Circular 104 I 1
FLORIDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE
Successful vegetable gardens are not accidental.
They are the results of planning, constant care, and
the will to make things grow.
There are many factors which determine whether
or not a garden will or will not be successful. The
recommendations contained here are for home gar-
dens; they may or may not be suitable for commercial
There are many things a vegetable garden may offer
toward a satisfying experience: fresh air, exercise,
sunshine, food rich in vitamins and minerals, income
SOME EARLY PLANS
Consider the size of your family and the amount of
produce to be canned, frozen, stored or sold, as well as
that used fresh. Don't underestimate the work and
personal attention involved.
Choosing a Location.-Select a plot of good,
well-drained soil near a water supply. It should be
close to the home for convenience but should not be
shaded by tall buildings or trees. Enclosing the garden
spot with a fence is usually profitable.
The Garden Design.-Many gardeners find it
helpful to draw out on paper the location of each row
and the crop or succession of crops to be planted.
Vegetables suited to Florida gardens, leading
varieties, seed or plants needed, planting distances
and depths, best time for planting by areas, hardiness,
days to harvest and expected yields are shown in the
Planting Guide on the inside of this leaflet.
Spade well or plow the land at least 3 weeks before
planting. Rework the soil to secure a fine firm seedbed
Lime to sweeten the soil should be applied only
when the needs have been established by a reliable
soil test. The best range for gardens on sandy soil is
between pH 5.5 and 6.0. Applications of 2 to 3 pounds
of finely ground dolomitic limestone per 100 square
feet usually will be sufficient except on extremely acid
Lime needs should be met well in advance of the
planting date, preferably 2 to 3 months before the
garden is to be planted. However, hydrated lime may
be applied two weeks or more before planting where a
quick-acting material is necessary. Use at three-
fourths the rate of dolomite. Moisten the garden soil,
and make sure the lime is thoroughly mixed into the
The majority of Florida soils are low in organic
matter or humus. Organic matter is valuable in that it
increases the water holding capacity of a soil, supplies
nutrients and improves the ease of working soils. The
organic matter content of a soil may be increased by
applying animal manure, rotted leaves or any partly
decomposed plant refuse. Cover crops add organic
matter when plowed or spaded into a soil.
Animal manure is not a balanced fertilizer.
Approximately 2' pounds of superphosphate should
be added to 25 pounds of manure and spread over 100
square feet of garden.
When using commercial fertilizers the following
amounts and grades are usually satisfactory for the
Soil Grade Amount Amount
10 ft. Row 100 sq. ft.
Sand, marl, rock, 6-8-6 or
or clay 6-8-8 1 lb. 2-5 lbs.
Organic soils (muck
or peat) 0-12-20 1 lb. 1-2 lbs.
During the growing season it may be desirable to
sidedress 2 or 3 times with the appropriate mixed fer-
tilizer, at 1 to 2 lbs. per 100 ft. of row. On mineral soils,
10-0-10, 15-0-14 or similar mixture, at % to lb. per
100 ft. of row may be substituted for the complete
One-half of the first and main application of fer-
tilizer would best be broadcast over the entire garden
plot, one to two weeks before planting. The other half
should be banded at planting time in 1 or 2 bands each
2 to 3 inches to the side of and 1 to 2 inches below the
level of the seed or planting row.
In irrigating the garden it is advisable to thoroughly
wet the soil once a week unless sufficient rain falls,
rather than to apply several light sprinklings. A
grow ing garden will require 1 inch of water per week
and when the plants are large as much as 2 inches
may be required. Place shallow cans in your garden to
determine how much water is being applied.
The primary purpose of cultivation is to control
weeds. Weeds are easy to control when they are small.
Shallow cultivation and hoeing is advised in order to
reduce damage to the crop root system. No one
chemical weed killer (herbicide) can be suggested for a
INSECT AND DISEASE CONTROL
A suggested general-purpose spray for insects of
vegetables is one containing malathion or diazinon
plus Sevin or methoxychlor. A suggested general-
purpose spray for diseases of vegetables would contain
one or more of the following fungit ides: zineb, ma neb.
captain, or copper. For powdery mildew on cucumbers,
squash, and melons, use Karathane. Many ready
prepared general-purpose -prays and dusts are com-
mercially available. Apply a~ cording to recommen-
dations and precautions on the label.
You can expect best results if you begin control
efforts early. Apply fungicides at weekly intervals as
a preventive measure. For insects, dust or spray at the
first. signs and repeat treatments as needed. The
materials shown below are effective against the in-
sects as indicated and are safe if properly used.
5% 4% or 5% 1.5% 1%
Sevin Malathion Lindane Rotenone
Aphids X X
Armyworms X X
Cabbage Worms X X X
Col. potato beetle X
Cu:uniler beetle X X
Fleabeetle X X
iln'- or1nim X X
L.-. f-hopl-r X X X X
Leaf-roller X X X
worms X X X
beetle X X X
Pameras X X
Pea weevils X X X
Red spiders X
Stink bugs X X X
Thrips X X X Diazinon 2
I-eafminers X Diazinon 2'.
