• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Message of the governor and the...
 Administrative staff
 New rabbit bloodlines for the Virgin...
 A glimpse from the past
 Some tips for the growing vegetables...
 The Virgin Islands forestry...
 Pleasures of home gardening
 Some implications of the land grant...
 Goats: (Capra) a good enterprise...
 Nutrition for infants and...
 Food imports into the Virgin...
 Milk industry on St. Croix
 Eradicating screwworms in the Virgin...
 Bats of St. Croix
 Consumer services administrati...
 Meat and poultry inspection in...
 Insect control tests on St. Croix...
 Economic uses of some local...
 Message from the deputy prime minister...
 Back Cover






Title: Annual Agriculture and Food Fair of the Virgin Islands
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 Material Information
Title: Annual Agriculture and Food Fair of the Virgin Islands
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Agriculture and Food Fair of the Virgin Islands
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Virgin Islands
Publication Date: 1973
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00102616
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of the Virgin Islands
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 8026814
lccn - 81649162

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Message of the governor and the preseident
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Administrative staff
        Page 3
        Page 4
    New rabbit bloodlines for the Virgin Islands
        Page 5
    A glimpse from the past
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Some tips for the growing vegetables in the Virgin Islands
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    The Virgin Islands forestry program
        Page 17
    Pleasures of home gardening
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Some implications of the land grant status of the college of the Virgin Islands
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Goats: (Capra) a good enterprise for the islands
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Nutrition for infants and children
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Food imports into the Virgin Islands
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Milk industry on St. Croix
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Eradicating screwworms in the Virgin Islands
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Bats of St. Croix
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Consumer services administration
        Page 41
    Meat and poultry inspection in the U.S. Virgin Islands
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Insect control tests on St. Croix using sterile male release techniques
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Economic uses of some local plants
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Message from the deputy prime minister and minister of national development and agriculture, Guyana
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Back Cover
        Page 57
        Page 58
Full Text
AGRICULTURE


FOOD


OF ST CROIX
VIRGIN ISLANDS














V. ,. DOS.
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i_-f' '72


FEB. 17, 18, 19, 20,


AND


1973


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FA I





THE MOST COMPLETE LINE OF
AGRICULTURAL, CONSTRUCTION
AND
INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT


--^tI ----~

ascb -- x
EQUIPMENT SERVICES, INC.
Telephone 782-1991 G.P.O. BOX CD San Juan, P. R. 00936


L











I FOBETTEI LIVING


MESSAGE OF THE GOVERNOR

The Agriculture and Food Fair brings our
towns and rural areas together. It is commonly
called "the bridge" that connects the two. This
bridge is important as we continue to have a
society of healthful rural and urban livelihoods.
We need to continue to develop our society
wherein each are dependent on each other; the
town needing the farms to produce and supply
the basic nourishment for a healthy life, and the
farms needing the towns as a market and a
source of revenue for their produce.
I recognize that the development and ex-
pansion of our natural resources are important to
our tourist economy. We must keep our islands
beautiful and in a tropical setting. Our visitors
expect to dine on fresh tropical fruits, dishes, and
beverages. We must continue to develop and
provide their desires and demands.
SThe Agriculture and Food Fair provides the
opportunity for us to exchange ideas, and display
those innate and personal talents which we prize
and are proud.
I pledge the support of my administration in
retaining our natural gifts, and integrating them
into our economy for a healthy and happy society
on our Virgin Islands.
Congratulations to all of you who are working
to make this possible.
,n-gp99


MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT

This Third Agricultural & Food Fair was made
possible by you, everyone who are here and who
will attend. Your presence and participation is
appreciated.
There are those of you who have left your homes
and businesses on lands far away, and have ex-
pended significant funds to be here. Then there
are those of you who meet the daily challenges
and adversities of farming and manufacturing:
the high cost of land, inefficient labor, feed, seed,
animals, the unpredictability of the weather, the
battle against diseases, insects, and other pests,
the difficulty in acquiring equipment, and the
competition for available markets. To you, and the
staff of the Department of Agriculture, the co-
workers of other government agencies, our vi-
sitors and citizens, I say welcome and thank you.
Without your presence, participation, and coopera-
tion, there would be no Agriculture & Food Fair.
As you view the many beautiful, interesting, and
educational exhibits, may you be stimulated to try
your own skills and talents in utilizing the many
resources around you in accomplishing feats
similar to those of our exhibitors. I am certain
that all will develop a deep appreciation for the
work and contributions of our Caribbean region
and people.
CONGRATULATIONS AND ENJOY OURFAIR.





































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BANTAM 15 TON
HYDRAULIC CRANE
171 TON HYDRAULIC
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Distribuidores Generalesr

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CARR. #2 KM. 4.8 PUEBLO VIEJO








I?


ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF


AGRICULTURE AND FOOD FAIR OF ST. CROIX


PRESIDENT

Honorable Rudolph Shulterbrandt


VICE-PRESIDENTS


Samuel Whitaker


Dr. Fenton Sands


EXECUTIVE SECRETARY
Isabelle Williams


TREASURER
Lauritz E. Gibbs


ASSISTANT TREASURER
Delroy Miller


BOARD OF DIRECTORS


EXHIBITS, ARTS AND
DESIGN
Doug Covey


YOUTH
PARTICIPATION

Ann Postel


FACILITIES
Wilfred Finch
Alfredo Johnson


LIASON FOR
EDUCATION DEPT.

Lena Shulterbrandt


PROMOTION
Cedric Gardine
Dr. D. S. Padda


COORDINATOR FOR LOCAL
INDUSTRIES

Bob Soffes


EDITOR


Dr. Darshans Padda



PICTURE COVER TAKEN BY
MILTON GREEN








DAIRY FEEDS
FOR THE MASTER RMAN


MASTER MIX
ANIMAL FEED

HARTHMAN
ASSOCIATES,
INC.
P. 0. BOX 4434
ST. THOMAS
V. L. 00801






I I


COMMISSIONER DOYLE CONNER OF FLORIDA PRESENTING GIFT OF WHITE NEW
ZEALAND RABBITS TO COMMISSIONER SHULTERBRANDT



NEW RABBIT BLOODLINES FOR THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


Our Department of Agriculture was the reci-
pient of a gift of a pair of white New Zealand
rabbits. They are the gift of Commissioner Doyle
Conner of the Florida Department of Agriculture
and Mrs. Oreen Hoblitzell.

The rabbits were presented to Commissioner
Rudolph Shulterbrandt at ceremonies during the
convention of the National Association of States
Department of Agriculture at the St. Croix Beach
Hotel.

"We're pleased that Florida can take part in
starting a new agricultural industry here on St.
Croix" said Conner. "And after all" chuckled
Conner, "this is the kind of gift that keeps on
giving."


Commissioner Shulterbrandt in accepting the
animals said he was "delighted with Florida's
gift to her island neighbors, and added, that the
rabbits are the result of many months of work
between his government, Mrs. Hoblitzell, and the
Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer
Services.

The donation was arranged by Dr. Roberto
Parajon, an export marketing specialist with the
Florida Department of Agriculture based in Miami,
in response to a request of Jay Edelman, Assistant
Commissioner of Commerce in the Virgin Islands.
Mrs. Hoblitzell, who provided the animals,
has also worked closely with the State of Florida
in the export of rabbits to Coloumbia and Vene-
zuela.


;" '






I.


A GLIMPSE

FROM

THE PAST
by
Frits Lawaetz


riod, 1660 to 1695, part oaSt.
16 (300 years ago), Jor n Iver-
sen, e Danish Gov or on St.
Croix s under cultivation. In
Thomas, tered in his account
books, that in change for goods
brought out om mark and deli-
vered to e French t. Croix, -
he ha /received tobacco, er
and es~ ecially sugar. One entry in 16
that ~. Croix (French) owed St. Thomas (Danish)
15 ,g000 Ibs. of sugar. Payments at that time wer

In 1690, an English account says about St.
Croix, that the island was suitable for all kinds
of American crops. In some places the soil con-
tained a good deal of salpetre and some water
was not drinkable. The lack of good surface water
was helped by wells, reserved for human use.
Animals drank from springs. Many of these
springs were also used for household purposes.
The account also states that there were several
sugar mills, and the soil produced much tobacco,
sugar and indigo, and that there were good pas-
tures for horses, cows and sheep.
About 1695, the French abandoned St. Croix,
burnt their buildings and much of the island, and
for the next 40 years St. Croix returned to forest
and bush.

St. Croix was purchased from France by
Denmark in 1733. In 1734, Governor Frederik
Moth, our first Danish Governor, came to St.
Croix to plan the colonization. The island was
covered with forest and bush. He found the ruins
of La Grand, now La Grange, and La Grande Prin-
cess, and these two Estates were reserved fcr
the West India and Guinea Company. In 1735,
the operation of the island was turned over by
the Danish Crown to the Company.


Between 1734 and 1751, Danish surveyors
measured the entire island, dividing it into the
nine still existing quarters. King, Queen, Prince,
Company, Westend, Northside A, Northside B,
Eastend A and Eastend B, which were then par-
celled out. The average estate was 2,000 by 3,000
feet, (150 Danish acres), but there were smaller
holdings intended for poorer colonists. The quality
of land determined whether sugar or cotton was
to be cultivated, but the price per acre was the
same. An average estate was sold for 500 Rix
Danish Dollars.
In 1736, the first land list (for tax purposes)
from St. Croix shows the white colonists were
poor people, growing coffee, cocoa and cotton,
but no sugar. The list records 101 whites, in-
cluding women and children, with 137 slaves. In
July 24, 1736, there appears in the Protocol of
the Council of St. Thomas, that a resolution was
passed and that Mr. M. Adrian Van Beverhoudt
had bought four plantations in St. Croix and was
going there with 137 slaves to begin cultivation
of sugar.
The land had to be cleared. In St. Eustacia
and the British island, there was very little tim-
ber, and therefore the plantations on the seaside
of St. Croix were mostly in demand for there the
timber could easily be brought to the seashore
and shipped to the neighboring islands. Many of
the houses on these islands were built with tim-
ber from St. Croix. Many bought plantations and








sold the timber, thus getting a profit of ten -
twenty, up to thirty times the purchase price.

