Ctrcuil 104 G February, 1971
if o orida
FLORIDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE .
Successful vegetable gardens are not accident
They are the results of planning, constant care.
and the will to make things grow.
There are many factors which determine
whether or not a gal den will or will not be suc-
cessful. The recommendations contained here are
for home *.i1lens; they may or may not be suit-
able for commercial use.
There are many thinj1ls a vegetable g-ulcin nmj
offer toward a .sati.-fy'in experience: fresh a
exercise, sunshine, food rich in vitamins ai
minerals, income and lkn".ledlge.
SOME EARLY PLANS
Consider the size of your family and the amount
of produce to be canned, frozen, stored or sold, as
well as that used fresh. Don't underestimate the
work and personal attention involved.
Choosing a Location. Select a plot of good,
well-drained soil near a water supply. It should
be close to the home for convenience but should
not be shaded by tall buillin~l or trees. Enclosing
the garden j-pot wVith ftlee i: usPLall profitable.
The Garden Design. liani\ goidenets find it
helljtul to dinaw 1nut in p.iper the location of each
row anld the clop I.I1 -iu e-1iin of Lrops to be
CROP REQ UIRE MENTS
Vegetables suited t,, I-lgriil i nnlces, leading
varieties, seed or pl|aint;is neiieded. pIlantinl distances
and depths. lj t time I'.nr ,lntintg by areas,
hardiness. da, ts t hlialri'v -t ::ni.l XI- l:.cted yields
are shown in the Planting- (;uidhl n I he inside of
Spade well o plo. the land at leIat 3 weeks
before planting. Re\work Ihe soiil ii sec,.ure a fine
firm seedbed for planting.
Lime to sweeten the soil should lie n pplied only
when the needs have been estalishedl by a re-
ble soil test. The best range for gardens on
ndy soil is between pH 5.5 and 6.0. Applicatins
2 to 3 pounds of finely giound dol:i.mitic lime-
tone per 100 sqluale feet usually i\ll be sufficient
except on extremely acid soils.
Lime needs should be met well in ad vance of the
plantingg date, preferably 2 to 3 months before
he garden is to be planted. However. hydrated
'me may be applied two weeks I.r more before
nting where a quick-acting material is neces-
y. Use at three-fourths the rate of dolomite.
listen the garden soil, and make sine the lime
thoioueghly mixed into the soil.
maior ity of Floi ida soils are low in organic
- or humus. Organic matter is valuable in
in,.ieanes the \ratier hlding capacity of a
appliess nutiients and inmijrves the ease of
-I I Tils. 'ThIe i. anic. matter content of a
;iy be infleaec-il I,:."' ;Li ,lyirn animal manure,
leaves or an i, jI.tly decomposed plant
(~'. C'l,'er ci.'ps ;aii organic matter when
d ,.i .s li'a edl inti, a s.-'i.
mial mlanlrie is not a balanced fertilizer.
-oxiniatel', 21 p Oiiunl Of u ei'lerllioinsih.tte
:d b1e added ti- 25 poionds of manure and
..d over 1illl iiuiit feet of garden.
lien using con:mmnercital fertilizeis the follow-
,nlounts and grade.'- ale usually satisfactory
ne initial aplplicatioc n.
S-il Grade Amount Amount
10 ft. Row 100 sq. ft.
i mall. iock. I-. or
clalny ,-I.-. lb. 2-5 lbs.
S it i l. Il muck
S ent; I 0-12-20 % lb. 1-2 lbs.
ring the growing sea.-'on it may be desirable
dedress 2 or :. time- with the ;ullpiopi i:lte
Sfertilizei. at 1 to 2 lbs. per 100 ft. of row.
minerall soils, 10-0-l.i. 15-0-14 or -imil.ir mix-
Sat iI to 1. lb. Ipel 100 ft. of row may be
iituted for the complete fertilizer.
One-half of the first and main application of
fe tilii,:er would best be broadcast over the entire
g .'den plot one to two weeks before planting. The
i.thei half should be banded at planting time in
1 ,r 2 bI:mds each 2 to 3 inches to the side of and
1 to 2 inches below the level of the seed or
In irligating the garden it is advisable to
thrcO'ucIhl.- wet the soil once a week unless suffi-
ci.nt lain falls, rather than to apply several light
sprinkling. A growing unilln \\ill le'lluiie 1 inch
cf w\\'tel per week and when the plant? are large
? mnich as 2 inches may be Iequired. Place
snhallv\ cans in your garden to determine how
IlM.ch \v.iter is 1leing applied.
The I l irary purpose of cultivation is to control
".'ce.l-. Weeds are easy to control when they are
:.nill. Shdllow cultivation and hoeing is advised
in li iler to reduce damage to the crop root system.
