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THE MOST COMPLETE LINE OF
S EQUIPMENT SERVICES, INC.
S .. ,e SALES AGENCY, INC.
Telephone 782-1991 G.P.O. BOX CD San Juan, P. R. 00936
Agricultural & Food Fair
Dir. Arts & Dsn.
Dir. Youth Participation
t- P n 1 ia
S. ROGERS, L. LaFRANQUE, A.JACKSON,
MESSAGE FROM THE GOVERNOR
Melvin H. Evans, M.D.
Congratulations to the Department of Agriculture and to its constituency those who love and live
by the land on the beautiful island of St. Croix for presenting this Second Annual Food Fair.
I have been impressed and all Virgin Islanders should be informed and proud of the expansion in
Department of Agriculture programs over the last year. The trend is as much a tribute to the efforts of
personnel in the Department of Agriculture as it is to a growing confidence of the people who use their
service that we can "make it work" when we work together.
Further, I attribute this year's record achievement to a renewed appreciation of the good life and of
the riches with which we are endowed here in our area of the Caribbean. A growing sophistication in
application of modern technology coupled with the endeavors of the Department to disseminate and
interpret information enables all who live by the land to reap more fully the benefits of their labor.
It is my hope that this year's Food Fair will provide additional stimulus for an even more successful
year in 1972.
MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT
To preserve rural life on St. Croix should be one
of the great objectives of this decade. Our people
want to live on rural St. Croix. Our records show this.
Thev want to live in areas where they can live the good
life; they want to grow tresh vegetables, raise goats,
sheep, and pigs, they want to produce eggs and
broilers, and breathe the good, clean, country air. It is
our duty to make this possible.
St. Croix is a potentially rich island. This is so;
because of our flat, fertile fields, the natural growth
of feed and vegetation on these fields, the water in
the streams and ponds that have now been there for
years, the hills that send the potentially loaded water
into these fields and ponds, and most of all, our most
desirable climate. These natural resources and balance
should certainly make the land that supports them a
We must preserve what we now have, and
RUDOLPH SHULTERBRANDT continue in our quest to use and develop these idle
Commissioner of Agriculture
Pres. Agriculture & Food Fair of St. Croix resources. We must direct their usage into food
production. This is the most desirable need, and most
We must continue to increase our rural numbers. As our effective numbers diminish, our power to
attract and influence decisions become weaker and weaker. We want to retain our status of being
considered for a share in our government.
At our Fairs we hope to continue to bring our people together to stimulate, recognize, recreate, and
give due credit for their achievements in their constructive contribution to our islands welfare, economy,
and the retention of those things near and dear to our Virgin Islands.
LETS GET INVOLVED !
IT IS NOT TOO LATE TO RECOGNIZE OUR POTENTIAL !
SAVE RURAL ST. CROIX ! !
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY
WASHINGTON. D. C. 20250
January 13, 1972
Honorable Rudolph Shulterbrandt
Department of Agriculture
Christiansted, St. Croix,
U. S. Virgin Islands 00820
Dear Mr. Shulterbrandt:
It is a real privilege for me to represent the United States Department of
Agriculture at your 2nd Annual Agriculture and Food Fair. Your theme
"Let's Get Involved" is certainly timely as it expresses the need for
close working relations between farmers, educators and businessmen to take
full advantage of agricultural opportunities that exist in the Virgin
We in the U.S.D.A. are pleased to have cooperative programs with your
Department on programs involving consumer protection, marketing services
and animal health. These are vital activities that are performed in a
quiet, unobtrusive manner and are sometimes referred to as silent services.
We are pleased that by working together we have hopefully eradicated the
bont tick from the Islands, and that in the past year we have joined forces
in an attempt to eradicate screwworm and the cattle fever tick which have
caused a heavy economic loss to your cattlemen.
Also, in the past year matching funds for marketing purposes have been
made available for the first time and a start has been made on a project
to coordinate marketing of your locally produced fruits and vegetables.
Also, effective July 1, 1972 a State trust fund agreement will become
effective which will involve your Department in the shell egg surveillance
program required by the National Egg Products Inspection Act. We in USDA
are proud to have your Department as a partner in these important
We extend every wish for a successful and enjoyable Fair.
EDWARD H. HANSEN
Deputy Assistant to the Secretary
< INCREASE YOUR CATTLE VOCABULARY
DEFINITIONS OF CATTLE TERMS
A female under three years old, and usually one that has not produced offspring.
Unsexed male, castrated when a calf. The best age to castrate calves is six to eight weeks old, although
they may be castrated from a week to six months old. The longer castration is delayed the greater is
the risk of loss from the operation and the greater the liability of coarseness developing in head, neck,
Unsexed male, castrated when mature or so far advanced toward maturity that masculinity is plainly
evident in head, neck and forequarters. Well-developed masculine character constitutes coarseness in a
Unsexed heifer. Spaying is performed by making an incision in front of the left hip and removing the
ovaries. The scar left after the operation is about the only sure method of identifying such heifers.
An imperfectly-sexed heifer born twin with a bull. They are infertile. All heifers born twin with bulls
are not free-martins.
Naturally hornless. The Aberdeen-Augus, Galloway, and Red Polled breeds are polled and produce
polled offspring. The Polled Shorthorn and Polled Hereford breeds are polled and usually produce
polled offspring. The term "mulley" is sometimes applied to polled cattle, more especially to those not
representative of any particular breed.
Flat or rounded buttons of horns sometimes present on the heads of polled animals and usually
attached to the skin rather than to the skull.
Made hornless by the application of caustic potash which destroys the horn-forming tissue of the
young calf before the horns have appeared, or by clipping or sawing off the horns of older animals. The
former method, properly practiced, is simpler, easier, safer, and gives a neater appearance.
In business in St. Croix since 1934
Will Buy and Sell Land
Will Buy and Sell Beef Cattle
Post Office Box 68
Frederiksted, St. Croix
U. S. Virgin Islands 00840 Tel. 772-0412
Mr. Hans Lawaetz at right.
History of Senepol Cattle on St. Croix
The first breed of cattle to originate in the
Western Hemisphere was the Senepol cattle of St.
Croix, Virgin Islands. The name "Senepol" is a
hybrid term derived from "Senegal" and "Red
Poll," the dominant ancestral stock of this breed.