In 1751, Governor Jens Hansen reported
there were 66 sugar factories in operation and
how different the island then looked, with its
fields of sugar cane and cotton, its widespread
plantations with their characteristic mills driven
by wind or animal power.

However, in 1755, the planters were not too
happy. The Company used its monopoly to pay
lower prices for the planters' sugar than could
be obtained elsewhere, and this growing dis-
satisfaction caused the King to take over the
island from the West India and Guinea Company.
The Company was dissolved and the shares pur-
chased at a favorable rate by the government.
Planters now came pouring in from other foreign
islands. Barely 20 years later, one of the Danish
trade magnates wrote to King VII: "These mag-
nificent islands and especially St. Croix are to be
regarded as a well laid table supplied with many
kinds of agreedable foods and St. Croix one of
the greatest gems in your Majesty's Crown." St.
Croix was then known as "The Garden of the
West Indies." Now not only the King's domain
could be supplied with sugar, but considerable
amounts were available for exports.

In 1754, there were 94 estates with animal
mills and 20 with wind mills. In 1766, there were
96 estates with animal mills and 66 with wind
mills. In 1796, there were 57 estates with animal
mills and 113 with wind mills. There were also
a few water mills.

The windmills were operated with 3 rollers,
known as the king, sugar and bagasse rollers.
One man placed the cane between the king and
sugar rollers and the othar man on the opposite
side returned it through the king and bagasse
rollers. If a man's attention wandered for only a
moment, he ran the danger of getting his hand
caught in the rollers, and as the mill could not
easily be stopped, the only solution to prevent
the man from being drawn into th, rollers and
crushed, was to cut his arm off. Therefore, there
was always a sharp axe hanging nearby, so the
other man could quickly free his unfortunate com-
rade by removing his arm.

Windmill operation was gradually replaced
by steam mills. The firsi one tr be installed was


at Hogensborg in 1816; however, it caused so
much trouble, that it was not before 1830 that a
few other plantaions installed them. It was not
until 1848 when the slaves were set free, that
steam mills came into general use. By 1852, there
were 40 steam mills in operation.

Mr. Oldendorph in his report of St. Croix in
1767, mentioned that rats and mice brought to the
island from ships had multiplied and were da-
maging the cane fields, and consequently it be-
came necessary to have many cats on the planta-
tions. Many years later, in 1884, the mongoose
was imported from Jamaica to take care of the
rats.

By 1796, the population in St. Croix had
grown to 28,803; about 22,000 of these were
slaves. This was the largest population St. Croix
ever had until recent years. It is interesting to
note that in this same year 27,655 acres were in
sugar cane, and this also was the maximum acre-
age ever reached. In 1847, just before the Eman-
cipation, there were 23,971 acres in cane.

In 1848, the slaves were 46% of the popula-
tion of the islands, as a middle class of the so-
called free colored had come into existence, con-
sisting of slaves who had been given or bought
their freedom.

It is interesting to note that as far back as
1756, the government had obtained land by de-
fault of the owners and some of this land was
subdivided and allotted to the free slaves. In
1851, a few years after the Emancipation, the
area in sugar cane had decreased to 19,736 acres.
In 1800, re-export of St. Croix sugar accounted
for more than a fourth of the value of Danish ex-
port.

The decline started after 1820. New centers
of production with cheaper cost emerged, such
as the southern states of the U. S., Cuba and
the East Indies. The Emancipation of the slaves
in 1848, the severe droughts in the 1870's, the
hurricanes of August 21, 1871, October 23, 1871,
September 13, 1876, and August 8, 1899 and the
famous Fireburn of October, 1878, when many
estates' factories and buildings were burnt to
the ground, never to be restored, also contributed
to the decline. The days of the beet sugar had
also begun, and all this contributed to the decline
of the St. Croix suga; ini: story.







The "Guaya" long referred as the fruit of the
tropics, is used in many ways. It may be eaten
in the hand; it can be served with ice cream,
prepared in cakes and tarts. It also can be used
as a substitute for tomato juice, made into jams,
butter marmalades, chutneys, and a punch.

The "Papaya" contains the protein digesting
enzme papin. A papin extract is made from the
latex of the leaves and stems of the plant. The
extract is used in the tenderizing of meats. The
"Papaya" has also many other uses such as the
bark is used in the manufacturing of rope. From
the root a juice is made which is an excellent
nerve tonic. The seeds are eaten as a delicacy.


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The fruit can be used as a substitute for cantde-
loupe. The "Papaya" can be cooked in a green
state and eaten as a desert sliced and served
with whipped cream. Maralades candies and
jellies are made from the fruit.

The juice is used for the treatment of ulcers,
diptheria, warts, intestinal worms, and eczema.
The ripe fruit is used as a cosmetic removal of
freckles, face powder, and a latex. The green fruit
and leaves are employed as a soap to remove
stains from clothing. From the milk chemicals
are obtained and vitamins. The "Papaya" is also
used in making ice cream.


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SOME TIPS FOR GROWING VEGETABLES IN THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


DARSHAN S. PADDA, Ph.D
Project Coordinator, V.I.
Department of Agriculture
It is impossible to define vegetables to the sat
of all. There are exceptions to any attempt to
vegetables from other plants and plant products. In
vegetables include any herbaceous plant, annual,
or perennial, whose fruits, seeds, roots, tubers
stems, leaves or flower parts are used for culin
poses. Vegetables are of high food value and are
high esteem by nutritionits. Growing of vegetable=
be promoted in the Virgin Islands on a large sc
only (1) because they are good tasting and (2]
both basic and necessary nutrients, but also (3)
they furnish maximum quantity of food for the aree
and (4) because they are short duration and quick
crops.
For Home Use: Almost every family rich as
poor could improve its diet and its economic poi
growing vegetables and using them throughout t
A head of lettuce that cost less than a nickel to gr
at the supermarket for 39 cents. Where do the 34 c
To no single person or agency. The bitter fact is
American food dollar is being eaten alive by the
distribution. The food industry has grown bigger an
in the interest of efficiency. Passing food up the
a complex, hand-to-hand system. Every hand takes
something out. To illustrate the point let us follow
the lettuce head from its production to its sale
in the supermarket. Although a grower faces
many variables in weather, labour cost, Irrigation
and crop protection problems, yet taking an
average figure by the time the lettuce is grown,
the grower has invested $480 per acre. If it was
a good growing season, he might harvest 12,000
heads of lettuce from that acre. At this point the
lettuce costs a little less than 4 cents a head -
still in the field. Harvesting and packing are done
on the spot. The carton cost 30 cents, labor costs
50 cents a carton, and it costs 30 cents to truck
a carton to the shipping point. The lettuce now
costs about 8 cents a head. In a normal season
the supermarket buyer will pay 9 to 9.5 cents a
head. At this point the grower says goodbye to
his lettuce by pocketing a profit of 1 to 1.5 cents
per head. And from now on the supermarket buyer
assumes the cost. The lettuce begins to die from
the moment it is harvested, so he pays 1.3 cents
a head to cool it to 34 degrees within four hours
of harvest. If the supermarket buyer wants his


chain is
lettuce wrapped in film, rather than leaves, he
pays an extra four cents. The lettuce on board a
refrigerated box car and ready to travel costs
now 14.5 cents a head. Average freight to dif-
ferent destinations adds 6.3 cents a head and it
arrives at the warehouse costing 21 cents a head...
Warehouse handling, inspection and spoilage etc.
figure into the cost of the lettuce, now a week
to 10 adys old. Its cost as it enters the super-
market is 25.7 cents. It markets for 39 cents but
before is does, store expenses eat up 10 more
cents. The supermarket gleans 3.2 cents a head
but half of that is claimed by taxes.
The point I wish to make is that the con-
sumer pays 34 cents extra for 10-15 days old
lettuce whereas it can be raised fresh for the
family dinner table by putting in little effort every
day. Is this not enough argument to convince you
to start on your backyard garden today especially
when the Virgin Islands Department of Agriculture
is ready to offer you full assistance.
The home gardener is not in a money making
business. His main aim is to raise fresh crops








with high nutritive value. He can afford to get
reduced yield by off-season planting. However
to provide basic guidelines to the beginner an


approximate temperature range required by ve-
getables for satisfactory performance Is given in
Figure I.


FIGURE I


509 559 609 659 709 759 809 859 909


Cauliflower, garden peas,
spinach, brushel sprouts

broccoli, cabbage, collard,
lettuce and turnip

beet, onion, carrot, leaf lettuce,
mustard.

Cucumber, green onion, muskmelon, squash

bean, corn, cow peas, pepper, radish,
tomato.

Eggplant, okra, sweet potato, watermelon.



TABLE I: Time of planting, spacing, planting depth, fertilizer application, time of maturity and es-
timated yield from 50 ft rows of vegetables in the U. S. Virgin Islands.

Fertilizer
Crop Time of Planting Between In Rows Planting Application
(Complete
Rows (Ft) Depth. fertilizer Time for Estimated
(Ft) (Inches) pounds) Maturity Yield


Corn
Tomato
Eggplant
Pepper
Okra
Onion
Beans
Beet
Cabbage
Broccoli
Collard
Cucumber
Watermelon
Squash
Carrot
Radish
Turnip


March-May
Sept-Jan
Sept-Jan
Sept-Jan
Throughout the year
Sept-Nov
Sept-Nov
Sept-Nov
Sept-Dec
Oct-Dec
Sept-Apr
Sept-Feb
Sept-Feb
Sept-Nov
Sept-Dec
Sept-Jan
Sept-Dec


1
2
2
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.5
0.25
2.0
1.5
15
3.0
3.0
2.5
0.25
0.20
0.25


1.50
1.80
1.10
1.50
1.0
1.0
0.50
0.75
1.50
1.25
1.0
0.50
0.25
0.50
1.0
0.25
0.25


90 days
50-75
90
100
60
120
50
75
75
65
80
55
100
50
75
30
70


ears
Ibs.
Ibs.
Ibs.
lbs.
bulles
Ibs.
Ibs.
heads
Ibs.
Ibs.
Ibs.
Ibs.
Ibs.
Ibs.
Ibs.
Ibs.






