoose was introduced to St. Croix in
1884, to control rats in sugar cane. The Mongoose
did an admirable job of controlling rats in the
sugar cane, but soon exhausted this natural food
resource. Many of the island animals at that time
had not experienced a small terrestrial carnivore,
and thus when the mongoose ran out of rats it
began to prey on many of the other species of
animals in St. Croix. Ground lizards and ground
nesting birds were among the animals most in-
fluenced by the mongoose. Most ground nesting
birds have acclimated to the presence of the
mongoose and now nest in low trees or bushes
beyond the reach of mongooses. The ground
dwelling Ameiva lizards are presently essentially
extinct on the mainland but still exist on offshore
islands. Unfortunately the mongoose was not able
to completely eliminate rats from St. Croix. The
rat which caused the majority of sugar cane
damage was the tree rat, known as Rattus rattus.
The mongoose could eliminate this rat in cane
fields, however in forested areas the rat is ar-
borial, living in the trees. As mongooses don't
climb trees the rats could thus live a life secure
amongst the branches. The nocturnal rat also en-
joys the advantage of being preyed upon only by a
strictly diurnal predator. To this day on St. Croix
there are very few rats in open fields due to the
mongooses. However any forested area has many
rats. There is a second type of rat present on St.
Croix, which arrives on ships. This is known as
Rattus norvegicus, or the Wharf Rat. This rat is
commonly found around town and dumps, it never
ventures into the country because it is strictly
terrestrial and lives in holes in the ground, and
is thus very susceptible to mongoose prodation.
When wharf rat is encountered by a mongoose it
is immediately killed and eaten. The present dis-
tribution of rats on St. Croix today is tree rats
living in the trees in forested areas; and the wharf
rat lives only in town where mongooses do not
The food habits of mongooses are difficult to
study due to the fact that they have sharp an-
gular teeth, and thoroughly chew their food. Thus
identification of food items in their stomach or
droppings is extremely difficult. In spite of the
problems, several people have managed excellent
studies of mongoose food habits. A 1918 study
in Trinidad arrived at a representative diet for
mongoose for over a three month period as
Half a dozen fruits
One feed of Yam
A little Coconut
Presently on St. Croix mongooses are very de-
pendent on insects as a major component of
In dry weather when the vegetation is dehy-
drated and insect population are at very low
numbers mongooses become thin and hungry and
scrounge vigorously from garbage cans and any
other potential source of food. However, when
rain initiates lush growth of vegetation, insect
populations increase and the mongoose has an
abundent food supply and soon begins to gain
weight. At this season of the year mongoose
visits to garbage cans and predation on chickens
is geatly reduced due to the easily available na-
tural food supply.
is proud to be an active growing
citizen of the Community working
daily for Better living of the Virgin
Islanders through agriculture,
education and industry.
NUTRITION AS PART OF THE
V. I. HEAD START PROGRAM
MARVA S. BROWNE, M. S. R. D.
Two questionnaires were administered to nu-
trition staff and teachers and teachers aides
during the pre-service training Sessions held in
The purpose for conducting this exercise was
to become familiar with the previous operations
and to secure base line data that would be
helpful in developing an organized program of
integrated nutrition education in the Head Start
Questions asked and summary of responses are
presented in the following pages. The data will
be utilized to provide meaningful inservice train-
ing based on felt needs and accomplishments,
and will serve as a reservoir for sharing informa-
ANSWERS BY ISLAND
QUESTIONS ST. THOMAS-ST. JOHN ST. CROIX
1. What types of nutrition education No response 4 no response 1
activities have you done in the past Food preparation 17 Food preparation 21
in your center? Games, planting, setting small garden
table, family style eating; Serving, preparing children
discussion of various types for meals
2. Which activity did the children enjoy None 9 no response 3
least and why? no response 3 None 15
didn't like to fix own Tamarind to prepare for
snack; cleaning up juice, because they had to
dishes; the making of shell them before they could
butter; going home; be stewed; salads, coloring
didn't like vegetables, eggs and planting, didn't
like to get hands dirty.