Earlier names used were "Nelthropp Cattle,"
"Cruzan Breed" or "St. Croix Cattle."
The Senegal cattle were brought into St. Croix
by Mr. George Elliott, of Estate Longford, in 1860
from Senegal, West Africa, hence the name,
"Senegal cattle." Actually these cattle were the
non-zebu N'Dama cattle of Africa which are
descendants of the short-horned, non-humped
Beachyceros stock which migrated to Egypt from
Asia about 1500 B.C. They were subsequently
displaced from the Nile valley by the lateral-horned
zebu. The N'Dama cattle then migrated along the
north coast of Africa to Morocco where it broke
into two migrant streams one going north
through Spain and France, while the other turned
southward along the Atlantic coast of Africa,
around the edge of the Sahara and settled in West
Africa. The N'Dama is a small, hardy, tan-colored,
heat-tolerant breed, usually with prominent horns.
In 1918 a revolutionary idea was started by
Mr. Bromley Nelthropp, of Estate Boetzberg, St.
Croix, who wanted to develop a heat-resistant
strain of cattle that would combine extreme
gentleness with good milk and meat production.
He had heard of a $2,000.00 Red Poll bull, called
"Captain Kidd," that had been shipped from
England to Trinidad in 1914 for the improvement
of the cattle industry there. This bull was now for
sale because most of his calves were polled
(without horns) and the cattle growers of Trinidad
wanted animals with large horns to be used for
work oxen. Mr. Nelthropp bought this bull in
1918, called him "Douglas," and started crossing
him with the Senegal cattle of St. Croix. This was a
decade before the King Ranch in Texas started
their development of the Santa Gertrudis herd, the
first breed to be registered as a purebred in the
Western Hemisphere in 1940.
Mr. Bromley Nelthropp kept "Douglas" for
eight years, after which two of "Douglas's" sons
replaced him as herd sires. In 1942, he bought
from Estate Tutu, St. Thomas, another pure Red
Poll bull called "Doctor" and two local-born pure
Red Poll cows. During the thirties Nelthropp
purchased several polled heifers from Mr. Carl
Lawaetz of Little La Grange. Mr. Lawaetz had one
of Nelthropp's bulls that he was crossing with
Senegal cows. Nelthropp also purchased from other
farmers polled heifers and calves from bulls that
had been previously purchased from him. He had
three qualifications for the home herd: animals
must have Red Poll color, conformation and quick
maturity; no sign of horns; and gentle, pet-like
Proud of his developed strain, Bromley
Nelthropp tried personally to see that the butchers
actually did slaughter his culled stock. But now
and then, when he was not present, some of the
better culls were bottlegged to other cattlemen.
There even were instances when Boetzberg pasture
fences were opened at night and neighbors' cows
and heifers secretly introduced to Nelthropp bulls.
This was in the later years when the merits of the
strain became appreciated. At the start of his
breeding program, Bromley Nelthropp took con-
siderable kidding, and suffered a competitive
disadvantage, because horned work oxen brought
the best prices, both locally and in Puerto Rico -
the big market. With the mechanization of the
sugar cane industry however, and an increased
demand for beef, the Nelthropp cattle began to
come into favor.
Mr. Bromley Nelthropp, who died in 1950 in
his 78th year, lived to see his experiment judged
successful. On March 10, 1949, Annaly Farms,
owned by Mr. Ward M. Canady and operated by
Mr. Frits E. Lawaetz, purchased the entire herd of
132 head from Mr. Nelthropp.
Annaly Farms continued to improve the herd
until it was registered, in Puerto Rico and the
United States, as a purebred in 1954 and was
called, "St. Croix Senepol."
The Senepol is a dominantly polled breed of
cattle of medium size, bright solid red in color with
some variation in shade. It is well adapted to the
tropical environment of the Caribbean areas. The
cows are good milk producers, sure breeders and
have a very gentle disposition. Mature bulls in
pasture will average 1600-1800 pounds and cows in
a good herd will average 1100 pounds. Bull calves,
weaned at eight months of age, will average 500
pounds. Under good management on pangola grass
pasture with a supplementary feed of 14-20 per
cent protein, the bulls will weigh 800-850 pounds
at twelve to fourteen months of age.
Senepol cattle have been sold to many of the
other Caribbean islands. An indication of the
economic importance of this breed to the
Caribbean may be deduced from the fact that the
island of Tortola issued a postage stamp with the
picture of a Senepol bull, brought from St. Croix,
imprinted upon it.
Millar, Bruce, "St. Croix Cattle," 1953
Lawaetz, Fritz, "History of Senepol Cattle on St.
French, Dr. Marcus, excerpt from a letter, 1958
Some Native Fruits Grown in Islands
Photo by Elliott Soffes
DO YOU KNOW THE HUNGER SIGNS IN PLANTS?
Here Are Some Of Them:
PLANT NUTRIENT DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS
Small leaves turn light yellow or green; lower leaves lighter color than top; weak plant.
Plants have dark green leaves; sometimes lower leaves become purplish in color; lower leaves may
become yellow between veins.
Yellow spots develop between veins on lower leaves; yellowing or even dying of leaf margins on lower
or old leaves.
Tips of young leaves curl and die.
Leaf margins on lower leaves curl; lower leaves have yellow spots with green veins.
Plants have light green leaves; leaf veins are lighter in color than surrounding area; upper leaves are
lighter in color than bottom leaves.
New upper leaves turn yellow; edges and tips of leaves may die.
New upper leaves have yellow or dead spots; veins remain green.
Young leaves wilt permanently and wither, but show little if any yellowing.
New tip growth dies; plant becomes brittle.
Older or lower leaves yellow, develop dead spots and holes; plant growth is stunned.