N\u ,,ne chemical weed killer (herbicide) cafn he
.uigge-ted for a gL.L,.ing garden.
INSECT AND DISEASE CONTROL
A .-upggested 'geei;e l-piurpose spray for insects
t.f ', e ftal.iles is one containing malathion or diazi-
non plus Sevin or methoxychlor. A sugkgeted
I'entlreil-pI.Irpose sl' iL for diseases of vegetables
w,,ulli Ceintain one or more of the following fungi-
cides: zineb, maneb, captain, or copper. For
p,\\deiy mildew on cucumbers, sl.juash, and
imel:l1. iuse Karathane. Many ready prepared
;.ener-al-piurpose sprays and dusts are comnmei-
:ially ;' ailable. A.I.ily according to lecommen-
latiouls alnd precautions on the label.
Yiu Lan expect best results if you begin con-
'iol oetlurt early. Apply funcicides at weekly in-
ter\.tlI :.-i a preventive measure. For insects, dust
or slp,'r.v at the first signs and repeat treatments
as needed. The materials shown below are effec-
tive ag.unt the insects as indicated and are safe
.f Iprlperly used.
NTING GUIDE FOR VEGETABLE GARDENS
Crop VSpacing in Inches Seed Planting Dates in Florida (inclusive) Plant Pound Days
Crop Varieties Seed/Plants Depth Hardi Yield to
100' of Row Rows Plants Inches North Central South nest 100' Harvest
Beans, Snap Extender, Contendet. Harves 1 lb. 18-30 2-3 11:-2 Mar.-Apr. Feb.-Mar. Sept.-Apr. T 45 50-60
Wade, Cherokee (wax) Aug.-Sept. Sept.
means, Pole Dade, McCaslan, Kentuck 1 1 lb. 40-48 15-18 1 ,-2 Mar.-June Feb.-Apr. Jan.-Feb. T 80 60-65
Beans, Lima Fordhook 242, Con entratedl. ] 1 lb. 26-48 12-15 1.,-2 Mar.-June Feb.-Apr. Sept.-Apr. T 50 65-75
derson, Jackson Wonder. [is.
Butterpea, Florida Butter P
eMs Oct-Feb H 75 60-70
Beets Early Wonder, Detroit Dark 1 oz. 14-24 3-5 1-1 Sept.-Mar. ct. r. -Feb. H
Broccoli Early Green Sprouting. \'allth', 60 pits. 30-36 16-22 -1 Aug.-Feb. Aug.-Jan. Sept-Jan. H 50 60-70
Atlantic 4 oz.)----
Cabbage Copenhagen Market. Marion I 65 pits. 24-36 14-24 1, Sept.-Feb. Sept.-Jan. Sept.-Jan. H 125 70-90
Badger Market, Glory of Enk, (' oz.)
Red Acre, Chieftan Savoy
---31 Ot.Fe 10 707
Carrots Imperator, Gold Spike, Chanter 1. oz. 16-24 1-3 ., Sept.-Mlar. Oct.-Mar. Oct.-Feb. H 100 70-75
Cauliflower Snowball Strains 55 plts. 24-30 20-24 J', Jan.-Feb. Oct.-Jan. Ot.-Jan. H 80 55-60
Ce4 oz.) Aug.-Oct._ ___
Celery Utah 52-0, ori Pascal150 pts. 24-36 6-10 1 Jan.-Mar. Aug.-Feb. Oct.-Jan. H 150 115-125
Chinese, Cabbage Michihli, Wong B,-k 125 pits. 24-36 8-12 14-t. Oct-n.Oct.-tJan. No-Jan. H 100 75-85
Collards ,Gteo Ii: Vat 75-- pits. 24-30 14-18 .1, Feb.-Mar. Jan.-Apr. Sept.-Jan. H 150 50-55
t S oz.) Sept.-Nov. Aug.-Nov.
Corn, Sweet Silver Queen llb. -42 12-18 Mar.-Apr. Feb.-Mar. Jan.-Feb. T 15 80-85
Golden Secu: itY. Seneci: Ch'
Cantaloupes Smith's Periect. S niinl.
