Circular 104R August 1956
(Originally printed September. 1951)
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Ats of May 8 and June 30. 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Florida State University and
United Statee Department of Agriculture, Cooperatinr
H. G. Clayton, Director
(Prepared in cooperation with workers of the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stationsi
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
UNIVERSITY Or FLORIDA
Successful vegetable gardens are not accidental.
They are the results of planning, constant care,
and the will to make things grow.
Many factors may contribute to or detract from
this success. The recommendations contained
here are for home gardens; they may or may not
be suitable for commercial use.
Why Have a Vegetable Garden?
There are many things a vegetable garden may
offer, depending on the purpose you may want it
to serve. Consider these in what can be a satisfy-
HEALTHY-Fresh air, exercise, sunshine; and
food rich in minerals and vitamins.
WEALTHY-Help the family food budget or
WISE-Vegetable crops are travelers with a
history and their production is a daily application
of science to Nature.
Some Early Plans
Consider the size of your family and the amount
of produce to be canned, frozen, stored or sold,
as well as that used fresh. Don't underestimate
the work and personal attention involved.
Choosing a Location.--Select a plot of good,
well-drained soil near a water supply. It should
be close to the home for convenience but should
not be shaded by tall buildings or trees. Enclosing
the garden spot with a fence is usually profitable.
The Garden Design.-Many gardeners find it
helpful to draw out on paper the location of each
row and the crop or succession of crops to be
Vegetables suited to Florida gardens, leading
varieties, seed or plants needed, planting distances
and depths, best time for planting by areas, hardi-
ness, days to harvest and expected yields are
shown in the Planting Guide on the inside of this
Spade well or plow the land at least three weeks
before planting. Rework the soil to secure a fine,
firm seedbed for planting.
Liming.-Lime to sweeten the soil should be
applied only when the needs have been established
by a reliable soil test. However, the best range
for gardens on sandy soil is between pH 5.5 and
6.0. Applications of 2 to 3 pounds of finely ground
dolomitic lime per 100 square feet usually will be
sufficient except on extremely sour soils.
Lime needs should be met well in advance of
the planting date, preferably at the close of the
previous crop season.
Hydrated lime may be applied two weeks or
more before planting where a quick-acting ma-
terial is necessary. Mix well with moist soil and
use at three-fourths the rate of dolomitic lime.
Manures.-Animal manure is not a complete
fertilizer. Approximately 25 pounds of manure
to which has been added 2!,/ pounds of super-
phosphate applied to 100 square feet of garden
is suitable for enriching and conditioning many
soils. If it is not well-rotted and larger quantities
are used, apply it three or more weeks before
planting and incorporate the manure into the soil.
Commercial Fertilizers.-When using commer-
cial fertilizers the following amounts and grades
are usually satisfactory:
Soil Grade 10' Row 100 Sq. Ft.
Sandy or clay .... 6-8-6 1/3 lb. 2-4 lbs.
Muck or peat .... 0-12-20 1/6 lb. 1-2 lbs.
Additional nitrogen may be supplied during the
season by 2 or 3 light applications of soluble forms
equal to 1/4 to / pound of nitrate of soda per 100
square feet. Large amounts of nitrogen on fruit-
ing crops such as tomatoes may cause excessive
vegetative growth and poor or delayed fruit set.
Application.-A superior method of applying
fertilizer before or at the time of planting is to
place it in one or two bands each 2 to 3 inches to
the side of and 1 to 2 inches below the level of
the seed or planting row.
If broadcasting fertilizer, particularly on sandy
soils, apply it 10 days to 2 weeks before planting.
