FLORIDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSIOPIWCE
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE
Successful vegetable gardens are not accidental.
They are the results of planning, constant care.
and the will to make things grow.
There are many factors which determined
whether or not a garden will or will not be suc-
cessful. The recommendations contained here are
for home gardens; they may or may not be suit-
able for commercial use.
There are many things a vegetable garden may
offer toward a satisfying experience: fresh air,
exercise, sunshine, food rich in vitamins and min-
erals, income and knowledge.
SOME EARLY PLANS
Consider the size of your family and the amount
of produce to be canned, frozen, stored or sold, as
well as that used fresh. Don't underestimate the
work and personal attention involved.
Choosing a Location.-Select a plot of good,
well-drained soil near a water supply. It should be
close to the home for convenience but should not
be shaded by tall buildings or trees. Enclosing the
garden spot with a fence is usually profitable.
The Garden Design.-Many gardeners find it
helpful to draw out on paper the location of each
row and the crop or succession of crops to be
Vegetables suited to Florida gardens, leading
varieties, seed or plants needed, planting distances
and depths, best time for planting by areas, hardi-
ness, days to harvest and expected yields are
shown in the Planting Guide on the inside of this
Spade well or plow the land at 3 weeks before
planting. Rework the soil to secure a fine firm
seedbed for planting.
Lime to sweeten the soil should be applied only
when the needs have been established by a reliable
soil test. The best range for gardens on sandy)
soil is between pH 5.5 and 6.0. Applications ..if 2
to 3 pounds of finely ground dolomitic limestone
per 100 square feet usually will be sufficient except
on extremely acid soils.
Lime needs should be met well in adkvanice of
the planting date, preferably 2 to 3 months before
the garden is to be planted. However, hydrated
lime may be applied two weeks or more bfort-
planting where a quick-acting material is nece-
sary. Use at three-flou-rtl the rate of dolomite.
\Iniste i the garden soil, and make sure the lime is
thl.moughly mixed into the ,sol.
ORG ANI C MATTER
The maj.i.vity of Florila soils are low in, organic
matter or humus. Organic matter is valuable in
that it increases the water holding capacityy of a
soil, supplies nutrients and improves the ease of
working soils. The organic matter content of a -oil
may be increased byg playing animal manure.
rotted leaves or any partly decompo.se-d pllant
refuse. Cover crlps add organic matter \.'h'ii
plo\w ed or spadled into a soil.
Animal manure is not a balanced fertilizer.
Aplproximnately 21/2 pounds of .superph splhate
should be added to 25 pounds of manure and
l)pread over 100 square feet of garden.
When using commercial fertilizers the follow-
ing amounts and grades are usually satisfactory
for the initial appllication. Be sure to ilnddle
minor elements if soil is alkaline.
Soil Grade 10 ft. Row 100 sq. ft.
Sand, marl, rock 6-6-6 or 1/3 lb. 2-5 lbs.
or clay 6-8-8
Organic i.UiIS (muck 0-12-20 1/6 lb. 1-2 lbs.
During the growing season it may be desirable
to sidedress 2 or 3 times with the appropriate
mixed fertilizer, at 1 to 2 lbs. per 100 ft. of row.
On mineral soils, 10-0-10, 15-0-14 or similar mix-
ture, at 1/4 to 1/2 lb. per 100 ft. of row may be
substituted for the complete fertilizer.
One half of the fir.t and main application ul fer-
tlliz,.r would best be .,roadca-t iver the entir.'l
gani-len pil.,t one to two weeks before' planting. The
other halt shloull be banded at planting time in 1
or 2 Ihantds each 2 to 3 inches to the -side of stand 1
t'. 2 inches below the level of the .i-:.d or planting
In irrigating the garden it is all i-able tu thori-
uughly 'wet the soil once a week unless sutliitieit
rain falls. rather than to apply several light
sprinklingg.. A growing ga.nii n \1 ill re'iluire 1 inch
of \watt-r per week and when the plants are large.
as much as- 2 inches may be retlquired. Place ishal
lou\ cans in your garden to determine ihow much
\\ater is iing applied.