BLUE MOUNTAIN NURSERY
WILL NOT BE UNDERSOLD
Retail Sales Budget Landscaping
Located at Mon Bijou Road
1/4 mile north of Project
ST. CROIX CYCLE SALES AND SERVICE
P. O. Box691, Christiansted, St. Croix MID-ISLAND PLAZA (809) 773-2514
"For Helping Our Good Earth Produce For Us All"
WHOLESALERS AND RETAILERS FOR:
Roof Highwheel Movers
Atlas Lawn Mowers
Briggs and Stratton Engines
Chapin Sprayers and Dusters
True Temper Garden Tools
Black & Decker Garden Tools
Ortho Insecticides; fungicides, pesticides, herbicides
Black Velvet Soils
Ferry Morse Flower and Vegetable Seeds
Peat Pots, Fibre Pots, Plastic Pots, Jiffy -7s
Radio Steel Wheelbarrows & Sod Carriers
DAVID BROWN FARM TRACTORS
BILLION FARM MACHINERY
ARGO EXPORT CORP. (New and used heavy equipment,
tractor parts and accessories)
FOR YOUR KITCHEN GARDEN, FRUIT ORCHARD,
GOLF LAWNS AND COMMERCIAL GROWING.
WE STOCK IT, IF YOU NEED IT!!!!
HELPING THE ISLAND IS HELPING YOURSELF.
WAYNE ARCHER, Store Manager
PAT BERMINGHAM, Service Manager
DIVISION OF CONSUMER SERVICES
Detect Food Spoilage Early "
Check for stickiness under the wings, at the point
where the legs and body join, and on the upper
surface of the tail; and any darkening of the wing
Dressed poultry should be washed thoroughly
before cooking. Be sure to wash your hands after
Fish are usually spoiled if:
There is an off-odor.
Gills are gray or green.
Eyes are sunken.
Flesh is easily pulled away from the bones.
Mark of fingernail indentation remains in the flesh.
Fish is not rigid.
Shrimp may be spoiled if:
A pink color appears on upper fins and near tail.
There is an off-odor similar to ammonia.
SSome types of shrimp are naturally pink, and
cooked shrimp are also pink. Both are wholesome
if the odor is not abnormal.
MEATS Meat of all kinds is usually spoiled if:
It is slimy to touch.
There is an off-odor.
Beef usually spoils first on the surfaces.
Pork spoils first at meeting point of bone, flesh,
and in the inner portions.
To test for spoiled pork, use a pointed knife to
reach the interior of the meat. An off-odor on the
knife means spoilage.
Spoiled fluid products will be identified by a sour
Smell or taste. This is not necessarily harmful, but
is not desirable. Further, evidence of separation of
the solids and whey or a watery fluid is an
indicator of an old product.
Cheese and cheese products may show some mold
growth with excessive age. This mold is not
harmful, and with proper trimming, the remaining
product is safe for consumption.
Check for spoilage if:
Cans are swelled at top and bottom.
Dents appear along the side seam of cans.
mf There is an off-odor.
S E Foam appears when can is opened.
E Juice is milky.
T These apply to canned vegetables, meats, fish, and
poultry. Home-canned foods should be cooked
properly and thoroughly before canning and
A white or grayish powder sometimes is found
around stems of fruit, and on the stems and leaves
of cabbage, cauliflower, celery, and lettuce. This
powder indicates spray residues of the chemicals
used by growers and is not usually dangerous;
however, some may be. All fruits and vegetables
must be washed before being eaten or cooked.
Cooking will not destroy the spray chemicals.
F o Frozen foods will spoil if kept out of the
refrigerator for any great length of time. Spoilage is
Caused by the growth of bacteria on the food.
To destroy an infection that may be present, cook
frozen vegetables thoroughly before serving.
SALADS It is often impossible to detect spoilage in salads
until foods are totally spoiled. It is imperative that
chicken salad, tuna and other fish salads, non-acid
potato salad, all types of custard-filled pastries, and
cold meat cuts are kept refrigerated at all times;
and they should be served immediately after taking
them from the refrigerator. All have been touched
with hands during their preparation, and may be
considered to be slightly infected. Refrigeration
will keep infection from increasing.
- ST. CROIX
Box 1576, Frederiksted .... Tel. 772 0669
Breeders Of Purebred Senepol Cattle "
Bulls for sale
Piirphrpri HPifPr< fnr cSalp
EAT FRESH ISLAND BEEF "
" EAT FRESH ISLAND BEEF "
--CcCr ~' 9,
VIRGIN ISLANDS DAIRYMEN'S ASSOCIATION
WHERE THE GOOD
* BETTY'S HOPE FARM ......... WALTER HODGE
* CANE GARDEN FARM ......... MARIO GASPERI
* CORN HILL FARM ............ HENRY NELTHROPP
* LAREINE FARM ................ STACY LLOYD
* MON BIJOU FARM ............ OLIVER SKOV
* SIGHT FARM .................. CHARLES SCHUSTER
* SOLITUDE FARM .............. RICHARD ROEBUCK
~ ~~~~~1w -1w _llq - - -
" SWEET OR
P R Value
pH Scale for Soil Reaction
MOST OF OUR SOILS NEED LIME
Soil tests show that most of our soils are acid, and
require some liming for best production. Here's what
liming acid soil does; Helps loosen up heavy clay soils,
correct soil acidity, supplies calcium and magnesium,
speeds the decay of organic matter and the liberation of
nitrogen, and increases the efficiency of plant foods like
phosphorus that may be unavailable to plants. Rainfall and
removal of plant material from the soil tend to make the
surface soil more acid.
What is pH? pH is a term used to measure soil reaction
- what ever it is "sweet" or "sour." A pH of 7 in the
yardstick (left) means the soil is 1 neutral. It is a simple
matter to test your soil to see if it is acid or alkaline. There
are kits on the market for this purpose. A soil test alone is
not the only answer to your problem. Thereare two kinds
of useful tests; (1) Soil Acidity and (2) Major Elements.
Our Department of Agriculture is prepared to make most
of these tests.
The major elements are considered in terms of
materials used to promote plant growth by furnishing
essential elements known as fertilizers. The most
important chemical elements and their major function are:
NITROGEN: promotes the vegetative growth in plants.
That is, in crops where the above ground growth is
important. In a crop where the underground portion
comprises the crop, i.e. sweetpotato, yam, carrots, beets,
nitrogen would not be the ideal fertilizer to apply.
PHOSPHORUS: or phosphatic fertilizers are materials
valued primarily for the phosphorus content. Phosphorus
is an essential constituent of all plants and animals, and
is particularly important in growing tissue and seeds. In
crops it functions best in stimulating root growth.