Suggested Planting Calendars
North Florida Central Florida South Florida
Aug. 15-Sept. 10 Sept 1-Sept 20 Sept. 20-Oct. 10
Southern peas, snap beans, cucumbers, okra,
summer squash, mustard, tomatoes
Sept 10-Oct. 1 Sept. 20-Oct. 10 Oct. 10-Nov. 1
Snap beans, beets, collards, turnips, leaf let-
tuce, peas, endive, strawberries
Oct. 1-Oct. 20 Oct. 10-Nov. 1 Nov. I-Nov. 20
Broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, brussel sprouts,
carrots, head lettuce, kohlrabi
Oct. 20-Nov. 10 Nov. 1-Nov. 20 Nov. 20-Dec. 10
Onions, Chinese cabbage, mustard, radish,
Nov. 10-Dec. 1 Nov. 20-Dec. 10 Dec. 10-Jan. 1
Beets, spinach, carrots, cabbage, radish,
peas, endive, head lettuce
Feb. 1-Feb. 15 Jan. 15-Feb. 1 Dec. 1-Jan. I
Broccoli, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, head let-
tuce, leaf lettuce, onions, peas, potatoes,
Feb. 15-Mar. 1 Feb. 1-Feb. 15 Jan. 1-Feb. 1
Lima beans, beets, carrots, cauliflower, col-
lards, mustard, radish, turnip, corn
Mar. 1-Mar. 15 Feb. 15-Mar. 1 Feb. 1-Feb. 15
Snap beans, cabbage, cucumbers, cantaloupes,
corn, radish, summer squash, tomatoes,
Mar. 15-Apr. 1 Mar. I-Mar. 15 Feb. 15-Mar. 1
Beans--pole or garden, Southern peas, egg-
plant, peppers, summer spinach
Apr. 1-Apr. 15 Mar. 15-Apr. 1 Mar. I-Mar. 15
Lima beans, okra, winter squash, Southern
peas, mustard, sweet potatoes
Apr. 15-May 1 Apr. 1-Apr. 15 Mar. 15-Apr. 1
Southern peas, summer squash, sweet potatoes
Whatever the method used, it will be best to
wet thoroughly the soil once a week rather than
to apply several light sprinklings.
The primary purpose of cultivation is to contrdli
weeds. This can be best done by shallow cultiivai
tion when the weeds are quite young.
Application of many specific fungicides on a.;
home garden scale usually is not warranted. Meas-
ures of protection may be afforded through:
Sanitation.-Prevalence of many diseases may
be reduced by rotating garden locations, cleaning
up crop refuse and early soil preparation.
Plant Sources.-Transplants should be disease-
free. Practical sterilization for seedbeds may be
obtained by placing a 2"-deep layer of soil in a
pan and baking it at 3500-4000 F. for at least
Seed Treatment.-Buy treated seed. Chloranil
48% is a good general treatment, along with
thiram 50% and semesan 30% for specific crops.
Damping-Off.-Wet the base of the plant stem
and the soil surface to a depth of a" to 1" with
1 ounce of wettable chloranil 48% to 3 gallons of
water, or dust chloranil 12% on the soil surface
Foliage Diseases.-Zineb applied as a 4 to 6%%
dust, or 2 level tablespoonfuls of the 65% wettable
powder to 1 gallon of water, is suitable for
general use. A protective schedule necessitates
applications at least once a week and reducing
the interval to 3 to 4 days if the disease continues
Root-knot infested soil should be avoided. Con-
trols of this pest may be summarized by planting
only resistant crops such as Crotalaria spectabilis
or velvet beans for one or more seasons, using
clean cultivation for one or more seasons, or soil
fumigation with such materials as DD and ethy-
Fumigation permits early use of the land.
Chlordane may be applied to the soil surface
as a 5% dust or a I '' to 2%' bait for the control
of ants, cutworms, grasshoppers and mole-crickets,
or the dust may be directed on the insects as
needed. Chlordane is sometimes included in gen-
eral garden fertilizers and may offer some meas-
ure of control of these insects and wireworms.
The materials shown below are effective against
the insects indicated and are safe if properly used.
Dusting is probably more satisfactory than spray-
ing in the home gardens, and evening applications
are generally preferable.
Aphids* .......................... X
Armyworms ........................ X -
Budworms ........................... X -
Cabbage worms .................. X X
Col. potato beetle ............... X -
Cucumber beetle ...... ... X
Earworms ............................ X -
Fleabeetle .......................... X -
Fruit, horn, pinworms ........ X -
Fleahopper .......................... X X
Lesser cornstalk borer ........ X -
Leaf miner ............................ X
Leaf-hopper ....................... X X
Leaf-roller ......... .................. X X
-Melon, pickleworms ............ X
Mexican bean beetle ........ X
Pameras .............................. X X
Pea pod weevils .................. X -
Pepper weevils .................... X -
Red spiders ...................... X
Stink bugs ........................... X
Thrips* .................................. X X
Nicotine in effective against aphids and thrips in warm weather.
