Title: Mineral needs of dairy cattle /
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00102136/00001
 Material Information
Title: Mineral needs of dairy cattle /
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Harris, Barney
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Copyright Date: 1980
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00102136
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 8840663

Full Text























Mineral Needs

of Dairy Ca
Barney Hanis, Jr.
Dairy Science Department


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1 Florida Cooperative Ex~tension Service IInstitute of Food and Agricultural Sciences IUniversity of Florida IJohn T. Woeste, Doan
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N tOP,~J.g'~lwC( e on a daily intake of

a lium and phosphorus
'not et he overlooked in dairy
'mAivo st Qyus functions is cell
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Adequate amounts of caloum and plnhqpkrlu i.
needed in order to sustain Jigh levels of .glapm
duction. Under general feedisg,~me pP $MPs
phosphorus appears to be mo e
borderline, then cWlinm.
ciency symptoms ie ncXlu. .-
lowered disease resistaneer atdeclie
efficiency, poor feed. utillaien ad- iqped ,u-
cidence of milk fever.


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sedifm l fte are retained about 38 and 80% as
wSl as sulfar from methionine.
ALUboer of idicaters of sulftr deficienciis have


been reported. These symptoms are refLa ie feed 1t
take, slower gains, dullness, lower digWMlMtyjsand
reduced milk production.


Sodium Chloride (Salt)


Bukalaena l salt is needed in all current dairy
caMti ratiwns fed in Plorida. It is usually added as
tra"e adnaerl (TM) salt or as a packaged, complete
4' Iesano the ration rather than feeding free-choeie.
Aimenaeate awshold contain about 1% TM salt (up
to 10% with siOg algeatioBs) and a complete feed
0.,1%. Mixig salt with the other ration com-
pdsotet takes advantage of its condiment qualities
M aI paseus adequate intake of salt. Dry cows and
heifes should have free access to salt and other


needed minerals when grain consumption is limited.
Salt intake to heavy springs should be limited or
blended with the ration to prevent udder edema.. If,
udder edema is a problem, reduce the salt content of
the ration to 0.5%.
Salt deficiency causes an intense craving for alt,
lack of appetite, poor growth, haggard appeaamei
lusterless eyes, a rough haircoat and lowered milk
production. Recovery is rapid with the addition of
salt.


PART 1f: TRACE MINERALS


The addition of trace minerals to dairy cattle
atiMise is m ily considered to be good nutritional
ineumsam. Thbequetien that arises, however, is how
do I know which trace minerals to add and how
mueh of each mineral?
The teace minerals deserving some consideration
for being addedto dairy rations are as follows:
'Tgt 4. Teae Minml Nieds of High Poduolng

Apponimate Ratioen
Concentrate
WimI*ga (Dry Maltr Basis)
ken 60 ppm
MAgn"nese 40 ppm
QFpper 10 ppm
Aftn 40 ppm
G.eAt .1 ppm
laodJe .8 ppm
tlresltm 0.1 ppm
yqalmter x % aM M ed biael


'fesaleof iem in the- bdy is mainly confined to
th pvReses of eelift Mepiatjen, as a component
feltfgeoabin mysleble and eyteehrome, and in
euoWanmiimes.. Aboet 6-70% of the iron in the
bUdlieouAd i thmieaogtbia and 3-5% inmyoglobin.
kees o0 eepper are squired for the atiation of
ireaisiemg Win formation.
The asked foriro in the dit of the adu-dairy cow
ivsveutaedat a t bt100 mag per day. M alamum
fioUnquairemet for healthy dairy alves isabout 30
agi OPday. Calves fed an exclusive whole nlk diet
( -tf-is low in iron) will.develop iron deficiency


* The trace minerals are needed by the dairy anial
only in very small quantities. FNr this reas qnsaltis
commonly used as a carrier for- all the -traee
minerals.
Trace minerals should not be added to dairy ma-
tions indiscriminately. Many rations will contain
adequate levels with or without their addtiWn. If a
trace mineral problem is suspected, eamsiaa the
situation carefully and make the adjistmeusw -In
your mineral mixture acoeedingly., To muo f a
particular mineral could further Aftegeaiise. the
situation.