The approximate time of planting, seed rate,
plant spacing, planting depth, fertilization, time
required for maturity and estimated yield from
a 50 feet row of various vegetables is presented
in Table I. The purpose of presenting this infor-
mation is limited to serve as guidelines. However,
all these cultural practices should be adjusted in
accordance to the prevailing weather and other
climatological fartors.
Garden Management: To insure reasonably good
growth and production of vegetable crops, the
gardener needs to follow a number of agricultural
practices. Judicious tree removal is necessary to
prevent competition from roots and excessive
shading. Soil and water are the factors most li-
miting in the Virgin Islands. It is therefore es-
sential that a supply of good water and soil is
insured before any effort is put into the planting
of vegetables. A PH test may be necessary to
know the soil reaction. A soil with a PH of 7.0 is
neutral, while one with a PH of 7.1 or above is
alkaline or sweet. Most vegetables grow best on
a slightly acid soil where the PH is between 6.0
and 6.8. The PH scale is presented In Figure II.


vegetables. Mix a cupful of agricultural lime and
one of a complete commercial fertilizer, such as
5-10-5 with each bushel of compost to hasten
decay and to make it a more valuable material.
Cultivation and weed control is essential.
Hand weeding is the cheapest and safest way
but plastic mulches and chemicals are available
for effective weed control. Vegadex (CDEC), one
of the preventive chemicals is recommended for
use by home vegetable gardeners. Mix one-half
cup of liquid concentrate (4 Ibs. active per gallon)
in 2-3 gallons of water. This is enough spray for
1000 square feet.


ALKALINE
OR
SWEET



NEUTRAL



ACID
OR
SOUR


THE pH SCALE


Figure II. The PH Scale

As more and more people are prefering or-
ganically grown vegetables, the use of compost
is getting popular. Compost is a good source of
organic matter. A compost pile may be made of
leaves, weeds, straw, waste hay and any waste
vegetable matter other than diseased parts of


WHOLE FAMILY INVOLVED IN
KITCHEN GARDENING
Disease and insect control: A continuous
warm climate throughout the year in the Virgin
Islands is very conducive to the spread of insects
and diseases. It is therefore almost impossible
to grow vegetables without a good plant protec-
tion program. Home gardeners may be disap-
pointed in their attempts to control diseases If
they rely only on spraying or dusting after
diseases make their appearance. Although an
exact diagnosis of insect and disease organism is
necessary and may need technical assistance,
the following chemicals are broad spectrum and
can be used to control a large number of ve-
getable diseases and insects.
Malathion: Is generally considered one of
the safer insecticides. It is an excellent all-pur-
pose insecticide. Malathion is available as a dust,
a wettable powder, or an emulsifiable liquid. Do
not apply it to vegetables closer than 7 days to
harvest.
Carbaryl (Sevin): A very safe insecticide
for home gardeners to use. Sevin is effective
against many of the leaf feeding caterpillars, leaf
hoppers, beetles and worms.






Maneb (Dithane M-22, Manzate); Is an orga-
nic fungicide used to control diseases on a wide
range of vegetable crops.
All-purpose Mixtures: An excellent dual
garden spray can be formulated easily by mixing
the following insecticides and fungicides in one
gallon of water.


Sevin 50% WP
Maneb 80%
Malathion 25% WP


2 Tbs.
2 Tbs.
4 Tbs.


Pesticides are poisonous to humans and wildlife.
Read the precautions and follow the directions
on the label.


DR. PADDA COMPARING A NEW "STAKELESS"
AND MARGLOBE VARIETIES OF TOMATO.


For Market Use: In market gardening, eco-
nomics is more important. The purpose is to make
maximum money thru maximizing the high quality
yields and minimizing the cost of production. The
job of marketing begins before the crop is planted.
Possible outlets available and tentative decisions
on disposal must be determined in order to select
acceptable varieties, decide on appropriate plant-
ing dates and set acerage and production at levels
that can be handled and sold expediently under
normal conditions. Planning successive planting
and harvest schedules of perishable crops to pro-
vide continuous supplies over a long period helps
obtain and hold desirable outlets. To insure
dependability and low cost, the use of machines
are preferred over manual labour. Careful timely
harvesting, grading and sorting to buyers or grade
specifications, using accepted clean containers,
and being alert to buyer or consumer preferences
are other items within the grower's responsibility
that influences the sale and price of vegetables.


Acknowledgement
The author is grateful to Commissioner
Rudolph Shulterbrandt for critically reviewing the
article. He is also very appreciative of the en-
courgement and support provided by Mr. Sammuel
Whitaker, Director of Agricultural Services.


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NEW HAMPSHIRE COAL KILN UTILIZING CASHA, TAN TAN AND OTHER WEED SPECIES PLUS SOME
MAHOGANY AND TEAK CULLS.

THE VIRGIN ISLANDS FORESTRY PROGRAM
LARRY BOUGH, Horticulturist in charge


Since 1956, the U. S. Government has sup-
ported the Virgin Islands Forestry Program with
a $30,000 annual papropriation. In the early years,
VICORP handled these moneys, but in recent
years, the funds have been the responsibility of
the Forest Service of the U. S. Department of
Agriculture, through the Institute of Tropical
Forestry in Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico. In 1967, the
Government of the Virgin Islands, formally and
financially, became a co-sponsor of this Forestry
Program.
About 250,000 mahogany and teak seedlings
have been propagated on St. Croix during these
16 years, and planted on nearly 100 rough, steep
sites in both private and public ownership. Ge-
nerally, the expense of planting has been borne
by the landowner. The Forestry Program has
provided supervision, transportation, equipment,
and trees without cost to the landowner. Many
of these trees ear now 30-40 feet tall. In addition,
tens of thousands of mahogany and other tree
seedlings have been made available to the public
as ornamental trees.
Forestry research studies in the Virgin Is-
lands place special emphasis on the establish-
ment and growth of two tropical woods: maho-
gany and teak. These trees are being studied for
growth rate and quality. Also, selections and hy-
brids of mahogany are being developed for
disease resistance, superior quality and growth
rate. Studies of cultural methods are underway
for old stands which resulted from an introduc-
tion of mahogany into St. Croix by the Danes


about 1770. The principle objetictive in all of this
research is to provide high quality trees for
specialty wood products. At the present time,
there are 29 active forest research plots scat-
tered throughout the Virgin Islands.
Estate Thomas, a 150-acre tract near the cen-
ter of St. Croix, is an experimental Forest which
is widely used as a demonstration area for sound
forestry practices. Estate Thomas, and the other
demonstration areas on public lands at Ham Bluff
and Sion Ridge, are providing a great amount of
factural information on tree breeding, propagation
and plantation maintenance information which is
of value to the other caribbean islands, as well
as to the Virgin Islands.
The Forestry Program has shared the res-
ponsibility for the planting and care of 4,000
roadside trees, and the pruning and removal of
older roadside trees established by the Danes
and the CCC has rested with the Forestry Pro-
gram, also. However, there is still much to be
accomplished along the roadsides, coordination
with other agencies is vital.
West Indies mahogany, teak, thibet and
licorice are amongst the finest woods in the
world, highly prized for their beauty, workability
and durability. There is a growing demand for
these woods, especially in the form of crafts.
Data shows that the value of these fine woods
to the community increases in value nearly 25
times between the stump and delivery of finished
products to final consumers.









PLEASURES OF HOME GARDENING


SALLY ELIZABETH LAWAI

A little gardening always seems to raise the sl
and give a relaxing feeling of having done some
worthwhile in a day when all else has seemed rather p
less and exasperating. Not that a garden, mind you, ca
have its moments of frustration when the family
have traced a mongoose track through the center
freshly seeded lettuce patch or a thrush has pecked
holes in the bottom of a tomato you had felt was c
to set a new record as the largest in the valley. Bu
and large, a vegetable garden, if reasonably well pla
and cared for, will give many pounds of delicious pro
and lots of satisfaction.
The most basic requirement is somewhere to
the plants, and some thought given to this selection
save much time and effort later on. This area should
tain usable soil, that is, something that can be woi
and that one can stick a fork into without constantly
ting on shale or rocks. Even if soil is claggy or
sandy, it is usable, and the situation can be im-
proved by adding a conditioner, like compost,
grass clippings, horse manure or loam or any
of a number of things that will either break up
or give body to the soil, depending upon its nature.
Stones and shale, however, are a losing battle,
and there is no plant that would prefer these
to a richer soil, except perhaps, cactus. Con-
sideration must be given to drainage. Flat land
is fair enough, providing it is not surrounded by
slopes and/or walls so that a pond is formed
when rain falls. On the other hand, an excessive
gradient like a hillside, does not give water a
chance to penetrate. Instead, the water rushes
over the surface, eroding the topsoil and, in the
case of hard rains, can deposit one's seeds and
seedlings into the neighbour's yard. If animals
are in the area, it is wise to enclose the vegetable
plot within a small wire fence. There is nothing
more refreshing to a dog on a sunny afternoon
than a cool hole beneath leafy plants, and goats
are notorious for their lack of discrimination in
eating habits. One last thought on location should
bear in mind availability of sunlight. With the ex-
ception of a few leafy plants, most vegetables
require full sun, so the plot should be far enough
away from trees or structures to avoid their
shade. Tree roots, also, compete with vegetables
for water and soil nutrients. A helpful guide in
the distance one should plant from trees is that


the roots generally spread out as far as do the
branches.
Which vegetables to grow will depend on
several factors. First, choose vegetables that
you and the family like; there is no point in
rearing a crop of egg-plant if no one is about to
eat it. Consider, also, the size of the plot. If it
is small, use the space well by planting leafy
vegetables and root crops which provide the
biggest return for space used. Plants like
tomatoes, beans and cucumber, also occupy little
space since they can be trained on poles or trel-
lises. On the other hand, if the garden is large,
vegetables of lower yield per area used, such as
corn, may be cultivated, as well as plants of a
rambling nature, like sweet potato and squash.
Okra, egg-plant and sweet pepper are high pro-
duction plants and require very little attention.
Rhubarb and asparagus will bear for many
seasons from the one planting. Some vegetables
will bear over a long period of time. Carrots can
be harvested for months and hence will always
be fresh on the table. Cabbage and lettuce, how-
ever, must be picked at maturity. Surplus from
many crops may be frozen well.
For any vegetable to remain healthy and pro-
ductive it must never be interrupted from rapid
and constant growth. No plant seems to recover
fully from a severe set-back, whether from a dry
period or a prolonged absence of fertilizer or