Edisto 47, Gulft'. rean
Cucumbers Poinsett, A.hlev T liceri
SAI__ 18, Dixie ipi, kler
Eggplant Florida Market
Endive-Escarole Deep Heart Fringed. Full
Kohlrabi Early White Vienna
Lettuce (Crisp) Premier, Great Lakes type
(Butterhead) Bibb, Matchless. Sweethe
(Leaf) Prizt- Head, Ruby, Salad
(Romaine) Parris Island Cos. Dark
Mustard S,,uthern ('nt Curled,
-.- -,-,- p.,,,,d Ig- '
Onions (Bulbing) Excel, Texas Grano, Granex
Granex, Troplcana Red
(Green) White Portugal or White tj
Parsley Mos, Curled, Perfection
Peas Little Marvel, Dark Skinne
Perfection, Laxton's Progre
Peas, Southern Blacke.ve. Brown Crowder,
Conch, Producer, Floricream
Pepper (Sweet) Calif. Wonder, Yolo Wonder
(Hot) Hungarian Wax, Anaheim (
Potatoes Sebago, Red Pontiac, Kenne
Potatoes, Sweet U. S. No. 1, Porto Rico, Geor
Goldrush, Nugget, Centenni,
Radish Cherry Belle, Comet, Early
Globe, White Icicle, Sparklei
Spinach Virginia Savoy, Dixie Mark4
Spinach, Summer New Zealand
Squash, (Summer) Early Prolific Straightneck,
Summer Crookneck, Cccuze
Zucchini, Patty Pan
(Winter) Alagold, Table Queen, Butt
Strawberry Florida 90, Dabreak, Torrey
Tomatoes Manalucie,: Homestead-24, I
(Large Fruited) River, Floradel,f Tropired, A
(Small Fruited) Large Cherry, Roma (Paste)
Japanese Foliage (Shogoin)
Purple Top White Globe
Water- (Large) Charleston Gray, Congo,
melon Jubilee, Crimson Sweet
(Seedless) Tri-X 317
(Small) New Hampshire Midget, Sue
Other Vegetables for the Garden.-Jerusalem
leek, luffa gourd, honeydew melons, and rutabaga
t H-Hardy, can stand frost and usually sorm
SH-Slightly hardy, will not be injured by iI
T-Tender, will be injured by lizht front
i., oz. 12-18
84. Mar.-Api. Feb.-Apr. Feb.-Mar.
15-24 1 -ja Feb.-Apr. Feb.-Mar.- Jan.-Feb. T 100 50-55
36-48 1I Feb.-Mar. Jan.-Feb.- Dec.-Feb. T 200 80-85
8-12 31 Feb.-Mar. Jan.-Feb. Sept.-Jan. H 75 90-95
3-5 1" Mar.-Apr. Feb.-Mar. Nov.-Feb. H 100 5.-55
12-18 Feb.-Mar. Jan.-Feb. Sept.-Jan. H 75 50-80
1 oz. 14-24 4-8 i Jan.-Mar. Jan.-Mar. Sept.-Mar.
2 oz. 24-40 18-24 1-2 Mar.-May Mar.-May Feb.-Mar.
Aug. Aug. Aug.-Sept.
pits. or sets 12-24 3-4 .1 Jan.-MIar Jan.-Mar. Jan-Mar.
Soz. seed Aug.-Nov. Aug.-Nov. Sept.-Nov.
i plts. or sets 12-24 1l1.-2 :1 Aug.-Mar. Aug-Mar. Sept. Mar.
SI, lb. seed 18-24 6-8 1 Aug.-Jan Aug.-Jan. Sept.-Dec.
1 oz. 12-20 8-12 : s Feb.-Mar Dec.-Jan. Sept.-Jan.
1I.. Ibs. 24-36 2-3
11i lbs. 30-36
i111 60 pits.
- 88 (1/4 OZ.)
is 15 lbs.
1-2 Jan.-Feb Sept.-Mar.
2-3 1-2 Mar.-May Mar.-May Feb.-Apr.
1,2 Feb.-Apr. Jan.-Mar. Jan.-Feb.
36-42 12-15 4-8 Jan.-Feb.
H 100 40-45
T 70 50-55
H 100 100-130
H 100 50-75
H 100 75-105
H 40 90-95
H 140 50-55
T 50 70-80
SH 150 80-95
80 pIts. 48-54 18-24 Mar.-June Feb.-June Feb.-June T 75 120-140
S 1 oz. 12-18 1-2 3/ Oct.-Mar. Oct.-Mar. Oct.-Mar. H 40 20-25
2 oz. 14-18 3-5 3/ Oct.-Nov. Oct.-Nov. Oct.-Jan. H 40 40-45
2 oz. 30-36 18-24 3/ Mar.-Apr. Mar.-Apr. Jan.-Apr. T 40 55-65
2 oz. 42-48 42-48 /2 Mar.-Apr. Feb.-Mar. Jan.-Mar. T 150 45-60
Aug. Aug. Sept.-Oct.
