• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Executive summary
 Introduction
 Rationale of the gender information...
 Gender variable matrix
 Gender considerations in desig...
 Summary of guidelines for document...
 Incorporating gender considerations:...
 The country development strategy...
 Action plan
 Project identification documen...
 Project paper
 Appendices














Group Title: gender information framework
Title: The gender information framework
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00102141/00001
 Material Information
Title: The gender information framework gender considerations in design
Alternate Title: Gender considerations in design
Physical Description: 1 v. (various pagings) : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Caye, Virginia M
Rollins, Alfred
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Women in Development
Publisher: Office of Women in Development, United States Agency of International Development
Place of Publication: Washington, D.C.?
Washington, D.C.?
Publication Date: 1989?
 Subjects
Subject: Sexual division of labor   ( lcsh )
Sex role -- Economic aspects   ( lcsh )
Economic development -- Planning   ( lcsh )
Economic development projects -- Planning   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Summary: The Gender Information Framework is a set of tools, information, and guidelines developed to assist A.I.D. to incorporate gender considerations more fully into program and project design, adaptation, evaluation and review.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: presented to The Office of Women in Development, United States Agency of International Development by Virginia M. Caye, Alfred Rollins.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00102141
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 51875786

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    Executive summary
        Page vii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Rationale of the gender information framework
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Gender variable matrix
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 9a
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Gender considerations in design
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Summary of guidelines for document review
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Incorporating gender considerations: An overview
        Page 25
    The country development strategy statement
        Page 26
        Page 26a
        Page 26b
        Page 26c
        Page 26d
        Page 26e
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Action plan
        Page 34
        Page 34a
        Page 34b
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Project identification document
        Page 39
        Page 39a
        Page 39b
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Project paper
        Page 44
        Page 44a
        Page 44b
        Page 44c
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Appendices
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
Full Text


MERGF
447





















THE GENDER INFORMATION FRAMEWORK: GENDER CONSIDERATIONS IN DESIGN
























Presented to:
The Office of Women in Development
United States Agency of International Development


by:
Virginia M. Caye
Alfred Rollins



















THE GENDER INFORMATION FRAMEWORK: GENDER CONSIDERATIONS IN DESIGN


Presented to:
The Office of Women in Development
United States Agency of International Development


by:
Virginia M. Caye
Alfred Rollins










THE GENDER INFORMATION FRAMEWORK: GENDER CONSIDERATIONS IN DESIGN

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

1. Introduction

1.1 Purpose of the Gender Information Framework 1
(GIF)
1.2 How the GIF was Developed 2
1.3 Women and Gender 3
1.4 Why Gender Considerations are Important 3

2. Rationale of the Gender Information Framework

2.1 What This Section Is About 4
2.2 Key Assumptions Undergirding the GIF 4
2.3 Design Process in the GIF 5
2.4 Data Needs 6
2.5 Design Features 6

3. Gender Variable Matrix

3.1 Description of the Matrix 8
3.2 Format of the Matrix 8
3.3 How to Use the Matrix 9

4. Gender Considerations in Design

4.1 Description of the Gender Considerations
in Design 21
4.2 Format of the Gender Considerations Charts 21
4.3 How to Use the Gender Considerations Charts 22

5. Summary of Guidelines for Document Review 23

6. Incorporating Gender Considerations: An Overview 25

7. Country Development Strategy Statement 26

7.1 Description of the CDSS 26
7.2 Why Gender Considerations are
Important to the CDSS 26
7.3 Steps for Incorporating Gender
Considerations into the CDSS 26

8. Action Plan

8.1 Description of the Action Plan 34
8.2 Why Gender Considerations Are
Important to the Action Plan 34
8.3 Steps for Incorporating Gender
Considerations into the Action Plan 34













TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont.)


9. Project Identification Document (PID) 39

9.1 Description of the PID 39
9.2 Why Gender Considerations are
Important to the PID 39
9.3 Steps for Incorporating Gender
Into the PID 39

10. Project Paper (PP)

10.1 Description of the PP 45
10.2 Why Gender Considerations are
Important to the PP 45
10.3 Steps to Incorporate Gender
Into the PP 45


Tables

Table I: Sample Analysis of Gender Variables
Among One Ethnic Group in
Southern Africa 18

Table II: Identification of Gender Variables
at CDSS/AP Level (Africa) 20


Appendices

I. Bibliography

II. Additional Information on Gender Variable
Identification

II-A Small Scale Enterprise Projects
II-B Farming Systems Research and Extension
Projects

III. Information on Data Collection Methods

IV. Project Adaptation


V. Constraint-Strategy Matrix












THE GENDER INFORMATION FRAMEWORK: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


The Gender Information Framework is a set of tools, information,
and guidelines developed to assist A.I.D. to incorporate gender
considerations more fully into program and project design,
adaptation, evaluation, and review. Developed as a reference
work and training resource, the Gender Information Framework
includes both "generic" guidance for development programming and
also information for programming in specific sectors.


Gender Variable Matrix: an analytical tool for
identifying where gender might intervene at the
household level in the development situation to be
addressed. The gender variable identification process
will point to how and where gender is a factor in
Mission projects while indicating where additional
information is needed. It will also clarify the
linkage between national policies and their impact at
the household level.

Gender Considerations in Design: a series of charts
developed for specific programming documents; the
charts and accompanying guidelines map out the steps to
incorporating gender issues into A.I.D.'s process of
development design from the Country Development
Strategy Statement through the Project Paper. The
charts have been designed to follow A.I.D. Handbook and
guidance cable instructions on document preparation.
The headings for the Gender Considerations in the
charts refer to the recommended format in the document
reviewed.

Summary of Guidelines for Document Review: a two-page
summary of how and where to include gender
considerations in AID's documents.

Sector-specific components of the GIF include information on
incorporating gender considerations into agriculture and private
sector development programs.

Note: The GIF is not presented as a requirement for A.I.D.
programming. Rather it illustrates analytical and planning
processes for incorporating gender considerations into projects
and programs. It is a resource guide to addressing gender
issues.












THE GENDER INFORMATION FRAMEWORK:
GUIDELINES FOR INCORPORATING GENDER INTO A.I.D. PROGRAMMING


1. INTRODUCTION

The Gender Information Framework is a set of tools,
information and guidelines to assist AID in incorporating
gender considerations into program and project design,
adaptation, evaluation and review. The Gender Information
Framework (GIF) contains three components:


Gender Variable Matrix, an analytical tool for
identifying where gender might intervene at the
household level;

Gender Considerations in Design, a series of
charts developed for specific programming
documents. The charts map out the steps to
incorporating gender considerations into AID's
process of development design; and

Summary of Guidelines for Document Review, a
two-page summary of how and where to include
gender issues in AID's documents.

The Gender Information Framework has been designed to
accompany a training program on gender issues and will serve
as a post-training resource guide.

Since passage of the Percy Amendment in 1973, when "women in
development" entered AID's programming vocabulary,
considerable progress has been made in addressing gender
issues. However, much remains to be done.

1.1 Purpose of the Gender Information Framework

The purpose of the Gender Information Framework
is:

to strengthen the analysis of development issues
in such a way that gender becomes an automatic
consideration in the programming process, and

to provide tools that assist AID to incorporate
information yielded by analysis into program
design, adaptation, evaluation, and review.









At first glance the GIF may appear to separate men and
women. Highlighting gender differences is a necessary and
temporary step as one identifies how gender affects the
situation to be addressed. The issue of gender is then
factored back into the development equation as an important
variable in project and program design and adaptation.


1.2 How the GIF Was Developed

The idea of a Gender Information Framework was first
conceived as a way to provide guidelines for
incorporating gender into the key stages of AID's
programming process. The initial form of the GIF was
presented at a training workshop held in Nairobi in
September, 1987, for USAID Agricultural Development
Officers and Project Officers working in sub-Saharan
Africa.

Since that workshop, the GIF has evolved through
several different forms. This process has involved
extensive discussions concerning gender issues and
review of the GIF by AID personnel, representatives of
other international donor agencies, academic
institutions, and private voluntary organizations, as
well as knowledgeable individuals from the United
States and developing nations.

The GIF has strong links with the efforts of the many
individuals and organizations who have contributed to
the work of the Office of Women in Development to
increase awareness of and skills in dealing with gender
issues. Ideas and methodologies from The International
Center for Research on Women, AID 's Center for
Development Information and Evaluation and other
offices, the Harvard Institute of International
Development, the University of Arizona, the Farming
Systems Support Project at the University of Florida,
and other institutions have been incorporated into the
GIF.

Finally, it should be noted that the GIF is a "dynamic
document", in that it will continue to evolve as the
body of knowledge about gender considerations grows.
Thus the GIF is, in many respects, still a "draft"; it
is hoped, however, that it will be a "working draft".









1.3 Women and Gender


Initially "Women in Development" efforts focused on
achieving equity for women in access to and control of
project resources and benefits. This was the result of
early literature which documented the adverse impact of
many development projects on women. However, as
evidence has accumulated demonstrating that
gender-related differences, (i.e., differences in
roles, responsibilities and opportunities of men and
women) affect the achievement of project purposes and
goals, the term "gender" has begun to replace "women in
development."

In Women in Development: A.I.D.'s Experience. 1973-
1985. Volume 1. Synthesis Paper. the Center for
Development Information and Evaluation notes "Gender is
a broader analytical concept which not only encompasses
concern with women but also highlights women's roles
and responsibilities in relation to those of men."
(1987:4) It combines effectiveness with equity.

"Gender variable", then, in the GIF, is used to denote
relevant aspects of social organization that "vary"
because of the roles, responsibilities and opportunity
differences attributable to gender.

1.4 Why Gender Considerations are Important

Much has been written about why gender considerations
are important in development programming. A few points
will be cited here, and further information can be
found in the publications listed in the bibliography.

* The previously cited report on AID's experience
with women in development (1987) found that
projects are more likely to achieve their purpose
and/or long-term goal when gender variables are
taken into account. Incorporation of gender
considerations contributes to effective
development.

* AID's official policy has for some time
acknowledged the need for incorporating gender
issues into programming. The Women in Development
Policy Paper published in 1982 describes official
policy, which includes the following for all AID
program and project documents: disaggregation of
data by gender, gender distinctions in
terminology, inclusion of explicit strategies to
involve women, and use of gender disaggregated
benchmarks in monitoring and evaluation.

* Most AID project goals relate to improving the








economic and/or social well-being of families.
Research to date suggests that in many areas women
contribute a larger percentage (nearly all) of
their income to family welfare than men. Research
also suggests that increases in men's incomes are
less likely to translate into improved family
welfare for women and children than increases to
women's income. Thus, activities to increase
women's productivity and income have a very
positive and direct impact on family welfare.

Congressional scrutiny of AID's activities to
incorporate women into programming is
intensifying. Legislation is pending that would
increase funding for Women in Development (WID)
activities and place more strict requirements on
AID related to women.

Summarizing the above, the reasons for fully
incorporating gender issues into AID programming relate
to programmatic success, concern for equity, alignment
of AID activities with official policy, and legislative
influences.

2. RATIONALE OF THE GENDER INFORMATION FRAMEWORK

2.1 What This Section is About

This section will look at important aspects of the
rationale that guided the development of the GIF,
including underlying assumptions about the process of
development and project design. It will then discuss
data needs and describe key features of the GIF.

It should be noted here that design in the GIF refers
to the generic process of conceptualizing and
implementing development programs. Viewing design from
this perspective, it encompasses the development
process from design of a Mission strategy through the
design of a project including all of its components.

2.2 Key Assumptions Undergirdinc the GIF

Several important assumptions about development design
undergird the Gender Information Framework.

Gender is a variable in the development equation,
because gender differences in roles and
responsibilities affect ability and incentive to
participate in development projects. This affects
project effectiveness. Gender is also a factor in
project impact, which may be different for men and
women because of their roles and responsibilities.