some other reason. The most important fertilizing
elements are nitrogen, phosphorus and potash.
If the soil is found to be abundant in these, then
one is lucky; if not, then a regular application of
a commercial fertilizer will correct any defi-
ciencies rapidly enough. Most plants do poorly
in an acid soil and the application of agricultural
lime will balance or neutralize the soil as well
as help release the vital elements stated above
from their 'unavailable' state. A simple soil test
will diagnose deficiencies. This, coupled with any
'hunger' signs apparent in the vegetable will help
put one on the right track. Watering ought ot be
of a regular nature and constant. Deep, penetra-
ting water every other day is far better than a
shallow sprinkle once every 24 hours. Irregular
irrigation can be disastrous on fruit crops, like
tomatoes and melons, causing them to split and
the young fruit to fall off.
Of all the frustrations confronting the grower,
probably the most irksome are pests. Many plants


can be chewed, bitten, blighted or rotted by
numerous pests and diseases. Many of these are
seasonal and those green and yellow striped
caterpillers that haunted one's efforts 3 weeks
ago can no longer be seen. There is great debate
on the use of chemical sprays and enough con-
sideration should be given to the choosing of
right chemical. It will be advisable to consult an
agricultural expert regarding the disease organism
and the control measures. Planting 'uncompanion-
ables' like marigolds, can ward off a host of
bothersome bugs whilst adding a touch of color
in the area.
Most healthy vegetables will just go right
on growing to produce pounds of luscious pro-
duce, in spite of pests, and what could be more
pleasant than to stroll through one's efforts,
tasting a new carrot here, pulling a weed there
and noting the developments for the day.


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U. S. Virgin Islands 00840


Tel. 772-0412


I







Some Implications of the Land Grant Status of

The College of the Virgin Islands

Fenton B. Sands, Ph. D.
Director, Virgin Islands Extension Service
Acting Director, Virgin Islands Agricultural
Experiment Station


On June 23, 1972, President Nixon signed the
Education Amendments Act, thereby putting into
effect Public Law 93-318. Section 506 of this Act
provides land-grant status to the College of the
Virgin Islands and the University of Guam. This
was the culmination of approximately five years
of effort on the part of Dr. L. Wanlass (President,
College of the Virgin Islands), the V. I., Govern-
ment and friends of the Virgin Islands in the U. S.
Congress. I am sure many of you recall this happy
announcement that was given wide coverage by
all the news media. However, there may be some
question as to the meaning of a land-grant college
(LGC).

To fully appreciate the significance of this
status, one must become aware of the fact that
in the United States the largest business is the
agricultural industry. In 1971, the realized gross
income from farming amounted to 60.1 billion
dollars with production expenses amounting to
44.0 billion dollars. In the 1860's farming was on
a 1 to 1 basis. Today, one farmer on the main-
land produces food and fiber for himself and
over forty others.

This development was no accident. It was
the result of Government, scientist, educators
and industry working together for their mutual
benefit or, Government's response to meeting
the needs of its people through a planned and
systematic attack on the limiting factors of agri-
cultural production. Government's efforts were
carried out in essentially five major steps. They
were the creation of a Department of Agriculture
in 1862, the passage by the U. S. Congress in
1862 of the Morrill Act, the Hatch Act in 1890,
the Smith-Lever Act in 1914 and Mclntire-Stennis
Act in 1962. It was to a large extent these acts
by Government, with clearly defined purposes
and suitable funding, that were instrumental in


building in the U. S. the world's most efficient
and sophisticated productive agricultural industry.

The Education Amendments Act contained
provisions for amending these acts, cited in the
previous paragraph, to include the Virgin Islands
and Guam. The Virgin Islands was given the clas-
sification of a "State" to be included in the dis-
bursement of Federal funds based on the formula
developed for each Act.

Under the Morrill Act, which provides for the
granting of Federal lands to an educational ins-
titution engaged in agricultural and home econo-
mics pursuits, the College of the Virgin Islands
(CVI) received an endowment of $3,000,000. This
amount was in lieu of land. Although the principal
cannot be spent, the interest earned from it can
be used for educational activities. As a LGC, CVI
is now eligible for other grants from various de-
partments of the U. S. Government. The recent
grant from the Department of Health, Education
and Welfare is a case in point.

The Hatch Act authorises the establishment
of an agricultural experiment station in connec-
tion with a land-grant institution. Accordingly, on
December 5, 1972 the Virgin Island Agricultural
Experiment Station was officially founded. At
present the Director is working closely with the
U. S. Department of Agriculture to develop this
station. The College will receive a basic sum
each year for this station but all moneys spent
over this amount must be matched dollar for
dollar by non-Federal funds.

The purpose of the V. I. Agricultural Experi-
ment Station will be to carry out "the policy of
Congress to promote the efficient production,
marketing, distribution and utilization of far-
products." It is the expressed interest of








gress to assure agriculture a position in research
equal to that of industry. This station will "con-
duct original and other researches, investigations
and experiments bearing directly on and contri-
buting to the establishment and maintenance of
an effective agricultural industry." Investigations
will also be carried out which have as its purpose
the development and improvement of home and
rural life.

Projects will be conducted to determine
economically viable agricultural enterprises for
the Virgin Islands and to resolve the production
problems associated with their development.
Because there is no crops or livestock research
station nor an agricultural college on the islands,
very little has been done to fully exploit or
effectively make use of the land, animal, plant
and environmental resources. The experiment
station will help to correct this situation.

The scientist who will come to work in the
fields of animal husbandry, economics, entomo-
logy, pathology, agronomy, horticulture and other
areas will at the same time help train young
Virgin Islanders in these disciplines so that they
can eventually function competently on their own
in these fields. The decisions as to the research
projects to be undertaken will be made here in
the Virgin Islands and will be specific for con-
ditions on these islands.

The Smith-Lever Act established the Coopera-
tive Extension Service and such a program has
been operating at CVI since 1967. A similar pro-
gram was in force many years prior to this date
at the old U.S. Department of Agriculture Station
at Upper Bethlehem. The Extension Service is
the educational arm of the State College (CVI)
and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. It ex-
tends information and advice from these two
bodies to the people of the territory. Whereas
the College, in its teaching program, is dealing
primarily with formal classroom presentations,
the Extension Service, for the most part, deals
with informal education and works with farmers,
other individuals and groups. Extension education
is carried out by demonstrations, visits to farms
and homes, lectures and discussions to various
groups, clubs, societies and agencies in the com-
munity and through the use of all types of com-
munication media.


One of the chief functions of the Extension
Service will be to interpret the data and results
obtained from the experiment station, and to see
that this information gets out to the farmers and
other people through demonstrations and other
methods cited above. It wil also be the liaison
between the people and the scientists to provide
a meaningful feed-back to them as to results and
to identify avenues of investigations.

The Extension Program has been handicapped
by lack of staff and adequate funds. With its new
status in the Land-Grant System these limitations
will be reduced. However, the total amount of
money to which CVI is entitled must be matched
by an equivalent amount from the local "State"
government. This level of funding is not expected
to be reached until the 1974/75 fiscal year.

In the meantime, with a modest increase in
funds, the Extension Service expects to enlarge
its work with 4-H Clubs, the Summer Day Camp
Program, the Expanded Food and Nutrition Educa-
tion Program, agricultural demonstration and pro-
duction, community resource development and
distribution of news releases and information
materials. The Extension Service will also be able
to put forth a new thrust in family living by
developing and implementing programs in Home
Economics.

As staff and funds are increased, the Ex-
tension Service will also expand into new dimen-
sions of activity. This will be the conduction of
formal courses. For example, in the sciences:
horticulture, floriculture and agronomy, in busi-
ness: farm management, cooperatives, production
and marketing; in home economics: family living
for urban and rural homes, dressmaking and home
decorating. The type and nature of these courses
will be largely a reflection of community needs
and desires.

The Mclntire-Stennis Cooperative Forestry
Research Act has as its purpose "to promote re-
search in forestry in land-grant colleges and
agricultural experiment stations." The funds
allocated are on a dollar for dollar matching basis.
Because of this, it is not known at this time
whether or not CVI can take advantage of the
money this fiscal year. When it does become
possible, research on pertinent problems related
to forestry will be undertaken.


M















CHARLES SCHUSTER

OF ESTATE SIGHT,

OWNS SOME OF THE BEST

GOATS IN THE WORLD.


GOATS:


(Capra) A Good Enterprise for the Islands


LET'S RAISE MORE OF THEM

by
Rudolph Shulterbrandt


Raising goats for meat could be one of the most
profitable agricultural enterprises for Virgin Is-
lands farmers or future farmers. This is so for
several reasons:

1. Goats are comparatively hardy and easy
to raise. They are intelligent, affectionate,
and responsive to human attention. Goats
are highly resistant to most of the com-
mon physiological disorders such as
indigestion, constipation, and abortion.
Bacterial diseases such as pneumonia
and tuberculosis are rare and generally
restricted to kids.

2. They can live on a wide variety of soils,
topographies, (hilly or mountainous lands
are fine for goats) and weather.


3. They can live on a wide variety of weeds.
They love the leaves of Genip, Tibet, Tan-
tan, Ginger Thomas, and many other
leaves. They can live and be profitable
on leaves and water.

4. The gestation period for an ewe ranges
from 145 160 days. This means that
with good management an ewe could
give two litters a year.

5. Their flesh or meat is in high demand,
and command good prices.

It is difficult to understand why the com-
mercial raising of goats has not developed on a
large scale on the islands. At this time, our small
goat population makes it real difficult for a local
housewife to readily purchase fresh goat meat
or mutton over the butchers counter. Fresh goat


/


__ __ __- - - - ---- - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - -__







meat is now almost a delicacy, and is limited to
the festive menus of weddings, and native food
sales. Even at the festival villages it is difficult
to purchase a dish of goat mutton. Why then
isn't more of our larger farmers raising some
goats?

One of the answers is that farmers with
large acreages suffer great losses through wild
dogs who roam the countryside. The dogs are
capable of killing dozens of goats or sheep during
the course of a night. This can be a heartbreaking
site for a farmer to behold. Another answer is
that our farmers with large land acreage are kept
fully occupied with their large livestock enter-
prises of dairying and beef cattle.