POTASSIUM (K) is essential to plant growth, and one of
its functions is associated with the synthesis of sugar and
starch in plants. This element also gives good coloring to
the crops. Some of the other elements necessary for
successful plant growth are the following: Calcium,
Magnesium, sulphur, Iron, Manganese, Boron, Copper, and
Zinc. Their importance is discussed elsewhere in this
Yardstick for Measuring Soil Acidity A p reading of
7 is neutral, that is, neither acid or alkaline. The
smaller the number the stronger the acidity.
YOU CAN'T GO WRONG
" THE LARGEST BASIC MATERIAL SUPPLIER
IN THE VIRGIN ISLANDS "
Masonry Products, Inc.
-- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
-- -- -- --
Homesteading In St. Croix
Darnley A. Petersen
Retired USDA St. Croix
Various types of homesteading were started in St.
Croix. The first program started in 1881 when the Danish
Government acquired five estates containing 670 U.S.
acres. One estate of 75 acres was never subdivided but
four were subdivided into forty plots averaging 14.87
acres. Plots were sold to farmers and craftmen for cash
or 20-year purchase contract with interest at the rate of
four percent. It is difficult to tell whether this started as
a move to increase interest in farming or was a method to
dispose of land acquired by the government. The
government made loans for operating expenses and hired
inspectors to check the progress made on different home-
The second homestead project started with the help
of the U.S. Government in 1932. Economic conditions
were very bad and the 1930 census showed 2,447 families
representing approximately 7,000 of St. Croix's 10,000
population to be engaged directly in agriculture, but only
91 owners on the 193 estates. Of the 193 there were only
77 of less than 10 acres and those averaged less than 5
acres. Land rented for $8 to $12 an acre with very poor
tenure agreement. The best plan for solving the existing
conditions was to help experienced farmers and eligible
laborers obtain land for producing food and cash crops
when they were unemployed. Four estates were bought
for this purpose Whim Estates, Princesse, St. John and
Colqohoun. Homesteads were allowed under a standard
contract requiring equal annual installments which would
amortize principal and interest in 20 years. The first
payment being due upon harvesting the first crop.
Contracts required that homesteaders relinquish if
developments were not satisfactory to the Homestead
Commission and in the event of eviction, payments were
to be held as rent. One of the original problems
confronting this project was the failure to provide
continuous financing and supervision covering the 20-year
period in the contracts. Changes in policy, supervision and
methods of financing were often discouraging to
The third homesteading program was started by the
Municipality in 1934 with an estate bought at a tax sale.
These were administered similar to the federal homesteads
with the exception that no houses were constructed. The
Municipality added a second estate to its homesteading
program in October of 1942. The Municipal Homesteads
comprised 616 acres divided into 50 plots.
The fourth type of homesteading was started by the
Labor Union on the north side of the island in 1934,
when the government loaned money with the
understanding that estates belonging to the Labor Union
would be used for homesteading purposes. This project
received less supervision and financing than other projects.
However, the appeal of ownership caused applicants to
overlook the isolated area where the project was set up -
toddy this area has taken on a new look.
The various homesteading projects changed the tenure
pattern considerably since 1930.
The highest standard of living ever to be realized by
homesteaders was achieved when 11 homesteaders were
set up in 1954-55 through loans by the FHA to purchase
land from Vicorp. Standards within this group are
comparable to the best in the middle income group and
in some cases better. No better example of enlightened
democracy in action can be found than in an active rural
program through which the farmers and other people
living in rural areas are given the opportunity through
financial assistance, to be a working part of the
community in which they live.
The future of agriculture is not dark because the
agricultural lands that produced our fruits and row crops
are still intact lying fallow or being grazed. If the
present owners were interested in food production
(agriculture) the land is there except for land preparation.
Vegetable Storage Timetable
Isabelle O. Williams
Honey dew melon
3-4 wks. green
2-3 wks ripe
5-8 mo. treated
5-8 mo. treated
hard shell 6 mo.
ST. THOMAS-Andrew Bornn
ST. CROIX-Ludvig Jorgensen
DO YOU KNOW WHAT THE NUMBERS ON THE FERTILIZER BAG MEAN?
OR DO YOU KNOW WHAT'S IN THE BAG?
Many inquiries are made relating to
*_____ ._ "-_ _the two questions above. The answers are
very simple. Let us use the illustration on
our left. We find the numerals 6 12 6.
The three numerals represent the "big
AGRIC TU A I three" Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), and
Potassium (K), in the order of their
H EMICA appearance on the bag from left to right.
C MICALS This is required by law to be on the label.
This analysis tells the buyer what he is
getting in terms of "N-P-K."
Now lets take the 6-12-6 grade and
see what it means. Such an analysis
contains 6% Nitrogen, 12% Phosphrous,
G RANULAR and 6% Potash, or 24 pounds of the three
primary nutrients in a 100 pound bag of
fertilizer. The question that will now
bother you is: "What constitutes the
other 76 pounds of fertilizer you
The 76 pounds remaining is inert
material known as "filler." It is necessary
for manufacturers to add filler to dry
fertilizers because pure forms of nitrogen,
phosphorous, and potassium cannot be
used as plant food. Nitrogen is a gas, and
S|phosphorus and potassium are two of the
most active chemicals known, and
wouldn't be safe to use in pure form.
Fertilizers therefore must contain their
"'" nutrients in diluted forms that are safe to
-plants and man, economical and easily
assimilated by plants.
19 and 20 Prince Street
Telephone: 772 0310
DISTRIBUTOR OF QUALITY FEEDS
PIGS AND CHICKENS
Cover Senepol Cattle grazing at Estate Williams (Photo by Milton Greene)
TIRES, AUTO PARTS, ACCESSORIES, INC.
DELGADO'S ELECTRICAL SUPPLY
P.O. Box 472
JOIN THE OTHER SUCCESSFUL MERCHANTS IN THE...
F/ In The Hesar Of St. Croix
Continued Growth of St. Croix
Assures Sunny Isle Merchants a
Constantly Expanding Market
St. Croix has been experiencing the most specta-
cular growth in the Caribbean over the past several
years. There is every indication that the pattern will
To the Sunny Isle merchant, this means a growing
market . more people means more business. This is
especially true in view of Sunny Isle's acceptance
among present Island residents. Attracted by the wide
variety of goods and services, more and more shop-
pers are making Sunny Isle a buying habit and the
trend is on a steady upswing.
THE DOLLARS and CENTS of
A shopping center serves many functions. It otters
the customer one-stop shopping for all their needs,
plus ample parking and easy accessibility. For the
merchant it provides a steady flow of cus-
tomers . an active market for his goods.