GENDER IS A VARIABLE


* Understanding development issues from both the
macro and micro levels is important for effective
programming. Program and project analyses need to
balance information at the sectoral, regional or
national level with information from the household
level to define problems, identify solutions, and
assess impact.

* Sustainable development is more likely to occur
when a balance is achieved in consideration of
socio-cultural and economic factors in project and
program planning.

* Inclusion of the men and women who benefit from
and participate in development programming, from
problem definition through evaluation, contributes
to sustainable development.

2.3 Design Process In The GIF

The GIF is based roughly on the process for
incorporating gender considerations into programming
recommended in the CDIE Synthesis Paper cited earlier.
Summarizing those recommendations, the process
involves:

* identifying gender variables: clarifying how male
and female roles and responsibilities might affect
development activities to be undertaken;

* identifying programming opportunities and
constraints resulting from gender-based
differences;

* incorporating information about gender
considerations into program/project design and
adaptation; and

* monitoring and evaluation systems that provide
gender disaggregated data to assess project impact
and inform the development process.

Building on this process, the three components of the
GIF -- the Gender Variable Matrix, the Gender
Considerations charts, and the Summary of Guidelines


are key words for this document.








for Document Review -- provide a step by step approach
to incorporating gender considerations into AID
programming. The Matrix shows how to identify where
gender might be a variable in the situation to be
addressed; the Gender Considerations charts show how to
factor that information into the macro level analysis
to design or adapt development activities. The Summary
of Guidelines can then be used for a quick review of
the programming document.

2.4 Data Needs

A word on the data needs in the GIF is in order. It
may appear that extensive data collection is required
to address gender issues effectively. However, the data
recommendations in the GIF are indicators of data
needs rather than requirements. They suggest the kinds
of information that will strengthen the design process.
Data needs are project and program specific; not all
those listed in the GIF will be appropriate for all
situations.

In addition, although information may appear to be
unavailable, it often can be found in project
documents, consultants' reports, and anthropological
studies within the Mission. Other sources are national
university sociology departments, government women's
bureaus and national women's organizations that
frequently have "fugitive literature", literature that
is not publicly distributed but very useful. Host
country national Mission staff can be a valuable
resource as well.

Finally, because gender-disaggregated information is
needed for effective development, projects and programs
should build in the capability to collect it from the
start to save time and expense.

2.5 Design Features

The Gender Information Framework was designed to
synthesize AID's methodologies for effective
development planning with tools to expand the awareness
of gender concerns.

The GIF:

* is based on AID's programming cycle, from the
Country Development Strategy Statement through the
Project Paper;

* presents guidelines for program documents that
follow AID handbook and guidance cable
instructions wherever possible;
































* addresses both analytical and action aspects in
the process of effective development; and

* provides the basis for a common understanding
between program designers and reviewers about
gender issues.








3. GENDER VARIABLE MATRIX


3.1 Description of the Matrix

Incorporating gender considerations into development
program design begins with knowing where gender
intervenes in the situation to be affected. The Matrix
is designed as a graphic representation of the
analytical process for clarifying gender roles and
responsibilities at the household/farm level. It also
identifies the constraints and opportunities these
roles present for programming.

The Matrix supplements macro level data and helps to
make the linage between national policies and their
impact at the household level. It also points to
additional data collection needs.

Identifying where gender intervenes is important at
every stage in the programming process. Although
typically identification of gender variables happens
only in project design, it is important in the Mission
overall program level as well. At that level,
understanding gender roles enables the Mission to
refine its process of setting objectives and targeting
resources. The Matrix has been designed to identify
gender variables in both the overall program and also
the project development process. Finally, it provides
some information about the baseline situation that can
be used to measure program and project impact.

3.2 Format of the Matrix

The Matrix begins at the top with a statement of
purpose and brief comments on when and how it can be
used. There is also space to write the name of the
ethnic group to which it applies. It has three
columns.









Column 1
Lists key factors
where gender might
be a variable:

-allocation of lab-
or
-sources of income

-expenditures

-access/control of
resources

-constraints to
participation in
development

-opportunities
provided by
gender roles


Column 2
Presents key ques-
tions whether &
how gender affects
the factors listed
Column 1. These
questions guide
the analytical pro-
cess identifying
where differences
that might affect a
program or project
might occur.


Column 3
Provides
space for
the user
to chart
information
from the
analysis.
(Optional)


The factors listed


in Column 1 of the Matrix are not


considered to be an inclusive or conclusive summary of
development; all the issues of women in development are not
condensed within them. Rather they suggest where planners
should look first to see if gender is an issue. It should
also be noted that the Matrix is not a checklist to be
filled out. It is a visual presentation of an analytical
process for identifying where gender intervenes in
development situations.


3.3 How To Use The Matrix

3.3.1 Introduction

To identify gender variables using the Matrix,
consider the "Key Questions" in Column 2 for each
of the factors in Column 1. Use the Matrix to
identify gender variables individually by ethnic
group and economic class or other important
population substrata, where appropriate. For
agricultural and natural resource management
activities, identify gender variables by major
crops and/or livestock. For small scale
enterprise projects, gender differences in use of
technical assistance, credit, purchased raw
materials, and other inputs, as well as markets,
will be especially important. Less information
related to the division of labor is likely to be
key to the analysis in private sector projects.













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The Matrix can be used to analyze how gender
intervenes in one production situation or to
provide an overview of the general patterns of
living. Not all factors will be included in all
analyses. For example, where the Matrix is used
to analyze how gender affects production of one
crop the "expenditure" factor in the Matrix would
apply only to expenses for that crop. The Matrix
can be used for a more general analysis as well.

The level of analysis -- the amount of data to be
considered, the depth of inquiry about the
factors, the number of ethnic groups to be
considered, etc. -- depends on the stage of the
programming process. At the CDSS level, a limited
analysis would be sufficient to provide the broad
overview of living patterns needed to anchor the
macroeconomic data usually found in a CDSS.

At the project level, data needs are more
extensive. Because consideration of the factors
listed in the Matrix may not provide the level of
detail appropriate for design of some projects,
additional information on identifying gender
variables for agriculture and small scale
enterprise projects has been provided in Appendix
II. These materials were developed by the Farming
Systems Support Project at the University of
Florida and the Harvard Institute for
International Development.

Further explanation of the issues represented in
the Key Questions concerning how gender affects
the factors in Column 1 follows.

3.3.2 Factor: Labor

In many countries, the division of labor between
men and women on tasks to maintain the family unit
is very sharp. Women usually carry a double load
of both domestic and economically productive
activities.

Men's and women's agricultural and other
productive labor tasks may be interchangeable but
often are not. Rather there is a complementarity
between gender roles. Increasing one member's
work affects his/her ability to fulfill
traditional responsibilities.

Seasonality and its relationship to gender-based
division of labor is important to consider in
agriculture and natural resource management
projects. Projects that have injected additional









labor requirements at a time when there is already
a labor bottleneck have resulted in decreased
productivity from both the traditional and project
tasks.

EXAMPLE

In the Kenya Arid and Semi-Arid Lands project,
women's self-help labor was expected for soil and
water conservation work. The women in the area
are the principal farmers because of male
migration and would not be available during the
peak agricultural season. "The original project
design ignored the recommendation [of the Social
Soundness Analysis regarding labor bottlenecks].
Targets were set on the assumption that work could
be carried on throughout the entire year.
Ultimately...project management...suspended work
during the peak season so that women could finish
their ploughing and planting." (AID, CDIE;
1987:17)


Agri-business and agricultural policy efforts that
promote expansion of production of non-traditional
export crops can also affect the division of
labor. In many instances, these projects and/or
policy interventions are targeted at a male
household head, who will respond to incentives for
non-traditional crops with both his own labor and
that of his spouse. The spouse must still meet
traditional responsibilities for food production.
Such potential changes in the division of labor--
and the ultimate effect on family well-being--
need to be factored into the decisionmaking
process.

3.3.3 Factor: Income

Key aspects of income in which gender can be
important are the sources (farm, non- or off-farm,
and wage labor) diversity of sources, and
seasonality. Where women and men are involved in
small scale enterprises, information on factors
affecting the enterprise such as use of purchased
inputs or raw materials, technical assistance, and
credit should also be considered in the
identification of gender variables.

Income (cash, in kind, consumable items provided
by family food provisioning, and transfers) in
most developing countries is provided to the
family by both men and women. Among the very
poor, female income is as important as male income








and is not supplemental. Similarly, in areas of
heavy male migration, women's income meets daily
subsistence needs.

Wage labor is a significant source of cash income
for more than two thirds of the women in
developing nations. However, typically, women's
incomes are derived from multiple sources
including wage labor, trading, agricultural
production, sales of prepared foods, and craft
production.

Women's income is by virtue of its diversity often
generated throughout the year. And because it is
derived from many sources, it may be less subject
to crises (e.g., drought, blight, currency
devaluation, etc.) Diversity also means that it
is sometimes the only family income available
during the pre-harvest "hungry" season.

Men and women may derive their incomes from the
same resources. Knowledge of the various uses of
resources is important to avoid disrupting an
income source. For example, livestock may provide
income or a source of savings to men while milk
from the same animals may provide income to women.
In a related example, men and women may use the
same field for different crops during the year;
the field thus provides income to different
household members in different seasons.

For program designers, this indicates the need to
be aware of sources of income both to identify
ways to increase productivity and also to avoid
adverse impacts by changing the use or form of
existing resources.

3.3.4 Factor: Expenditures/provisioning
responsibilities

Awareness of patterns of expenditure and
provisioning responsibilities within the family --
who is responsible for which expenses -- is
necessary to understand the importance of
individual members' incomes to family well- being.

Men and women may have different financial
responsibilities in supporting the family. For
example, men may be responsible for providing
staple grains, while women provide vegetables.
Men may undertake or pay for building maintenance
while women's income pays for school fees, health
care, and/or clothing. Each person's income is
important to maintaining the totality of family









welfare.


Studies in Asia, Latin America and Africa suggest
women are more likely to spend a larger share of
the income under their control on food, especially
their children's nutrition and well being, than
men. These studies indicate men spend larger
portions of their income on personal consumption
items -- watches, guns, entertainment (Blumberg,
forthcoming:4).


EXAMPLE

In India a study of the very poor showed that as
women's incomes increased, child nutrition
improved. Where mothers were not working but the
father's income increased, child nutrition did not
improve (ibid.:9).


Differential spending habits may be especially
important for programs in Africa, where women are
heavily involved in food production -- in some
cases the primary farmer.

In planning projects that will affect income
distribution, development practitioners should
consider how gender affects the utilization of
that income -- the consumption and expenditure
patterns.

3.3.5 Factor: Access to and Control of
Resources

Degree of access and control of key resources
(e.g., land, labor, income, credit) vary
significantly within and among societies, but in
most instances women's access and control are
limited.

Knowledge of access to and control of resources
will indicate what the stakes are in different
development activities and how they differ for men
and women. Analyzing resource access and control
will also suggest how men and women might respond
to incentives to participate in projects and the
extent to which they can benefit from development
activities.

For example, incomes may be kept separate or
pooled; where pooled, often the male head of
household controls both incomes. Where women do
not control their income, they may be less willing










to provide labor to projects for any length of
time.


EXAMPLE

An evaluation report of AID projects describes a
contract vegetable growing scheme in three
villages in Guatemala where each village had
different levels of participation from women, as
well as different forms of wage payment. In one
village, women did not participate. In a second,
women provided labor but payment was made by check
exclusively to the husband. In the third, women
worked in the fields and were paid in cash
directly. Production was highest in the third
village. When other factors were held constant, it
appears that the form of payment was a key factor
in determining method and level of production
(AID, CDIE, 1987: 32-33).


In some countries, women's access to credit is
restricted because they are legally minors. They
may also be unable to inherit land or own cattle,
thus eliminating standard forms of collateral for
loans.

