COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE
AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 80, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
And Uiedt i j
(Prepared in cooperation with workers
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
PLANTING GUIDE FOR VEGETABLE GARDENS
Spacing in Inches Seed Planting Dates in Florida Plant Pounds Days to
Crop Varieties Seed/Plants Depth Hardi- Yield Harvest
100' of Row Rows Plants Inches North Central South ness a 100'
Beans, Snap Black Valentine, Tendergreen', 1 lb. 18-30 2-3 1%-2 Mar.-Apr. Feb.-Mar. Sept.-Apr. T 45 50-60
Contender', Topcrop', Logan', Aug-Sept. Sept.
Beans, Pole US No. 4*, No. 191', McCas- 1 lb. 40-48 15-18 11-2 Mar.-June Feb.-Apr. Jan.-Feb. T, 80 60-65
lan, Alabama No. 1
Beans, Lima Fordhook 242*, Concentrated', 1 lb. 26-48 12-15 1 -2 Mar.-June Feb.-Apr. Sept.-Apr. T 50 65-75
Beets Early Wonder, Detroit Dark 1 oz. 14-24 3-5 2-1 Sept.-Mar. Oct.-Mar. Oct.-Feb. H 75 60-70
Red, Crosby Egyptian
Broccoli Early Green Sprouting', 60 plts 30-36 16-22 -1 Aug.-Feb. Aug.-Jan. Sept.-Jan. H 50 60-70
Freezers, Midway (1/4 oz.)
Cabbage Copenhagen Market, Resistant 65 plts. 24-36 14-24 1/ Sept.-Feb. Sept.-Jan. Sept.-Jan. H 125 70-90
Detroit, Globe, Glory of Enk- (14 oz.)
huizen, Red Acre, Savoy!
Carrots Imperator', Nantes', Red oz. 16-24 1-3 1/ Sept.-Mar. Oct.-Mar. Oct.-Feb. H 100 70-75
Cauliflower Snowball strains 55 pits. 24-30 20-24. 2 Jan.-Feb. Oct.-Jan. Oct.-Jan. H 80 55-60
( 4 oz.) Aug.-Oct.
Celery Florida Pascal, Emerson 150 pits. 24-36 6-10 j,-V. Jan.-Mar. Aug.-Feb. Oct.-Jan. H 150 115-125
Pascal, Golden Plume, Supreme (14 oz.)
Chinese Cabbage Michihli 125 plts. 24-36 8-12 1/Y-./ Oct.-Jan. Oct.-Jan. Nov.-Jan. H 100 75-85
Collards Vates, Georgia, Florida Savoy 75 pits. 24-30 14-18 Y Feb.-Mar. Jan.-Apr. Sept.-Jan. H 150 50-55
(1/4 oz.) Sept.-Nov. Aug.-Nov.
loana', Golden Cross Bantam*
Seneca Chief', many others
Marketer, Colorado, Santee,
Fort Myers Market, Florida
Market, Florida Beauty
Deep Heart Fringed, Green Curled
Full Heart Batavian
Early White Vienna
Premier, Great Lakes, Imperial 44,
Bibb, Black Seeded Simpson (leaf)
Smith's Perfect, Hale's Best
No. 36, Georgia 47
Southern Giant Curled, Florida
Clemson Spineless*, White Velvet,
Perkins Long Green
4 Ilb. 34-42 12-18 1/ Mar.-Apr. Feb.-Mar. Jan.-Feb. T 15 80-85
Excel. Texas Grano, 11/2 lb. sets
Creole (hot) 1 oz. seed
Moss Curled 1 oz.
Little Marvel', Hundredfold, Dark 11/ lb.
Skinned Perfection, Laxton's
Brown Crowder, Blackeye* 1/2 lbs.
California Wonder, World Beater 60 plts.
Hungarian Wax,, Anaheim Chili (14 oz.)
Sebago, Kennebec, Katahdin, 15 lbs.
Pontiac, Triumph, Dakota Chief
Unit No. 1 Porto Rico, 80 pits.
Cliett, Bunch Porto Rico
Early Scarlet Globe, Scarlet 1 oz.
Turnip White Tipped, Cincinnati
Virginia Savoy', Bloomsdale Long 2 oz.
Standing, Dark Green Savoy
New Zealand 2 oz.
Early Yellow Summer Crookneck, 2 oz.
Cocozelle, Zucchini, Early Pro-
lific Straightneck, Table Queen,
Alagold 2 oz.
Missionary', Klonmore 100 plts.
Manahill, Manasota (unstaked) 35 pits.
Jefferson, Southland ( 4 oz.)
(staked) 70 pits.
Japanese Foliage (Shogoin)* 1 oz.
Congo, Blacklee, Black Kleckley, 2 oz.