It would be comparatively easier for a new-
comer to livestock farming to develop a good goat
farm than a beef cattle or dairy farm. That is
taking it for granted that he does not have to
buy the land.

The goats are small animals and easy to
tame and handle. A $500.00 investment in bred
ewes and a good ram, and another $500.00 for
corrals and limited grains, could result in a size-
able increase in flock after twelve months have
passed.


What breeds of goats are best for the is-
lands? Goats may be divided into three categories;
the wool goats, the milk goats, and the wild type.
Most of the goats found on the islands were
derived from the wild type, and have been bred
mostly for their meat. Continuous efforts to breed
out the horns of these goats has been made.
Pure bred goats are hard to find, but some of
the milking type animals are of the Nublan,
Toggenburg, and Saanen breeds.

There is no great demand for goat milk on
the islands at this time, but it is possible to
develop this. Goats begin to produce milk after
the first year and reach their highest productivity
after four years. Goat's milk has about the same
food value as cow's milk, but the sugar content
is lower, the ash content higher. The fat globules
of goat's milk are smaller, the curds finer. Hence
it is more easily digested by man. Children and
invalids unable to digest cows milk may find
goat's milk acceptable.

Virgin Island farmers, rural dwellers, or even
urbanites with a large unused backyard, should
think about raising some goats. Remember, you
can do this and don't have to worry about the
high or rising costs of livestock feed. "Give It
A Try".


A PORTION OF SCHUSTERS FLOCK.


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NUTRITION FOR INFANTS & CHILDREN


WWWM%#%0_h0.%


Marva Browne, M. S.
Charlotte Sosa, M. P. H
Vinod B. Kavety, M. D.

We in the health field are particularly anxiou
about giving newborn babies and infants a good star
in life. This life does not begin when the baby is borr
but it really commences before the conception of th
fetus. It is important that "the mother to be" should,
be in good nutritional, physical, and emotional health
Some scientific surveys done on communities hav
shown that:
1. The incidence of malnutrition of the children
was prevalent in large families Whe
spacing was less than 24 months between
the siblings.

2. Depletion of nutritional reserves from
repeated pregnancies have led to high
incidence of iron deficiency anemias
in women under 20 years, especially
with teenage pregnancies.

3. Nutritional deficiencies have a detri-
mental effect on mental, emotional,
and physical development of these
women.
In the past half century the incidence of
breast-feeding has been on a steady decline in
the industrialized nations despite the fact that
breast milk is the most natural and ideal food
for the infant during the first few months of life.
The other practical advantages, to name a few,
are that breast milk is available and at proper
temperature, it is free of contaminating bacteria
so that chances of gastrointestinal disturbances
are greatly reduced and that it has a widely
proclaimed psychological advantage with satis-
fying experiences for both the infant and the
mother.


WI ,..~ qji

Ir :II.1i


Some problems in the line of nutrition, which
affect infant and children, are obesity, anemia
and failure to thrive. According to the hypothesis
of Dr. Jean Meyer, of Harvard School of Public
Health, the obesity may start within the first
three months or so of life. The trait of susceptible
infants my reveal pronounced familial tendency,
mesomorphic type of body frame (massive and
muscular), and tendency towards extreme inac-
tivity. These obese infants probably should be
subjected to late rather than early introduction
of solid foods. Now there is growing interest in
vegetable diets, as the treatment of these obese
infants and children.

Iron deficiency anemia is very common in
so called "fat" milk babies, whose diet consists
primarily of milk at an age when milk can no
longer supply all the nutrients, and minerals for
child's growth.
The infants and children need various food
supplements apart from the milk in their diets
which are essential for their normal growth and
development. We are mainly focusing on the food







supplements which can easily be prepared from
the natural resources, such as some of the fruits
and vegetables available here in the Virgin Is-
lands. For instance, Vitamin C is an essential
ingredient of diet for any age group and we have
a wide variety of fruits like papaya, mango, West
Indian cherry, guava, orange, and soursop to name
a few which are excellent sources of Vitamin C.
For infants, specially prepared juices from these
fruits could be used instead of commercial juices,
provided certain precautions are taken; for ins-
tance, the use of diluted nectars, which usually
contains high concentration of sugars and not
heating the juices which destroys the very source
of Vitamin C, we are trying to feed. The ve-
getables also provide vitamins and minerals.


Felix Pitterson

REALTOR





Doing Business 35 Years


Various strained, home-made preparations could
be made out of locally available vegetables, which
are economical and at the same time provide all
the nutrients essential for growth. More and
more emphasis is being given to vegetables in
dietary treatment of obesity in children.
In conclusion, the various divisions in the
Department of Health have been trying to counsel
parents on diets of children and feeding of infants
both individually and in group sessions. Food
demonstrations have been conducted in which
both parents and children have a chance to taste,
see and learn how to prepare a variety of foods
from locally available fruits and vegetables.


HOMESITES


BUYERS OF CITY
PROPERTY


COMMERCIAL
& INDUSTRIAL


In St. Croix


BUY- LEASE- SELL
Terms to fit everyone


Telephone: 772-0412
P. O. BOX 68 FREDERIKSTED ST. CROIX
U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS, 00840


-
Z-4.aIffi


I










FOOD IMPORTS INTO THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


It is gratifying to see that some farmers and
citizens of St. Croix are working through the Dept.
of Agriculture and taking the task of producing
food crops and livestock in the Virgin Islands.
This is also significant that the Agriculture and
Food Fair is acting as a stimulus for the future
development of food productions. This is a very
good sign to those of us who once knew the
importance of agriculture to these islands.

St. Croix is the largest island in the U.S.
Virgin Islands chain. It covers an area of 84
square miles which is just about the size of both
St. Thomas and St. John. At one time in our
history we were labeled "Garden of the West
Indies" and rightfully so.

We once had a sugar crop that was bounttiful
and fruits of all descriptions were grown in large
numbers. There was absolutely no need to im-
port any of the ground provisions because we
were saturated with all types. Just what has hap-
pened since the days of yore is beyond imagina-
tion.

Our bountiful cane crop is "out the window,"
so to speak. One can see stalks of sugar cane
dotting the various areas from Bethlehem to
Whim. The old sugar factories are just about


LAURITZ E. GIBBS,

District Director of Trade and Industry

Dept. of Commerce, St. Croix



extinct. Only Central Factory and Bethlehem still
have some relics of the olden times those grand
old days.

Our farms once the biggest industry on St.
Croix are limited to a few small areas and the
productive output is so little that when one hears
about foods grown in St. Croix, it becomes an
absolute novelty.

Now just what has created this unmistakably
shattering situation. Well history shows that after
1923, since we no longer belonged to Denmark
and we assumed American Status we seemed to
have folded our "proverbial hands" and depended
heavily on what the Great U.S. could do for us.
We assumed the position of "why till when the
American farmer who is employing mechanization
can do better and faster".

The lands which once fed us have been
raped, left unattended and used either for indus-
trial or commercial ventures or left to feed cattle.
Our rich agricultural heritage has left us nothing
to which we can cling with pride. Our forefathers
as the saying goes "Must be turning over in their
graves."

What we failed to notice is that almost all
the products that were typical in our islands are
now being imported from the great United States.


~-----'~------- --------------------







Imagine Crucians buying Okras, tomatoes,
avocados, lettuce, cabbage and even spinach,
from outside, when we grew some of the finest
in the world. Let us go one step further and speak
of cost in comparison with what it used to be.
Just what are we doing to ourselves is beyond
imagination.

A good twenty (20) years ago we didn't have
to buy a single:
yam lettuce avocado
spinach celery soursop
potato poultry papaya
sugar (except white) meat coconut
cabbage corn mango
egg cigars

Today, practically nothing consumed at the
dinner table is branded "Made in the Virgin Is-
lands".

The farmers have moved to towns and sold
out their land holdings and have built beautiful
real estate dwellings and left whatever still re-
mains unsold to be a relic of our past glory.

We Import all or almost all we eat. "Shame"
does not adequately cover our economics situa-
tion.

Our government has also contributed heavily
to this untenable position. There was no variably
directed program to encourage the farmer to till
the soil. If he tilled, where would he sell his
produce? And at what price!, Until recently when
a Federal State Marketing Program was initiated
by the V. I. Dept of Agriculture. Sugar once
labeled "King" is dead, never to be revived again.
Cane production became uneconomical, but what
about garden foods! Why aren't they being grown?


Our supermarket can certainly sell our gar-
den crops at good profits and permit the farmer
to gain his profit too.

Today we are heavily dependent on the in-
dustrial giants to keep things going.

Hess, Harvey and the new oil plant should
reap us sizeable income but those "fat" revenues
will dwindle if we could have saved some funds
by buying for less, or simply buying from our-
selves.

Let us see some statistics and then you know
what we import and the fantastic cost of our
outlay:


Some Imports
Cigars

Dairy Products
Fertilizers
Fish

General Foods

Cut Flowers

Liquor

Perishable Goods

Sand


- 1971-72
21/2 Tons
1167 Ton!
62 Tons
27 Tons

17,736 1/4 Tons

4 5/8 Tons

2059 Tons

8059 Tons

613 /2 Tons


Think of it, couldn't we have produced any
of the above and retained such funds as are
being let out? You think about it seriously and
see what you can do.










A PLEDGE TO THE FUTURE


VIRGIN ISLANDS


CEMENT COMPANY, INC.


P. O. BOX 295,


CHRISTIANSTED, ST. CROIX
773-0932


P. O. BOX 2121, ST. THOMAS
774-3001


CONTINUE TO CALL US FOR:
HYDRAULIC STANDARD PORTLAND CEMENT
"FLORIDA" WHITE LIME (CAL FLORIDA)
"INSTANT CREATE"


I .1








MILK INDUSTRY ON ST. CROIX

STACY LLOYD


Throughout comparatively recent history on
St. Croix, milk has been the principal cash crop
not counting cane and the Island is idealy suited
for this type of agriculture. Considerable flat and
rolling hills, native guinea grass pastures that
produce a fine quality grazing crop, shade and
water lend itself to a good dairy industry.