3. Which activity did the children enjoy No response 1 No response 2
the most and why? All 6; cooking, especially cooking especially cookies
making cookies, because and making pancakes.
they like to watch All activities.
movement; taste and feel Making own wrapping
Family style serving paper, salad setting table.
themselves, outdoor play
dolls, block corner.
4a. Did the children help to prepare Yes 15 Yes 21
meals? Yes___ No No 3, no response 3 No. 1
If yes, how often. If no, why not From 3 times per week no response 1
to one every other week. From once weekly to once
Reasons for not monthly.
participating: no reason given for no
1. It was said children had participation.
colds and were not allow-
ed in kitchen;
2. Facilities not appropriate
for small children.
4c. Plant any fruit or vegetable trees?
Yes_ No_ If yes, what kind;
if no why not.
Yes 12; No 5
Red Beans and other
Peas 9; tomatoes 5
Sweet Peppers 3; string
beans, pumpkin, avocado,
mango, beets, hot peppers,
Yard isn't fit for planting;
children from Housing
Yes 13; no 10
Red Beans and other
peas 12; tomatoes,
Onions, orange, okras,
papaya, grape tree,
no yard space;
lack of equipment
neighborhood problem, open
ANSWERS BY ISLAND
QUESTIONS ST. THOMAS-ST. JOHN ST. CROIX
d., Go on field trips related to foods Yes 19 Yes 19, No 1
and nutrition? Yes__ No. Dairy farm 14 Agricultural food fair;
If yes, where; if no, why not. Agricultural Station 14; Supermarket, Dairy, Egg
Supermarket and farm, Whim Greathouse,
Grocery 9 Beach, cutting local
Bakery, beach, waterfront. Inkberry tree, Park;
e. Learn that the same food can be Yes 18; No 1 Yes 20
prepared in different ways? Milk 7; carrots 5 Rice 7; chicken and other
Yes No- potatoes 4; Eggs 4; meats-11; eggs, potatoes-6
What were some of the foods pumpkins, bananas, vegetables, papayas, guava,
fish, flour, rice, kallaloo, fish, macaroni and
yams, chicken, liver. cheese, bread.
cheese, bread, pudding,
peanut butter, beans.
f. Develop language skills by learning Yes 21 languages Yes 23 language
colors of foods Yes_ No. Yes 21 space relationship Yes 23, space
space relationships by setting the table
5. Did any parents visit the center Yes 19 Yes 17 No 4
to eat with the children? No response 2 No response 2
6. Were parents kept informed of the Yes 15; No 4 Yes 20; No 3
nutrition activities at the center? No response 2 Invited to come to center
Yes No_ At parents meeting, and try new meals; home
If yes, how was this done? home visits; visits; when parents brought
If no, why not notices sent home; and picked up children;
discussions with parents discussions on likes and
on leaving and dislikes; At Parents
picking up child; Meetings parents give views
parents invited to center, on different foods, Menus
some parents help posted where parents could
to prepare meals, see them.
Because parents had to
work or had small children
to tend to.
Comments and/or suggestions for this
year's activities More fresh fruits and More fresh fruits, vegetable,
vegetables; would like small milk, fish, meats; food
garden and have children should be delivered on time,
involved more with cooperation of everyone,
activities; more cooperation have some of the parents
with center staff; more come in and have lunch with
parents participation in us, more native fruits and
menu planning; more vegetables the children
workshops with nutritionist; should help with more
carry out rules and nutrition activities; baking
regulations of supervisor; of cookies, making ice
adapt equipment to cream, hot rolls.
children so they can handle
them; have supplies so
teachers don't have to buy.
and hardware materials
GARCIA COMMERCIAL, Inc.
is the outstanding supplier in
You get the most for such
dollar spent: more variety, more
quantity. And you save money
because the expediting papers
for overseas transportation of
your purchases are
FREE OF CHARGE.