Special Insects.-Chlordane may be applied to the
soil surface as a 5% dust or a 11 to 2( bait for control
of ants, cutworms, grasshoppers, and mole-crickets.
Do not apply this material to the leaves of plants.
Chlordane is sometimes included in general garden
fertilizers and may otter some control of these insects
Sanitation.-Many insects and diseases may be
reduced by rotating garden locations, cleaning up crop
refuse and early soil preparation.
Sterilizing Seedbed Soil.-Soil for starting
transplants may be sterilized by placing a 2-inch layer
in a pan and baking at 160 degrees F. for 1 hour.
Seed Treatment.-Buy treated seed or apply 50'
thiram (Arasan) to untreated seed.
Damping-off.-Wet the base of the plant and the
soil surface to a depth of to 1 inch with 1 ounce of
76% wettable ferbam to 3 gallons of water or dust 15'(
ferbam on the soil surface and water in.
Most Florida soils contain parasitic plant nema-
todes. For most vegetables these soils should be
fumigated. "In-the-row" fumigation is cheap and
practical. This involves placing the fu m igant in a band
in a trench six inches deep where the crop is to be
grown. After the fumigant is applied the trench should
be filled and the soil surface sprinkled with water to
Beans, Snap Extender. Contender. HarvE
Wade. Cherokee (wax)
Beans. Pole Dade, McCaslan, Kentucky
Beans, Lima Fordhook 242, Conmentrlated
dele on, Jackson W:onlder, 1
Butteliea,. FlIridr a t Butter
Early Wonder. Detroit Dar
Broccoli Eaily Green Sprouting. \Wa
Cabbage Copenhagen Market, Maric
Badger Market, Glory of I
Red Acre. Chieftan Savoy
Carrots Imipeatui, C(ohl Spike, Cha
Cauliflower Snowball Strains
Celery Utah 52-70. Florida Pasca
Chinese, Cabbage Michihli, Wong B,,k
t Silver Queen white) Gol
Golden Securlit,. Seneca
many ithei s
es Smith's Pee fect. Semin.il
Edisto 417. Gulfstieam
P'insett. Ashley I-licers)
SMR 18, Pixie picklerss)
Deep Heart Fringed, Ful
Early White Vienna
Premier. Great Lakes ty;
ihb,. Matchless. Sweethe
Prize Head, Ruby. Salad
Parris Island Cos, Dark (
Southern Giant Curled,
Clems,: n Spi'inele-.-. Peiki
Jnion-i Bulbing) Excel, Texa- Grano. Grar
Granex. Tropicana Red
(Green) White Portugal or Whit
Shallots- i Multipliers)
Parsley Moss Curled, Pe fiction
Peas Little Marvel, Dark Skin
Per fiction. Luxt in's Pro
Peas, Southern Blackeye, Brown Crowde:
Conch, Producer, Floricre;
Pepper (Sweet) Calif. Wonder. Yolo W.nt(
(Hot) Hungarian Wax. Anaheir
Potatoes Sebago. Red Pontiac. Ker
Potatoes, Sweet U. S. No. 1. Porto Rico, Gt
Goldrush. Nugget. Centen
Radish Cherry Belle, Comet, Eai
Globe. White Icicle, Spark
Spinach Virginia Savoy, Dixie Ma
Spinach. Summer New Zealand
Squash. iSummeri Early Prolific Straightnec
Summer Crookneck, Coco
Zucchini. Patty Pan
(Winter) Alagold. Table Queen, Bu
Strawberry Florida 90, Tioga, Sequoia
River, Floradel,$ Tropired.
Large Cherry, Roma (Paste)
Japanese Foliage (Shogoin
Purple Top White Globe
Charleston Gray, Congo.
Jubilee. Crimson Sweet
New Hampshire Midget, S
WANTINGG GUIDE FOR VEGETABLE GARDENS
Sparing in Inches Seed Planting Dates in Florida (inclusive) Plant Pounds Days
Seed/Plants Depth Hardi- Yield to
100' of Row Rows Plants Inches North Central South nesst 100' Harvest
1 lb. 18-30 2-3 11'2-2 Mar.-Apr Feb.-Mar. Sept.-Apr. T 45 50-60
S191 1 lb. 40-48 15-18 11,-22 Mar.-June Feb.-Apr. Jan.-Feb. T 80 60-65
12-15 11.-2 Mar.-June Feb.-Apr. Sept.-Apr. T
1_-l Sept.-Mar. Oct.-Mar. Oct.-Feb. H 75 60-70
I'-1 Aug.-Feb Aug.-Jan. Sept.-Jan. H 50 60-70
14-24 i. Sept.-Feb. Sept.-Jan. Sept.-Jan. H
55 pits. 24-30 20-24
150 pits. 24-36 6-10
125 pits. 24-36 8-12
30 pits. 36-42
1 oz. 18-24
400 pits. or sets 12-24
1 oz. seed
800 pits. or sets 12-24
ll., lb. seed 18-24
1 oz. 1:
II I lbs. 2-
1 2 lbs. 30-36
a. Zipper Cream
60 plts. 20-36
1 4 oz.)
