Group Title: Circular ;
Title: Tomato production guide
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00102088/00001
 Material Information
Title: Tomato production guide
Series Title: Circular ;
Physical Description: 1 folded sheet (8 p.) : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla
Gainesville, Fla
Publication Date: 1956
Copyright Date: 1956
 Subjects
Subject: Tomatoes -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Panel title.
General Note: "December 1956."
General Note: "Prepared in cooperation with workers of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00102088
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 79895436

Full Text



Circular 98A


December 1956


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 3 aud June 3. 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Florida State Univerlsty and
nolled States Department of Agriculture. Cooperating
M O. Watkins, Director




*






TOMATO


PRODUCTION GUIDE

(Prepared in cooperation with workers of the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations)

For other currently available publications and for
further details on local problems, contact your County
Agricultural Agent of the University of Florida Agricul-
tural Extension Service.






*






AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA







HARVESTED ACREAGE 1955-56


AREA ANI


) STATE TOTALS


Total
North Florida ..............3,000
Wauchula-Hillsborough-
M anatee ......................6,575
Ft. Myers-lmmokalee. 12,650
Ft. Pierce ....................12,675
Lower East Coast ..........26,800
Others .......................... 300


Fall Winter Spring
........ ....... 3,000


1,100
5,500
4,500
3,800


275
1,250
475
19,000
100


5,200
5,900
7,700
4,000
200


62,000 14,900 21,100 26,000


AVERAGE YIELDS, COSTS AND RETURNS PER
BUSHEL BY AREA. 1950-51 THROUGH
1954-55 SEASON
(Based on Representative Grower's Records and Estimates)


C I
I a
Bushels per acre .... 188 It
Production costs ....$1.91 $2.,
Harvest cost .......... 1.43 1.
Sales F.O.B .......... 3.67 3.(
Net return per bu. +0.33+0.


FIELD PLANTING DATES
N. Fla.: Feb.-Mar.; Aug
C. Fla.: Jan.- Feb.; Sept.
S. Fla.: Aug.-Sept; Nov.-Dec.


0


171
$1.73
1.78
3.36
-0.15


t -



236 165 206
$2.58 $1.65 $1.72
1.81 .68 .67
3.81 2.54 2.63
-0.58+ 0.21 +0.24


SEED TO DAYS TO
TRANSPLANTS MATURITY
24 to 42 70 to 90
days from plants
95 to 115
direct seeded


VARIETIES
GROTHEN'S GLOBE.-Early maturing. Fruits med-
ium large, bright red and fairly firm. Standard of market
quality. No resistance to fusarium or other diseases.
GROTHEN'S GLOBE (Wilt-Resistant).-Similar to
regular Grothen's Globe, but resistant to fusarium wilt.
HOMESTEAD.-Vigorous plant, semi-determinate.
resistant to fusarium wilt. Fruits shaped like Rutgers.
HOMESTEAD Nos. 2 and 24.-New strains of
Homestead with determinate plants. High yielder of med-
ium-large fruit.
JEFFERSON.-Plant medium to heavy, resistant to
fusarium wilt. Fruits globe-shaped to flattish, inclined to
roughness on shoulders. May be used for production of
vine-ripened tomatoes.






MANALUCIE.-Resistant to fusarium wilt, early
blight, gray leaf spot and leaf mold. Fruits large, deep,
firm, red. Late maturing. Good for production of "vine-
ripened" tomatoes. Suitability to some areas not fully
established; in most areas suggested for spring planting.
MANALEE.-Similar to Manalucie in disease resis-
tance, but earlier maturing. Fruits medium in size. Sug-
gested for fall plantings. New. For trial purposes only.
MANASOTA.-Plant is of open growth, early in
maturity and resistant to fusarium wilt. Fruits medium to
small, deep, globe-shaped, smooth and firm. Seed may
be difficult to secure.
RUTGERS.-Variety of wide adaptation. Vigorous
plant. Fruits globular, bright red and smooth. Performs
best as a spring variety.

PLANTING PLANTING
DISTANCES DEPTH SEED REQUIRED
Between rows 1/, inch Seed direct in field
40" to 84" !1/ lb. per acre
Between plants Produce 1,000 plants
Unstaked: /2 ounce
18" to 40" Seedbed, plant acre
Staked: 1 pound
15" to 18"

FERTILIZATION
Best results are obtained by applying one-third to one-
half of the fertilizer before planting in 2 bands each lo-
cated 2 to 3 inches below and 2 to 3 inches to the side
of the planting row. The remainder of the fertilizer should
be applied in 1 or 2 applications after the plants become
established.

Soil Type Fertilizer* Pounds per Acre
Marl 6-8-6 2250
Light sand 6-8-6 1900
Dark sand 6-8-6 1500
*A 4-8-8 may be used in place of 6-8-6 provided
equivalent amounts of nitrogen are applied.
Manganese deficiency, found on some soils with pH
6.0 or above, may be controlled with fertilizers contain-
ing 1% MnO or with spray applications of 11/2 to 2
pounds of manganese sulfate per 100 gallons of water
per acre. Copper deficiency has been reported on some
light sands but is held in check generally by alternating
use of cooper fungicides with organic chemicals in the
disease control program, or with fertilizers containing
0.39 CuO.
In the Ft. Pierce area it is general practice to apply
fertilizer mixtures containing 2.0% MgO.