WE CARRY REINFORCED
STEEL AND ALL TYPES OF
LUMBER AND REDWOOD.
See your friendly ambassador
Mr. Genaro L6pez, at:
GARCIA COMMERCIAL, INC.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
ESTATE LOWER LOVE
1. Administration Bldg.
5. Garage & Shops
6. Forestry Bldg.
Fence Post Treatment
Farm Pond & Gut
Nursery and plant
UNIVERSITY OF VIRGIN ISLANDS
..... .....3 3138 00145 5541
I -.-- -
AGRICULTURE AND FOOD FAIR OF ST. CROIX
Honorable Rudolph Shulterbrandt
Dr. Fenton Sands
EXHIBITS, ARTS & DESIGN
Lauritz E. Gibbs
Mrs. F. Sands
CHAIRMAN RULES COMMITTEE
Dr. Darshan Padda
WVWYIMMMMMMMMT -- - ------ ------- -------- ----- - -----"YY
It __ ____ _,,,,,,,,,,,, ._~____________ ___ ''
CAN ST. CROIX BE MADE SELF SUFFICIENT IN FOODS.
Rudolph Shulterbrandt, Commissioner
V. I. Department of Agriculture
The cost of living is rising all over the nation.
Since food plays the most important and vital
role in our daily life, any rise in its cost is the
first to catch our attention. Food prices have
risen very high and unfortunately these higher
prices are here to stay due to ever-increasing
demand for american foods from other industrial
nations. It is therefore quite natural for our
island's community to feel concerned. The com-
munity leaders and public in general are raising
the question as to why the Virgin Islands cannot
be made to produce its own food. Nobody can be
happier than your Commissioner of Agriculture
to see this attitudinal change and awareness for
developing agriculture. However, I feel the public
deserves a complete analysis of the situation and
it is my privileged responsibility as your Com-
missioner of Agriculture to get the plain facts
before you the people of the Virgin Islands.
If we are thinking in terms of the wide variety
of food which is now available in the supermar-
kets, then the answer is no. If the question is
to be answered in the affirmative, then we will
have to accept the fact that we are thinking in
terms of a very limited diet. Our islands cannot
produce many of the items to which we have be-
come accustomed. I don't know of any island in
the Caribbean that is now producing or can pro-
duce all of it's food.
Let us take a close look at the island of St.
Croix with an estimated population of 50,000 in-
habitants. Of the three U. S. Virgin Islands, St.
Croix offers the best potential for producing food.
Total land acreage 53,980 Acres
Acreage suitable for agriculture 34,119
Approx. acreage now in agriculture 17,216
Idle or unused acreage 16,903
It is possible to increase the efficiency or
intensify the now existing farms. However, if
programs are to be designed to expand food
production we have to look toward using the
16,903 acres now lying idle.
Some of the best agricultural land of St. Croix
is lying idle at this time. This does not mean that
all of the 16,000 acres is desirably classed for
farming. Agricultural land is classified as follows
by the Soil Conservation Service.
Class I Soils in Class I require good soil
management practices only. This is
our best class.
Class II Soils in Class II have some limita-
tions that reduce the choice of plants
or require moderate conservation
Class III Soils in Class III have severe limita-
tions that reduce the choice of plants
or require special conservation prac-
tices such as terracing in the hill
areas or drainage in bottomland, or
Class IV Soils in Class IV have very severe
limitations that restrict the choice of
plants, require careful management,
Class V Soils in Class V have little or no
erosion but have drainage problems
due to inadequate outlets that limit
their use largely to pasture, range,
woodland, or wildlife.
Class VI Soils in this class have severe limi-
tations that make them generally un-
suited for cultivation and limit their
use largely to pasture, range, wood-
land, or wildlife.