Access to information and information networks is
often limited for women because of restricted
mobility, social mores that restrict interaction
between unmarried or unrelated men and women, and
because they do not have time to participate in
these networks.


3.3.6


Factor: Constraints to Participation in
Development Programming


It is important to know in the areas of AID
programming, from the CDSS to specific projects,
how constraints to improving a situation vary by
gender. Constraints can affect project
implementation and result in differential impacts
on men and women.















EXAMPLE

In a West African village, project researchers
worked with male household heads to inventory all
the livestock in the village in preparation for a
vaccination campaign. When the researchers
initiated the campaign, they realized they had
missed a significant number of animals. After
considerable questioning of project participants,
they discovered that women owned the missing
livestock, and unaware of the vaccination program,
had already moved their animals to another
pasture. Because women's information networks were
not included in the information dissemination
process, additional time and expense were spent
finding the unvaccinated animals.


Key constraints include lack of access to credit,
land, education, information, and labor. Men and
women both experience these constraints but gender
roles and responsibilities affect the nature and
extent of, the constraint. For example, men will
experience labor shortages on their own crops, but
as household heads, they can call upon the labor
of their spouses) and other family members to
assist. Women usually cannot and so the
constraint is more significant for them.

It should be noted that causal links between
access and control of resources and constraints
are difficult to establish, but relational
patterns do exist. Appendix IV provides some
suggestions on project adaptations to deal with
common constraints. Appendix V presents some
potential strategies also, in a matrix form. And
finally, an extensive list of problems and
solutions pertaining specifically to agriculture
is found in Russo et al.. (see Appendix I,
Bibliography).










Factor: Opportunities


Gender roles affecting factors of labor, income,
expenditures, access and control of resources, and
constraints can present opportunities for more
effective development.

Knowledge of who is responsible for specific tasks
such as planting, maintaining, and cutting trees,
for example, would permit very direct targeting of
research and action program resources. Women
often know which trees burn the longest, provide
best fodder for livestock, and stimulate growth of
the plants around them (e.a.,provide nitrogen or
other nutrients to the soil.) Their knowledge can
be a significant resource for forestry and/or
agroforestry projects.

Using the opportunities presented by gender
variables can lead to more effective programs.


Reminder: the Matrix is NOT intended as a
checklist, nor is it expected to be completed
factor by factor. Rather, it provides a guide to
considering gender issues by identifying patterns
of labor, income sources, expenditures, access and
control of resources, constraints and
opportunities in development programming.

An example of the kinds of information the Matrix would
yield in a pre-project analysis of gender
considerations in sorghum production follows in Table
1. Note that this use of the Matrix is to identify
gender variables related specifically to sorghum
production.

Information to be gleaned from this very brief analysis
includes:

* Women and men both produce sorghum; men work their
own fields, while women work in both the family
and their own individual fields.

* Women and men both receive income from sorghum
production, men from sales and ultimately from
livestock grazing on harvested fields. Women's
income from sorghum production is derived from
brewing beer, wage labor in transforming the
sorghum, and sale of the surplus from their own
fields. It appears that both produce for family


3.3.7


























consumption.

* Women use few inputs in their production and have
little access to extension advice.

* Women, as the family member responsible for seed
selection and storage, will have good information
on seed and varietal characteristics.

If a project were under consideration to improve
sorghum production, this information might suggest
first that any intervention will affect both men's and
women's income and labor; that labor saving devices for
weeding may be a key to increasing acreage and hence
production; that a breeding program should access
women's information about seeds; and that extending the
outreach of agricultural technical assistance programs
to include women might yield significant results.








TABLE 1:


SAMPLE ANALYSIS OF GENDER VARIABLES AMONG ONE
ETHNIC GROUP IN SOUTHERN AFRICA


Crop: Sorghum


Responsibilities


Factor


Male


* Land clearing-all fields
* Plowing-all fields
* Seeding-family fields
* Transport grain from
family field to market.
cooperative
* Sale of surplus sorghum
(family fields)
* Use of harvested fields
to graze cattle

* Sorghum seeds (new strains)
bags, fertilizer
* Sorghum-family consumpt.


* Labor: male household
head allocates all
family members.


Land: new land allocated
by local government;
males inherit most use
rights.

Income: separate budgets
but male controls income
from sale of family
field harvest.

Constraints
Access to labor at
peak periods, markets


Opportunities
Work with coops on
improved transport
systems


* Seeding own/family fields
* Weeding "
* Scaring the birds "
* Harvesting "
* Storage "
* Seed Selection "
* Sale of surplus sorghum
(individual fields)
* Beer derived from sorghum
* Pounding sorghum for
others


Sorghum-family consumpt.


Access to shared labor;
access to male labor
to plow on individual
fields after family
fields plowed.

* Can obtain land from
local government; can
inherit usufruct rights
but most land controlled
by male household head.


* Access to labor and
extension assistance,
* Access to plowing,
especially in female


headed households


* Work with women on
seed research; extend
tech. assis. to women


Labor





Income




Expend.
(Sorghum)



Access/
control
resources









In Table II which follows, the Matrix is used for a more
general analysis. This kind of analysis would be undertaken
in preparation for developing a country strategy or Action
Plan.

The information provided by the analysis in Table II
includes:

Men and women have different responsibilities in
maintaining the household.

Women are responsible for both domestic and
economically productive work.

Men and women have different responsibilities in
food provisioning, but both provide key elements.

Cash (export) and food crops are both grown by the
family, with women producing vegetables. Both men
and women earn income from cattle and small stock.
Women are involved in all areas of the family's
agricultural production.

Labor is a constraint to increased production for
both men and women; however, men do have access to
family labor as needed; women do not.

This information suggests first that any project that might
increase women's labor should be very carefully considered;
their existing workload is very heavy. Given women's
financial responsibilities in the family, planners might
also want to explore projects that can increase their
productivity either in the area of small scale enterprise
development or agriculture. For example, women's
traditional responsibility for vegetable production might
provide a strong base from which to develop commercial
vegetable production. In any such effort, creative credit
arrangements should be explored.

Animal health programs might be targeted to both men and
women. Males are responsible for herding animals; women
milk them. Both males and females have the opportunity to
observe animal appearance and behavior.











Factor


Table II: IDENTIFICATION OF GENDER VARIABLES AT CDSS/AP
LEVEL (AFRICA)

Responsibilities


Male


Female


Labor
Household *Building maintenance





Agric. *Livestock herding and
feeding (cattle, goats,
sheep); animal health

*Plowing, seeding,
weeding, some harvest
grain/cotton fields
(family)
*Marketing ag. products

Income *Occasional sale of
livestock
*Cotton, surplus grains


Expend/
Provision *Staple foods (grains)
(Sorghum )*Meat
*Household maintenance

Access/ *Labor: male household
control head allocates
resources *Land: available by alloc.
by village chief
*Credit: available from
ag. dev. bank


Constraints
*Access to labor at
peak periods, markets



Opportunities
*Animal health program


*Child care
*Water collection
*All daily domestic
chores
*Fuel collection

*Cattle/small stock
milking
*Poultry

*Weeding, harvesting
family fields
*All work own vegetable
fields
*Seed selection/storage

*Milk, occas'l chicken,
*Surplus vegetables
*Prepared foods market
*Wage labor neighbor
fields
*Sale of dried gathered
foods

*Vegetables for sauce
*Clothing
*School fees, health exp.

*Access to shared labor
(other women);
*Land allocated
by male household head
*Credit -Informal savings
clubs; no collateral;
no access to ag. dev.
bank

*Access to labor, credit
*Extension assistance,
*Access to plowing,
especially in female
headed households

*Animal health program;
*Commercia. veg. product.







4. GENDER CONSIDERATIONS IN DESIGN


4.1 Description of the Gender Considerations in
Design Charts

The Gender Considerations section of the GIF is a
series of charts presenting gender issues by document
from the Country Development Strategy Statement through
the Project Paper. The Gender Considerations focus on
how gender should be "considered" in each stage of
program or project development.

The Gender Considerations are the second in a two-step
process. Analysis of gender variables using the
Matrix, as noted earlier, begins the process and yields
information used for considering gender in each
programming document.

4.2 Format of the Gender Considerations Charts

Gender Considerations charts have been developed for
the Country Development Strategy Statement, Action
Plan, Project Identification Document, and Project
Paper. Each chart is presented in two column form. In
the left column are the "Gender Considerations",
written as a series of steps to be taken at the
specific stage in the design and document preparation
process. In the column on the right side are "Key
Questions" to indicate in more detail how the
consideration might be examined.

The numbers of the Gender Considerations in the charts
correspond to the numbers of the "Gender Consideration"
explained by document in these guidelines.

The Gender Considerations charts in most cases follow
the format and content recommendations in AID handbooks
and guidance cables. Not all document topics
officially recommended are discussed. Nor are all
Gender Considerations accompanied by questions. The
emphasis is on issues that research and evaluation
studies suggest are the most critical to effective
development. Emphasis has also been given to important
issues that often receive insufficient attention in the
programming process.

The Gender Considerations respond to the questions "How
do I incorporate gender into programs?" and "What are
we missing? We already incorporate women; it's just not
mentioned in the document." They also provide a common
frame of reference for program designers, adapters,
reviewers, and evaluators.
























4.3 How to Use the Gender Considerations Charts

Use of the charts is described only briefly here. More
information is found within the explanations on use of
the charts for specific programming documents.

Planners should refer to the Gender Considerations and
the Key Questions that accompany them as they address
the project issues raised in AID handbooks and guidance
cables. Project reviewers can also use the charts to
assess the extent to which gender issues have been
addressed in the document.

In this document, not all Gender Considerations are
discussed. However, the Considerations themselves are
included to maintain the flow of thought in the
document and to avoid confusion about missing numbers.

As with the Matrix, the charts are not a checklist to
be completed in development programming. They are
guidelines for the process of considering how gender
intervenes in the situation to be addressed.








5. SUMMARY OF GUIDELINES FOR DOCUMENT REVIEW


These Guidelines are a summary of recommendations for
the incorporation of gender considerations into AID's
programming documents. They have been culled from a
variety of sources, both within and external to AID.
The Guidelines are most useful as a tool to review
program or project design documents to ensure that
gender issues have been included appropriately.


GUIDELINES

* Disaggregate data by gender wherever possible; where
data is needed but not available, indicate how it will
be found and how incorporated.

* Use gender distinction:; in terminology (e.g., men and
women farmers, male and female entrepreneurs) in order
to define more precisely the social context and impact
of AID's work.


* In project assistance

** Disaggregate by gender:

project objectives where appropriate
benchmarks for project monitoring and
evaluation
beneficiaries
logframe (objectives, monitoring, etc.)

** Incorporate gender considerations throughout the
project design document; in project
implementation, technical analysis, and economic
analysis sections as well as in social soundness
analysis.

** Describe in explicit terms in country strategy,
project identification, and project design
documents:

strategies to involve women where gender
analysis indicates women are active in
program or project sectors;

benefits to women and men.

** Include decision points in the project
implementation schedule that allow project
modification or redirection to incorporate gender
considerations; as baseline or project monitoring
data becomes available.









* In Non-Project Assistance Programs


** Disaggregate by gender:

*** objectives where potential beneficiaries are
described;

*** impact assessment;

*** benchmarks for project monitoring and
evaluation;

*** logframe (objectives, monitoring, etc.)

** Include gender considerations in technical,
institutional capability and economic analyses
sections as well as in social feasibility section.

** Include impact monitoring at the household level;
collect gender disaggregated data.

** Include decision points when the program can be
modified or mitigating activities can be initiated
to offset short-term adverse impacts on men and
women.


* Project/Program Design and Evaluation Teams

** Include gender considerations in scopes of work
for technical, institutional, economic and
financial analyses in project and non-project
assistance design documents.