PESTICIDE APPLICATION
Spray materials are shown in amounts or equivalent
per 100 gallons water; suggested acre rates should be
adjusted to insure complete coverage but, in general, 20-
35 pounds of dust, 75-150 gallons of spray, and 30-50
pounds bait are accepted amounts from which adjustments
may be made.

INSECTS AND CONTROLS
INSECT SPRAY DUST BAIT
Southern DDT wp. DDT 5%
armyworm, 2 Ibs. 50% TDE
Tomato fruit TDE (DDD) (DDD) 5%
worm, wp. 2 lbs.
Fall armyworm 50%
and Banded
cucumber beetle
Cutworms Toxaphene Toxaphene 21'I%
wp. 21/2 lbs. 10% Toxaphene
40% Chlordane 2%
Chlordane 5% Chlordane
wp. 2 lbs.
50%

For the control of soil-infesting cutworms the insecti-
cidal spray or dust should be distributed evenly over the
soil surface. Baits should be moistened and distributed in
late afternoon. Apply toxaphene or chlordane sprays or
dusts to the soils before plants emerge or are set in the
field. Regular sprays of DDT, TDE and parathion will
prevent the establishment of cutworms after the crop is
planted.

INSECT SPRAY DUST
Serpentine leaf Parathion wp, 1 b. .... Parathion 1%
miner and Aphids 15%
Watch closely for leaf miners. It may be necessary
to apply parathion twice a week when there are heavy
migrations of adult leaf miners from nearby abandoned
host vegetable fields. This is especially true during January
and February.

INSECT SPRAY DUST BAIT
Field Chlordane wp, Chlordane Chlordane
Cricket 2 Ibs. 50%0 5% 2%
Aldrin wp, Aldrin
1 lb. 25%r 2 1/,
Heptachlor wp, Heptachlor
1 lb. 25% 21./'%
Apply sprays or dusts before plants emerge or plant
setting in the field.






INSECT SPRAY DUST BAIT
Afole- Chlordane wp, Chlordane Chlordane
Cricket 4 Ibs. 50% 5% 2%

For the control of mole-crickets the insecticidal spray
or dust should be distributed evenly over the soil surface.
Baits should be moistened and distributed in late after-
noons, preferably when soil is moist and warm.

INSECT SPRAY DUST
Tomato TDE (DDD) wp, TDE (DDD)
hornuorm 2 Ibs. 50.% 5c
Parathion wp, Parathion 1%
1 lb. 15%.
Stinkbug and Chlordane wp, Chlordane 5%
Leaf-footed 2 Ibs. 50% Parathion 1
plant bug Parathion wp,
1 lb. 15%


INSECT SPRAY DUST
Flower thrips Parathion wp, Parathion 1o
1 lb. 15% DDT 5%o
DDT wp,
2 Ibs. 50%,
Treat for thrips only if population is large.

WIREWORM.-Apply aldrin or heptachlor at 3
pounds technical or 5 pounds of chlordane technical per
acre 10 to 14 days before planting. Distribute material
evenly over the soil surface and disk well into soil. The
same amount of insecticide may be added with fertilizer,
but results are generally less effective.

NOTE.-A spray containing 1 pound of 15% para-
thion wettable powder plus 1 pound of 50% DDT wet-
table powder per 100 gallons of water applied on a
weekly schedule has given good all-around control of
tomato insects. It may be necessary in some areas to in-
crease the amount of DDT to 2 pounds when heavy in-
festations of armyworms occur.


SEEDBED DISEASES AND CONTROLS

DAMPING-OFF
FUMIGATION.-Apply 1 pound of methyl bromide
per 50 square feet of seedbed area. Soil must be prepared
and ready for planting before fumigation. Methyl bromide
controls weeds and nematodes as well as damping-off. If
seedbed fumigation is not practiced, seed treatments may
be beneficial.







BACTERIAL SPOT


In Homestead area streptomycin 200 ppm spray is
recommended on a 4-5 day schedule. Begin at 2-leaf
stage on first bed; spray younger beds in the same area
on emergence. Complete coverage essential; imperative to
start before disease appears. Control in plant bed reduces
subsequent losses in field when plants are set near the
end of rainy season.

DISEASE SPRAY DUST
Late blight Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus
/4 lb. zinc sulfate (36%) -
Zineb 65%., 2 bs. -
Dichlone 50%, lb. -
Maneb 70%, 1!/. Ibs. -
Nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus 1
lb. MnSO, (70 ) -

When late blight is favored by cool, damp weather
conditions, begin spraying the plants as soon as they have
emerged and repeat at 4 to 7-day intervals until trans-
planted. Thorough coverage of all above-ground plant
surface is imperative. An application just before trans-
planting is desirable. Alternate the zinc carbamates with
dichlone or maneb.
In the southern part of the state and on the West
Coast, copper fungicides will not control late blight.
However, in other areas of the state where severe incidence
is usually not encountered, copper fungicides (equiv. to
11. lbs. metallic) may offer another measure of control.
Copper is not recommended in the Sanford area because
of excess copper in the soil.
In Homestead area nabam plus ZnSO, is not recom-
mended; nabam 19%, 2 qts. plus 1 lb. MnSO, (70%) is
recommended. Alternate zineb with one of the manganese
fungicides, particularly on new land.