These same factors are the basics that help deter-
mine the pricing of the units to tenants. A low rent
store in a location that attracts few people is an ex-
pensive store. On the other hand, a store in a high
customer traffic area may pay more for rent, but in
terms of sales volume, the expense is far less.
From every point of view...Sunny Isle is the
Woolworth Department Store
3&4 World Wide Fashions
5 Bata Shoes
6 Town & Country (Men's Wear)
7 Kinney Shoes
8 Lerner Stores
9 The Grotto (Night Club)
10 Martinez Arias
11- I Men's Clothes
13 Tropical Cleaners & Launderers
17 La Belle Femme Beauty Parlor
18 Lion's Den (Men's Fashions)
19 Big RL
21 Ice Cream Shoppe
23 Maternity Store
24 Musical Trading Store
26 Wometco Twin Theaters
28 thru 33 The Mini Mall
A,BC Europe Fashion Center
H Mario's Boutique
I -The Island Hub Restaurant
M 20th Century Tailors
O Caravan Imports
V Antilles Distributors
w Carmen's Lingerie
X Dr's Fashion Glasses
Y&Z Psychedelic Supermarket
AA, BB, CC Open
34- Terry's Infants &
35 Sunny Isle Interiors
36 Seaman Electronics
37&38 Bargain Fair
41 People's Drug Store
42- First National City Bank
43- Ole's Snack Bar
44- Carmen's Paper Stand
45 Junior's Jewelry &
Supermarket i //Z7
SEPARATE UNIT -
Kentucky Fried Chicken
New Cross-Island Highway to pass near SUNNY ISLE.
Proposed 3rd Port & Industrial Complex nearby.
ESPERANZA DEVELOPMENT CO., P.O. BOX 4070
CHRISTIANSTED, ST. CROIX 773-4830
SUNNY ISLE SHOPPING CENTER TENANTS
Here's the list of the nation's leading retailers
and St. Croix's most astute merchants!
PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Soil Conservation Service
We live in a complicated world. Large changes
take place in the Virgin Islands from year to year.
Some have a bad effect on the natural environ-
Our population has more than doubled in the
past ten years to more than 80,000 people.
Changes accompanying this population growth
have been the development of large industry and
the construction of shopping centers, schools,
condominiums and hotels.
Environmental damages and various forms of
pollution have been the result of some of this land
development activity. Sediment damages and
pollution of water has occurred. Visual pollution
from destroyed natural beauty is another of the
forms of pollution that has occurred here.
Sources and kinds of pollution are already well
known. Steps are being taken at many levels of
government and private industry to control
pollution. People in the Virgin Islands agree that
their natural environment must be protected.
In 1971, many Virgin Islanders worked hard
to develop environmental protection legislation.
Developers, realtors, planners, contractors, engi-
neers, architects, governmental representatives and
environmental scientists participated in the formu-
lation of the Environmental Protection Law and its
The Virgin Islands Soil and Water Conserva-
tion District, the Virgin Islands Department of
Conservation and Cultural Affairs and the Virgin
Islands Department of Public Works will cooperate
in putting the law to work.
The Environmental Protection law requires
preparation of an Earth Change Plan by all land
developers. This applies to governmental land
development as well as private development.
The Earth Change Plan will show how the land
developer intends to protect the natural environ-
ment. Land grading will be shown and regulated
within specific guidelines. Soil erosion and
sediment will be controlled on the construction
site. Storm drainage will be more carefully planned
and applied. Natural beauty will be quickly
restored to the construction site. Shade tree
planting will be encouraged. Water conservation
will be included where possible.
The Virgin Islands Soil and Water Conserva-
tion District and the Department of Conservation
and Cultural Affairs will review and approve Earth
Change Plans. The Virgin Islands Department of
Public Works will enforce the Plan.
This program is just one step in many that will
help make the Virgin Islands a better place to live.
Better future protection of the environment will prevent damages that cannot be corrected.
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Medicinal Value of Some Plants
of the Virgin Islands
Horatio A. Million
Assistant Commissioner, St. Thomas
From time immemorial, people have relied upon
plants to cure their suffering. As we know it, among
primitive people witch doctors have and still are
practicing the art of plant Medicine. The records available
to us indicate that the major drug companies and most of
the Governments of various countries have large numbers
of plant Scientists, Chemists, etc. combing the world's
jungles for plants of Medicinal value which are either
processed for shipment back to civilization or packed and
shipped back to their home lands for possible
Several Universities, Research centers, Agriculture
Experimental Stations, etc. have recorded the analytical
work done on hundreds of different plant types and the
curative effect they have on the human body.
Mexico is one of the countries which has done
massive research in this field. A rather complete record of
their achievements is available in the book entitled
"Medicinal Plants of Mexico." Argentina has produced
"Thirteen Hundred Medicinal Plants." The University of
Puerto Rico recently published "Medicinal Plants of
Puerto Rico." The list goes on and on and dates back to
hundreds of years Spain, Italy, France, Germany, etc.
Below are listed a few of the more commonly
recognized plants of the Virgin Islands which, in addition
to their nutritional value as food plants, also possess
Medicinal properties which are probably not gerierally
known. The listing is mostly restricted to our common
fruits with the hope that greater interest will be
stimulated in their more general propagation and care. To
achieve maximum effectiveness in crop production,
background information about soil fertility, crop
management and control of diseases and pest about each
crop is very important. It is not the intention of the
author to discuss the exhaustive information on the
acreage and production technology in respect of various
native fruits and vegetable crops and therefore persons
interested in the economies of production of a particular
crop are advised to consult the Virgin Islands Department
of Agriculture. In the present article the discussion is
intentionally limited to medicinal value only.
Aloe Burns sores of a carcerous nature.
Avocado Heated Leaves cure headache, oil from the
ripe fruit beautify and strengthen the hair.
Banana The juice of the roasted banana sucker cures
Calabash Leaves freshly crushed applied to wounds
stop bleeding, close wounds and cause rapid healing.
Juice from the fruit mixed with sugar cures chronic
bronchitis, bloody diarrhea and hemorrhoids.
Cashew Cooked bark used to cure diarrhea and
Coconut Juice is diuretic, softens the skin and retards
or prevents wrinkles and cures colds. The milk
alleviates asthmatic attacks and bloody diarrhea.