Class VII Soils in this class have very severe
limitations due to steep slope and
erosion that make them unsuited
for cultivation and restrict their use
largely to grazing, woodland or wild-
Class VIII Land in this class has limitations that
prevent its use for commercial plant
production and restrict its use to re-
creation, wildlife, or water supply.
This land consists largely of rock out-
crops and rock quarries.
The following is an outline or a suggested land
use distribution, for the idle acreage, aimed at
producing the basic meats and vegetable require-
ments of the island.
ADDITIONAL LAND ACREAGE NEEDED
Vegetables & Fruits
Goats & Sheep
OTHER FACTORS TO CONSIDER
LABOR: The labor force to make this program
workable is not available at this time.
Negotiation with the U. S. Immigration
Service will be necessary to permit
farm labor certification.
MARKET REGULATION: In order to promote the
development of markets for the local
produce, outside importation would
have to be regulated. The inflow of pro-
ducts from the other producing areas
should be subjected to trade barriers.
DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES: The
average rainfall of 45" annually, with
it's poor calendar distribution pattern,
is not ideal for the production of certain
vegetables. At this time, except for the
months at the end of the year, it is a
gamble to encourage or attempt a com-
mercial sized vegetable enterprise on
St. Croix. We must continue to develop
our water resources. The consideration
of using the reclaimed water from our
new sewerage disposal system is now
GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT: Any significant
expansion of the agricultural industry
will require additional strengthening of
the Department of Agriculture. This is
so because there are very few farmers
INCREASE EXISTING UNIT BY
who do not depend on the Department
of Agriculture for services of some sort.
There are few citizens who are capable
of taking idle acreages and turning it
into a productive unit without the assis-
tance of the government. Much of the
government-owned equipment has de-
preciated and should be replaced. Plan-
ning to meet this expansion must be
brought to the attention of the exe-
cutive and legislative branches of our
Food is a basic need of every human being,
this is true regardless of their position or walk
of life. Throughout the long history of the de-
velopment of civilization, agriculture has carried
the most significant responsibility for improving
the well being of mankind. Economics should not
be the overriding factor in determining whether
to produce our own food or to be totally de-
pendent on outside sources for this necessity of
life. It is an accepted fact that the Virgin
Islands do not have a cheap source of farm labor,
the acquisition of land on the open market is too
high in cost for farm use, and water is not available
for year-round cropping. Very few of us need to
be told that the history of the Virgin Islands is
a story of Agriculture. We have better climate
than most other countries of the world, our land
is fertile, and moisture is adequate to permit
crop production from October to March. There-
fore, let us go as far as we can in agriculture.
RICHARDS & AYER ASSOCIATES
FREDERIKSTED, ST. CROIX, E TELEPHONES:
VIRGIN ISLANDS 772-0420 772-1026
CONSULT A SPECIALIST FOR YOUR REAL ESTATE NEEDS.
VIRGIN ISLANDS DAIRYMEN'S ASSOCIATION
WHERE THE GOOD
GRADE "A" FRESH
*CANE GARDEN FARM .........
* CORN HILL FARM ............
* LAREINE FARM ................
*MON BIJOU FARM ............
*SIGHT FARM ..................
* SOLITUDE FARM ............
irrigation; flooding and mud and silt pollution is
also reduced in the stream bed below the dam
and along the coast.
The Soil and Water Conservation Program of
the Virgin Islands Department of Agriculture main-
tains the existing dams and continues to build
new one on suitable sites. One day we may be
able to boast that in an average year we con-
serve half a billion gallons of water which would
otherwise have been lost to the sea.
Virgin Islanders will probably always complain
about water shortage, but if we all make better
use of the water that we do have, there will be
less cause to complain.
Monthly Rain Fall Data For St. Croix, U.S., Virgin Islands
(Data represents the combined averages of Christiansted, Kings Hill
Years/Mos. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov.