FIELD DISEASES AND CONTROLS

LATE BLIGHT.-Materials and formulas are the
same as for "Seedbed" above.

Begin applications immediately after plants have be-
come established and repeat at 4 to 7-day intervals until
end of harvest. Thorough coverage of all above-ground
surface is imperative.
In certain areas and seasons when late blight is less
severe, it may be possible to lengthen time interval be-
tween application. In the southern part of the state this







is risky because with blight present its spread may become
very rapid with the return of weather favorable for its
development.

EARLY BLIGHT.-Materials and formulas same as
for late blight above.
Where early blight and late blight occur together,
use the schedule recommended for late blight. In some
localities and seasons where early blight occurs but late
blight is not an important factor, coppers usually give
satisfactory control of early blight.
Neither dichlone nor copper gives control of early
blight on tomatoes equal to that provided by nabam or
zineb.

GRAY LEAF SPOT.-Materials and formulas same
as for late blight above, except dichlone and copper fungi-
cides not effective.
When late blight is not present, applications at 7-
day intervals are usually adequate. Gray leaf spot is not
important in all tomato growing areas or in every year.
When it occurs it causes extensive damage unless control
measures are started on time. If late blight is also present
the schedule recommended for late blight should be used.

DISEASE SPRAY DUST
Bacterial spot Copper, 2 lbs. metallic -
Copper will not give satisfactory control under severe
disease conditions; under light or moderate conditions it
may prove adequate. In the West Coast area (11/2-2 lbs.
metallic) it is regarded as the most effective material
which is currently economically practical to use.
More experience is needed to determine practicability
of using streptomycin in the field.

BLACK SPOT (PHOMA).-In the West Coast area
copper (equiv. 2 Ibs. metallic)at 7-day intervals, as well
as carbamates as recommended for late blight control, are
effective.

FUSARIUM WILT.-No chemical control. Use re-
sistant varieties or new land.

SCLEROTINA.-Flooding fields for 5 to 6 weeks
during summer months may be effective in killing sclerotia
in the soil.
On marl soils apply cyanamid at the rate of 500-700
pounds per acre 7-10 days before setting plants in field;
distribute evenly and disk thoroughly after application;
Cyanamid not needed on soils flooded 3 or more weeks
during summer.







GRAY MOLD.-The following are suggestions for
control in the Indian Town-Ft. Pierce-West Palm Beach
area:
1. Stake tomatoes of Manalucie variety
a. Through November 1. Spray with a neutral
copper (2 lbs. metallic).
b. November through February. Spray with dich-
lone (,4 Ibs., 100). On hot days (tempera-
ture above 85 F.) either reduce dichlone to
1.., lb. or substitute ferbam (4 Ibs. 100).
c. March 1 to end of crop. Spray with ferbam
(4 '100) except during periods favorable to
late blight; during these times use dichlone.
2. Ground tomatoes. The following is suggested for
experimental trials only: Zineb (11/2/100 or
maneb (1.'100 plus dichlone (!.,/'OO or ferbam
(3/100).
Note: The above programs should control the
major foliar diseases of tomato except bacterial
spot.

PESTICIDE RESIDUES
No residue problem is anticipated with Florida toma-
to insecticide recommendations above where minimum days
last application to harvest are: DDT, 3 days; TDE
(DDD), 5 days; parathion, 3 days; chlordane, 14 days.
These have been established by Florida Agricultural Ex-
periment Station residue research. No similar data are
available on fungicides. Read the label.
BLOSSOM-END ROT.-Another form of this dis-
order occurs as an internal browning or blackening and
may be present without the characteristic end rot being
visible. Recent research indicates that a deficiency of cal-
cium is a fundamental cause. The primary objective of the
control method is to maintain to the best degree possible a
favorable calcium ratio (calcium/soil solution soluble salts
ratio above 20%) by supplying more soluble calcium
salts, avoiding excess of soluble potassium, magnesium, or
ammonium salts, and avoiding excess total soluble salts.
Superphosphate, gypsum, calcium nitrate and calcium
chloride are sources of potential soil solution calcium. The
supplementary objective involves twice-weekly applications
of a foliar spray of calcium chloride (4 pounds per 100
gallons water per acre) during the time when the plant
requirement is expected to exceed the soil solution supply.
Several contributing factors must be considered in select-
ing and evaluating the control program, such as varietal
susceptibility, moisture, rate of growth, length of time
land in cultivation, timing of corrective attempts, and pH.
CAT-FACING.-No control is known. Varieties vary
in degree of susceptibility.
GRAY WALL.-Causes and controls are unknown.




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