Custard Apple Leaves, green fruit and flower cooked,
used as tea in curing stomach disorders.
Guava The cooked leaves are used in the contraction
of varicose veins.
Lemon-Lime (Same as Sour Orange)
Mango Cooked leaves cure diarrhea. A mixture of the
powdered bark and dried seed is also used to cure
Melpel Diuretic increase and facilitate urination.
Mountain Guava Cooked leaves used to cure diabetes
also in treating disease known as St. Vitis Dance.
Orange Used in curing epilepsy. Cooked (or as leaves
(5%) causes sweating and calms the nerves; is also
used in insomnia, convulsions and epilepsy.
Papaya Juice of the green papaya leaves or stem used
in tenderizing meats. Flowers are used in curing chest
Passion fruit Increases urine and cures bladder
Pineapple Used in the cure of liver diseases and internal
inflammation; is a cerebral tonic.
Pomegranate The rind (cooked, syrup) cures throat
Sea Grape The fruit is used to control disentary and
Sour Orange Oil from the skin is used in dissolving
cataracts in the eyes, also cures stomach ache and
Soursop Cures disentary, stomach pains and head colds.
Sugar Apple Same as Custard Apple and Soursop -
used for curing weak stomach and intestinal disorders
disenteries and chronic diarrhea.
Tamarind Cooked used to cure fever.
VIRGIN ISLANDS EXTENSION SERVICE
COLLEGEE OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS
FEDERAL EXTENSION SERVICE
OF THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT
OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATING
The Virgin Islands Extension
Morris R. Henderson
The present Virgin Islands Extension Service was
established in 1966 through cooperative agreement
entered into by and between the College of the Virgin
Islands and the Extension Service of the United States
Department of Agriculture.
The Virgin Islands Extension Service serves the
informal educational and organizational needs of the people
of the Virgin Islands in Agriculture, 4-H and Youth,
Home Economics, Community and Resources
Development and subjects related thereto. Particular
emphasis is placed on food production, consumer
competence, nutrition, health, 4-H and other youth
programs, and community development specifically in the
areas of beautification and conservation. It is the
responsibility of the Virgin Islands Extension Service,
functioning as a part of the Land Grant College System
and as a division of the College of the Virgin Islands, to
carry out the Cooperative Extension Service Program in
the United States Virgin Islands: St. Croix, St. John, and
St. Thomas. The Virgin Islands Extension Service helps
identify and develop areas of economic opportunity. It
conducts educational programs to support the efforts of
agencies and groups working in such areas as increased
food production, nutrition, island beautification, youth
training and recreational programs. It maintains
communication with other agencies, both Federal and
Insular, and helps develop cooperative, integrated,
interagency problem-solving programs.
The Virgin Islands Extension Service brings the
resources of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the
whole Land Grant College System to bear on the needs
and identified problems of the islands.
The Virgin Islands Extension Service also serves by
helping to develop programs which assist people to adjust
to and cope with the many changes that are occurring in
This will be carried out by conducting method and
result demonstrations; by recruiting and training local lay
leaders; by cooperating and coordinating its programs
with the various Federal and Insular Governmental
agencies, civic groups, and public organizations which
conduct programs having similar objectives. To implement
these objectives, one of the principal methods will be the
dissemination of information to the general public using
all the communications media such as radio, television,
publications, newspaper articles, circular letters, exhibits,
fairs, etc.. To promote the agricultural interests of the
Islands in such a manner that the farm income will be
increased and the farm and home will be improved. To
conduct workshops and discussion groups for audiences in
carrying out the program and to evaluate the results.
Keep informed on current information pertinent to the
work. Encourage individual development of the Extension
Staff and lay leaders through training, conferences and
counseling. Obtain assistance of Federal Extension staff
members, specialists from Puerto Rico and the U.S.
mainland and local leaders in assembling information
based on current research needed to help all people
understand the situation and problems within the islands.
Seek, in a coordinated effort, the cooperation of other
related agencies, organizations and groups; and offer
whatever assistance possible in promoting better living
conditions for the people of the islands.
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4 The Mango Native Fruit ,
EDGAR HALL Marketing Officer
Along the roadside, the hill tops, and all over the
Virgin Islands one sees the delicious fruit known in the
tropics as the Mango.
The origin of this delicious fruit goes back to India.
In India it has become a symbol of love, beauty, and
abundance. Poets, painters, and musicians have extolled it
through the centuries. On the table of the rich it is a
delicacy, and for the poor it is food.
Today the mango is an important fruit throughout
the tropics. Here in the Virgin Islands, mangoes are grown
everywhere. There are some plantings in orchards,
backyards, and along the road sides, as well as on farm
The mango tree is large and handsome. It has a
glossy-like structure with dark green leaves. The fruit has
an apple-like taste. In texture the flesh is firm and
smooth skinned. The fruit varies in shape and color. Some
are kidney-shaped and remain green even when ripe.
There are several ways of classifying mangoes. One of
them is based on the nature and use of the fruit, such as
juicy, table, intermediate, sour or pickle. Most of the
table varieties are superior with firm pulp and containing
The size of the mango fruit is a varietal characteristic
but it is also influenced by the climate and soil
conditions. They are classified by weight as small,
medium, large, and very large. The color of the skin and
flesh varies. It runs from greenish yellow to red. The
thickness of the skin may be thin, medium, thick or very
thick. The skin can be removed very easily by peeling
with hand or a knife. The texture of the skin varies. It is
smooth, fine grained and free from febres. The flavor also
Some fruits are tart, others astringent, bland and sub
acid. Sweetness is desirable nevertheless. The mango has
many uses. It is useful from the time the fruits are small
and green until they are fully ripe. It can be eaten as
fresh fruit or it can be cooked, frozen and dried.
The green fruits are used as pickles, preserves, and
chutneys. Mangoes are also used with milk to make a
source of drink known as MANGOHOL.
As a fresh fruit, ripe chilled mangoes can be peeled,
sliced and served as a salad or as a desert. Mango blends
with ice cream, and there are many ways in serving it in
this manner. The most popular way is as an ice cream
sundae. The slices can also be mixed with other fruits
such as oranges, grapefruits, and papayas and can make an
excellent cocktail. The unpeeled fruit can be cut
lengthwise and served on half skin and eaten with a
spoon. Mango fruits can be used in pies, tarts, short
cakes, or to make jelly and butter.