(3) (2) (1) (4) (8) (5) (6) (7) (12) (9) (11) (10)
1947-1971 2.53 2.29 1.52 2.61 4.12 2.81 3.20 3.71 5.09 4.20 4.91
(4-5) (2) (1) (3) (8) (6) (7) (9) (12) (11) (10)
1922-1946 2.89 1.78 1.67 2.08 3.97 3.10 3.24 4.49 6.26 4.20 5.60
(3) (2) (1) (4) (9) (6) (5) (8) (11) (12) (10)
1897-1921 2.35 1.81 1.78 2.99 4.59 3.75 3.63 3.99 5.75 6.26 5.51
(3-4) (2) (1) (3-4) (8) (7) (6) (9) (10) (11) (12)
1872-1896 2.63 2.13 1.31 2.63 4.33, 4.25 3.89 4.56 5.41 5.97 6.07
100 Yr. Av.
(4) (2) (1) (3) (9) (5) (6) (8) (11-12) (11-12) (10)
2.60 2.00 1.57 2.58 4.25 3.48 3.49 4.19 5.63 5.63 5.52
1 with minimum rain fall and 12 with maximum rain fall.
* Figures in parenthesis indicate the rank:
Duration of sunlight and mean daily maximum and minimum temperature during
various months at St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands.
Average Hours Mean Daily Mean Daily
MONTH of Sunlight Max. Temp. Min. Temp.
January 11.18 83.1 70.0
February 11.54 83.2 70.0
March 12.02 84.3 70.7
April 12.52 85.6 72.5
May 12.96 86.4 74.3
June 13.14 87.8 75.7
July 13.09 88.0 75.8
August 12.72 88.5 75.7
September 12.26 88.1 75.0
October 11.80 87.6 74.8
November 11.32 85.9 73.3
December 11.05 84.3 71.7
The recommended planting distances, number of trees per acre, and time from planting
to fruit for some tropical fruits.
Planting No. of Trees Time from Planting
Fruit Tree Distance Per Acre to Fruit
Orange 22X22 FT. 90 3-5 years
Grapefruit 30X30 FT. 49 3-5 years
Lime 15X15 FT. 194 3-5 years
Mango 45X45 FT. 22 4-5 years
Papaya 11X6 FT. 660 8-10 months
Avocados 40X40 FT. 27 5-6 years
Bananas 10X10 FT. 436 10-12 months
Papaya is a very good cash crop. A good market
exist in New York and other mainland cities for
good quality fruits. At present virtually the entire
commercial supply of fresh Papayas used in the
United States is from Hawaii. But the Virgin
Islands provide ideal growing conditions for Pa-
paya. A very serious and limiting virus disease
called "Bunchy Top" has not yet been found here.
This does not mean that Papayas are easy to
grow. They suffer from Anthracnose Fungus
causing small dark sunken spots on the surface
of ripening fruits and St. Croix decline disease
causing pencil point and bumpy stems. Success-
ful raising of Papaya require application of sprays
at 10-12 day intervals from nursery throughout
life of plant. However as compared to short-
duration and short-fruited crops, the labour re-
quirement for growing and harvesting Papayas
Seed Selection and Planting: The most important
factor determining marketability of Papaya is the
variety of seed. "Solo" variety due to its con-
sumer preferred size, orangegold, sweet and
melting flesh is in maximum demand. Therefore
all persons desiring to grow Papayas in the Virgin
Islands are strongly recommended the use of
"Solo" seed. The ancestral "Solo: was carried
from Barbados to Hawaii, where careful selection
produced the present "Solo" varieties. Seeds and
slips of "Solo" Papaya are available from Virgin
Island Department of Agriculture on request. It
is important that the seeds or slips are spaced
according to the recommendations in Table 3 so
that the department can help the growers with
its machines for spraying and other operations.