** Include gender issues analysis in scopes of work
for evaluation team members.

** Include in design and evaluation team leaders'
scope of work the responsibility for ensuring that
gender considerations are adequately addressed.

* Requests for Proposals

** Include a requirement that gender considerations
be addressed.

** Include gender considerations among criteria for
selection of proposals.

** Include assessment of how gender issues are
addressed in criteria for proposal selection.









6. INCORPORATING GENDER CONSIDERATIONS: AN OVERVIEW

Guidelines for using the charts to incorporate gender
issues into the planning process follow. The
discussion is organized by programming document. Each
document discussion is divided into three sub-sections:
a very brief description of the document, a review of
why gender is important in the document under
discussion, and an explanation of the Gender
Considerations charts.

It is recognized that within AID variations exist in
the emphasis given to steps in the program design
process. Some Missions rely heavily on the CDSS for
planning while others (usually the smaller ones) do not
prepare a CDSS at all. In addition, recommended
content and format of the documents are amended
occasionally with guidance cables that are worldwide or
bureau-specific. Further, AID assistance crosses many
sectors.

Therefore, the Gender Considerations charts should be
viewed as providing general guidance on how gender
issues can be addressed. Application will by necessity
vary with the regional bureau, individual Mission, and
specific project.







7. THE COUNTRY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY STATEMENT

7.1 Description of the Country Development Strategy
Statement

The Country Development Strategy Statement (CDSS) is
the document that provides the framework for AID's
strategy in its host country. Major sections of the
CDSS are: problem analysis and description, overall
mission strategy for working in the host country, and a
review of the specific AID assistance in the context of
the overall strategy. Although some variation is found
in frequency of preparation of the CDSS among missions,
in principle a CDSS is (re)written every five years.

7.2 Why Gender Considerations are Important in the
CDSS

The CDSS lays the groundwork for AID's programming in
the host country. Its analysis defines the problem and
the situation. Suggestions for new projects are
assessed against the problem analysis and strategy
described in the CDSS.

As noted earlier, differences in men's and women's
labor, incomes, expenditures and other variables affect
participation and access to benefits. Projects and
programs need to understand fully the relationship
between gender and these factors, both to use
opportunities presented by the differences and also to
mitigate against potential negative impacts. As the
stage setting document, the CDSS itself, then, needs to
take into account gender differences that affect and
will be affected by the Mission's strategy.

7.3 Steps for Incorporating Gender Considerations into
the CDSS

Begin by considering how gender affects key
variables at the household level in terms of
income/productivity, hunger, education.

Use the Matrix to clarify gender variables. In
countries having multiple ethnic groups, use the Matrix
to analyze two to three representative groups to
indicate the areas where gender might be an issue and
what additional data are needed.

In many CDSS documents, the problem analysis and
description depend almost entirely on the use of macro
level data. Analysis of the situation at the household
level is infrequent at best. Where women's income is
important to family well-being, their ability to earn
that income becomes an important




















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variable in the development picture and should be
included in the economic analysis. Combining
information about how money is made and spent within
the household with information about national economic
trends, resources and policies will enhance the
analysis that leads to problem and project selection.

For example, when planners are considering strategies
to increase production of a specific commodity,
information about who (men and/or women) produces that
crop both for consumption and sale, how much income
results from production, and how the income is spent
should be factored into the decision making process.
That is because gender- based roles and
responsibilities related to these factors will
influence the ability and inclination to respond to
incentives directly and indirectly.

It is not necessary that the analysis be in great
detail; however, it should provide sufficient
information to indicate how gender affects key areas
discussed in the CDSS including productivity, income,
hunger, and education.

Use' the Gender Considerations charts to guide the
incorporation of gender considerations into the CDSS.
Refer to the numbered "Gender Consideration" steps and
"Key Questions" as you follow guidance cable and
handbook instructions for CDSS preparation.

Below is an explanation of the Gender Considerations. They
are numbered to correspond to the Gender Consideration
numbers in the CDSS chart.


Document Heading: PROBLEM ANALYSIS AND DESCRIPTION

Productivity/Income

Gender Consideration 1: Disaggregate data and analyses in
productivity/income subsectors by gender; where data is
insufficient, include specific strategies to obtain.

Disaggregated data is basic to understanding how gender will
intervene in the development situation. The "Key Questions"
suggest the kind of data that is needed to understand how
gender affects issues of productivity and income. Combine
macro level data with information from the gender analysis
(Matrix) to identify areas where women's economic activity
is concentrated.

Also important to consider are government policies and how
they affect economic activities in the sectors where both
men and women are active.








Problem Analysis


Gender Consideration 2: Consider gender-based constraints to
and opportunities for participating in economic development.

In the analysis of factors affecting income and
productivity, consider the constraints identified through
the gender variable analysis process (the Matrix). Examine
how legal, economic and socio-cultural policies in the areas
where men's and women's economic activities are concentrated
constrain increased productivity and the implications of
these constraints for programming.


EXAMPLE

A CDSS discussion of informal sector employment in some
countries in West Africa might include women's
traditional involvement in trading and the impact on
these enterprises of government policies that regulate
prices or licenses. Consideration of textile
manufacturing might include if and how such
manufacturing competes with village or household level
textile activity.


Nutrition

Gender Consideration 3: Disaggregate nutrition data by
gender.

Hunger

Gender Consideration 4: Disaggregate information on
agricultural production. Where data not available, include
strategies to obtain.

The participation of women in agricultural production and
post-harvest handling is well documented. However, little
data are available describing the use of inputs, acreage
planted, yields, or other farm management data. Data are in
most instances collected at the household level through
extension agent interviews with the (male) household head.

Collection of data for a household as a whole rather than
for men's and women's individual fields and production can
result in systematic distortion of national data in two
ways:

* The total area and production estimates may be too low,
particularly for traditional grains, because women's
production is excluded, albeit unintentionally; and

* Yield estimates are probably too high, because they are







derived from men's plots, which can be assumed to have
higher levels of input use, and therefore to achieve
higher yields. (Bremer-Fox, 1988: IV-15).

"Loss in data quality caused by under-counting women's
activities may seriously undermine the ability of
decision makers to track developments in the
agricultural sectors." ibidd.)

Gender Consideration 5: Describe gender roles and
constraints in food self-provisioning; analyze implications
for programming; where information is not available, include
strategies to obtain.

The analysis of hunger issues should include a brief
discussion about staple food crops, including who is
responsible for their production; access and control of
land, credit and other resources affecting production; and
constraints to increasing that production. Again, the
gender variable identification process presented in the
Matrix will provide the basic information needed for this
analysis.

An example of how gender information can be integrated into
the CDSS follows.

EXAMPLE

The agriculture sector is the most important sector of
the economy, with agriculture/livestock/forestry
comprising 28.7% of GDP. The bulk of agricultural
production comes from small farm families which account
for 79% of the population. That traditional sector
(i.e., small farm households with less than two
hectares per plot, growing food crops and cash crops,
relying mainly on family labor) produces nearly all of
the nation's food (mainly plantain, roots/tubers and
cereals).

Women are the primary producers of food crops, working
their own fields, providing the bulk of the labor for
planting, weeding, and harvesting. They also provide
unpaid family labor on their husband's cash crop fields
for weeding and harvesting. Women face significant
constraints to increasing food including labor
bottlnecks at key periods during the growing season and
lack of access to technical information from extension
agents. A poor road network also constrains the
transport of food from farm to markets. This affects
the individual's ability to sell surplus crops and the
national ability to move foods from food surplus to
food deficit areas.

Data on yields and value of women's food crops is not








yet available. However, the Ministry of Agriculture is
taking steps to collect gender disaggregated data in
its next agricultural census.


This analysis would suggest that if increasing food
availability is a priority in the country, the USAID Mission
might want to explore working with the host country to
develop a capability to provide extension services to women,
research programs to develop labor saving technologies, or
the construction of an improved road system. As this
indicates, the point of the Gender Considerations is not
that women's programs must be initiated; rather it is that
analysis of a sector in which both men and women have
significant involvement is incomplete without data on both
men's and women's involvement. Further, the programming
strategies resulting from that data should reflect the
information available.

Health

Gender Consideration 6: Disaggregate data and analysis on
health.

Education and Training

Gender Consideration 7: Disaggregate data on education and
training by gender.

Gender Consideration 8: Consider gender-based constraints to
education and training and the impact of constraints on
national development policies.


Document Heading STRATEGY

Problem Specific Strategies

Gender Consideration 9.1: In review of current and planned
projects, include for activities where women are involved:

*** assessment of gender considerations in project
descriptions, implementation plans and project
analyses;

*** indications of how the Mission will make project
adaptations where appropriate to incorporate gender
considerations in mainstream projects;

*** established objectives, achievements, impacts and
benchmarks disaggregated by gender for projects in
sectors where women are active.

In many CDSS reviews of current and planned projects,








analysis of gender issues is found only in the discussion of
"women's projects" rather than integrated throughout
program/project analysis. Although gender will not be a
significant variable in all cases, this cannot be
ascertained if gender is not considered in a systematic way.
An example of how gender might be incorporated into the
review of a project follows.

EXAMPLE

Another vehicle for education and training in
agriculture has been the Manpower Development
Project....A serious gap in agricultural technical
expertise exists at the point of contact with farmers,
both in research capability and ability to communicate
technical knowledge effectively. The problem is
especially severe in terms of efforts to communicate
with women farmers. Cultural mores constrain the
contact between individual men and women, thereby
reducing the opportunities for women to obtain
technical assistance. Anthropological studies suggest
that the best way to extend information to women would
be through female extension agents. Currently women
comprise about 10% of the graduates of the agricultural
colleges.

The Mission will propose that a carefully delimited
agricultural personnel analysis be done by a joint
government/AID study team to determine precise levels
and fields in which staff are needed....Among their
responsibilities will be the identification of how to
increase the percentage of female agricultural
personnel to 25% within the next five years.


Gender Consideration 9.2: Assess Mission portfolio for
inclusion of projects that increase women's economic
productivity.

Where women are economically active and contribute to
family welfare, an assessment of how the portfolio of
Mission projects contributes to increased productivity is
important. Health and population projects are sometimes
considered sufficient to meet women's development needs, and
clearly improved health status will affect women's
productive activities indirectly. However, the portfolio
should also include projects that directly use and expand
women's productive capacity.

To understand how the Mission portfolio of projects assists
women's productive activities, begin by considering how men
and women earn income and how this income is used to support
the family. If women provide a significant portion of the
income (food, other in-kind or cash) throughout the year, or








sustain the family during key periods such as just before
harvest, an assessment of how AID interventions affect their
economic roles is indicated. The Matrix gender analysis
process will identify women's economic contributions among
representative ethnic groups.

Review the Mission portfolio of projects to assess which
women's economic activities are supported and how. For a
preliminary assessment on whether or not the current project
portfolio has the potential of reaching women, planners can
review:

percentages of projects providing assistance in the
areas where women are involved,

budgetary allocations to areas likely to benefit women,
and

a representative sample of consultants' and
contractors' scopes of work to assess the number that
explicitly require consideration of gender in their
work will assist.

Sector specific data can provide some additional
information. For example, in the microenterprise sector,
"analysis of certain features of the project, such as the
target group, average loan size, collateral requirements and
financing mechanism can give a fair indication of the extent
to which women are being reached." (White, Otero, et al,
1986:37). This is based on research results indicating that
projects targeting very low income beneficiaries are most
effective in reaching women.

The kind of information above only deals with the potential
of projects to reach women, not whether or not this actually
occurs. That will require project level information.
(Information about cost-effective methods of data
collection can.be found in the appendices.)

In the portfolio review, planners should also assess if
Mission projects have differential impact by gender.
Consideration of how the project affects and is affected by
the factors in the Matrix will provide a preliminary
indication of differential project impact.


Document Section: MISSION PROGRAMMING STRATEGY

This section responds to the AID Administrator's cable of July,
1988 concerning the institutionalization of Women in Development
concerns in Mission programming.