The commercial production of mangoes on the
Mainland United States is restricted to Florida. Most
American consumers are unfamiliar with the fruit due to
its small domestic production and irregular imports.
However, the United States Consumer can buy the
mango fruit and its products if eating quality and food
value of mangoes are made known to the public. In the
months of July and August when the mangoes availability
is at its peak in the Virgin Islands they are one of the
important and cheap sources of vitamin A. Mangoes are
also a good source of ascorbic acid. The percent sugars
varies from ten to eighteen depending upon the variety.
Fresh fruits of good quality can find ready market
for domestic use as well as for export to the mainland
United States. Processing of mangoes to make jams,
jellies, pickles, juices, chutneys, asha, sauces, etc., offers
another excellent possibility. The products made from
mango and other native fruits like tamarind, soursop,
papaya, lime, and guava can be shipped to New York and
other areas where Caribbean Islanders are settled and
would like to pay a good price for a touch of home.
These products would not face any competition from
United States Mainland products.
The Most Modern Supermarkets
in the Virgin Islands!
Breeds Of Cattle
On St. Croix
Dairy Type Cattle
THE HOLSTEIN FRESIAN BREED. This breed was developed
in the fresian province of Holland. This breed is a 2000-year process
of improvement in horned black and white, and big mature cows
weighing 1200 to 2400 pounds. Originally, a triple-purpose breed
(milk, meat, work), its milk producing propensities soon marked as
an outstanding dairy cattle. This breed has an annual production
average of 10 to 15 thousand pounds; some champion cows made
yearly records of 40 thousand pounds of milk and 1200 pounds of
butterfat. This is a triumph of scientific husbandry. The butterfat
The tifu aim a is i content of the milk of Holstein is not high, about 3.4 percent. It is
The beautiful animal above is at Gasperi's
en a estimated that approximately 70 percent of the milk consumed in the
Virgin Islands is from Holstein cows.
THE BROWN SWISS: This breed emerged in Switzerland
between the Alps and the Jura mountains where there is a lovely
lush-green rolling country ideal for cattle raising. The Brown Swiss
breed is a large-framed horned type animal in colors of brown or
gray. The shades range from light to dark. New born calves are pure
white. The weight of fully grown cows varies from 1500 to 2300
.pounds. While considered a meat and milk breed at home, it is
primarily a dairy type with an annual milk production of 10 to 12
thousand pounds; the record stands at 29,569 pounds. The butterfat
L content amounts to an average of 4 percent. The ingenious Swiss
transform part of their excellent milk into such high value specialties
as Swiss cheese and Swiss milk chocolate. First imported into the
United States in 1869, the pure-bred Brown Swiss is found in many
This Brown Swiss above is also the property of
THE BRAHMAN (Zebu). This breed is believed to have
S- originated in India. They are anatomically different in that they have
the hump over the shoulders, large, loose pendulous dewlap, folds of
skin along the underline, a slender whiplike tail, and large pendant
ears. In color they vary from a cream to chocolate brown to black,
and the hoofs are black. The bulls roar rather than bellow, and the
call of the cow is somewhat like a grunt. This breed is thoroughly
adjusted to hot weather, sparse pastures, and the rigors of tropical
Cattle with Brahman blood may be tound on
the farms of Gateworth James, Felix Pittersen
and Beatrice Santos.
This animal is at the Lloyd's Farm.
THE JERSEY BREED. This breed probably originated in
France, but was actually developed in the Channel islands. Most of
the Jersey breed is Fawn Color, but may tend toward brown or gray.
Lighter shades prevail around the eyes, along spine and elsewhere.
Jersey calves and heifers have narrow, graceful heads with expressive
eyes in a fawn-colored face; this will remind you of a deer's head.
Jerseys are not a large breed, with cows weighing 800-1000 Ibs. and
bulls 1200-2000 Ibs. Average annual milk production ranges from 6
to 10 thousand pounds, but records of 18 thousand pounds have
been achieved. The butterfat content is the highest of all breeds,
averaging five percent.
Deer living in captivity at C. Schuster's Farm.
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OUR TICK ERADICATION PROGRAM
Dr. J. L. Wilbur, Jr. (above), Regional Director
(Southeast) of the Animal and Plant Health Service, USDA,
calls on all St. Croix livestock owners to support the Cattle
Fever Tick Eradication Program now in progress. "Success
of the program is vital to the Island's economy," he
A dipping vat and holding pens constructed for cattle. Other vats, smaller in size, have been constructed for sheep and
goats. Vats are covered to prevent rainwater from diluting dipping solution.
MEAT AND POULTRY INSPECTION
By George Murray, D.V.M.
Inspector, U.S. Department of Agriculture
From 1906 until 1967 Federal Meat Inspection
applied only to meat and meat products ship-
ped in interstate or foreign (export) trade.
However, the Wholesome 'eat Act of 1967 and
the poultry Products Inspection Act of 1968
virtually extended Federal Inspection to all
commercial meat and poultry production in all
states, territories, and possessions of the
United States. The program is administered
by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and its
purpose is to assure that all meat and poultry
marketed in the United States and its posses-
ions, is wholesome, handled in a sanitary man-
ner, and properly packaged and labeled.
Federal inspectors examine animals and noultry
before and after slaughter to make sure that
only healthy animals and birds and wholesome
carcasses are used for human food. Inspectors
also supervise the processing and handling
of red meat and poultry meat into whole-
sale or retail cuts, hamburger, sausage,
canned products, and all the many frozen
meat and poultry products available in our
markets. In addition, every shipment of
imported (foreign) meat and poultry en-
tering the United States and its terri-
tories is sampled and thoroughly inspected.
If any part of this product does not mea-
sure up to U.S. Standards, the entire ship-
ment is rejected and not allowed in the
There is an exemption from inspec-
tion for farmers who slaughter their own
animals and birds for their own use and
the use of their own nonpaying guests.
There is also an exemption for retailers
who cut and process meat and poultry for
sale in retail quantities to household
consumers. The meat and poultry handled
by these retailers must, however, have
been inspected and obtained from plants
operating under federal inspection.