The primary purpose of cultivation is to control
weeds. \eeds are easy to control when they are
small. Shallow cultivation and hoeing is advised
in order to reduce damage to the crop root sys-
tem. No one chemical weed killer (herbicide) can
be suggested for a growing garden.
Plant disease-resistant varieties wherever pos-
sible. A foliar fungicide may also he needed.
Spraying is more effective than dusting. For the
most common foliar diseases on most crops, use
one or more of the following: zineb, maneb, bravo,
or captain. Use wettable suIlfur for controlling
powdery mildew and bean rust. Basic copper sul-
fate is useful against, such diseases as bacterial
leafspot of tomato. Begin control efforts early,
and apply fungicides at weekly intervals a.; a pre-
ventive measure. Always follow label directions.
Certain soil-borne diseases, such as danmp-off,
root rots, stem rots, and wilts, are controlled by
applying an all-purpose fumigant to the soil prior
to planting. See the Nematicide Table for t\wo .such,
fumigant.i-vapam and vorlex.
Sanitation.-Many diseases and insects may lie
reduced by rotating garden location,. cleaning up
crop refuse keeping out weeds, and preparing
Sterilizing Seedbed Soil.-Soil for starting trans-
plant.I may le sterilized by placing a 2-inch layer
in a Ian and baking at 180' F. for 1-11 hours.
Seed Treatment-Buy treated seed or apply
thiram IArasan) to untreated seed.
A suggested genera;l-:purpose spray for insects
of vegetables is one containing malathion or diazi-
non plun Sevin ur methoxychlor. Dust or -pray
at the first .sign.- of insects and repeat treatments
as ne.-essa try. The following materials are effective
against the insects as indicated and are safe if
ArmyT .i ri'r
BaI.I. %ri i
CaIllIage \\ ,i'n rn
Col pAuatu bhe llt-
Cui unih.-i I.eetl-
Eat i. 1ns111
Flkt.,, eL ti.
Fil.l t, hoi n. pin mornli..
llen tf minin!'
M1l..n. plAkle %onik .
Se% in Malathion Diazinon Rotenone
X X X
N N N
M-exi..i a.tian hbetle X X X X
Paunica- X X
Pe.I ...,-vil, X X N.
Spider mlt-, X X
Stink t.,u.uc X X X
Thnp., X X X
Sariillu- Ihuringiens-is Biotrol, Dipel, or Thuriedde alsk
Soil inhabiting insetlt. Including mile crir kets, \ 'ire-
nollai-. iLt%.(ali -ll ant etc.. (an be controlled v.ith diazi-
non. B.ailt are i:xci.llent foar Lutt -ornsI' and mole (rickets.
Apply ilazinir n a:t ...rdinil to label diirection- and pre-
AMlat Fhiirnlo a ails contain parasitic plant ne-
matL-de- For mnia-t egetabl)les thee-e soils -.hould
MAR 16 1979 APR 1 s
be fumigated. "In-the-row" fumigation is cheap
and practical. This involves placing the fumigant
in a band in a trench six inches deep where the
crop is to be grown. After the fumigant is applied
the trench should be filled and the soil surface
sprinkled with water to seal the fumigant in the
soil. Fumigants should not be applied to soil that
is too wet or cold.
Nematicide Rate 100 Ft. Remarks
ID-D, Vidden D 1 cup or 8 oz. Mix with fuel oil.
Telone k.rosene, Jir mineral
spirits. W\ ait 11-21
d.la. s before planting.
EDB '. cup o0 Saiii, :s fur D-D.
2' oz. texcept do not apply
Nemagon 1 oz. liquid M1ix with water. Wait
Fumazone i rcup granules 7 days before planting.
130', i DO NOT use for
1 1 cup gran- nnions, -arlic, sheets.
ules 10', 1 potatoes-, sweetpotatoes
\'orlex 2 cups Saine as for D-D.