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anemia with two to three months. This paelaeis l
desirable in growing vealerteaves.
A deficieacy of iron in most dfter ay w0 N owti ne
has rarely beea obsmted; Defileiny -sp ~al
reported in calves include reduced weigt. aitS,
listlessness, inability to with tand rouaty
strain, redmued appetite'aid anemia.
Studies at the University of Florid sheow tlat
iron was available to dairy cattle fre* ta am
sulfate, ferous carbonate and fbl ehBems e la
decreasing order of avail3b ity. Ferge oxide irmo
was only abaut: 12% as available as the iren -fro





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WtM5 i 4lOw ta tS:*SaIngested an improvement inn
Pins "raie of sepeabreeder cows by treating
, 4 Eilt ae 8 to 12 days before the onset of
ane field study the number of re-
f d irregular breeding intervals
Sk4piae was added to the ration.
blsP ee ported in.Maryland.
Soiarbssaad-taameaeal in rations
Sekuagabslaseaerption of ougmnic
i*jp.bdh Same al 4 ct the absorption of in-
'ft.f ti i a ie dtne itiency. -areas where,
si _pantUa~ornslagerae used, rations con-
r. g ie ammoats of soybean meal have
tl t of alveswith enlarged thyroid
..eee.og<.6oto.seed meal rationsapro-
liee thyroid glands.
dra:aRlwneed d for iodime, it is
-Shd* rear pe*tic'-kevuls to prevent
in the" for of .thyleae-
(tD wi e somstinues fed at
d S ly for prevention of
| qje ' Npatblveles as high as 400 to
. i h.....S.d.. tarwoq to three weeks for
S6OntO pound of organic iodine
S468 grmsng r i458Ak6m mg. In order to
Wtcow" Ia-duans woui too average
.^^^BiW'^W a dairyanmu would need to
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of selenium in cattle feeding
jeauShw~ t and has been
A esenaCt for cattle since 19
lea1s0y.9Aymptome0s report
e~skbaleaEe-wite ausele dise
b-disease, and muscle deoge

tate~ university showed that
ay be controlled in herds wh
oaaceathif, problem by ei~te
*ion of 50 Mg. of selenium
F- of itamtia E -given appo
pqarke -; or bysehewa toWa


da s~arush-Me P*

i .- almlh 4-4b dcbirmnled and eveoi.
BleMINligidb 3eim jinat edlby jdevlo pin ga
EMia^hi;~^


add 1.6 grams of organic iodine per, tqoqf fed?'
Organic iodide contains about 80% iodine.
The requirements for iodine as repcmmended by
the NRC is 0.5 ppm of the ration dry nater. Iodized
salt should contain about .006 to 0.4% iodine. Oom-
plete feeds (with CSH, etc.) containing 1% salts;tt.
contains .01% iodine in the trace salk-wilbicotn.tk -
ppm in the finished feed. Theefore,-salt co)akfNg:
.005% to .01% iodine added to complete feeds atefi
rate of 1% (20 lb/ton) will meet the nutritional r
quirements of dairy cows for iodine.
Iodine toxicity can be a problem where herds:are
fed too much iodine to prevent diseases such as
"footrot" and "lumpy jaw." Symptoms observed
and reported are tearing eyes, nasal discharge, bsge
ing eyes, nervousness, rough hair coat including l os
of hair, sluggish movement, redaued app~ele.
tracheal congestion that aceues coeugWgi, uAtd
lowered milk production. Recovery f em.iodIPne4x
city is rapid after the excess iodine is elimif.ed.
from the diet.
Excessive levels of dietary iodine result in Ulgil
blood iodine, excretion of large amounts of 4odineh
urine and feees, and increased secretiontino.a: .
The Pood and Drag Administration 'flWf'.,fgu
earned with high levels of odine, ci0 ststi 4n
milk.