After Planting Care: The young plants of Papaya
cannot compete with weeds and therefore weed-
ing is an important cultural practice. Mulching
around young trees help control the weeds and
also aids in conserving the moisture badly needed
during prolonged dry spells in Summer. Chemicals
are available to control weeds in Papaya. Their
about 120 days. Anthracnose is the most impor-
tant disease of mango. It attacks flowers, young
fruits, leaves and twigs. Scale insects are the
serious pests of mango. For control of Anthrac-
nose biweekly sprays from first appearance of
panicles until all fruits have set is recommended.
A mixed spray of Dithane M-45 and Malathion
can control both anthracnose and scale.
Regular application of complete fertilizer is im-
portant. Although the rate of application depends
upon soil fertility, age of trees and the yield of
trees, in general young trees should be given
1 Ib two time a year and this dose should be
increased thereafter in the amounts proportionate
to the increase in size of tree.
Marketing: The mango fruits should be picked
when they change in ground color. The fruits of
individual tree do not all mature at one time from
a single bloom but may do so over a period of
three weeks or more. Therefore each tree needs
to be picked a number of times.
The best temperature for ripening is 70 to 759F.
Fruits ripend at higher temperature often shrivel
and develop off-flavors. Normally fruits take about
a week to ripe. The lowest safe storage tempera-
ture is 559F. For shipment to mainland the mango
fruits must be fumigated with ethylene dibromide
as a quarantine requirement. A recent study con-
ducted by the University of Puerto Rico indicates
a definite preference for large sized fruits in New
York market: Therefore it is recommended that
persons desiring to grow mangoes for export
choose large fruited varieties like Springfels,
Keit, Kent and Edward, etc.
Avocado is adapted to very diverse climatic
conditions. The principal climate factors which
limit the commercial culture in the tropics are
tropical winds and rain storms. In the Virgin
Islands a lot of experimentation needs to be done
before avocado culture can be commercially pro-
fitable. The local experience indicate that the
single most important factor affecting avocado
growth is drainage. In the United States out of
119 million pounds annual supply, 118 million
pounds are produced in California and Florida.
However, the Virgin Islands imported 140,451
pounds of avocado during 1972 from the West
Indian Islands. This indicates a good market.
Seed Selection and Planting: Choice of proper
variety with local adaptation and good consumer
acceptance is the most important decision in
avocado culture. Three races of avocados are
generally recognized; the Mexican (with small,
smooth-skinned fruits, usually purple or black in
color and with anise scented foliage;) The Gua-
temalan (with medium-sized fruits, green, purple
or black in color with skin more or less pebbled
or roughened and from leathery to woody); the
West Indian (with larger fruits, smooth-skinned,
green to red or purplish color). Many of the
leading commercial varieties have been developed
by combining characteristics of these races.
Commercially important varieties in order of
their time of availability in the market are; Fuchs
in late April, Pollack in mid July, Waldin in late
August, Booth 8 in early September, Booth 7 in
early October, and Lula and Hickson in October.
Grafting and budding are the principal methods
of propagation. Healthy trees should be planted
on medium textured soils. A depth of not less
than three feet is recommended.
After Planting Care: Keeping an optimum moisture
in the soil is very important for the growth of
avocado tree. Inadequate soil moisture can cause
leaf burn. Root rot is the most serious disease of
avocado. A tree affected with root rot usually de-
teriorate gradually in one or two seasons. Preven-
tion is the best control. However, once the
disease is established, a complicated system of
irrigation, testing, and use of fumigants can
achieve a degree of control. Other diseases of
avocado are sun-blotch caused by a virus; can-
kers caused by fungi, wilt caused by a soil fun-
gus. Avocado also suffer from lack of nitrogen,
zinc and iron. In cases of any obnormality no-
ticed, immediate help should be sought from the
Department of Agriculture.
Another important thing to remember is not to
use excessive insecticide sprays during flowering
as the bees and other insects are the natural
pollinating agents. The flowering in avocados is
unusual because each flower open twice. At the
first opening it functions as a female, being re-
ceptive. At the second opening it sheds pollen.