Covering row with
plastic for 7 days after
treatment helps. Also
-ontrols \eeds, soil
fungi, bacteria, and
\PF'M 2 cups Saine as for \'orlex
Vapam ex\icpt can be niixed
% ith \-atei.
Consider all pesticides as potential poisons.
They should be applied strictly according to manu-
facturers' precaution and recommendations. Al-
ways wash vegetables from the garden thor-
oughly before using. Use pesticides only as neces-
sary to control insects and diseases and stop
applications during the harvesting season. Store
pesticides in their original labeled containers.
Keep them out of the reach of children and other
The listing uf specific trade names here does not con-
stitute endorsem-nt of these products in preference to
utthir. Containing the same active chemical ingredients.
WANTING GUIDE FOR VEGETABLE GARDENS
Bush Blue Lake. Contended
Harvester, Miami, Cheroki
Dade, McCaslan, Kentuck3
191, Blue Lake
Fordhook 212, ConcentratE
derson, Jackson W\onder, E
Butterpea, Florida Butter
Early Wonder, Detroit Da
Early Green Sprouting, \\
Copenhagen Market, Mar
King Cole, Market Prize,
Chieftan Savoy, Rio Verd,
Smith's Perfect, Samson I
Edisto 47, Planters Jumbr
Imperator. Chantenay, N
Gold Pak, Waltham Hicola
Snowball Strains, Snowdr
Utah Strains, Florida Str,
Michihli, Wong Bok
Georgia, Vates, Louisiana
Silver Queen (white) Gol
lobelle. Bonanza, many ot
Poinsett, Ashley. Gemini
SMR 18. Pixie, Galaxy ip
Endive-Escarole Florida Deep Ileart, Full
Koilrabi Early White Vienna
Minetto, Great Lakes, Fu
Bibb. White Boston.
Prize Head, Ruby, Salad ]
Parris Island Cos, Dark C
Southern Giant Curled, F
Okra Clemson Spineless, Perki
Green, Emerald, Dwarf (
Onions (Bulbing) Excel, Texas Grano, Grai
Granex, Tropicana Red
(Green) White Portugal, Evergre
Moss Curled, Perfection
Wando, Green Arrow,
uthern Blackeye. Mississippi Sil\
Cream 40, Floricream, Sr
Pepper Sweet) Early Calwonder, Yolo W
World Beater. Florida Gi
S Hot) Hungarian Wax. Anaheir
Potatoes Sebag), Red Pontiac.
Red IaSoda, LaRouge
Potatoes, Sweet Porto Rico, Georgia Red,
Centennial, Coastal Swee
Big Max, Funny Face,
Cherry Belle, Comet. Earl
Globe, White Icicle, Sparl
tipped) Red Prince, Chan
Virginia Savoy, Dixie Ma
Hybrid 7, Bloomsdale Lor
100' of How
I ", lb.
( l oz.)
(I 1. oz.)
Spacing in Inches Seed
Rows Plants Inches
2-3, lI.-2 Mar.-Apr.
3-6 11 '-2 Mar.-Aug.
2-3 11.2-2 Mar.-Aug.
1-1-21 3-5 1.2-1 Sept.-Mar.
3?0-36 16-22 .,-1 Aug.-Feb.
125 pits. 21-36
( 1t oz.)
( 1 oz.
1 4 OZ.
Spinach, (Summer) New Zealandi
Squash, (Summer) Early Prolific Straightnet
Summer Crookneck, Coco;
Zucchini. Patty Pan
(Winter) Gold Bar, Table Queen. Bi
Strawberry Florida 90. Tioga, Sequoil
101)l pits. or sets 12-21
1 oz. seed
800 pits. or sets 12-21
11 oz. seed 18-21
Si oz. 12-211
I .I. lbs. 30-316
61 pits. 20-36
I( i oz.)
80 pits. 18-5-1
Tomatoes (Stake) Floradel. Tropic. Manaluci 35 pits.