Selerdum
g is herd health program with the cooperation oeLyaC
on- veterinarian.
57. Nutritional deficiencies which. increase the in .-
Sin cidence of retained plcenStawcI d ded lemiWi
se Vitamin A, ioaie,. selenium a% phosphewuIerm ii
ra- tional imbalamees which have been rep*itet to4
crease the inadense include an imbalastae QU Odei
re- and phosphorus and to some degree their -raf4o.
ere Generally, the atia is of leseimportameaAii&lo as.,
ran each is adequate. We recommend a
as of 1.25:1 up to 2:1 of calcium-to pbA r i '
dmi- final ration.
-in- Other conditone associated with retained plan:
mug fea inchidtistefionaf(Bidiltb lving, ad>!ataoeil
Sti deficiencies. Alsor seiBndd1Pwenta6mioowa *MJo-

*n abeges to.bnea jrWe,,asau l it

aen *Adeifl qe4thr-4dt -Si^uraect Q^; -
6s.- Sodium sateste coUais6 41% .,%
amy e adium selesite coantata 306 selimn^(ifl ^B4
w, teon e 88+ ma of sdima lerite or 2.~* i
S s odium l ea enat per tea of de.d wlaM pre.d .
oo1: weftaishaele pn Is tiaration.


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Tpe. selenium: level of the hair of cattle is a useful tailed, disease -due to the lwssI f4 tai, ih.
, indioatetof both Se deficiency and Se toxicity. Most switch of cattle. Acute sRlei n' 'r -i.
s8-have:,shwn that cattle with hair values eon- charaeterizs.b dulsnes, si& at.


-at ',,.- -> ; ... :.
egi.,, ,e.s., s50*.e b w ,.bpd ,.s a '4. -


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f -Iiet I l. W sf gL
(%(4 (%) % 4%) ( (%) 4t1 f) ( i)

AwJfae, all marlytle 1. 0 0.20 .30 1.80 .27 .020 6.0 0.86 Q35
IfgTgg04fl hay .40 .0 .16 1.5 .10* .ONW ..8'. 3.0 8t* ..o.
bsS.hIy .40 .10 .16 1.46 .10' .49 1.58 S* .O* .10*'
, .Ito .a ,s b LS 9. j
.0i .831 1.8 1 O, 1. m 34 46
I n 1.40 .7 4 .04# 21.7 7.9* 104 44l
# t%/60 1D1) .10 .07 .06 .27 .04 .00$8 10* (8h .910'*
fOignteai I,) .20 1.20 .68 1.48 .40 .060 90 31, 0,8 .'070
9~fttlsenal hulls .10 .05 .10 .76 .15 .019 6 9.0 49.0 .010
tE.e graIns .20 .55 .13 .24 .45 .020 9.4 7.0' 18.9 .018
.Q .56 5 44 .74 .98 ,00r 9 f 7,4' 1 8 ,
,7 A PI . .00 a 1 '
S10 9 ,J0 ?t0 A*
4# I1 ** s .n) .0 5 c .ti S'4 8W
S 1.9 .1 .0 "4.09' i,' 40, 4
j rf-J .18 .40 .16 .3 1 .087 *0 A0*. 10 0'
irvel hay .35 .9 8 .16 1.30 .10' .02~ 1.3 3.0 20. .01
PIau-t d sl .15 .60 .24 1.16 .16 .0** 7.0* ,.0* 1t0.0
.wSg r .08 1..0 .74 .1s .019 64 13a 1R*9 .209+
al .95 1.40 .6014 841 6.0 14 .. .
aa ., ..g ,fi ,, .40,i .i.g 6A i. 1 "0'
.4 . A- .A .0 i 1 916 .- A
.10 1i.t .9 1 7229 1s' 3- a
*1f .16 90 429. 06 .30 .006 Ite 4U *.0 1446




,.ski I
1tfj gtylai daay bsafti A'few Tei iteS4 i4ne wif b'
amqAo,, however, have complete an~dor trace andphoe~piiq us
litr elai nitues fonulated for theirownlpeeifioa- Thie fIlR luagneIB l mixi tlhi.~p& be ffi.'
Ctn. In doip 4o, one must be reminded that mineral quently observed on a mineral tag.