Marketing: The prime factor governing harvest-
ing is determination of maturity. External charac-
teristics indicating maturity revolve around co-
loring. On maturity the fruit turn from green to
dark color. Avocados remain hard as long as they
are on the tree regardless of their maturity. How-
ever, they are very susceptible to bruise damage
and great care must be taken to insure that the
fruit does not fall to the ground.
The West Indian varieties are cold intolerant
and store best at 559F. The storage is limited to
about two (2) weeks because of their suscep-
tibility to softening and chilling injury.
A very good market can be developed for avo-
cados because this fruit is rich in fruit oil which
is relatively unsaturated. For this reason, partial
substitution of avocado for hard animal fat has
been shown to have a favorable effect in redu-
cing the cholesterol level of the blood serum.
Consumers have sometimes complained that the
avocado flesh turn brown after it is cut and
placed on the table. Lemon or lime juice will
Banana is strictly a tropical plant thriving in
hot humid regions. All over the tropical world
bananas constitute one of the principal foods.
Therefore, all tropical places offer good market
for bananas and the Virgin Islands is no excep-
tion. During 1972, 856,843 pounds of bananas
were imported into the U. S. Virgin Islands.
The water requirements of banana are enor-
mous. General experience suggests that four
inches of rain per month may be taken as "satis-
factory". The insufficient rainfall and shortage of
irrigation water inhibits commercial production of
bananas in the Virgin Islands. However, at small
scale bananas can be raised successfully and the
Virgin Islands Department of Agriculture receive
maximum request for banana slips.
Seed Selection and Planting: While there are
many varieties of cultivated bananas, the two
main commercial varieties are Cavendish and
Gross Michel. The Gross Michel is a tall variety
with a stalk height of 15 to 20 feet, and producing
large bunches of 8 to 15 or more hands. The
fruit may be distinguished from other commercial
bananas by the tapered point. This variety has a
pleasant flavor, ripens uniformly and generally is
highly resistant to bruising and discoloration. The
Cavendish is a similar plant but the undersheath,
especially on young suckers are bright red; the
fruit is greenish at ripeness; the fruit tips are
blunt and the plant is immune to Panama disease.
In the case of both varieties, the fruit is 5 times
or more as long as broad and markedly curved.
In the Virgin Islands, the planting of Cavendish
is recommended as it can withstand strong winds
and produce higher yields.
Commonly, suckers are used for propagation
of banana. The rootstock of old plants called
"heads" may be split into several pieces called
"bits" each containing one or more eyes or buds.
These seed "bits" should be preferred to the use
of suckers. Eyes or suckers should be selected
only from parent plants which have borne large
desirable bunches and never from parents which
have produced inferior fruit, The banana prefers
a rich, loamy soil with a loose open texture, as
the roots have weak penetrating power. Planting
may be done at any time of the year. Dwarf types
should be spaced closely. In planting suckers, it
is highly desirable to make a good deep hole,
working the soil up well to a depth of 2 feet.
After the plant is set out, it should be shaded
and frequently watered until established.
After Planting Care: The banana is a large,
rapid-growing plant, frequently attaining a height
of 10 to 20 feet in from 10 to 15 months from
planting. As soon as each stalk has fruited, it
should be cut down, chopped to pieces and used
for mulching around the trees. The most vigorous
suckers should be left to grow as a replacement,
other suckers being cut out. Too close crowding
due to failure to cut down the extra suckers is
often responsible for small, poorly-developed
bunches. It is important to keep in mind that only
plants with vigorous growth can produce large
clusters of well-developed fruit.