Better Boy. Manapal, (I' OZ.)
(Ground) W'alter, Homestead, Fla. 70 pits.
Tropired (14 oz.)
Turnips Japanese Foliage (Shogoi I.2 oz.
Purple Top White Globe. jht
\'ater- (Large) Charlestman Gray, Congo, 1 oz.
melon Jubilee, Crimson Sweet
(Seedless) Tri-X 317
(Small) New Hampshire Midget. aby
11-24 I. Sept.-Feb.
:' 1 Mar.-Apr.
1-3 1. Sept.-Mar.
20-24 i. Jan.-Feb.
1 .i Jan.-Mar.
8-12 1.-I, Oct.-Jan.
11-18 1., Feb.-Mar.
12-18 1 jar.-Apr.
12-21 t. 3 Feb.-Apr.
36-48 i. Feb.-July
8-12 :' Feb.-Mar.
a I Feb.-Mar.
in Florida (inclusive) Plant
Central South nesst
1-6 i., Jan.-Mar. Sept.-Mar.
18-24 1-2 Mar.-July Mar.-Aug.
3-. : Aug.-Nov.
112-2 1 Aug.-Mar.
6-8 3~ Aug.-Jan.
8-12 Feb.-Mar. Dec.-Jan.
2-3 1-2 Jan.-Mar. Sept.-Mar.
2-3 1-2 Mar.-Aug. Mar.-Sept.
18-241 i. Feb.-Apr. Jan.-Mar. Jan.-Feb.
July-Aug. Aug. Aug.-Oct.
12-15 4-8 .Jan.-Mar.
2 Mar.-Apr. Fb.-Mar.
A I Oct.-lMar. Oct.-Alar.
3-5 3. Oct.-Nov.
: t Mar.-Apr.
42-48 -1 Mar.-Apr. Feb.-Mar. Jan.-Mar.
Aug.-Sept.g.-Sept. .-Sept. Sept.-Oct.
2 Mar. Feb.-Mar. Jan.-Feb.
- Sept.-Oct. Sept.-Oct. Oct.-Nov.
36-411 1. Feb.-Apr. Feb.-Mar.
18-241 Feb.-Apr. Feb.-Mar.
4-6 '.1-a1 Jan.-Apr. Jan.-Mar.
T 15 45-60
T 81 55-70
T 51) 65-75
H 125 70-90
T 15" 75-91
H 100l 70-75
11 80 55-60
H 150 115-125
H lO t 75-?5
H 15i 111-60
T 15 60-X5
T 1l, 4 10-55
T 21ii 80-95
II 75 90-95
H Hll 511-55
H 75 50-81
H 100 -0-15
T 70 50-75
H 11- 110-130
H 1lil 50-75
H -1 100 75-105
H 1(' 90-95
H 10 50-71
T 8's 50-70
T 51, 90-95
SH 151 80-95
T 75 120-140
H 10 411-15
T 4I 55-65
T 150 15-60
Aug.-Mart h T
T IrIcI' 11
Other Vegetables for the Garden --J h oke, Brussels sprouts, cassava, chayote, cLives, dandelion. dasheen, dill, fennel, garhanzo bean. rarlit. herbs, kale, leek,
luffa gourd. honeydew nelon, and rutabaga. be artichokes, asparagus, and rhubarb not weIll adapted to Florida.
tH-Hardy, can stand frost and usually :zing (32 F. without injury.
SH-Slikhtly hardy. will not he injured b'05 _t
T-Tender, will be injured by light frost.
J. M. Stephens in cooperation with workers of the
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
)PERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECON )MICS
IAcls ol Ma, 8 and June 30. 1314j
Cooperalioe Extenson Service. IFAS IJnveri of Florida
and Unied Stales Department of Agricullure Cooperaiing
K R Telertlier. Director
This Public document w\as promulgated at a
cost of $1,323.10 or .0261 per copy to inform
home gltrldn.nens n vegetable production.