** Dusting sulfur may be used for red spider control
t Rotenone give satisractory control of many of the above pests
when Infestations are light. but may be less effective than other
Consider all pesticides as potential poisons, each
to be applied strictly according to manufacturers'
precautions and recommendations. Always wash
vegetables from the garden thoroughly before
using. Use pesticides only as necessary to control
insects and diseases and where possible stop ap-
plications during the harvesting season.
Prompt harvesting at proper stage of maturity
insures good quality and more uses for the crop.
Have plans made in advance for any extra vege-
PLANTING GUIDE FOR VEGETABLE GARDENS
Seminole, Tendergreen," Contender,'
Topcrop,' Wade,' Cherokee (wax)
US No. 4 (191),2 McCaslan, Ala-
bama No. 1, Florigreen
Fordhook 242,' Concentrated,2
Henderson,2 Challenger (Pole)
Early Wonder, Detroit Dark Red,
Early Green Sprouting,2 Freezers,
Waltham No. 29, Texas No. 107
Copenhagen Market, Resistant Detroit,
Badger Market, Glory of Enkhuizen,
Red Acre, Savoy Chieftain
Imperator,' Touchon,' Red Cored
Chantenay,2 Gold Spike
Florida Pascal, Emerson Pascal,
Golden Plume, Supreme Golden
Vates, Georgia, Florida Savoy,
loana,' Golden Cross Bantam,2 Golden
Security, Seneca Chief,2 many others
Marketer, Palomar, Santee, Ashley,
Fort Myers Market, Florida Market,
Deep Heart Fringed, Green
Curled, Full Heart Batavian
Early White Vienna
PremiPr Great Lakes. Imperial 44.
S Spacng il Inches Sed Planting Dates in Florid (Juelhfi) Plnt Peal
Seeds/Pan Depth Har Ties Dayt
- I fl -I-w----- -- Plants-- -- -H--e W Nowth Central Suth- mesa 1- 1aretd
1 lb. 18-80 2-3 1-2 Mar.-Apr. Feb.-Mar. Sept.-Apr. T 45 50-60
I lb. 40-48 15-18 11-2 Mar.-June Feb.-Apr. Jan.-Feb. T 80 60-65
1 lb. 26-48 12-15 14-2 Mar.-June Feb.-Apr. Sept.-Apr. T 50 65-75
1 oz. 14-24 8-5 -1 Sept.-Mar. Oct.-Mar. Oct.-Feb. H 75 60-70
60 pits. 30-36 16-22 %-1 Aug.-Feb. Aug.Jan. Sept.Jan. H 50 60-70
14-24 12 Sept.-Feb. Sept.-Jan. Sept.-Jan.
1-3 I Sept.-Mar. Oct.-Mar. Oct.-Feb.
20-24 /% Jan.-Feb. Oct.-Jan. Oct.-Jan.
6-10 .-% Jan.-Mar. Aug.-Feb. Oct.-Jan.
8-12 4- O Oct.-Jan. Oct.-Jan. Nov.-Jan.
14-18 Feb.-Mar. Jan.-Apr. Sept.-Jan.
12-18 4 Mar.-Apr. Feb.-Mar. Jan.-Feb.
15-24 -% Feb.-Apr. Feb.-Mar. Jan.-Feb.
36-48 2 Feb.-Mar. Jan.-Feb. Dec.-Feb.
8-12 L Feb.-Mar. Jan.-Feb. Sept.Jan.
3-5 Mar.-Apr. Feb.-Mar. Nov.-Feb.
(Butterhead) Bibb, White Boston / oz. 12-18 12-18 %, Feb.-Mar. Jan.-Feb. Sept.-Jan. H 75 50-80
(Leaf) Black Seeded Simpson Sept. Sept.
Muskmelons Smith's Perfect, Hale's Best No. 36 1 oz. 70-80 48-60 %4 Mar.-Apr. Feb.-Apr. Feb.-Mar. T 150 75-90
Cantaloupes Georgia 47, Rio Gold
Mustard Southern Giant Curled, 1 oz. 14-24 4-6 H Jan.-Mar. Jan.-Mar. Sept.-Mar. H 100 40-45
Florida Broad Leaf Sept.-May Sept.-Nov.
QOkra. Clemson Spineless," White Velvet 2 oz. 24-40 18-24 1-2 Mar.-Mays r.-a F. -ar. 7 .. 54.