2 oz. 90-120 48-72 2 Mar. Feb.-Mar. Jan.-Feb. T 300 95-105
100 plts. 36-40 10-14 Sept.-Oct. Sept.-Oct. Oct.-Nov. H 50 90-10
35 pIts. 40-60 36-40 1/2 Feb.-Apr. Feb.-Mar. Aug.-Mar. T 125 75-85
(1/4 oz.) Aug. Sept.
70 plts. 36-48 18-24 1/ Feb.-Apr. Feb.-Mar. Aug.-Mar. T 200 75-85
(/ oz.) Aug. Sept.
1 oz. 12-20 4-6 1/2-3 Jan.-Apr. Jan.-Mar. Oct.-Feb. H 150 40-50
2 oz. 90-120 60-84 2 Mar.-Apr. Jan.-Apr. Feb.-Mar. T 400 80-100
eBusl potcsaa caoe hvs adlodahedlfnegrazobagrihrs ae
e, Brussels sprouts, cassava, chayote, chives, dandelion, dasheen, dill, fennel, garbanzo bean, garlic, herbs, kale,
- globe artichokes, asparagus, and rhubarb not well adapted to Florida.
g (32 FF without injury.
5% 4% or 5% 1.5% 1%C
Sevin Malathiun Lirdane Rotenone
Aphids X X
Armyworms X X
Cabbage Worms X X X
Col. potato beetle X
Cucumber beetle X X
Fleabeetle X X
pIn .,.onrm i X X
Leaf-hopper X X X X
Leaf-roller X X X
worms X X X
beetle X X X
Pameras X X
Pea weevils X X X
Red spiders X
Stink bugs X X X
Thrips X X X Diazinon 2%
Leafminers X Diazinon 2%
Special Insects.- Chlordane may be applied to
the soil surface as a 5% dust or a 11/2 to 2.-
bait for control of ants, cut\viinms. grasshlppers.
and mole-crickets. Do not apply this material to
the leaves of plants. Chlordane is sometimes in-
cluded in general gaidi.n fertilizeis and may offerr
some control of these insects anl \wire\wornis.
Sanitation. Many insects and diseases may
be reduced by rotating garden locations, cleaning,
up crop refuse and early soil prepaid ntirn.
Sterilizing Seedbed Soil.-Soil for st;rtinbg
transplants may be sterilized by pliaing a 2-inch
layer in a pan and baking at 350 degrees F. for
Seed Treatment. Buy treated seed or apply
50% thiram (Arasan) to untreated seed.
Damping-off. Wet the base of the plant and
,the soil surface to a depth of 1/2 to 1 inch with
S1 ounce of 76% wettable ferbam to 3 gallons of
water or dust 15%7 ferbam on the soil surface
and water in.
Most Florida soils contain parasitic plant nema-
todes. For most vegetalile- these soils should be
fumigated. "In-the-row" fumigation is clie.o and
practical. This involves placing the fumigant in
a band in a trench six inches deep where the crop
is to be grown. Aftei the fumigant is applied the
trench should be filled and the soil surface
sprinkled with water to seal the fumigant in the
soil. Fumigants should not be applied to soil that
is too wet or cold.
Nematicide Rate/100 Ft.
D-D, Vidden D 1 .:upl or i oz.
't cup or
I oz. liquid
'2 cup cranules
i 30-I)' ; I
1I. cup gran-
ule- I O';
Mix with fuel oil,
kerosene, or mineral
spirits. Wait 14-21
da.s before planting.
Same as for D-D,
except do not apply
Mix '.ithl water. Wait
7 day hoffore planting.
DO NOT uw- for
onions, garlic, hbets,
Same as for D-D.
Co'.ering rowv with
plastic for 7 days after
treatment hplps. Also
controls werds, soil
fungi, bacteria, and
Same as for Vorlex
excilit can be mixed
Consider all pesticides as potential poisons.
They should be applied iti ictly aicoriling to manu-
facturers' precLautio: n and recomnendmations. Al-
ways wash vegetnlles from the g;il'den thorl.n.ighly
before using. Use petticiides _.inly as necessary to
control insects and disea-ec aind st,_p alp plicaitions
during the harvesting- .-seson.. Store pesticides in
their original labeled tiontainers. Keep them out
of the reach of children anml other irresponsible
The ih-tint of p ifi, traldt nanr -,. hi r- inl-.-- nlt c~nti-
tute endorsement 'f' tlihe.- pIin.luct- in pi*,f- I-rn,. ti i.thers
containing the same alt.l h. ni.aIl i'r,-i-lni nts.
J. M. Stephens in cooperation with workers of the
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida,
Florida State University and
S t at_! ,Rtates Deartment of Agriculture, Cooperating