The use of fertilizer is very important to get
good yields. Nitrogen application should be made
repeatedly throughout the growing season. An
application of complete fertilizer rich in nitrogen
MARKETING: Bananas should be harvested for
home as well as for local markets when of full
size and showing a slight change of color. The
banana fruits should not be allowed to ripen on
the trees. The fruits ripened slowly in the shade
or dark room are of superior quality. Curing
and storing at a moderate temperature of 609 to
659F produce better coloured and better keeping
The important citrus fruits that can be grown
on the islands include lime, grapefruit, orange
and tangerine. Except the local lime, the feasibi-
lity of commercial production of these fruits need
to be demonstrated. The fact that we imported
more than one million pounds of various citrus
fruits into the islands during 1972 testify the
existence of a good market on the islands. The
interested persons are recommended to consult
the Department of Agriculture with regards to
the suitability of land, water, variety and other
agricultural factors. The islands provide a great
variability in the growth factors. It would be
desirable to proceed in phases. The grafted trees
produce superior fruits, but need more care and
"know how". The production and marketing of
citrus fruits are discussed in details in the De-
partment of Agriculture Bulletin, a single copy
of which is available at Estate Lower Love Station
Seed Selection and Planting: The buying of supe-
rior plants of known pedigree are most important.
The poor quality plants can never be expected
to produce high quality produce no matter how
much time and money is spent on raising them.
The plants should, therefore, be purchased either
from the Department of Agriculture or a reputable
nursery. Our staff will be very happy to suggest
you some good nurseries in Puerto Rico and Flo-
rida. Valencia and Naval varieties of orange;
Marsh and Duncan varieties of grapefruit; Nova
and Orlando varieties of tangerine; and Key Lime
variety of lime are recommended. The trees
should be planted from October to February. The
holes should be dug deep enough to make sure
that there is no hard pan in the sub soil. The
hard sub soil inhibits the root growth and the
tree stop growing after 2-3 years. On level or
slightly rolling land, the trees are usually placed
in regular squares, on steep slopes, the trees
should be planted along the contours.
"Puddle" the tree into the hole with 3 to 4
gallons of water. The roots of trees should be
spread and placed in the hole very carefully. After
the tree is placed in the hole, the hole should be
filled with earth and packed tightly around the
tree. Ten (10) gallons of water should be applied
to the tree immediately after planting.
After Planting Care: The most important after
planting operation is regular watering. Apply ten
(10) gallons within 3 to 4 days after planting and
the same quantity weekly thereafter. Young trees
are in purely vegetative condition and regular
watering is important to keep them in continuous
Citrus plants need a regular fertilizer applica-
tion program. The exact quantity and time of
application will depend on soil and age of the
trees. One pound of complete fertilizer per tree
every eight (8) weeks may be applied for the
first two (2) years. This quantity may be in-
creased to 2-3 pounds when the plants are bet-
ween 2-3 years old. The rate of fertilizer ap-
plication to the bearing trees will depend upon
the yield. In general one (1) pound of fertilizer
for every 80 pounds of fruits produced by the tree
may be applied three times a year.
Some disease organisms live on dead twigs
and branches. Therefore, pruning of dead wood
should be done once a year.
Citrus trees suffer from many fungal diseases
and insect pests. The development of black scurf
on the leaves is very common on these islands.
The best general purpose spray is a mixture of
Dithane M-45 and Malathion. Two teaspoons of
Malathion and two level tablespoons of Dithane
M-45 in one gallon of water will take care of
most of diseases and insect pests.
Marketing: The citrus fruits do not undergo fur-
ther ripening after they leave the tree. They must
be harvested at a mature stage. If picked too
early, the fruits have bitter immature flavor and
contain little juice. As the fruit progresses in
maturity, it becomes higher in sugars and low
in acids and the bitterness disappears. These
maturity factors are very important as high quality
fruits commands premium prices and stimulate
Harvesting of citrus fruits is done by hand or
clipped with blunt nosed shears. Fruits should
not be picked when wet with rain or dew. Packing
for local market may be done in cardboard boxes.
The Agricultural Marketing Service of the Virgin
Islands Department of Agriculture will be happy
to assist in marketing of local produce