New Hampshire Midget
lUnder appropriate crops the varieties included are generally suited to home canning. Certain varieties have resistance to disease: Snap beans-Contender
(bean mosaic, powdery mildew), Logan (bean mosaic, several rusts, powdery mildew), Topcrop (bean mosaic). Pole beans-US No, 4 (certain rusts). Cab-
bage-Resistant Detroit, Globe (yellows). Cantaloupe-Smith's Perfect, Georgia 47, (downy mildew). Celery-Emerson Pascal (early blight). Cucumber-
Santee (downy mildew). Eggplant-Florida Market, Florida Beauty (tip-over). Pepper-World Beater (certain strains, leaf spot), Spinach-Virginia Savoy
(mosaic). Irish Potato-Kennebec (late blight). Tomato-Manahill (wilt, early blight, leaf spot), Manasota (wilt), Jefferson (wilt), Southland (wilt). Water-
melon-Congo anthracnosee), Blacklee (wilt), Black Kleckley (wilt).
*Outstanding in freezing trials of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations,'Gainesville. Others may meet home freezing requirements.
*H.-Hardy, can stand frost and usually some freezing without injury. SH.-Slightly hardy, will not be injured by light frost. T.-Tender, will be injured by
Successful vegetable gardens are not accidental.
They are the results of planning, constant care,
and the will to make things grow.
Many factors may contribute to or detract from
Why Have a Vegetable Garden?
There are many things a vegetable garden may
offer, depending on the purpose you may want
it to serve. Consider these in what can be a satis-
HEALTHY-Fresh air, exercise, sunshine; and
food rich in minerals and vitamins.
WEALTHY-Help the family food budget or
WISE-Vegetable crops are travelers with a
history and their production is a daily application
of science to Nature.
Some Early Plans
Consider the size of your family and the amount
of produce to be canned, frozen, stored or sold, as
well as that used fresh. Don't underestimate the
work and personal attention involved.
Choosing a Location-Select a plot of good, well-
drained soil near a water supply. It should be
close to the home for convenience but should not
be shaded by tall buildings or trees. Enclosing
the garden spot with a fence is usually profitable.
The Garden, Design-Many gardeners find it
helpful to draw out on paper the location of each
row and the crop or succession of crops to be
Vegetables suited to Florida gardens, leading
varieties, seed or plants needed, planting distances
and depths, best times for planting by areas, hardi-
ness, days to harvest and expected yields are
shown in the Planting Guide on the inside of this
Spade well or plow the land at least three weeks
before planting. Rework the soil to secure a fine
firm seedbed for planting.
Liming-Lime to sweeten the soil should be ap-
plied only when the needs have been established
by a soil test. However, the best range for gar-
dens on sandy soils is between pH 5.5 and 6.0. Ap-
plications of 2 to 3 pounds of finely ground dolo-
mite lime per 100 square feet usually will be suf-
ficient except on extremely sour soils.
Lime needs should be met well in advance of
the planting date, preferably at the close of the
previous crop season.
Manures-Animal manure is not a complete fer-
tilizer. Approximately 25 pounds of manure to
which has been added 21/ pounds of superphos-
phate applied to 100 square feet of garden isi suit-
able for enriching and conditioning many soils. If
it is not well-rotted and larger quantities are used,
apply it three or more weeks before planting and
incorporate the manure into the soil.
Commercial Fertilierzs--When using commer-
cial fertilizers the following amounts and types
are usually satisfactory:
Soil Type 10'Row 100 Sq. Ft.
Sandy or clay 5-7-5 1/ lb. 22-5 lbs.
Muck or peat 3-8-10 14 lb. 12-3 lbs.
Additional nitrogen may be supplied during the
season by 2 or 3 light applications of soluble forms
equal to 1 to Vz pound of nitrate of soda per 100
square feet. Large amounts of nitrogen on fruit-
ing crops such as tomatoes may cause excessive
vegetative growth and poor or delayed fruit set.
Application-A superior method of applying
fertilizer before or at the time of planting is to
place it in one or two bands each 2 to 3 inches to
the side of and 1 to 2 inches below the level of the
seed or planting row.
If broadcasting fertilizer, particularly on sandy
soils, apply it 10 days to 2 weeks before planting.