Here in the Virgin Islands, we
now have thr'e plants under federal inspec-
tion. Two of these are the government
operated Abattoirs (slaughtering plants)
in St. Croix and St. Thomas and the third
is a commercial meat processing plant in
St. Thomas. Also, all neat and Poultry
brought into the Islands, either domestic
or imported, is federally inspected before
reaching the marketing outlets. Consumers,
therefore, now have full assurance that the
meat and poultry products they buy are
safe and wholesome, adequately protected
against contamination and truthfully labeled.
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DAMS OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS
In an average year 61,425,000,000 gallons of rain water fell on St. Croix. Controlling and conserving of
this water is the primary function of the Soil and Water Conservation Program. If left uncontrolled this
water can be destructive by causing flooding, soil erosion and mud and silt pollution both on land and along
our beaches; water shortage can also result if too much of this water is allowed to run into the sea in the
form of surface runoff.
The construction of earthen dams at strategic locations has been found to be one of the most effective
means of achieving the goals of the program. Applications for such dams are processed through the Soil and
Water Conservation District where the merits of the sites are evaluated and priorities established. The U. S.
Soil Conservation Service designs the dams and makes inspections during construction to insure that the
dam meets federal specifications. The Soil and Water Conservation Program of the Virgin Islands
Department of Agriculture does the actual construction of the dams. This is a fine example of a civilian
Board, the United States Government and the Virgin Islands Government working harmoniously together
towards a common goal.
The dams fall into two major categories, each one serving a different but equally useful function. The
one type of dam may be thought of as a "wet" dam, the second type as a "dry" dam.
The wet dam occurs where there is considerable clay at the dam site. In this case the dam is sealed by
the clay and the water collected is stored above the ground. When sufficient water remains in such a dam
throughout the year, the Wildlife Biologist of the Department is advised and the dam is stocked with
various type of fish for mosquito control, aquatic weed control, sport fishing and feed for ducks and
various types of water birds, many of which are migratory and have come to rely on these dams for rest and
feed stops. In St. Croix alone there are over 200 dams with a total storage capacity of over 400 million
gallons. The Department of Agriculture is proud of these "Dams of the Virgin Islands."
David Ne//is, Wildlife Biologist, and Bent Lawaetz, Director of Soil and Water Conservation stocking large mouth bass brought
from Puerto Rico in dam at the Virgin Islands Department of Agriculture, Estate Lower Love, St. Croix. (April, 1970)
MANY THANKS TO
THE DEPARTMENT OF
ST. CROIX, VIRGIN ISLANDS
Jean D. Larsen
During the past two years the St. Croix
Environmental Laboratory, a division of the Caribbean
Research Institute, COVI, has undertaken a study of how
sunlight is reflected from vegetation and terrain features
such as soils, sand, and sea water. Dark soils, for example,
reflect 7-10 percent of the incident sunlight while light
sand dunes, at Sandy Point, reflect 60 percent. At low
sun elevations, several hours after sunrise or before sunset,
the surface of the sea reflects specularly, that is,
mirror-like, all of the sunlight incident on it. This is the
"glitter band" that is observed very frequently in our
Several interesting observations have been made
which may have an impact on the future of agriculture in
St. Croix in particular and islands in general.
Islands by definition and in fact have close to ideal
ratios of surface area to coastline length the ideal being
A =()'C or the ratio of the surface area of a circle to its
circumference. Stated in a different way the coastline or
coastal zones of an island'are accessible to the inhabitants
of an island and must play a significant role in their lives.
It has long been known that the coastal zones teem
with all kinds of life forms in tightly knit
interdependence: fish spawning, birds nesting, animals
foraging. At the coastal zones all the life-sustaining
nutrients and media are present.
The driving force of all life from the tiniest
phyto-plankton, to man, to the real behemoths is
energy which first comes to earth in the form of solar
Sunlight is especially abundant in the coastal zones
due to the reflectivity of the sea. In addition to isolation
coming directly from the sun and sky, the sea, at
low sun angles, acts as a large-area collector of solar
radiation which is then available for fixation through
photosynthesis. The energy fixed by-plants is slowly
moved up the food chain. In effect the coastal zone
forms a highly efficient energy input corridor for the
The implications here are manifold. To destroy these
thin life lines as has been done at Krause Lagoon is
utmost folly. In fact Krause Lagoon has been replaced by
two industrial complexes, Hess Oil and Harvey Alumina,
which are prime nuclear targets and make everyone here
members of the Ground Zero Club.
Other areas in the coastal zone, such as Salt River,
Great Pont, Altona Lagoon, and West End Salt Pont, are
being viewed by developers as sites for marinas and sand
storage. If this occurs, the most vital link in the
ecosystem of which we are a part is weakened further.
Thinking with regard to land use along the coastline
must change. The South Shore of the island receives an
extra budget of solar radiation from sea glitter and cloud
reflection. This also holds true for the north shore during
the summer months. If most of the coastline is lost to
marinas and industrial developments and their attendant
pollutants, the potential this area has for agriculture and
aquaculture will be irrevocably lost.
Researchers have found that much of the insolation
never reaches plants because it passes between leaves,
impinges on the ground and is not available for photo-
Experiments have shown that the highly reflective
materials, i.e., white plastic sheets, sand, or water
surfaces, can be used to reflect much of this light back up
to the leaves where it is then fixed through
photosynthesis. Plant growth rates and productivity have
been increased appreciably in this manner.
The use of reflective materials as ground cover
beneath plants increases the yield per acre for a given
amount of insolation. With limited amounts of land
available for agriculture and pressures building up for
competing land uses this technique of agriculture with
light enhancement shows great promise.
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Earl Wilner, Wildlife Enthusiast, angleing for bass, and perch in Chimney
bush dam at Estate Bethlehem, has just caught a three pound
HOW TO MAKE ROTI
4 cups Flour
2 tps Baking powder
1 tps Salt
1/ cup Margarine
Filling Split peas, Salt, Garlic and Gera (the most important ingredient)
Mix flour, baking powder, salt and milk together,
let set for twenty minutes. Nead again for 6 7
minutes. Let stand. Go on to preparing the fil-
ling. After filling is ready make dough round and
flat, three (3) inches in diameter. Set filling in
it, close it up and roll it as flat as possible with-
out breaking crust. Bake on a flat baking stone
until done. Serve with meat etc.