15 lbs. 36-42
80 pits. 48-54
12 Sept.-Mar. Oct.-Mar. Oct.-Feb. H 100 70-75
I Jan.-Feb. Oct.-Jan. Oct.-Jan. H 80 55-60
14-1. Jan.-Mar Aug.-Feb. Oct.-Jan. H 150 115-125
Nov.-Jan. H 100 75-85
Jan.-Apr. Sept.-Jan. H
Feb.-Mar. Jan.-Feb. T
A3 Mar.-Air. Feb.-Apr.
l.-3 4 Feb.-Apr.
L., Fet.-Mar. Jan.-Feb.
8-12 '4 Feb.- .r.
3-5 1 Mar.-Apr.
t 1 oz. 12-18 1-2
( i. oz.)
2 oz. 90-120
" Feb.-Mar. Jan.-Feb.
Jan -Feb. T
Dec.-Feb. T 200
Mar -May Feb.-Al'r.
1, Feb.-Apr. Jan -Mar.
4-6 .-, Jan.-Apr.
60-84 2 Mar.-Apr.
H 100 100-130
H lil 50-75
H 100 75-lu5
H -410 0-95
H 40 50-.5-
T I' 7 -81
T 50 7"-'.
Feb.-June Feb.-June T
Oct.-Mar. Oct.-Mar. H
Oct.-Nov. Oct.-Jan. H
Mar.-Apr. Jan.-Apr. T
Feb.-Mar. Jan.-Mar. T
Feb.-Mar. Jan.-Feb. T
Sept.-Oct. Oct.-Nov. H
Feb.-Mar Aug.-Mar. T
Feb.-Mar. Aug.-Mar. u.- T
Jan.-Mar. Oct.-Feb. H
Jan.-Apr. Feb.-Mar. T
4 0 20-25
Other Vegetables for the Garden.-Jerusali-r
leek, luffa gourd, honeydew melons, and rutaba
t H-Hardy, can stand frost and usually so
SH-Slightly hardy, will not be injured by I
T-Tender, will be injured by light frost.
I Tomato varieties best adapted to staking.
oke, Brussels sprouts, cassava, chayote, chives. dandelion, dash-en, dill. ftenrin, garbanzo bean, garlic, herbs, kalo,
te clobe artichokes. asparagus, and rhubarb not well adapted to Florida.
zing 132-FI without injury.
This Public document was promulgated at a cost of
$652.00 or .J326 per copy to inform home gardener on
COOPEF.ATlir ii~[.~ ;ilCN IIO) K IN :RJl.i T ...MI L..OWO.?'I\i:
I heLr 1.1 M.. 6 uar. Iljr ll
.. i.r..L a:- r,:.." r .. I i '* i-a-a
.,] LirI, LM L] i.Let r, n..fl .V r. 4',
seal the fumigant in the soil. Fumigants should not bN
. applied to soil that is too wet or cold.
D-D, hidden n D
Rate/100 Ft. Remarks
1 ,i- l, ,.r oz. M ix with fuel oil,
kerosene. ur mineral
spirits. Wait 14-21
days before planting.
cup or Same a- fur L-D.
2,I oz. except do not apply
I ,z. liquid Mix tlth vj.i ter. \'ni
.' cup granules 7 d'av I...fore- planting
120' ) DO NOT usJ for
1 ; cup gran- onions, garlic, beets,
ul-s ( 10r"- ) potatoes, sv.eetpotatoe!
2 cups Same as for D-D.
Covering row with
plastic for 7 days after
treatment helps. Also
controls weeds, soil
fungi, bacteria, and
2 cups Same as for Vorlex
except can be mixed
Consider all pesticides as potential poisons. They
should be applied strictly according to manufacturers'
precautions and recommendations. Always wash
vegetables from the garden thoroughly before using.
Use pesticides only as necessary to control insects and
diseases and stop applications during the harvesting
season. Store pesticides in their original labeled con-
tainers. Keep them out of the reach of children and
other irresponsible persons.
The listmg of specific trade names here does not constitute en-
dorsement of these products in preference to others containing the
same active chemical ingredients.
J M. Stephens in cooperation with workers of the
Institute of Food and Agricultural Siences
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Act of May 8 and June 30. 19141
('j3pe.ra ulE E teir, in Srnrlc Unir,, uci ul Flonda.
Flr'lda %lale L1niermilr and
L'nil-d altn DOpartnierar, of Aicre ullure Cupertrelin
JIu N Bu-b% Dean