In 1958 La Reine Farm was rented from Al-
bert Fleming by Stacy Lloyd and with the coope-
ration of the other farmers interested in im-
proving the milk facilities on the island a pasteuri-
sing plant was built at Bassin Triangle in Chris-
tiansted. This plant was originally set up to
handle 1000 quarts daily as at that time there
was only some 500 quarts of milk being produced
on the entire Island exclusive of the Jersey herd
being brought in by plane for La Reine.

The original plant was called Island Dairies,
representing as it does; all of the island dairy
farms and comprised a milk bottling plant, with
high temperature short time pasteurising. Faci-
lities were added after the first year to make
ice cream and other by products now being ma-
nufactured. These include buttermilk, cottage


cheese, chocolate milk, sour cream, fresh cream,
skim milk or non fat milk, and various fruit drinks.
With the rapid growth of the Island the plant was
completely renovated in 1965 changing over from
glass bottles to the modern plastic lined paper
carton. A new homogeniser, entirely new and
larger pasteurising equipment, new cold rooms
and a new ice cream freezing room was added
to the plant. This Fall a second filling machine
has been added which now permits the plant to
fill half gallon paper cartons as well as the quarts,
pints, and half pints used on the earlier machine.

As the growth in the dairy plant continued,
farmers were stepping up their production. Far-
mers Johansen, Martin, Maldonado, and Hodge
retired from milking. Mr. Gasperi took over Petro-
nella and brought in the nucleous of a very fine
herd of pure bred holsteins imported from New
York State through the careful selection of prize
cows by Murray Wigsten. Henry Nelthrop built a
modern dairy farm on the family estate at Grenard
which is a model milking parlor showing what a
family owned and run dairy farm can do in milk
management.








Croix dairy picture. It is being equipped with the
latest in milking equipment which will enable
the farm manager to handle 160 cows an hour
through a turntable on which cows get on for
milking and step off after they are finished
making a 360 degree turn on the table. One man
stands at the entrance of the table and puts on
the electric machines while another man is at
the exit removing the machines. Cows are put
on to the turntable by means of an electric gate
that moves against the waiting cows automatical-
ly herding them on to the table. This equipment
has been imported from New Zealand and is the
most modern type of milking machine yet deve-
loped. The dairy farms now include on St. Croix
some 5,000 acres in pastureland and cultivated
fields growing sorghum. With the able assistance
of the Department of Agriculture, a good grade
of sorghum has enabled the farmer to rely on
sorghum silage in addition to the native guinea
grass and it is expected milk production will rise
again sharply in 1973.

Since its inception in 1958, Island Dairies
has been able to produce for the public high
quality fresh milk and every year except last
year farmers were able to deliver increasing
amounts of raw milk, starting with some 500
St. Croix farmers were producing in 1971
some 7,000 quarts of milk daily. In 1972 with the
advent of milk shipped all the way from Florida,
production fell off in the face of sharp competi-
tion. In the first month of 1973, St. Croix farmers
have started building up again realizing that
nothing can compare with really fresh milk sold
to the public the same day it comes from St.
Croix farmers. All but one of the Supermarkets


have canceled agreements made with Florida
importers. A new farm is being built on the
Armstrong Brothers land at Windsor, Lebanon Hill,
Bonne Esperance, and Little Mt. Pleasant. This
area will bring another 750 acres into the St.
quarts per day in 1958 to a peak of 7,000 quarts
per day or over two million quarts per year. The
artificial insemination practised by nearly all of
the farmers has materially increased individual
production to such tremendous averages as 90
pounds per cow per milking or some 45 quarts
per cow. A plane load of 33 cows were flown in
from Wisconsin in September of 1972 and it is
expected another planeload will be introduced on
to the island this Spring from New York State.
Each year farmers introduced new replacements
into their herds from calves they have brought
to maturity and by the end of 1973 it is expected
there will be over 1,000 dairy cows on St. Croix
over half of which will be full grown dairy cows
with an average capacity of 15 quarts per cow.
The Virgin Islands dairymen Association headed
by Mario Gasperi with Oliver Skow as Secretary
Treasurer and Charles Schuster as Vice President
meets four times a year and is currently exploring
better and cheaper types of feed to make dairying
more attractive to other St. Croix farmers wishing
to enter the milk industry. All interested farmers
should contact the officers of the association and
discuss the possibilities of the milk business as
their presence will be welcomed by the farmers
already in the industry.







MANY THANKS TO
THE DEPARTMENT OF
AGRICULTURE

FRESH DAIRY

PRODUCTS

Produced Daily On St. Croix
XL From Six Purebred Dairy
Herds
t 00 "* Grade A Fresh Milk
flfl "* Non Fat Skim Milk
Fresh Whipping Cream
Chocolate Milk
o Buttermilk
Sour Cream
Yogmort
Cottage Cheese and
24 Ice Cream and
Sherbert Flavors Made
Fresh Daily.
AMI D Ask For Island Dairies
S A I N Products At Your Local
V I Grocery Store
or
Stop At The Golden Cow in
Christiansted.


ISLAND DAIRIES
ST. CROIX, VIRGIN ISLANDS








ERADICATING SCREWWORMS IN THE VIRGIN ISLANDS

BY ROBERT D. KING
ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SER.
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Within the past year, screwworms have been
eradicated in the Virgin Islands, an achievement com-
bining some of the most modern scientific technology
with the combined efforts of the U.S. Department of
Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Air Force (USAF), and
the governments of the U.S. and British Virgin Islands.

Screwworms are deadly pests of warm-blooded
animals (including humans), which have long been
known in Puerto Rico, other islands in the Greater
Antilles, South and Central America, Mexico, and
during seasonal migrations in the southwestern United
States. They are the larvae, or maggots, of a species
of blowfly (Cochliomyia hominivorax) that feed on
the healthy flesh of the animals they infest. Screw
worms hatch from eggs masses laid by the female
screwworm fly on the edge of open untreated wounds
into which the maggots burrow and begin feeding
Screwworms mature in about six days, greatly en
larging the wound and occasionally killing the animal

Screwworms drew the attention of agriculture
officials in the Virgin Islands in July 1969, when in
festations were found in livestock on St. Thomas
and St. John. They soon spread to the British
Virgin Islands; St. Croix, however, remained free
of the pest.

When screwworms were first discovered,
owners of livestock and pets could only fight
the pest through the recommended preventive
measures and by treating any infestation that
they discovered.


These actions included the spraying of live-
stock with an approved pesticide, treating wounds
with a screwworm-killing preparations, and ma-
naging livestock to prevent unnecessary wounds.
sores and scratches.

Agricultural officials and livestock owners
kept track of screwworm infestations by collect-
ing samples of larvae or maggots found in wounds







and sending them to USDA's Animal and Plant
Health Inspection Service for identification. This
was important since screwworm larvae are al-
most identical to the common blowfly maggot
that may infest dead or diseased tissue around
sores, infections and injuries.

Even so, no permanent relief from the deadly
pest was in sight until USDA and the Air Force
reached an agreement that brought modern eradi-
cation methods to the Virgin Islands and to Puerto


Rico. The Air Force, through its Special Opera-
tions Force of the Tactical Air Command, would
provide aircraft and pilots needed in the special
project; while USDA's Animal and Plant Health
Inspection Service (APHIS) would provide the
technical personnel and the essential supply of
sexually sterile flies.

Sterile fly releases began in June 1971, but
eradication was not easy. Screwworm flies are
highly prolific; a single mated female con lay as

^ ^ ^VFW'


~e-vyU


7.
ll "P5 '."


many as 3,000 eggs. If screwworms were to be
eradicated, every fertile female eventually would
have to be mated by a sterile male from one of
the thousands of boxes released over the is-
lands. And officials had to know the results,
relying exclusively on the collection of larvae
from infested wounds discovered by animal
owners; help in this area was assured by the
support of the Virgin Islands Department of


Agriculture, cooperating veterinarians, and live-
stock producers.
In November 1972, a final intensive survey
for screwworm infestations was conducted in
both the U.S. and British Virgin Islands. No screw-
worms were found, nor were any infestations
reported by animal owners. The Virgin Islands
were declared free of the deadly pests, and
sterile fly releases were suspended.





Compliments
of
GRAND UNION


SUPERMARKET!


The Most Modern Supermarkets
in the Virgin Islands!








BATS OF ST.


CROIX


David W. Nellis, Wildlife Biologist


St. Croix has four (4) different types of bats,
each of which has several unique characters. Bats
in general have quite a few characters which are
different from other mammals. Bats, are the only
mammals which exhibit true sustained flight.
They also, exhibit a character which is shown by
a few other animals, the ability to drop the body
temperature when at rest. Thus, when a bat is
flying it maintains a constant body temperature
similar to other mammals, but when roosting or
resting, it allows its body temperature to drop
and thus conserve metabolic energy. Bats general-
ly like to roost in dark cool places. However, the
bats on St. Croix, have several exceptions to
this. The common fruit bat, will rest underneath
the leaves of certain trees and the roof bat will


ARTIBEAUS JAMAICENSIS
photo by D. W. Nellio


MOLOSSUS MOLOSSUS
photo by D. W. Nellis

rest underneath galvanized roofs, where tempera-
ture Increases to as much as 120 degrees. Bats
give birth to living young, as typical mammals.
Wnen the young are very small the mother will
occasionally carry them about while she is feed-
ing. When they become older however, she usual-
ly leaves them in the roost when she departs on
feeding flights. If disturbed, while resting the
mother bat can carry her young even when they
are as much as half grown.


In the north, bats hibernate In the winter,
but here in the tropics where there is continuously
available food, bats have no need to hibernate
and are thus constantly active. Bat roosts are
frequently easy to locate because large concen-
trations of bats are constantly twittering and
chirping in the daytime. It is requested that any
bat roost discovered should be reported to the
Wildlife Biologist, of the Dept. of Agriculture.
In certain areas of the world bats can carry
serious human diseases. We are fortunate in the
Virgin Islands though, because rabies and his-
toplasmosis, which are the predominant bat trans-
mitted diseases seem to be absent.
As the sun sets, the first bat, to emerge
early in the evening is the roof bat (Molossus
molossus). This bat is easily identified by the
fact that It is the smallest bat in the sky and It
is a fast and eratic flyer. These bats are frequent-
ly easily observed as they flutter around outside
lights at night, catching small flying insects which
are their major diet. This bat lives as a true com-
mensal of man. Many of the old houses on the
island maintain considerable populations which
make their presence known by twittering sound
both by day and by night. Although the presence














of these bats is not directly harmful to the in-
habitants of a house, many people prefer not to
have bats in their attic.

