Group Title: Circular ;
Title: Feeding layers /
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00102073/00001
 Material Information
Title: Feeding layers /
Series Title: Circular ;
Physical Description: 1 folded sheet (6 p.) : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Driggers, J. Clyde, 1917-
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla
Gainesville, Fla
Publication Date: 1956
Copyright Date: 1956
 Subjects
Subject: Hens -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Poultry -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: J. Clyde Driggers.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "December 1956."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00102073
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 221231375

Full Text

Circular 155


December 1956


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGOICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May S and June 30, 1914)
Agrlcultural Extenson Service, Universlly of Florida
Plorida Slate UnIverELy and
United Staes Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
M. O. Watklns, Director







*









FEEDING LAYERS

J. Clyde Driggers
(Prepared In cooperation with workers of the
Florida Agrlcouural Experiment 8tltons)








*









AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA





With feed cost representing approximately 60 percent
of the total costs, or more than 75 percent of the cash
costs in producing a dozen eggs, an egg producer must
keep this expenditure as low as possible for reasonable
profits.


AMOUNT OF FEED CONSUMED
The amount of feed consumed per hen per year will
depend upon the size of the bird and her rate of lay,
as can be seen in the following table:

Pounds of Feed Consumed per Hen per Year

Weight of Hen Number of Eggs Produced per Year
(Pounds) 0 100 200 300

(Pounds of Feed Consumed)
3.5 52 67 81 95
5.0 65 80 94 108
6.5 78 92 106 120


Thus, it can be seen that for each additional pound
and a half in body weight and for each additional 100
eggs laid, a hen will consume about 13 to 15 additional
pounds of feed. An average-size hen laying 200 eggs per
year will eat 1. pound of feed per day, 8 pounds per
month, or a 100-pound sack of feed a year. This means
an average of about 5.5 pounds of feed per dozen eggs on
an annual flock average basis.


SYSTEMS OF FEEDING
There are many different systems of feeding layers
which can be used successfully, one of which is the all-
mash. In this system, all ingredients are ground and mixed
into a complete feed which is kept before the birds at all
times. This is probably the easiest and one of the most
economical systems, due to the small amount of labor re-
quired. It assures a balanced ration and will support high
production. The all-mash diet usually contains between
15 and 18 percent of crude protein. A system closely akin
to the all-mash is the pellet or crumble. Pellets are pre-
pared by compressing an all-mash, while crumbles are
made by breaking the pellets. Advantages claimed for
pellets and crumbles are that they are more palatable than
an all-mash and less feed is wasted when they are used.

The mash and grain or concentrate and grain sys-
tem has been used successfully for many years, and still





is in much favor with many poultrymen. The mash or
concentrate is sufficiently fortified with protein, vitamins
and minerals to balance the grains when fed at the recom-
mended level. The laying mash usually contains about
20 percent protein and is kept before the birds at all times.
Enough grain is fed in the late afternoon so that the flock
will ocean it up in about 30 minutes. By so doing, the
birds will consume about equal quantities of mash and
grain. Some concentrates contain up to 36 or 38 percent
protein and are fortified with vitamins and minerals in
proportion. In such cases, four or five parts of grain are
fed to each part of concentrate. Home-grown grains can
be used to advantage with the mash-grain or concentrate-
grain system.

The advantage of the mash and grain system is econ-
omy-the grain is not ground, neither is it mixed. The
disadvantages are that more care must be exercised to see
that the birds eat the proper amounts of mash and grain
for a balanced diet and extra labor is required to distribute
the grain.


ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS OF A RATION

Because feed is the raw product which is used in the
manufacture of eggs, the ration must contaiti adequate
quantities of protein, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, vita-
mins and water. They must be present not only in adequate
amounts but also in the proper relationship to each other.
Also, each of the nutrients must be of high quality for
maximum production. For example, the protein must con-
tain a proper distribution of amino acids. Likewise, al-
though fiber is a carbohydrate, it is not easily digested,
so high quality laying rations should contain little fiber.

Recommended nutrient allowances for layers in Flor-
ida are as follows:


FLORIDA RECOMMENDATIONS
IN PERCENTAGE OR AMOUNT
NUTRIENT PER POUND OF FEED
Total Protein Percent ......................... 17

VITAMINS
A (U.S.P. units) ...... .. .. .4,000
D (I.C.U. of D3) ...... ...... .. 400
Riboflavin (milligrams) ......... .. ................. 2.0
Pantothenic Acid (milligrams) ... ...............4.0
N iacin (milligrams)............. ..... ..... 9.0





MINERALS

Calcium (percent)* .... ........ 2.25
Phosphorus (percent) .. ..... 0.6
Salt (percent) ........................ ..... 0.5
Manganese (milligrams) .... ... ....15

*Calcium, such as in the form of oyster shell, clar
shell or high calcium limestone, should be kept before
the birds at all times.