Gender Consideration 10: Include activities to
institutionalize consideration of gender issues in program








and project design, implementation, monitoring and
evaluation, including:

** Strategies for collection of needed data.

Examples of possible activities are:

identify gaps in data and information regarding
women which must be addressed before determining
how to integrate women; develop a strategy to
obtain the needed data;

establish from the start project monitoring and
tracking systems that disaggregate information by
sex; disaggregated data collection will be less
expensive and time consuming when planned from the
start;

establish dialogue with the national university to
identify data available.

** Benchmarks for measuring institutionalization

Examples of possible activities are:

establish indicators and a timetable for review of
progress in institutionalizing gender issues.
This might include review of scopes of work and
programming documents on a regular basis to assess
to what extent gender issues have been addressed.
(ibid..: 26).

** Strategies to enhance AID and host country development
planners skills in and awareness of gender issues as
appropriate.

Examples of potential activities are:

Identify Mission technical assistance needs in
this area, if any.
Establish linkages with representatives of women's
organizations, where Mission personnel deal only
with male host country nationals on issues of
agricultural or economic development. This can
facilitate regular consultation on sources of
information, emerging issues, and potential impact
of programs and projects.

Identify areas where the Mission can begin a
dialogue with host country officials concerning
gender issues in sectors where AID will be active.
Dialogue might also be initiated about mechanisms
to enhance the host country government's ability
to collect gender-disaggregated data.







8. ACTION PLAN


8.1 Description of the Action Plan

The Action Plan is a strategic planning and monitoring
document that is written every year or every two years.
Prepared on a more frequent basis than the CDSS, it provides
background information on the sectors of AID activity and
reviews impacts from the CDSS strategy. The Action Plan
also presents new activities, and establishes objectives,
targets, and benchmarks for the Mission strategy and
individual projects.

Level of detail in an Action Plan and extent of utilization
as a programming document vary considerably within AID
bureaus. In some bureaus it essentially serves the overall
assessment and planning function of a CDSS. In such cases,
please refer to the Gender Considerations for the CDSS.

8.2 Why Gender Considerations Are Important in the
Action Plan

As a working document with updated strategies and benchmarks
for project/program success, the Action Plan can provide a
focal point for Mission activities. Because gender
differences affect program success, they are integral to the
Action Plan. Further, the precise targets and benchmarks
included in an Action Plan provide an opportunity to assess
on a regular and systematic basis the extent to which gender
issues are institutionalized in Mission programming.

8.3 Steps for Incorporating Gender Considerations

Incorporating gender considerations into the Action Plan is
a two-step process.

* Consider first how gender affects key variables in
development at the household level in terms of
productivity, income, hunger, education.

Use the Gender Variable Matrix and the Key Questions in
it to analyze gender variables for two to three
representative ethnic groups. The Matrix will provide
an overview of how gender affects productivity and
income, hunger, education and other important
variables.

In many Action Plans, the situation description and'
program impact analyses depend almost entirely on the
use of macro level data. Information about household
level variables is rarely incorporated into the
analytical process. However, household level data is
needed to provide the situational context for the macro
level information.
















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It is not necessary that the gender analysis be carried
to great detail at the level of the Action Plan.
Rather it should identify the key areas where gender
considerations are important and what additional data
are needed.

Use the Gender Consideration charts to guide the
incorporation of gender issues into the Action Plan.


Document Heading: REVIEW OF PROGRESS TOWARD ACHIEVING
AID STRATEGY OBJECTIVES

Program Impact Assessment

Gender Consideration 1: Disaggregate data by sector.

Gender Consideration 2: Incorporate gender considerations
into background information and review of current
projects/programs (descriptions, implementation plans, and
impact analyses.)

It is important to disaggregate data in analyses of AID
projects in sectors where gender is a variable: that is,
where women are active and where their activities will
affect and be affected by AID interventions. The gender
analysis process (the Matrix) will suggest where to explore
gender issues.

In discussing employment, for example, the Action Plan
should include formal and informal sector employment by
gender. In a country where women are active as street
venders, have major financial responsibilities for their
family but limited access to credit, (Matrix questions on
sources of income, financial/provisioning responsibilities,
and constraints), analysis of AID efforts to improve capital
markets and financial services should address how gender
affects access to and impact of its development projects.

Gender Consideration 3: Assess data availability;
implications of the appropriateness of the information base
for current, mainstream projects, and how needed data will
be collected.

The analysis of current project impacts should indicate
where insufficient information is available to measure
participation and project/program impact by gender. Here too
the Matrix Gender Variable can assist in identifying
information needs.

For example, where gender analysis indicates that women are
extensively involved in rice production for home consumption
and sale, and where current AID programming includes








introduction of irrigated rice technologies, the Action Plan
should assess the availability of information about women's
rice production, consumption and sales, what additional data
is needed, and how it would be obtained.

Document Heading: IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE PROGRAM ACTION

Gender Consideration Issue 4: Describe modifications planned
for existing programs to address gender considerations,
where appropriate.

Analysis of gender considerations should not be limited to
"women's projects" but integrated into analyses of AID
programming overall. In some cases, gender will not be a
significant variable; however, this fact cannot be
ascertained without first including gender in the analysis.

Where analysis of the program indicates that gender is a
factor warranting project/program revision, the Mission can
use either the appropriate chart in the GIF (e.a., Chart IV,
Project Paper) or the ten-step process for project
adaptation described in Appendix IV.


Document Heading: STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES. TARGETS. AND
BENCHMARKS

In this section of the Action Plan, specific objectives to meet
long-term development strategies are defined and objectives are
broken down into short-term targets. In sectors or areas of
program activity where gender is a factor, gender should be
incorporated into the analysis. Specific gender considerations
follow.

Program Objectives

Gender Consideration 5: In sectors where women are active,
consider how gender variables affect long term development
strategies.

Gender Consideration 6: Disaggregate by gender short term
targets to meet objectives, where appropriate.

Gender Consideration 7: Disaggregate by gender benchmarks
toward achieving objectives, where objectives have been
disaggregated by gender.

An excerpt from a recent Action Plan that effectively
integrates these three Gender Considerations follows.

EXAMPLE

Objectives: Promote Private Sector/Increase Exports








The Management and Productivity Center (MPD) will
continue to take special actions to encourage
participation of women in training courses provided by
the Center. Given that the Haitian woman carries a
disproportionate workload and financial
responsibilities..., and given that she finds herself
with little time during the day to take training
courses, the 25% female participation rate registered
in 1987 is encouraging. To increase this
participation, MPC will continue to arrange the courses
at a reduced price and flexible timetable. MPC offers
two levels of modular training: one for the small to
micro-entrepreneur and one for the larger entrepreneur.
At the first level, there has been a 50% increase in
female participation over prior years and, at the other
level, a 42% increase. In its mandate to respond to
market demands, the MPC will continue to develop
offerings geared to the largest pool of beneficiaries:
female small entrepreneurs. Projects are to increase
women's participation by another 5% over the next two
years.

(USAID/Haiti, Action Plan 1989-1990)

MISSION MANAGEMENT

This section responds to the Administrator's cable of July, 1988,
concerning the institutionalization of Women in Development into
AID programming.

Gender Consideration 8: Review current progress and future
steps to enhance Mission capability to address gender issues
in discussion of Mission management issues, for example:

8.1 benchmarks for reviewing progress in
institutionalization of gender issues into Mission
programming process;

8.2 strategy for collection of data needed for
adaptation of current and planned future projects.

Other steps to enhance Mission capability might include:

establishing of project monitoring and tracking systems
that disaggregate information,

identifying Mission technical assistance needs in this
area,

identifying areas where dialogue can begin between the
Mission and host country officials concerning gender
issues in sectors where AID will be active, and









establishing linkages with representatives of women's
organizations for regular consultation on sources of
information, emerging issues, and potential impact of
A.I.D. programs.

An example of how this might be included in an Action Plan
follows.

EXAMPLE

...we have begun to explore several avenues to further
strengthen the implementation of our WID strategy. We plan
to conduct a portfolio review.... We plan to look for
assistance to gather, analyze and compare the existing
studies on women in order to arrive at a cohesive analysis
which will suggest the best approaches to address identified
problems....We plan to encourage more active integration of
WID concerns in development activities implemented by ...
non-governmental organizations in Haiti....we recently met
with representatives of the [Haitian Association of
Voluntary Agencies] women's committee and plan further
discussions with them. (USAID/Haiti, 1989-90)








9. PROJECT IDENTIFICATION DOCUMENT


9.1 Description of the Project Identification Document

The Project Identification Document (PID) is a project
concept paper that defines the problem to be addressed and
presents in general terms a recommended approach or
potential approaches to the defined problem. It also lays
out the strategy for additional data collection and detailed
project design.

9.2 Why Gender Is Important In The PID

The PID begins the project development process. Looking at
how gender might intervene in the problem -- and ultimately
the solutions -- is critical to ensuring that gender issues
are considered in the project. It also lays out the design
strategy: it identifies what data are needed; suggests what
issues should be considered in the design, and who should
participate in project design. If gender is not considered
in each of these, experience suggests that it will be
ignored in the design.

9.3 Steps for Incorporatina Gender Considerations in
a PID

Incorporating gender considerations into a PID is a two-step
process.

* Begin by considering how gender affects key variables
in the situation to be addressed at the household
level.

Use the Gender Variable Matrix to identify how gender
might intervene in labor allocation, income and
expenditure patterns, access and control of resources,
and constraints to participate in economic development.
Consider also how these factors present opportunities
for enhancing project effectiveness. Gender
differences in some or all of these variables are
likely to affect project implementation and eventual
impact.

For agriculture, agri-business, and other projects that
affect labor allocation, identifying division of labor
by gender will be especially important. Evaluation of
AID's experience with women in development indicates
that projects are more likely to achieve their goals
when their is a match between project activities and
the division of labor.

The following represent key gender issues for project
development at the PID stage. It is important to note
that resolution may not be possible for all issues



















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raised. However, the PID should identify them as issues
for further exploration in the project design.

Document Heading: PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Gender Consideration 1: Consider how gender affects the
problem to be addressed.

Begin by looking at the information provided by the Gender
Variable Matrix. Consider if the problem is different for
men and women, based on their roles and responsibilities.
Looking at the situation this way may indicate new
strategies and approaches. For example, in a proposed
agroforestry project, men's responsibility for livestock
feed may lead them to prefer fodder trees in crop lands or
live fencing. In the same situation, women may be
interested in boundary and cropland planting because of
their responsibility for fuelwood provision and domestic
chores that require them to stay closer to home.

Project Purpose

Gender Consideration 2: Use gender distinctions in
terminology (e. ., men and women farmers, rural men and
women) to define more specifically AID's work in the
situation.

Gender Consideration 3: Consider if achievement of
objectives is consistent with gender roles and
responsibilities, as well as access to project resources and
project benefits.

The PID will indicate in general terms what achievements are
expected at the end of the project. It is important to
assess the consistency between the problem definition,
inputs, outputs, and social considerations. In some
projects where women have been active in activities the
project will affect, gender issues have been well addressed
in the discussion of social considerations. However, the
inputs and outputs have not reflected incorporation of
gender analysis into the actual program design.

Document Heading: OUTLINE OF THE PROJECT AND HOW IT WILL
WORK

Gender Consideration 4.1: Where Gender Variable Matrix has
indicated the project will affect both men's and women's
activities, identify strategies that are appropriate given
differences in gender roles and responsibilities.

Where men's and women's activities in a project situation
are different, and where women's participation will
contribute to project success, strategies to increase
productivity will need to accommodate gender-based







differences. For example, training approaches for men may
not be appropriate for women because of time or other
constraints posed by domestic responsibilities. Training
for men may be residential and for an extended period of
time. Women may only be able to attend training sessions
when they are in their home village or town.

