Group Title: Circular ;
Title: Oats on Florida farms
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00102091/00001
 Material Information
Title: Oats on Florida farms grow 50 bushels to the acre
Series Title: Circular ;
Physical Description: 1 folded sheet (6 p.) : ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Smith, J. Lee
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla
Gainesville, Fla
Publication Date: 1943
Copyright Date: 1943
 Subjects
Subject: Oats -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by J. Lee Smith.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "Sept., 1943."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00102091
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 222736275

Full Text
Circular 72


On Florida Farms


Grow

50
3. .7/7
-$ JJ6Q


Bushels
to the Acre


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA






Oats on Florida Farms

By J. LEE SMITH
Extension Agronomist
WHY GROW OATS?
1. They produce an excellent grain feed,
early.
2. When cut in the dough stage they
produce good hay that is harvested at a
season when curing is usually surest.
3. They provide green grazing for all
kinds of livestock on the farm during win-
ter and spring.
4. They provide the earliest grain feed
that can be harvested with hogs.
5. They are harvested in the spring, per-
mitting the production of another crop on
the same land during the year.
6. They prevent excessive soil erosion
by winter and spring rains if planted early
on rolling lands.

SOIL ADAPTATION
Any land which will grow a good crop
of cotton or corn will produce oats, though
the best results are to be expected from
the heavier, more fertile soils. A fertile
sandy loam or clay loam soil well filled
with humus will generally prove most sat-
isfactory. They use a large amount of
soil moisture and respond well to fertility.
Good drainage is essential. Winter-kiLing
and diseases are most likely to occur on
infertile and poorly drained soil.

PREPARATION OF LAND
Though the preparation of a good seed-
bed is not as essential for the production
of oats as for some other crops, it is de-
sirable. The soil's previous treatment and
its character will determine the best
[1]
Exchange Unlv, Pub






method of preparation. If the land was
well plowed and the cultivation for the
preceding crop was reasonably clean, a
double disking is likely to be sufficient
except for the hard dry soils. Plowing
5 or 6 inches deep, turning vegetation
under well a month in advance of plant-
ing, may be desirable. A disking or har-
rowing should then put it in good condi-
tion. If fertilizer is to be broadcast it can
be applied just prior to the last disking or
harrowing.

FERTILIZING
Regardless of the previous treatment of
soil it will be profitable to top-dress oats
with approximately 150 pounds of nitrate
of soda per acre or its equivalent about
the 10th or 15th of February. If the pre-
ceding spring or summer crop did not re-
ceive an application of a complete fertilizer
it will be advisable to apply 200 to 400
pounds of a 2-10-4 or 4-10-7 fertilizer per
acre to the oats at time of planting. If a
good growth of crotalaria, peanut, or vel-
vet bean vines has been turned in, 300
pounds per acre of 0-14-10 or 200 pounds
of 18 or 20 percent superphosphate and
50 pounds of 60 percent muriate of potash
will suffice. This fertilizer can be drilled
or disked in at or just prior to the time
of seeding.

VARIETIES
Because crown rust has destroyed the
seed crop so often in past years, Florida
farmers have practically quit trying to
produce a grain crop and have turned to
it as a green grazing crop only. Rust-free
or strongly rust-resistant varieties are de-
sirable for all purposes, but are not so
necessary when grazing alone is wanted.
Where a hay or grain crop is desired in
the area of the state west of the Suwannee






River the following varieties are recom-
mended. Quincy Red (No. 1), Quincy
White (No. 2), Hasting's Hundred Bushel
and Nortex. Both the Quincy varieties
are immune to crown rust and therefore
are the surest producers. The Quincy Red
is free of smut, Quincy White almost so.
All these varieties are midseason to late
maturing. For central and southern Flor-
ida the most promising grain producing
varieties are the Suwannee Blackhull and
the Fulghum, because of their earliness.
The Suwannee Blackhull is the surer grain
producer, though at times Fulghum will
produce more.