Moth balls or moth flakes can be used to
temporarily drive bats from their roost, however,
a permanent cure for bats in the attic can only
be accomplished by plugging all entrance and exit
holes.

The roof bat is a very small and can enter
through any crack more than 3/8 of an inch wide.
Thus a very thorough job of bat proofing an attic
is necessary before bats can be permanently
excluded from a premises.


BRACHYPHLLA CAVERNARUM
photo by D. W. Nellie


The second most common bat on St. Croix
is the fruit bat (Artibeaus jamaicensis). This bat
can be identified by its large size and relatively


slow direct flight. If one is observed at close
range, distinguishing characters are a spear
shaped structure on the end of the nose and
characteristic facestripes leading from the mouth
to the ears. This is the bat which is most res-
ponsible for depredations on fruit crops in the
Virgin Islands. Some of ''i favorite foods being
papaya and mespo. The Jit bats frequently drink
while in flight, dipping low over standing water,
thus in houses with swimming pools, walls ad-
joining these swimming pools are frequently
spattered with droppings from this bat.

The cave bat (Brachphlla cavernarum), is
about the same size as the fruit bat. It is easily
distinguished by having a nose very similar to
the nose of a pig. This bat has a strong preference
for roosting in old stone ruins or caves. Cave
bats feed on fruits supplemented by pollen and
nectar from night blooming flowers. Thus,
Brachyphlla is one of the major instruments
responsible for pollinating many of the night
blooming flowers.

The fourth bat on St. Croix is known as the
fishing bat (Noctilio leporinus). Fishing bats can
be identified in flight by the fact that they
generally fly low for long distances over open
water. On close examination, the bat can be
identified by having a face very much like a
mastiff, or a bulldog, a stripe down its back and
very characteristic large, long hind feet. Fishing
bats use these extraordinary feet to snatch living
fish from near the surface of the water. The roost
of this bat has a characteristic odor composed
of the smell of the food fish combined with the
very strong natural body odor of this bat. Al-
though, it is generally quite rare, colonies of as
many as fifty individuals may exist in large hollow
trees or sea caves.








CONSUMER SERVICES ADMINISTRATION

Virgin Island Dept. of Agriculture

Joanna Lindquist, Deputy Director


"The problems of consumers become more
acute when we witness the great number of
undesirable practices carried out by some un-
scrupulous merchants and manufacturers. These
practices include, among others, deceitful adver-
tising, false price discounts, defective labeling,
unfulfilled warranties, services not rendered, un-
justied increases in prices, exhorbitant charges
for interest and services and other practices of
equal nature".

"For these reasons, the Legislature has
deemed it appropriate to create the Consumer
Services Administration, capable of protecting,
educating and representing the Virgin Island's
consumer and to watch over their interests, there-
by guaranteeing certain basic rights, including
the right to be well informed, the right to make
a free and intelligent selection of goods and
services and protection from dangerous products
and against unscrupulous practices ....".

The preceding statements are excerpts from
Act 3000, which was passed by the Ninth Legis-
lature in May, 1971, and give you some idea of
what your C. S. A. office should be doing for
you ... What has been taking place on St. Croix
since the office opened its doors on September
6th, 1971? What types of consumer complaints
have been filed with this office? Hace they, in
fact, been investigated and resolved?

First, let me state that your C.C.A. office
is still suffering all the pangs and pains of any
newly formed and growing organization. Our
budget is low, and there is no staff. Nevertheless,
the office has been functioning to fulfill as many
consumer services as possible. The types of
complaints handled have been wide and varied,


involving everything from poor repair service on
washers, dryers, refrigerator, freezers, televisions,
phonographs, automobiles and cases of false and
deceitful advertising; to the quality and price of
consumer products. Al complaints filed with this
office are thoroughly investigated, with appro-
priate action then taken to resolve the complaint.

Although this office has no price control
powers, (there are Price-Control Officers, on St.
Thomas and St. Croix to handle these problems),
our activities have very often led to price reduc-
tions. The C.S.A. office has made every effort
to keep the public informed on ways in which
they can cut the cost of living and effect price
change. Comparative price studies are continually
being done by consumer volunteers. Some have
put many hours into price checking in our super-
markets, and by so doing have uncovered gross
errors and vast price differences, which have
then been corrected. We have encouraged con-
sumers to become more aggressive and to
question prices that appear to be out of line,
and above all, to become comparative shoppers.

Consumer education is one of the most im-
portant functions of this office. Toward this effort
we have produced a number of radio tapes and
news articles, attempting in all cases, to alert
and inform our community, the belief being that
a well informed consumer is a protected one.
Speaking engagements with various civic organi-
zations have also been an effective means of
consumer education. Your C.S.A. office is deve-
loping as a Consumer Informational Center, which
will have on hand audiovisual and other consumer
materials to be utilized and shared with teachers,
civic organizations, or interested members of the
community.








MEAT AND POULTRY INSPECTION IN THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS

George Murray, D.V.M.
Inspector in charge, U. S. Virgin Islands


Federal meat and Poultry Inspection was ex-
tended to the U.S. Virgin Islands in 1969. This
occurred as a result of the Wholesome Meat Act
of 1967, and the Poultry Products Inspection Act
passed by Congress the following year. These
laws required all states and U.S. possessions to
set up internal inspection systems equivalent to
the Federal Meat and Poultry Inspection Program.
Alternatively, states or possessions could ask the
Federal Government to take over and conduct
the local inspectional programs. This has hap-
penned in a number of states such as Missouri,
Oregon and Pennsylvania and in the possessions
of Guam, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.
The purpose of these laws is to assure that all
commercial production of meat and poultry is
under a uniform standard or product wholesome-
ness and plant sanitation.

Federal Meat and Poultry Inspection is ad-
ministered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
The salaries of the inspectors are paid by the
Federal Government but the plants, in addition
to meeting required standards, must provide
certain facilities for inspectors such as office
space and locker rooms. They must also provide
suitable facilities in the plant for Carcass exami-
nations. Also, they are billed by the Government
at a set fee for all overtime, Saturday or holiday
work performed by inspectors. There are ap-
proxihately 4000 inspectors in the total program,
of which about 1000 are veterinarians.

Inspection begins with the live animals or
birds brought in for slaughter. Animals or birds
unfit for food are segregated and either destroyed
or converted into animal food by steam rendering.
Animals passed for slaughter must be handled
and dispatched in a humane manner. Each Car-


cass, including all its organs is then given a
routine post mortem examination. Carcasses, or
parts of Carcasses, showing evidence of disease
are condemned and destroyed for human food.
Carcasses or organs passed for food are "brand-
ed" with the federal inspection stamp and are
then free to move in trade channels.

The next step of inspection covers the
facilities in which the Carcacces and organs are
chilled, cut, boned, ground, canned or otherwise
processed or prepared. Finally, inspectors assure
that the meat or poultry or their derived products
are properly packaged, truthfully labled and that
they fully conform with product standards. There
is a standard of composition for every meat and
pou'try product marketed. For example, ham-
burger must be all ground beef with no more than
30% fat. Hot dogs may contain no more than 10%
added water. Meat stews must contain not less
than 25% meat. Chile con came must contain not
less than 40% meat or 25% meat with beans.
Hash must contain 35% meat. Smoked ham may
contain no added water unless labeled "water
added" in which case the limit is 10%. Canned
ham may contain no more than 8% added water.
The printed mark or inspection legend of the U. S.
Department of Agriculture on the label assures
compliance with these standards...

To maintain a firm link between the ins-
pected plants and the consumer, the U.S.D.A.
provides a "compliance staff". A representative
of this staff is stationed in St. Croix but covers
also St. Thomas and St. John. He is Mr. Richard
Gittens and he can be contacted thru the head-
quarters office of the V. I. Department of Agri-
culture.

LA'V










YOU CAN'T------
EAT TOURISTS
(They wouldn't come back)
OR
ALUMINUM (you wouldn't like it)
OR
DRINK REFINED OIL
(bad for ulcers)


BUT YOU CAN----


S =


EAT FRESH BEEF


i


("No problem" with the cows)

AND

DRINK FRESH MILK

(good for the day after)


CANE GARDEN FARM-ST. CROIX

REGISTERED HOLSTEIN PUREBRED SENEPOL
REGISTERED CHAROLAIS THOROUGHBRED HORSES


Ii,








Another function of the program is the ins-
pection of imported meats. Foreign countries
exporting meat and poultry products to the U.S.
or its possessions must have a U.S.D.A. approved
inspection system. The foreign plants producing
product for the U.S. are reviewed at least once
each year by U.S.D.A. inspectors. In addition each
shipment of meat or poultry products to the U. S.
or its possessions is sampled and inspected on
arrival. Product not in full conformity with U.S.
standards is refused entry and returned to the
country of origin or shipped elsewhere outside
of the U.S. or its possessions.

There are some exemptions to inspection.
For instance, there is an exemption for farmers
who slaughter their own livestock for their own
family use or the use of nonpaying guests. There
is also an exemption for retailers who cut or
process meat or poultry for sale to household
consumers. The retailer must however handle
only inspected meat and he may sell only in
retail quantities. This is defined as no more than
300 Ibs. beef, 100 lbs. pork or 25 Ibs. of lamb,
mutton or goat meat per customer. Another
exemption is granted for the slaughtering and
dressing of poultry where only small numbers
of birds are dressed each week either as a ser-
vice to owners or for sale to consumers by the
operator. In all these cases inspection is not
required but the meat retailer and poultry opera-
tor must maintain a satisfactory standard of sa-
nitation in order to qualify for exemption.