Gender Consideration 4.2: Identify technical issues in the
project design that will affect/be affected by men's and
women's roles and responsibilities.

Technical packages can increase productivity of one
household member while decreasing the productivity of
another. For example, in an agricultural project to develop
new strains of rice, researchers should consider how men and
women use the total plant. While men may control the
harvested grain, women may have access to the residues to
make mats for sale or to use as animal fodder. Research to
increase rice yields may decrease its utility to produce
income in other ways.

In addition, women's technology needs may be different from
those of men. It is important that the technology needs
assessment process and feedback loops provide a mechanism
for systematic input by both men and women.

Gender Consideration Issue 4.3: Review project components
for consistency with what is known about the organization of
activities the project will affect and constraints posed by
that organization.

Child nutrition projects target their interventions to the
person responsible primarily for child nutrition --
mothers. Similarly, project designers for economic and
other development activities should assess who is
responsible for the activities to be affected and target
programs accordingly.

Gender Consideration 5: Include strategies to obtain
gender-disaggregated data and feedback from both men and
women in project monitoring and evaluation systems, where
women's activities are affected by the project.

Gender disaggregated data is more easily and less
expensively obtained when the systems to collect it are
built in from the beginning of a project.


Document-Heading: FACTORS AFFECTING PROJECT SELECTION AND
FURTHER DEVELOPMENT

Social Considerations

Gender Consideration 6.1: Include known information about







key gender variables in analysis of factors affecting
project activities.

From this section will emerge an awareness of what
information is available and what is needed concerning the
social context in which the project will take place. This
section should specify additional data needs and recommend
whether data should be collected before or during project
design.

Gender Consideration 6.2: Identify how gender affects
participation and access to project benefits.

To assess the socio-cultural feasibility, begin by examining
project inputs and which household member should receive
them, given the differences in roles and responsibilities of
men and women. Formal and informal eligibility requirements
should be identified. For example, a training project may
not overtly restrict access by women; however, entry
requirements that are above women's typical education levels
may restrict the eligibility pool. Credit program
collateral requirements may restrict access to project
participation.

In developing project strategies, potentially constraining
factors related to eligibility and access be identified.

Disaggregate beneficiaries by gender. The project design
should carefully consider who benefits, in what form
benefits are received, and how they affect willingness to
participate. Where benefits do not match labor
requirements, for example, individuals may be unwilling to
participate. This may affect achievement of short term
purposes and long term project sustainability.

Gender Consideration 6.4: Consider differential impact by
gender.

Using the analysis of participation, eligibility and access
to benefits, consider the long and short term impacts of the
project.

Economic Considerations

Gender Consideration 7: Consider economic roles of male and
female household members; examine how the proposed approach
will affect economic roles and improve family well-being.

Where men's and women's income and expenditure streams are
separate, using the family as the unit of analysis is often
inappropriate. The economic analysis should consider how the
project increases the individual's productivity and ability
to meet family financial responsibilities and how this
affects family well-being.










Gender Consideration 8: Consider the technical expertise and
experience in reaching women of the proposed recipient
country implementing agency. Consider developing an
increased capability as part of the project if needed.

Gender Consideration 9: Assess budget estimates for
consistency with gender-based differences in development
needs, constraints and opportunities described in the social
considerations section.

This consistency check is important, because in some project
strategies to facilitate women's and men's participation in
the project have been described but are not reflected in the
budget.

Gender Consideration 10: Design Strategy

** summarize data needs for the Project Paper or pre-PP
study;

** indicate how such data will be collected and analyzed;

** recommend PP team composition necessary to ensure that
gender issues are effectively addressed (e. g.,
inclusion of social scientist).

Logframe: disaggregate by gender purpose, outputs, inputs,
indicators where appropriate.








10. PROJECT PAPER


10.1 Description of the Project Paper

The Project Paper (PP) is the document that drives and
describes the project design process. It builds on the
Project Identification Document (PID), in which the project
problem and approach to solving that problem have been
presented. The Project Paper is usually written by a team
that includes both Mission staff and consultants. It
typically includes extensive reading and interviewing in the
host country by design team members to produce detailed
technical, economic, administrative, financial, and social
analyses that are required for project design.

10.2 Why Gender Issues Are Important In The Project Paper

The Project Paper is the basic document used to implement a
project. Although PP's are written with varying levels of
detail and specificity, they always include recommended
project goals, major project elements, staffing, and budget.
The PP also establishes the processes of data collection,
monitoring and evaluation. In essence, the PP guides how
AID's work in a specific area will be carried out and how
its success will be measured. Because project evaluations
have shown that incorporating gender considerations into a
project affect achievement of project long term goals and
project purposes, gender considerations should be included
both in the process of project design and in the design
itself.

10.3 Steps for Incorporating Gender Into The Project Paper

Incorporating gender considerations into the Project Paper
is a two-step process.
* Consider how gender affects key variables in the
situation to be addressed.

Use the Gender Variable Matrix to clarify where gender roles
and responsibilities may intervene in the activities the
project will affect. The questions in the Matrix will
indicate data needed for the project design, data currently
available, and data to be collected during the project
design or as baseline data when project activity is
initiated.

Where a project will be undertaken with multiple ethnic
groups or where geography has led to very distinct cultural
patterns, gender roles should be analyzed for two to three
representative groups. For agricultural projects,
understanding of the division of labor will be especially
important. Evaluations have shown that agricultural projects
are most likely to achieve their objectives and/or long term






















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goals when there is a "fit" between gender roles and project
activities.

Some aspect of gender roles and responsibilities will be an
issue in most other projects however. Information about
income, expenditure patterns, access/control of resources,
and opportunities and contraints will always deepen
understanding of the factors affecting family economic well
being.

The Matrix within the GIF is a tool for a very broad
analysis to indicate the important areas for exploration of
gender issues. Additional guidance on gender variable
identification for agricultural and small scale enterprise
projects can be found in the Appendices.


Document Heading: PROJECT RATIONALE AND DESCRIPTION

Gender Consideration 1: Consider how gender affects the
problem to be addressed.

Using the information from the gender analysis, examine how
differences in gender roles and responsibilities affect
men's and women's perception of the problem. Also,
consider how to obtain input from men and women throughout
the project design process.

Project Purpose

Gender Consideration 2: Use gender distinctions in
terminology (e.g., male and female farmers, rural men and
women) in Project Purpose statement.

This will define more precisely the social context and
impact of AID's work.

Document Heading: PROJECT ELEMENTS

Gender Consideration 3.1: Include strategies to incorporate
women based on technical, financial, economic, social
soundness and administrative analyses, where women play a
major role in activities.

This Consideration essentially builds on the CDIE Synthesis
Paper finding that a "match" between project activities and
the patterns of living of the people the project affects
contributes to project success.

EXAMPLE

A microenterprise credit project in Latin America was
successful in reaching women microentrepreneurs and vendors
as a result of design features that reflect understanding of








gender differences in constraints and opportunities. Eighty
percent of the beneficiaries of the group credit component
were women; 27% of these were the sole adults earning an
income in their households. Women receiving loans from the
program had a 25% average increase in income.

Procedures to obtain credit involved few office visits, no
collateral was required, and information about the program
was disseminated through informal networks. (White et al:
47).

This project included strategies to address constraints
women face regarding time availability, crossing class
barriers to seek assistance in banks, lack of collateral,
and access to information. The project was not a "women's
project," but its credit procedures facilitated women's
participation.

Gender Consideration 3.2: Assess the consistency between
project elements, purpose, inputs, outputs, the social,
economic, financial and technical feasibility.

A consistency check is important in project design, because
consideration of gender issues in the Social Soundness has
in many instances stayed in the analysis and not led to
gender-sensitive strategies.

Gender Consideration 3.3: Include strategies to collect
baseline data where gender disaggregated data are
unavailable.

Collection of gender disaggregated data is less time
consuming and less expensive when built in from the start.
The project design should indicate what information is
needed and how it will be collected.

Cost Estimates

Gender Consideration 4: Consider funds for collection of
baseline data disaggregated by gender, training/materials
development, project personnel, and other project elements
that enable the participation of both men and women, where
appropriate.

This is both a recommendation concerning items that should
be considered in budget preparation and also a second
consistency check.

Document Heading: IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

Gender Consideration 5.1: Include decision points for
adjusting project as additional information is available
from baseline data collection and monitoring activities.







Gender Consideration 5.2: Distinguish male and female
training participants, criteria for eligibility, and
strategy for recruitment, where analysis indicates female
personnel are important.

Gender Consideration 5.3: Include appropriate personnel to
enable understanding of gender considerations and/or provide
technical assistance to low income men and women.

When gender will affect project implementation, project
personnel should have access to the services of a social
scientist to develop baseline studies, monitoring and
evaluation systems, methods of outreach to women, etc.
Also, where information will be disseminated to women,
provisions should be made to provide training to male
extension agents on working with women; or female
extensionists should be included on the project staff.

Monitoring and Evaluation Systems

Gender Consideration 6: Include collection and analysis of
data disggregated by gender and feedback from male and
female beneficiaries/participants throughout life of
project.

Document Heading: SUMMARIES OF ANALYSES

Technical Analysis

Gender Consideration 7: Include gender as variable in
technology needs assessment, analysis of access to
technology, cultural suitability, and potential impacts of
the technical package.

Technical packages can increase productivity of one
household member while decreasing the productivity of
another.

EXAMPLE
A West African project to increase palm oil production
introduced mechanical presses to community cooperatives and
displaced the micro scale processing that provided income to
rural women. Few women belonged to the cooperatives, and
their opinion was not sought out in the design of the
project.


Alternative strategies might have been to work with women's
groups to enable them to establish their own oil press
businesses or to introduce a more productive technology to
increase the income from the traditional process.

In addition, women's technology needs may be different from
those of men. It is import-int that the technology needs








assessment process and feedback loops provide a mechanism
for systematic input by both men and women. The issues here
are complex, and some trade-offs between incomes may be
involved. However, these trade-offs should be made with the
understanding of the likely outcomes and potential impact to
the various members of the household.

Financial Analysis

Gender Consideration 8: Review intra-household differences
in incomes and expenditures; examine ability to obtain and
benefit from project resources.

Female headed households are increasing in number and
percentage. In addition, in many ethnic groups, women
maintain their own household budgets and often have fewer
financial resources. The financial analysis should consider
these facts to determine if the proposed activity will be
accessible and profitable to the full pool of potential
participants, or if constraints based on gender will
significantly limit participation.

In agricultural production and processing projects, the
analysis might address the questions, "What is a
participant?" and "Whose finances?" Where both male and
female family members participate, often only the male head
of household's finances are analyzed. In households where
incomes and expenditures are kept separate, this may be
inappropriate.

Economic Analysis

Gender Consideration 9: Include costs and benefits for male
and female household members in terms of opportunity costs
of labor, access to productive resources, status, and
implications for individual and family welfare.

Because in many countries men and women have different
income and expenditure streams, increased incomes to men may
not translate into improved family welfare. This can occur
for many reasons. A few examples follow.

* Increased income for one family member may be derived
from additional labor required of another family
member. This decreases the amount of time for that
laborer's own income generating activities.

* Projects that pay husbands for all family members'
labor, or projects that change land allocation patterns
from those of usufruct rights to titled land, may
decrease women's ability to .earn or control their
income. Because women usually contribute a larger
share of their income to family expenses, eliminating
or reducing their income can have a negative effect on







family welfare. Studies suggest that when women's
incomes increase, child nutrition and other indicators
of wellbeing improve. Increases in men's incomes do
not appear to result in corresponding improvements.