RATE OF SEEDING
Time and method of planting and the
main purpose for which oats are to be
grown will influence rate of seeding, yet
no good yields are to be expected without
a good stand. It requires stalks to produce
grain. It is safer and more dependable
generally to use at least 2 to 3 bushels of
seed per acre on fall plantings. When
planted on fertile soil in early fall and not
intended for grazing the lighter seeding
can be used, since good stooling and growth
can be expected. Winter and spring graz-
ing will be increased and soil erosion better
prevented on rolling lands if a heavier
seeding is used. Late plantings will re-
quire more seed.

TIME OF SEEDING
The time or date of seeding oats is very
important. Christmas or spring-planted
oats are always light producers. The rust-
immune oats and those most resistant can
be planted in October with safety. For
best results they should be planted during
the month of October and early November.
They will have grown more and produced
a better root system and thereby provide






more winter grazing and erosion preven-
tion, in addition to producing more hay or
grain in the spring.

METHODS OF SEEDING
The method of seeding has less effect on
production of oats than many other pro-
duction practices; however, some methods
are better than others. Wheie grain drills
are available drilling is advisable because
a more uniform sowing and a more even
germination of the seed will likely be se-
cured. Sometimes oats are planted in
small, close, shallow furrows opened by the
use of a fertilizer distributor or planter.
Fertilizer and seed may be put in together.
Drilling by either method gives them the
protection afforded from drought and cold
by being in a slight depression. They may
be sown broadcast and turned in with a
small plow, disc tiller or plain disc harrow.
The tiller or harrow will not put them in at
an even depth or in a depression. In plow-
ing seed in, the land can be left slightly
rough, giving some protection, and the
depth can be gauged to fit the land, assur-
ing the depth of planting to suit the land
and the normal prevailing weather. By
any method the fertilizer can be put in
prior to or at the time of seeding.

HARVESTING
Oats may be harvested with the com-
bine, binder, mowing machine, cradle, or
by grazing the green or mature oats with
livestock. In harvesting the grain, com-
bining is the most desirable method. It
does the job of cutting and threshing
quickly and leaves a lot of litter on land
which gives protection to the soil. For
combining they must be thoroughly ma-
ture and dry. This requires that they
remain standing in the field for a week or
10 days longer than if cut with cradle or






binder. The binder leaves them in bundles
for shocking and feeding but requires a
much longer time in harvesting and more
handling than if harvested with a combine.
The bundles must be well shocked and left
in the field to dry. If it is desirable, the
grain can then be threshed and stored.
The mowing machine can be used for cut-
ting oats when green or when mature if
combine or binder is not available. They
can be threshed after raking or fed in the
straw.

UTILIZATION
Oats are an excellent feed for all kinds
of livestock-as green grazing, as hay or
grain. Their high value as a part of the
hay and grain ration of horses and mules
while working during hot weather is well
known. Because they have a high propor-
tion of ash, or bone-forming material, and
of protein, or muscle-forming material,
they are very valuable for feeding to
young animals. When cut in the late
dough or early maturity stage with binder
or cradle and fed in bundles, or when cut
with mower and fed loose, oats provide an
excellent grain and hay feed. Thus, they
make a good cow feed.
Grazing mature oats is becoming more
popular each year. They are the earliest
maturing grain crop that can be produced.
They will furnish good grazing from early
May to early July. The Coastal Plain Ex-
periment Station of Georgia reported pro-
ducing 362 pounds of pork per acre from
a production of 27.2 bushels of oats per
acre. The most popular use of oats in
Florida at present, however, is for tempor-
ary green grazing for any or all forms of
livestock on the farm. Seeded heavily and
early on good land and well fertilized, they
produce an abundance of green grazing for
winter and spring. If hay or grain is to






be produced, grazing should be discon-
tinued sometime between the middle of
February and the middle of March, de-
pending on the number of animals grazing
them. It is believed by some that any
grazing of oats will reduce the yield of
grain. This green grazing in winter and
spring provides an abundance of protein
and vitamins badly needed at that season.
Oats provide excellent green and grain
feed for poultry. The grain may be picked
out of the bundles of hay by the poultry
or threshed and fed in a mixed scratch
grain.
Oats are also being used as a soil erosion-
prevention crop on rolling lands. For this
purpose they should be planted early and
thick. They fit well into a rotation with
other crops. The same crop of oats, there-
fore, may serve many purposes.





FOOD












COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director








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