In the Virgin Islands there are now three
plants operating under federal inspection. These
are the St. Croix Abattoir, the St. Thomas Abattoir


and a commercial meat processing plant in Char-
lotte Amalie. All the meat and poultry products
coming into the islands from the mainland or
Puerto Rico are federally inspected and bear the
identification of the U.S.D.A. inspection legend.
Meat and poultry products arriving here from
foreign countries must originate from approved
foreign plants and must be accompanied by an
official inspection certificate. The products are
then sampled and inspected before they are
released for entry. Meat imports into the Virgin
Islands consist mainly of canned hams, canned
luncheon meats and dry sausages of the salami
type. These all come from Europe, particularly
Denmark. We also receive frozen lamb and mut-
ton and frozen boneless beef from Australia and
New Zealand. The frozen meat is used mainly
for processing into hamburger, meat patties, stew
meat and other prepared products for the local
restaurant trade.

The laws and regulations governing meat and
poultry products are being fully applied here for
the benefit of the general community. Livestock
producers and dealers are now eligible to ship
their meat products into any trade channels
including the Continental U. S. They can also
export to anywhere in the world including the
British, Dutch, French, and independent islands
in the Caribbean. On the other hand, consumers
can be assured that the meat and poultry products
they purchase are wholesome and derived from
healthy animals. In addition, inspection assures
that these products have been sanitarily handled,
properly packaged and truthfully and informative-
ly labeled.









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Insect Control Tests on St. Croix using the Sterile

Male Release Technique

Dan Haile and J. Wendell Snow
Federal Experiment Station


During the past two years, personell of the
Agricultural Research Service, United States
Department of Agriculture, at the Federal Ex-
periment Station have been involved in island-
wide experiments on St. Croix to evaluate the
sterile male release technique for control or
eradication of selected insect pests. This method
involves the release of insects which have been
sterilized by radiation and will produce no off-
spring when mated with natural insects. Theore-
tically, when the number of sterile insects
released is much larger than the number of na-
tural insects and if the sterile insects are compe-
titive the natural population will decline to zero
(eradication) after several generations.

The present programs on St. Croix deal with
two moth species, the tobacco budworm and the
corn earworm. The principle island plants that
are attacked by these insects are pigeon pea and
corn, respectively. Generally, they are major
pests on cotton, tobacco, corn, and vegetable
crops. The principle stages in their life cycle
include, in order, the egg, larvae (worm), pupae,
and adult moth stage. Damage to plants is done
in the larvae stage.

A program to test the sterile male technique
requires, principally, the rearing or production of
a sufficient number of insects for release, sterili-
zation of the insects, establishment of a release
system and evaluation of the program. The rearing
of large numbers of insects is a particular pro-
blem and USDA laboratories at other locations
which have rearing facilities are cooperating by
producing and shipping insects to St. Croix. In-
sects are shipped by air mail while in the pupae
stage.

Approximately 60,000 tobacco budworm pupae
are produced each day (seven days a week) at
Brownsville, Texas and mailed to St. Croix. After
arrival here, the pupae are sterilized by exposing
them to a cobalt or cesium radiation source. Then


ELECTRIC GRID TRAP INSTALLATION FOR
MONITORING THE POPULATION OF STERILE
AND NATURAL INSECTS.

they are transported in pans to release cages at
32 sites selected to cover the island. The adult
moths emerge inside the cages and fly through
openings provided in the cages into the environ-
ment.

Rearing for the corn earworm program is
done on St. Croix and at Tifton, Georgia. A
rearing facility at the Federal Experiment Station
was developed to produce approximately 12,000
insects per day. Approximately 20,000 insects per
day are produced and shipped from Tifton. All
the corn earworms are allowed to emerge in the
laboratory and then are irradiated and released
as adults. The adult moths are transported to







several release cages at selected points around
the island.

The population levels of the natural and
sterile insects are monitored with electric grid
traps that are baited with virgin female insects.
Separate trap systems are operated for the two
species of insects with 40 traps in each system.
The grids operate with a high voltage supplied
across wire electrodes that are in a circular
arrangement around the bait insects and as male
moths are attracted to the trap by the bait
females they are electrocuted by the grid and
fall into a collection container. No lights are used
as an attractant on these grid traps, however,
approximately 10 standard blacklight insect traps
are also used as part of the survey system. The
released insects are reared on a diet containing
a red food dye which is retained inside the insect
and provides an internal marker to distinguish
the released from the natural insects.

Another important evaluation procedure is
the determination of the amount of sterility in
natural insect eggs collected from the field. Host
plants are checked on a continuous daily basis
to obtain egg samples for this determination.
When the sample eggs are sterile (do not hatch),


it indicates that the released insects are having
an effect on the natural population.

St. Croix is an excellent location to conduct
these experiments because of the climate, diver-
sity of vegetation, and its relatively isolated lo-
cation from other land masses. The land area Is
small enough to allow tests to be conducted over
the entire area economically and without being
greatly influenced by insects from other areas.

The results of these experiments will be used
to determine the value and feasibility of using
the sterile release technique here as well as
in larger areas of the continental United States.


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ECONOMIC USES OF SOME LOCAL PLANTS

BY

EDGAR HALL


Today the island of St. Croix stands at the
cross roads of Agricultural Development. Great
concern has arisen as to whether the Island will
be able to produce enough fruits and vegetables
for its increasing population growth. If the Island
is to continue to have a healthy lasting develop-
ment unit, then St. Croix must meet proper agri-
cultural zoning as a means to protect the valuable
plant life, soil, and water resources.

Every student of economic problems in the
Virgin Islands has recommended an expansion in
fruit and vegetables for local consumption, as
well as producing them in sufficient quantities.

Suggestions have been made that the Virgin
Islands increase their income by growing, "Spe-
ciality" crops such as papayas, soursops, guavas
and the like, which can be grown for canning as
well as, for industrial use.

In order to increase the local food supply a
systematic group of fruits, such as limes, man-
goes, guavas, guava-berries and coconuts can be
processed into jams, jellies, pickles, sauces,
ashays, chutneys, juice extracts as well as
essential oils. Such products are manufactured
on a small scale, however, they are not sufficient
to supply the local demand.

St. Croix, being an agricultural country does
not produce enough for its own population, and
large quantities have to be imported. The main
reason for this is that a good deal of the land
is used for buildings as well as large range
projects developments.

There are several commodities that could be
produced profitably in St. Croix to take the place
of import products such as tomatoes, peppers,
cucumbers, egg plants, okras, sweet corn and
many other fruits and vegetables as well as root
crops.


The main importers of fruits and vegetables
are the Super-Markets. They cannot get enough
food on the local market and hence must import
all year round. The imported products are from
the United States and other Islands of the Carib-
bean Area.

However, it would be advantageous for
Mainland enterprises to have a supply of econo-
mic plants grown on the Islands, and as such
great benefits can be derived to the Virgin Is-
landers.

Just take a look in your back-yards and you
will see at least one plant that has an economic
value such as: lime, guava, mammee apple, sour-
sop, mango, cassava, papaya, coconut and so
forth.

The "Lime" tree is grown both as a source
of citric acid as well as for use in a fresh con-
dition. The fruit has many uses such as: lime
juice cordial, pickled lime "Asha", concentrated
lime juice, essential oil of lime, ingredient of
carbonated water. It is also used for refreshment
in hot weather, in perfumery, chemicals, baked
goods, ice cream, and confectionary.







The acreage gradually decreosed to about
15,000 acres in 1908, with a population of about
16,000. By 1930, the population was reduced to
11,413 or about one-fourth of what it is today.
That same year the Bethlehem concern went into
bankruptcy and thousands of acres of the best
cane lands went back to bush. It was during these
following years that many of our native people
left for the mainland to seek a livelihood. For 300
years the population of St. Croix had gone hand
in hand with the acreage in sugar cane.

In 1934, Bethlehem Factory and about 2,000
acres of the surrounding land was purchased by
the Federal Government. The Factory was put
into operation, and the land cleared from bush
and replanted into sugar cane.

In 1946, La Grange sugar mill closed its doors
and Bethlehem remained the only factory in


operation. Many natives were employed in the
factory, fields and offices, and many advanced
to hold top positions with good salaries. An
apprenticeship program helped many a young
man to get started in life. Hundreds of small land
owners were given assistance in land preparation,
seeds, fertilizers, etc. This was one operation that
could truly be called Cruzian, for the source of its
products was the soil of St. Croix, one of the
island's few natural resources. However, due to
politics, droughts and high cost of operation the
government decided to sell.

In 1966, the last sugar cane crop was har-
vested. I delivered the last bundle of cane. It was
covered with flowers. Was it flowers of grief or
joy? The sugar industry had mothered both. Sugar
that had been the major industry for over 300
years had met its final death.


References:

My thanks to Miss Eva Lawaetz for her assistance in research of Cane Agriculture in St. Croix.


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DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
ESTATE LOWER LOVE


Legend:
1. Administration Bldg.
2. Marketing
3. Warehouse
4. Veterinarian
5. Garage & Shops


Forestry Bldg.
Piggery
Tire Shop
Silo
Crop Trials
21. Banana


11. Crop Trials
12. "
13. Mango Orchard
14. Goat Corral
15. Banana Orchard
Orchard 22 Citrus trees


16. Crop Trials
17.
18.
19. Farm Pond
20. & Gut


23 Nursery and plant sale area








MINISTRY OF NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND AGRICULTURE


Cable Address "MINFLAM"
Phone: Minister 61705
Ret No


1


MESSAGE FROM THE DEPUTY PRIME
MINISTER AND MINISTER OF
NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND
AGRICULTURE, GUYANA.


Developing countries such as ours of this
region are recognizing increasingly that Agricul-
ture is the most important vehicle for the attain-
ment of economic selfsufficiency and indepen-
dence. The aspirations of our peoples for addl-
tional employment and for a more satisfying way
of life are largely attainable through better use
of the resources of land. Exhibitions such as the
Third Agriculture and Food Fair create an aware-
ness of our efforts, our achievements and our
potential. My hope is that such awareness would
inspire our peoples particularly our young
people to embrace the challenge and promise
of these times through greater participation in
Agrulture and Its associated activities

It is a special pleasure for Guyana to be as-
soclated with the Third Agriculture and Food Fair. p.
We warmly congratulate the Govermnent and Deputy I
people of the U. S. Virgin Islands and wish this Minter
Event a Ifu measmw of smuaca Id Asi


P.O. Box 1001.

Georgetown.

Guyana.
South America.

3th January, 1973.


~bum Mhbtwa mud
of National DkwIpm
Odham Guyania

















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