Social Soundness Analysis

Gender Consideration 10:

10.1 Consider men's and women's roles in activities project
will affect and if project inputs are appropriate
according to the organization of activities the project
will affect;

EXAMPLE

Managers of a rainfed agricultural project in Thailand
assumed that men were the principal farmers and trained
them to carry out crop trials. Women, who performed
most of the tasks, received no training. Crops were
planted incorrectly and did not grow, a nitrogen-fixing
crop intended to fertilize rice was not planted, and
other project activities were not implemented. Some
trials fell a year behind schedule. In some instances,
women, who had not been consulted about the project,
pressured their husband to drop out. (AID-CDIE, 1987:)


10.2 Examine prerequisites for participation in project
activities and how gender-based constraints will affect
the ability of appropriate household member to
participate;

To assess the socio-cultural feasibility, begin by examining
project inputs and which household member should receive
them, given the differences in roles and responsibilities of
men and women. Formal and informal eligibility requirements
should be identified. For example, a training project may
not overtly restrict access by women; however, entry
requirements that are above women's typical education levels
may restrict the eligibility pool. In credit programs,
collateral requirements may restrict access to project
participation.

10.3 Examine the distribution of benefits and how benefits
affect incentives to participate;

EXAMPLE

In an agricultural project in West Africa, male farmers
were encouraged with government incentives to change
from millet to maize production. Women and men in this
country maintain separate incomes or men control the











whole income. Farmers began to make the change.
However, in some villages women are actively
discouraging their husbands from continuing or entering
maize production because it requires considerably more
labor to transform it into usable form. The incentive
for men, in this case, was increased incomes, while
for women the project meant additional work. The
project may not meet its targets because of these
differences in benefits.

10.4 assess impact, short and long term, direct and indirect
on income, division of labor, land, and other
productive resources by gender.

Administrative Analysis

Gender Consideration 11: Consider implementing institution's
ability and experience in reaching both men and women;
examine the implications of this for project strategies.
Indicate what steps might be necessary, if any, to improve
agency's ability to provide technical assistance to women.

Institutional selection is important. Technical experience
of an implementing agency is not synonymous with outreach
to poor people and women. Lack of experience may require some
specific resources targeted to improve their capability
such as in collection of disggregated data, in developing
new methodologies to reach women, employment of women staff
members.

Gender Consideration 12 (Logframe): disaggregate by gender:
purpose, inputs, outputs, indicators, where appropriate.






































APPENDICES







APPENDIX I


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Agency for International Development. (1988). Bureau Action Plan
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APPENDIX II: ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON GENDER VARIABLE
IDENTIFICATION


APPENDIX II-A: SMALL SCALE ENTERPRISE PARTICIPATION PROFILE

Appendix II-A will assist in developing an in-depth
understanding of gender variables in small scale enterprises.
The tables relate management characteristics of organization,
personnel, production, marketing and finance to enterprise
size and type of goods or service produced.

Included here as "thought stimulators", the tables have been
exerpted from:

"Small Scale Enterprise and Women," by Maryanne Dulansey
and James Austin in Gender Roles in Development
Projects, edited by Catherine Overholt, Mary B.
Anderson, Kathleen Cloud, and James E. Austin, Kumarian
Press, 1985.


APPENDIX II-B: FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND EXTENSION
PROJECTS

This appendix provides information on in-depth analysis of
gender variables in agricultural projects. Four areas where
gender variables are key to effective programming are
explored through a series of worksheets and accompanying
analytical questions. They are:

Farming systems calendar and activity analysis
Resources for farm production: access and control
Benefits and incentives
Process of including household members

This process of gender variable identification was developed
in conjunction with the Farming Systems Support Project at
the University of Florida. The information provided in the
appendix has been excerpted from:

"Intra-Household Dynamics and Farming Systems Research
and Extension Conceptual Framework and Worksheets," by
H.S. Feldstein with S.V. Poats, K. Cloud, and R. Norem,
March, 1987.












APPENDIX II-A


TABLE I ENTERPRISE SIZE



Organization Number of Workers Per Unit
1 2-5 6-10 11-20 21-50
1. Number of Units
Male owned
Female owned
2. Number of Workers
Male
Female
3. Legal Status (number)
Sole Proprietorships
Partnerships
Corporations
Cooperatives
Other
None

Personnel

4. Levels of Literacy, Training
Formal Education
Male
Female
5. Marital Status
Married
Male
Female
Single
Male
Female
Head of Household
Male
Female
6. Household Size & Female
Economic Contribution (%)
7. Age:
Male
Female
8. Time Commitment:
Full Time
Male
Female












TABLE I ENTERPRISE SIZE
PAGE TWO


Production Number of Workers Per Unit
1 2-5 6-10 11-20 21-50
9. Geographical Location
Rural
Male
Female
Semi-Urban
Male
Female
Urban
Male
Female
Regional Concentration
Male
Female
10. Operation Locations
Household
Male
Female
Donated Locale
Male
Female
Rented/Purchased Locale
Male
Female
Mobile
Male
Female
11. Technology
Traditional
Male
Female
Semi-Modern
Male
Female
Modern
Male
Female
12. Productive Activity:
Physical Production
Male
Female
Processing
Male
Female













TABIE I ENTERPRISE SIZE
PAGE THREE


- Wholesaling
Male
Female
- Retailing
Male
Female
- Financial
Male
Female
- Transporting
Male
Female
- Storing
Male
Female


Number of Workers Per Unit
1 2-5 6-10 11-20 21-50


Marketing

13. Market Destination
Household
Male
Female
Rural
Male
Female
Urban
Male
Female
Export
Male
Female
14. Sales Value:
Male SSE's
Female SSE's

Finance
15. Capital
Debt
Male
Female
Equity
Male
Female























TABLE I ENTERPRISE SIZE
PAGE FOUR


16. Financing Sources
Personal, Family, Friends
Male
Female
Savings Association
Male
Female
Money Lenders
Male
Female
Cooperatives
Male
Female
Banks
Male
Female


17. Finan


18. Earni


Number of Workers Per Unit
1 2-5 6-10 11-20 21-50


icial Management
- Male
- Female
ngs
- Male
- Female












APPENDIX II-A


TABLE II TYPES OF GOODS OR SERVICE



Organization Number of Workers Per Unit
1 2-5 6-10 11-20 21-50
1. Number of Units
Male owned
Female owned
2. Number of Workers
Male
Female
3. Legal Status (number)
Sole Proprietorships
Partnerships
Corporations
Cooperatives
Other
None

Personnel

4. Levels of Literacy, Training
Formal Education
Male
Female
5. Marital Status
:Married
Male
Female
Single
Male
Female
Head of Household
Male
Female
6. Household Size & Female
Economic Contribution (%)
7. Age:
Male
Female
8. Time Commitment:
Full Time
Male
Female












TABLE II TYPES OF GOODS OR SERVICE
PAGE TWO


Production Number of Workers Per Unit
1 2-5 6-10 11-20 21-50
9. Geographical Location
Rural
Male
Female
Semi-Urban
Male
Female
Urban
Male
Female
Regional Concentration
Male
Female
10. Operation Locations
Household
Male
Female
Donated Locale
Male
Female
Rented/Purchased Locale
Male
Female
Mobile
Male
Female
11. Technology
Traditional
Male
Female
Semi-Modern
Male
Female
Modern
Male
Female
12. Productive Activity:
Physical Production
Male
Female
Processing
Male
Female













TABLE II TYPES OF GOODS OR
PAGE THREE


Wholesaling
Male
Female
Retailing
Male
Female
Financial
Male
Female
Transporting
Male
Female
Storing
Male
Female


SERVICE


Number of Workers Per Unit
1 2-5 6-10 11-20 21-50


Marketing

13. Market Destination
Household
Male
Female
Rural
Male
Female
Urban
Male
Female
Export
Male
Female
14. Sales Value:
Male SSE's
Female SSE's

Finance
15. Capital
Debt
Male
Female
Equity
Male
Female
























TABLE II TYPES OF GOODS OR SERVICE
PAGE FOUR


16. Financing Sources
Personal, Family, Friends
Male
Female
Savings Association
Male
Female
Money Lenders
Male
Female
Cooperatives
Male
Female
Banks
Male
Female


Number of Workers Per Unit
1 2-5 6-10 11-20 21-50


17. Financial Management
Male
Female
18. Earnings
Male
Female



























APPENDIX III: INFORMATION ON DATA COLLECTION METHODS

Increasing efforts to incorporate gender considerations into
AID's development programs have drawn attention to the need for
data to first define what the gender considerations are and then
to plan programs that take them into account. Lack of
information is a frequently-cited explanation for why women have
not been included in project and program design.

This appendix presents five rapid data collection methods that
may be useful to planners seeking to expand their development
data base to include more gender-disaggregated data.

The information was excerpted from Rapid, Low-
Cost Data Collection Methods for A.I.D, A.I.D. Program Design and
Evaluation Methodology Report, No. 10, published by the Center
for Development Information and Evaluation in 1987.









RAPID, LOW-COST DATA COLLECTION METHODS FOR A.I.D.


INTRODUCTION

Growing attention to the incorporation of gender considerations
in AID's development program has drawn attention to the need for
data to first define what the gender considerations are and then
plan programs that take them into account. Lack of information
is a frequently-cited explanation for why women have not been
.included.in project and program design. In many cases data is
available; it may be less well-organized that other development
information. Sources of information that may be investigated
includes

agricultural extension reports
AID project documents
host country national universities "
host country women's bureaus
national women's organizations
other donor agencies and private voluntary organizations
anthropological studies
host country national staff at the Mission.

These sources should be able to provide considerable background
information on women. Where additional information is required,
cost- and time-effective methods are in order. Highly formal
methods including cross-sectional and longitudinal sample surveys
generate precise quantitative data. However, they expensive and
time consuming and often more elaborate than necessary.

A.I.D.'s publication entitled Rapid, Low-Cost Data Collection
Methods for A.I.D. presents five major types of rapid, low-cost
methods that deliver relatively accurate information on a wide
range of subjects. Delivering information with modest
investment of time and resources, they are usually more
appropriate "for understanding a phenomenon or process than for
measuring it precisely." (AID, 1987:2).

The raUsons for using these methods are:

they economize resources;
they provide timely information;
the information is relevant; and
they allow more flexible supervision.

The five rapid, low cost methods are presented below.

1. Key Informant Interviews

Key informant interviews involve interviewing a select group of
individuals who are likely to provide the needed information,
ideas, and insights on a particular suDject. The researcher
identifies appropriate sources (various occupational groups,
socioeconomic strata, and organizations) from which key
informants can be drawn and then selects a few from each group.









Although the atmosphere is informal, the interviews are conducted
using an interview guide that lists the topics and issues to be
covered. The interviewer takes detailed notes and often
supplements the informant's information with other data,
preferably from existing records, documents and other literature.

These interviews are particularly appropriate when general,
descriptive information is needed for decision making or when
further questions, hypotheses, and propositions are needed for
testing and refinement. Key informant interviews are also
helpful in the interpretation of already existing quantitative
data or when the primary purpose of a study is to generate
suggestions and recommendations.

In general, interviewing knowledgeable persons is less costly in
terms of time and money than 'other interviewing methods. Often
informants reveal confidential information that a more formal
setting would preclude. Also there is the opportunity for
flexibility if the investigator uncovers an unexpected issue.


2. Focus Group Interviews

Focus group interviews involve assembling 8 to 12 carefully
selected participants to discuss a specific topic. Group members
are free to comment, criticize, or elaborate on the views
expressed by others. The moderator stimulates conversation by
introducing the subject and probing to keep discussion moving.
It is also the moderator's responsibility to keep the discussion
focused and to prevent a few participants from dominating the
discussions.

The focus group method generates ideas and hypotheses for
designing a development intervention. It is also good for
determining reactions to recommended innovations and explanations
for behavior. Furthermore, focus group interviewing can be very
useful for gathering recommendations and suggestions when an
implementation problem arises.

This group technique can often generate fresh insights because
the participants stimulate each other. A sense of-security may
develop and thereby reduce inhibitions so that an individual will
provide more information in the group setting.