W IER"rWeerui qe Cattme
S: i .. lbs % Elemnt in Mix RlNo'Cato P
SQA.O Calcium 1&6%
I. Phosphorus 6.3% 2.95"to 1,.
0;* ; 40.0%
S .a. O' ,o 0 (22% 8, 11% Mg, 18% K)*
f- srbonatm 1.o00 .2%
o:i 2.00 .08%
3.00 .12%
-., 0.15 .004%
.04 :o94 .002%0
-.Po, .0003%
.20 .
...-.: ; : _- . .. 20 8 0


M: AO%;, .9%; and K .81%

r to 60 ponds of a complete
retaofafinithed feed on a 90%
l of a t*iituu to phosphorus
iaaj ievaries considerably
I~i~riatens in .the feed.
~~sitamtaepailp in a ration, the'
ab ihrusein the mineral should
lp lo.emitted from the ration
is a-eda the protein source,
* is needein the mineral mix-
ap Ar fIk to, contain about
aid-3eateate
h~i^tttn taaage es .
^Nt^%dbUDB;l'8.


The percentage of element in the miae! :mistn
shown in Table 6 is calculated by npltypir4Aig ,,l
pounds of the mineral compows by
element in the conipound iTa e andl:d
.2000 (ton). As an example, sodhun selenite(1060&
= .006 + 2000 = .000003 x 100 = .0008%).
Blood is sometimes used to determine the ad.
quacy or deficiency of a mineral compound in.the ra-
tion. The normal values of certain mineralelement,
.reported in bovine blood are: calcium, 10 mg %:
phosphorus, 4-6 mg %; and magnesium, 2-4 mg.O
SThe following weight, equialenbt adaS ..
notes are given for your conauderatide:


is ( gm) = 0.4536 .kilogralm(kg) = 16 ounces (oz.)
de-to 2.2 lbs = 1000 gms.


li rtsf (ing) = 1,000,000 mlorograms g).
a 0.001 g m.


same as ppum 3~wikg *.50 ppm)


t. .+, -'..- o
| t Rp apilMh tft meHor-I.veort to pr.


t' N rts .per unit (as .parts pIr
lO tP e Oi x -
,. ,:

Simi-"


mNotee
and then to tmlligramna).
,000054 x 40s.6 = G.0G44rpmsl~ sFx -.
0.02449 x-4000 244 n9tab.
3. Conversito frei -as ed tsuis to Dry4ft_-
ter Bas i0M).
.Exrtple: 3.0% Cridef ibtij n -t+ 30%. Iey
t teE = 10%0CP(DI) .
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*elitamIt
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eIte U^MA^
i-- _

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NaSeO,

Ne,8e04. 10H0O

NagSeO,.5HO0

N280,. 10H0

NaSO,
NaSO,


188.95

389.11

263.03

322.22

142.06


78.96

78.96

78.96

32.07

32.07


41.8%

21.4%

30.0%

9.9

23.0


white
to fed
olear
crystal
white
powder


.II' f'tne ZIt1I, 136.3 65.4 48.0 w',te
h:. "MoriIe crystal
deiqueseMent
hzin Zn8O,.7H,O 287.6 65.4 22.7 white
II- utte crystal
S-in .l ZnCO, 125.4 65.4 52.1 white
: wbte crystal
zinc ZnO 81.4 65.4 80.3 white
si P-e crytal


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mamPirWlum MgSO,.7HO 246.5 24.32 9.9 white
!uluts crystal
M1laweSe mlsrganous MnCO, 115.0 54.9 47.8 rose-pink
carbonate powder
M aaneus MnC1,24HO 197.9 54.9 27.8 rose.erystal
ehliride dellqUesoent
manrn oue MnSO,.HO 169.0 54.9 32.5 pale-pink
sulfate crystal
'maneu nous MnO 70.9 54.9 77.4 green
xi. e crystal
P k rim -potaIlumr KHCO, 100.11 39.11 39.1 ofear
filori onate crystal
potawkim K2CO0 138.20 39.10 28.3 olear
cQabWate crystal
.-PaW9im KCI 74.55 39.10 52.4 white
.4hSNOb crystal
pItMlium KSO, 174.26 39.10 22.4 white
crystal


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