An all-mash laying formula which should give satis
factory results is:

INGREDIENTS POUND
Y ellow corn m eal .................. ... ......... 5
Pulverized oats.. .... ................... ........ .. ..... .
W heat shorts ...... ............ ... .... ....... 1
Soybean oil meal ............... 11
M eat scrap ........ ........... ..
Alfalfa leaf meal .. ......
Fish m eal .... .... ....... .. .......... ... ...... ...... 2.
Steamed bone meal .. ... .. ..
C a lc ite .............. .. .................... ...
S a lt .......... ........................ ... . .. . . .....
Stabilized anim al fat............................ ....
(Yellow corn meal if fat not available)

Vitamin supplement (contains viatmins recommended
above)


STIMULATING FEED INTAKE

It is impossible for the hen to manufacture eggs un
less she consumes the raw products with which to do it
Therefore, high feed intake is a requirement for high egj
production. The more palatable a feed, the more of i
hens will eat. A highly palatable moist or crumbly mast
can be made by mixing the dry mash with water, whey
milk or molasses and it can be fed during the noon hour
The important thing is to see that all the moist mash i.
consumed to prevent mold from developing. When masl
is used, the occasional use of pellets will increase feed con
sumption slightly.





LIGHTS
The primary effect of night lights in the laying house
s the stimulation of egg production, but incident to that
here is an increase in feed intake also. This is true during
he summer especially, when the hens are sluggish during
e heat of day and don't care to eat. Lights should be
sed to provide a minimum of 14 hours of light during
24-hour period. Early morning lights, beginning about
:00 A.M. and continuing until daylight, are most com-
only used. However, late evening, all-night or intermit-
ent night lights are quite effective.


EED HOPPER AND WATER FOUNTAIN SPACE

Too many poultrymen fail to provide adequate feed
opper and water fountain space. A minimum of 5 linear
ches of feeder space per hen should be provided for all
systems of feeding. One and one-half linear inches of wa-
er fountain space or its equivalent should be provided.
during hot weather, 100 hens will consume 6 gallons of
after per day; consequently, three 8-quart water buckets
r 100 layers are a necessity if mechanical waterers are
ot in use.


SAVE FEED

No poultryman can afford to waste feed; conse-
uently, every effort should be made to prevent wastage.
n important feed-saving practice is to provide hoppers
ith protective covers to prevent the birds from getting
a the feed and scratching it out; and with protective lips,
Prevent them from billing it out. More important, how-
*ver, is to fill the hopper not more than one-half full at
y time. It is true that labor costs are high and putting
ut feed more often as a result of not being able to put
much feed in the hopper is expensive, but it is still
ess expensive than the feed which would be wasted
otherwise.

Rats and wild birds must be eliminated. Not only
o they waste feed but they spread disease as well.

Culling out the non-layers is important, as the feed
consumption figures indicate. With improved breeding,
t is not an easy job to cull a flock. However, the obviously
thrifty birds should be removed.

Some feed can be saved also by keeping it dry and
te nutritive qualities can be maintained somewhat if it
is kept cool. Therefore, considerable thought should be
iven to providing an adequate feed room.





LIGHTS
The primary effect of night lights in the laying house
s the stimulation of egg production, but incident to that
here is an increase in feed intake also. This is true during
he summer especially, when the hens are sluggish during
e heat of day and don't care to eat. Lights should be
sed to provide a minimum of 14 hours of light during
24-hour period. Early morning lights, beginning about
:00 A.M. and continuing until daylight, are most com-
only used. However, late evening, all-night or intermit-
ent night lights are quite effective.


EED HOPPER AND WATER FOUNTAIN SPACE

Too many poultrymen fail to provide adequate feed
opper and water fountain space. A minimum of 5 linear
ches of feeder space per hen should be provided for all
systems of feeding. One and one-half linear inches of wa-
er fountain space or its equivalent should be provided.
during hot weather, 100 hens will consume 6 gallons of
after per day; consequently, three 8-quart water buckets
r 100 layers are a necessity if mechanical waterers are
ot in use.


SAVE FEED

No poultryman can afford to waste feed; conse-
uently, every effort should be made to prevent wastage.
n important feed-saving practice is to provide hoppers
ith protective covers to prevent the birds from getting
a the feed and scratching it out; and with protective lips,
Prevent them from billing it out. More important, how-
*ver, is to fill the hopper not more than one-half full at
y time. It is true that labor costs are high and putting
ut feed more often as a result of not being able to put
much feed in the hopper is expensive, but it is still
ess expensive than the feed which would be wasted
otherwise.

Rats and wild birds must be eliminated. Not only
o they waste feed but they spread disease as well.

Culling out the non-layers is important, as the feed
consumption figures indicate. With improved breeding,
t is not an easy job to cull a flock. However, the obviously
thrifty birds should be removed.

Some feed can be saved also by keeping it dry and
te nutritive qualities can be maintained somewhat if it
is kept cool. Therefore, considerable thought should be
iven to providing an adequate feed room.




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