3. Community Interviews

Community interviews take the form of public meetings (more than
15 people) where the main interactions are between the
interviewers) and the participants rather than among
participants. Often more than one interviewer is required to
preside, ask questions and record answers and tallies. Moreover,
moderators with different disciplines can complement each other
in probing respondents. In order to obtain quantifiable
community-level data, the interviewer needs to phrase questions









that elicit a yes-or-no type, countable response. Extrapolation
from community data requires careful sampling.

This data collection method is very useful for gathering various
kinds of data about the surroundings, composition of the
population, occupational patterns, and the like. It is also
very helpful for assessing the support for a specific initiative
or for assessing the needs of a community.

Community interviewing affords the opportunity to collect
quantifiable data and to correct inaccurate information. In this
setting, participants will generally signal an inaccurate
response either verbally or through their facial expressions.



4. Direct Observation

Direct observation involves systematically observing a
phenomenon, process, or physical object. The data gathering is
not casual or informal. It requires well-designed questionnaires
and observation record forms. It may involve individual or group
interviews. However, it is not to be confused with the
ethnographic method of participant observation where observers
try to empathize with the people to gain an insider's
perspective. Usually a team of experts strive to gain a
comprehensive, bias free picture. Often they focus on physical
objects such as roads, dams, or agricultural production.

This method is particularly useful when trying to understand an
ongoing behavior or an unfolding event like how the farmers are
using the new tools. It is also useful for collecting
information about physical infrastructure or evaluating
delivery systems. Naturally, it is an invaluable when collecting
preliminary, descriptive information.

Direct observation is rapid and economical. Outside observers
are often able to pinpoint problems that those observed were
unable to articulate. Observing a phenomenon in its natural
setting provides a richer understanding than relying on documents
or key informants.


5. Informal Surveys

Informal surveys are small scale surveys concentrating on only a
few variables and using nonprobability sampling procedures to
save time and resources. These surveys do use structured
questionnaires administered by trained enumerators to generate
quantitative data. The sample size is usually between 30 and 50.
The number of questions asked is between 10 to 20. Informal
surveying techniques are very useful when quantitative
information is needed about a relatively homogeneous population
or when there are not time or resources for constructing a
probability sample.


































Informal surveys provide relevant quantitative data within a
short time and with limited personnel and economic resources.
They are however susceptible to sampling biases and they should
not be used as the basis for complex statistical analysis.


























APPENDIX IV: PROJECT ADAPTATION

This appendix provides information on project adaptation. It is
designed to assist existing projects to achieve a better "fit"
between project activities and gender roles and responsibilities
in the project situation.

The information is excerpted from Women in Development: A.I.D.'s
ExDerience 1973-1985. (1987). In Volume I of that document
(Synthesis Paper), project adaptation begins with a 10-step
process of gender analysis. Information from the analysis then
leads to project adaptation.

The pages that follow present the gender analysis and project
adaptation process.











The Process of Gender Analysis: Ten Steps


Step 1: Clarify gender roles and their implications for..
project strategies. The starting point should be to clarify the
project strategy. For example, what does the project propose to
do to improve agriculture? What activities will be affected by
project interventions? What is the existing division of labor
in these activities? How do these activities fit in with the
total pattern of household productive and domestic activities?
What innovations are being proposed? What are their behavioral
implications for different household members?

Step 2: Analyze eligibility to receive project inputs.
Start by examining what inputs the project intends to provide,
and identify which household member should receive them, in
light of the existing division of labor. For example, if
livestock is women's responsibility and grain is men's, inputs
for livestock should go to women and inputs for grain to men.
If women are responsible for an activity slated for project
intervention, can they qualify to receive inputs in their own
name? What are the prerequisites for eligibility, and how many
households in the target group can meet those criteria?

Step 3: Define prerequisites for participation in project
activities. In the light of the division of labor, which
household member should participate in activities such as soil
conservation, water user groups, training, and extension? Even
if there is no formal discrimination against women, how will the
location and timing of activities affect their participation?
Does the proportion of women in the pool of eligible
participants match the division of labor?

Step 4: Examine outreach capabilities of institutions and
delivery systems. If analysis of the division of labor shows
that an activity slated for project intervention is women's
responsibility among smallholders, to what extent to existing
institutions and delivery systems have direct contact with
female smallholders, or with any women (e.g., the well-to-do).

Step 5: Assess the appropriateness of proposed technical
packages. Are the technical packages applicable to all
households or only to those with certain types of resources,
such as irrigated land, several head of cattle, or a labor
surplus? How many households in the target group have the right
kind of land? How many, given the sex-typing of tasks and male
migration, can meet the additional labor requirements? How many
can raise the necessary cash? What implications do gender
differences have for the spread of technical innovations to poor
households?












Step 6: Examine the distribution of benefits and its
effect on incentives. Given the gender division of labor and
the control of income from different crops by men and women,
what interest would women have in intensifying production? Do
the direct returns to women outweigh the additional effort? If
the project affects marketing, are women likely to lose an
independent source of income?

Step 7: Consider the reliability of feedback mechanisms.
If women play a major role in project-related activities such as
farming vegetables, how will the project find out whether the
proposed technical innovations are acceptable to them? What
provisions are made for local women and men's participation in
selecting and testing technologies; in evaluating results? Do
monitoring and reporting systems distinguish male and female
participants?

Step 8: Anticipate likely changes in the roles and status
of women. How will the project affect women's access to and
control over land, labor, capital, and expertise? Will women's
workload increase or decrease? What will happen to their
independent income, to their control of crops and the income
from their sale, and to their voice in household decision-making
on expenditures and other issues?

Step 9: Link changes in the roles and status of women with
the expected project impact. How will changes in women's access
and control of land and productive resources affect food
availability? How will changes in women's ability to earn an
independent income affect household cash flow? How will it
affect their ability to provide for their families? How will
women's workload affect such things as child care and family
nutrition?

Step 10: Identify needed adaptations. Using the previous
steps as a guide, specify what changes are needed in
institutions, delivery systems, technical packages, and feedback
mechanisms to overcome the barriers to women's access to project
inputs and their ability and incentive to participate.


From Gender Analysis to Adaptations in Project Design and
Implementation

Analysis of gender differences alone has little effect on
project outcomes unless institutional and other barriers to
participation are identified and overcome.










Women-Only, Women's Component, and Integrated Approaches

One way of overcoming barriers to women's access to
development assistance is to design a women's project. Another
alternative is to insert a component for women in mainstream
projects. A third alternative is to integrate women throughout
mainstream projects without a component for women. Since the
Percy Amendment, A.I.D. has learned a great deal about the
advantages and disadvantages of each approach, and each is
discussed in detail below.

Women-only projects are designed exclusively for women
participants and beneficiaries. Those examined by the
evaluation ranged from institutional-development projects aimed
at training staff of women's bureaus to community-based
income-generating schemes. The main advantage of women-only
projects is that they are hignly visible efforts to explicitly
improve the social and economic well-being of women. The main
disadvantage is that their development impact, with few
exceptions, tends to be minimal. Some of the reasons for low
impact are institutional: tiny budgets, low government
priority, and lack of leverage (especially when projects are
located in under-funded social welfare ministries or private
voluntary organizations). Other reasons are technical:
women-only projects are often administered by people with
inappropriate technical skills, their design is
management-intensive, and their backstopping tends to be
disproportionately costly in staff time.

A women's component is a women-focused activity within a
larger project. As part of a larger project, women's components
have access to greater resources and are able to borrow
technical expertise. Nevertheless, the budgets of these
components tend to be smaller (usually no more than 5 percent of
a project's total budget), and like women-only projects they
have positive and negative features.

An integrated project by A.I.D.'s definition is any
mainstream project that "integrates" women without a women-only
design or a women's component.


Targeting Resources to Women

Targeting is one approach to trying to ensure that some of
the resources of integrated projects actually reach women. The
basic strategy is to earmark a share of such project inputs as
commodities, training, credit, and employment "for women."
Another is to establish quotas for women's participation in
project activities. The underlying premise is that such
earmarking will make project management accountable for
delivering resources to vomen.











Yet in general, earmarking resources for women alone may
not affect project outcomes when technical and institutional
constraints to female participation are not identified and
removed. For example, if there are no women in the pool of
eligible participants, funds earmarked for women can not be
utilized. Thus, earmarking resources for women cannot be
considered a substitute for gender-sensitive adaptations in
projects as a whole.

There is also a need to distinguish between resources such
as grassroots training and credit earmarked for village women
and resources such as personnel slots, vehicles, and overseas
training earmarked for female professionals. It is village
women's actual receipt of project resources that is correlated
with achievement of objectives.


Project Adaptation

It is possible to adapt mainstream projects to gender
without designing a women-only project or a women's component or
earmarking a share of the project budget. This can be done by
adjusting such things as the focus of project activities and
their location, timing, and support services. This section
examines some of the gender-responsive design adaptations that
can improve projects by improving their outreach to women.


Change in the Focus of Project Activities

To a large extent, women's participation in mainstream
projects is influenced by the focus of project activities.
One way of increasing women's participation in development
projects has been to add on a small component focused on women's
household and family roles. The shortcomings of this approach
are that: they can divert attention from women's economic roles
and their implications for the success of the project's main
components.


Change in the Number of Women in the Pool of Eligible Participants

Although in such cases it might appear that women's
participation is outside the control of project planners, this
is rarely true. When there are few women in the pool of
eligible people, three adaptations are possible: (1) eligibility
criteria or institutional procedures can be changed so that women
qualify, (2) special programs can be launched to train more women
up to standards, or (3) male staff can be trained to work with
village women in the absence of female staff.











Adaptation of Credit Components


Whether in agriculture, nonfarm production, or urban informal
sector enterprises, the main determinants of women's participation
in credit components are as follows:

The focus of lending (microenterprises versus larger
firms and male- versus female-dominated sectors)

Minimum size of loans (the smaller the minimum, the
higher the female participation rate)

Collateral requirements (group liability can remove the
obstacle of women's lack of land title and fixed assets)

The hidden costs of borrowing (reducing the cost in
time and money of trips to credit outlets for
application and repayment increases participation)

Bank's incentive to service small loans (innovations
such as group lending can increase outreach to women by
reducing overhead costs to the bank)

When the terms of lending are conductive, women will
constitute a high proportion of loan recipients. When lending
terms are adverse, few women will receive loans, regardless of
efforts to target them. Thus analysis and adaptation of
eligibility criteria and delivery systems are the key to
increasing women's participation in credit programs and the
productive activities that those programs support.


Outreach of Existing Delivery Systems

The outreach of existing delivery systems strongly affects
projects' ability to reach and benefit women. When ceilings on
government expenditure make it difficult to the project to
recruit additional staff to work with women, the program's
outreach depends on their ability to utilize whatever
village-level staff (male or female) is already in the area.


Location of Project Activities and Services

The location of training facilities influences women's
participation in training of all types: because of their family
responsibilities, women are less likely to participate in
out-of-country than in-country training and are more likely to
prefer day training to residential training.


















Timing and Duration of Activities


Because women's time constraints differe from those of men,
the timing and duration of project activities affect women's
participation differently from men's.

Women may be unable to participate fully in farmer
training courses because the timing of part of the
program conflicts with meal preparation responsibilities;
grain mills can reduce meal preparation time so that
women can attend.

Adaptation to women's seasonal time constraints can
also be crucial in securing women's participation in
projects.


Facilities for Sleeping and Child Care

When training requires women's absence from home for
extended periods, the availability of facilities for sleeping
and child care greatly influences women's ability to participate.


Choice of Language and Communication Network

Finally, the choice of language and communication network
also influences outreach to women. Because of their greater
contact with the world beyond the village, men are more likely
than women to speak the national language. The solution is to
recruit bilingual extension agents directly in the local area.
Communication networks among village women also differ from those
of men. Outreach to women can be improved by identifying the
times and places where different groups of women get together and
then using these settings as entry points.




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