Perkins Long Green .... 4 IJt -
Onions (Bulbing) Excel, Texas Grano, Granex 400 pits. or sets 12-24 8-4 Jan..-Mar, Jan.-Mar. Jan-Mar. H 100 100-130
Creole (hot) 1 oz. seed Aug.-lov. Aug.-Nov. Sept.-Nov.
(Green) Excel, Texas Grano, Granex 800 plts. or sets 12-24 1%-2 3 Aug.-Mar. Aug.-Mar. Sept.-Mar. H 100 50-75
Shallots (Multipliers) 11 lb. sets 18-24 6-8 / Aug.-Jan. Aug.-Jan. Sept.-Dec. H 100 75-105
Parsley Moss Curled 1 oz. 12-20 8-12 8a Feb.-Mar. Dec.-Jan. Sept.-Jan. H 40 90-95
Peas Little Marvel,2 Dark Skinned Per- 1' lbs. 24-36 2-3 1-2 Jan.-Feb. Sept.-Mar. Sept.-Feb. H 40 50-55
fection, Laxton's Progress, Emerald 2
Peas, Southern Blackeye,2 Brown Crowder, Bush 1 Ilbs. 30-36 2-3 1-2 Mar.-May Mar.-May Feb.-Apr. T 80 70-80
Conch,2 Dixie Lee
Pepper (Sweet) California Wonder, World Beater
Yolo Wonder, Wonder Giant 60 pits. 20-36 18-24 1 Feb.-Apr. Jan.-Mar. Jan.-Feb. T 50 70-80
(Hot) Hungarian Wax, Anaheim Chili ('/4 oz.) Aug.-Oct.
Potatoes Sebago, Kennebec, Katahdin, 15 Ibs. 36-42 12-15 4-8 Jan.-Feb. Jan. Sept.-Jan. SH 150 80-95
Pontiac, Red Pontiac
Potatoes, Sweet Gold Rush, Unit No. 1 Porto Rico, 80 plts. 48-54 18-24 .... Mar.-June Feb.-June Feb.-June T 75 120-140
Heart-o-Gold, Cliett Bunch Porto Rico
Early Scarlet Globe, Scarlet Turnip
White Tipped, Cherry Belle
Virginia Savoy,2 Bloomsdale Long
Standing, Dark Green Savoy
Early Prolific Straightneck,
Cocozelle, Zucchini, Table Queen,
Missionary,2 Florida 90 2
Manalucie, Homestead (unstaked
Jefferson, Wilt Resistant
Grothen's Globe, Rutgers (staked
Turnips Japanese Foliage (Shogoin)2 1 oz. 12-20 4-6 I-% Jan.-Apr. Jan.-Mar. Oct.-Feb. H 150 40-50
__ Purple Top White Globe Aug.-Oct. Sept.-Nov.
Watermelon Congo, Blacklee, Charleston Gray, 2 oz. 90-120 60-84 2 Mar.-Apr. Jan.-Apr. Feb.-Mar. T 400 80-100
Fairfax, New Hampshire Midget
'Under appropriate crops the varieties included are generally suited to home canning. Certain varieties have resistance to diseases: Snap Beans-Contender. Wade,
Seminole (mosaic, powdery mildew, several rusts), Topcrop (mosaic). Pole Beans-Florigreen (common and Southern bean mosaic, rust), US No. 4 (191) (certain rusts).
Cabbage-Resistant Detroit (yellows). Cantaloupe-Smith's Perfect, Georgia 47 (downy mildew), Rio Gold (downy and powdery mildew). Celery-Emerson Pascal (early
blight). Cucumber-Palomar, Ashley, Stono, Santee (downy mildew). Eggplant-Florida Market, Florida Beauty (tip-over). Pepper-World Beater (certain strains, leaf
spot), Yolo Wonder (tobacco mosaic). Spinach-Virginia Savoy (mosaic). Irish Potato-Kennebec (late blight). Tomato-Manalucie (wilt, early blight, gray leaf spot,
leaf mold), Homestead, Jefferson, Wilt Resistant Grothens Globe (wilt). Watermelon-Congo anthracnosee), Blacklee (wilt), Charleston Gray, Fairfax (wilt, anthracnose).
'Outstanding in freezing trials of Florida Agiicultural Experiment Stations, Gainesville. Others may meet home freezing requirements.
H-Hardy, can stand frost and usually some freezing (32 Farenheit) without injury. SH-Slightly hard, will not be injured by light frost. T-Tender will be injured
by light frost.
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