Suggested Planting Calendars
North Florida Central Florida South Florida
Aug. 15-Sept. 10 Sept. 1-Sept. 20 Sept. 20-Oct. 10
Field peas, snap beans, cucumbers, okra, summer
squash, mustard, tomatoes
Sept. 10-Oct. 1 Sept. 20-Oct. 10 Oct. 10-Nov. 1
Snap beans, beets, collards, turnip, leaf lettuce,
garden peas, endive, strawberries
Oct. 1-Oct. 20 Oct. 10-NoI. 1 Nov. 1-Nov. 20
Broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, brussel sprouts,
carrots, head lettuce, kohl-rabi
Oct.20-Nov. 10 Nov. 1-Nov. 20 Nov. 20-Dec. 10
Onions, Chinese cabbage, mustard, radish, leaf
Nov. 10-Dec. 1 Nov. 20-Dec. 10 Dec. 10-Jan. 1
Beets, spinach, carrots, cabbage, radish, garden
peas, endive, head lettuce
Feb. 1-Feb. 15 Jan. 15-Feb. 1 Dec. 1-Jan. 1
Broccoli, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, head lettuce,
leaf lettuce, onions, garden peas, Irish potatoes,
Feb. 15-Mar. 1 Feb. 1-Feb. 16 Jan. 1-Feb. 1
Lima beans, beets, carrots, cauliflower, collards,
mustard, radish, turnip, corn
Mar. 1-Mar. 15 Feb. 15-Mar. 1 Feb. 1-Feb. 15
Snap beans, cabbage, cucumbers, cantaloupes,
corn, radish, summer squash, tomatoes, water-
Mar. 15-Apr. 1 Mar. 1-Mar. 15 Feb. 15-Mar. 1
Beans-pole or garden, field peas, eggplant, pep-
pers, summer spinach
Apr. 1-Apr. 15 Mar. 15-Apr. 1 Mar. 1-Mar. 15
Lima beans, okra, winter squash, field peas,
mustard, sweet potatoes.
Apr. 15-May 1 Apr. 1-Apr. 15 Mar. 15-Apr. 1
Field peas, summer squash, sweet potatoes
Whatever the method used, it will be best to wet
thoroughly the soil once a week rather than to
apply several light sprinklings.
The primary purpose of cultivation is to control
weeds. This can be best done by shallow cultiva-
tion when the weeds are quite young.
Application of many specific fungicides on a
home garden scale usually is not warranted. Meas-
ures of protection may be afforded through:
Sanitation-Prevalence of many diseases may be
reduced by rotating garden locations, cleaning up
crop refuse and early soil preparation.
Plant Sources-Transplants should be disease-
free. Practical sterilization for seedbeds may be
obtained by placing a 2"-deep layer of soil in a
pan and baking it at 3500-400 F. for at least one
Seed Treatment-Buy treated seed. Spergon
48% is a good general treatment, along with
thiram 50% and semesan 30% for specific crops.
Damping-Off-Wet the base of the plant stem
and the soil surface to a depth of 1/2" to 1" with
1 ounce of wettable spergon 48% to 3 gallons of
water, or dust spergon 12% on the soil surface and
Foliage Diseases-Zineb applied as a 4 to 61/ %
dust, or 2 level tablespoonfuls of the wettable pow-
der to 1 gallon of water, is suitable for general
use. A protective schedule necessitates applica-
tions at least once a week and reducing the inter-
val to 3 to 4 days if the disease continues to de-
Root-knot infested soil should be avoided. Con-
trols of this pest may be summarized by planting
only resistant crops such as crotalaria spectabilis
or velvet beans for one or more seasons, using
clean cultivation for one or more seasons, or soil
fumigation with such materials as DD and ethy-
Fumigation permits early use of the land.
Chlordane 5% nay be dusted on the soil surface
or used as a commercial bait for the control of
ants, cutworms, grasshoppers and mole-crickets,
or may be directed on the insects as needed. Chlor-
dane is sometimes included in general garden ferti-
lizers and may offer some measure of control of
these insects and wireworms.
l he materials shown below control the insects
indicated and are relatively safe for garden use.
Dusting is probably more satisfactory than spray-
ing in the home gardens, and evening applications
are generally preferable.
5% DDT 5% Chlordane 1% Rotenone
Armyworms X X X
Budworms X -
Cabbage worms X X
Col. potato beetle X -
Cucumber beetle X
Earworms X -
Fleabeetle X X
Fruit, horn, pinworms X X
Fleahopper X -
Lesser cornstalk borer X
Leaf-hopper X X
Leaf-roller X X X
Melon, pickleworms X X
Mexican bean beetle X
Pameras X -
Pea pod weevils X -
Pepper weevils X -
Stink bugs X -
Thrips X*- -
Nicotine sulfate is the preferred material for aphids and thrips
Dusting sulfur is generally required for red spider control.
Consider all pesticides as potential poisons, each
to be applied strictly according to manufacturer's
precautions and recommendations. Always wash
vegetables from the garden thoroughly before
using. Use pesticides only as necessary to control
insects and diseases and where possible stop ap-
plications during the harvesting season.
Prompt harvesting at proper stage of maturity
insures good quality and more uses for the crop.
Have plans made in advance for any extra vege-