1. Select soils that are naturally well drained or can be drained
2. Have soils tested.
3. Apply recommended kinds and amounts of limestone.
4. Prepare good seedbeds by disking or turning land to
incorporate lime and to bury crop residues.
5. Choose kinds and varieties that are well suited for the uses
to be made of the crop.
6. Use high-quality weed-free seed of the chosen variety.
7. Plant during the recommended planting seasons at times
when soil moisture conditions are favorable for germination
8. Apply adequate quantities of mixed fertilizer at planting
9. 'Top dress with nitrogen in accordance with need as
determined by kind of soil, amount of nitrogen applied at
planting time and use of crop.
10. IVanage garaing so as 3o maintain proper balance between
yield and quality of fdqpge or secure good yield of grain.
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville
PRODU ACTION GUIDE
TO INCREASE EFFICIENCY
IN SMALL GRAIN PRODUCTION:
irble microorganisms and supplies calcium, a
sayplant nutrient. Dolomitic limestone
plies magnesium in addition to calcium.
Test soils to determine liming needs and broad-
stthe recommended kind and amount of lime-
ne at least three to four weeks prior to planting.
he limestone should be incorporated into the
prsix inches of soil with a disk harrow.
Small grains grow best in soils with a pH of 5.5
6.5 and minimum CaO and MgO levels of 600
d 100 pounds per acre, respectively, as deter-
ned by University of Florida soil tests.
Good fertilization practices are an essential part
fa successful small grain production program.
testing is a valuable tool to use in determining
aekind and amount of fertilizer needed. If soil
results are not available, the recommendations
STable 3 may be used.
The basic fertilizer application may be made
>ror to or at planting. Broadcasting the fertilizer
nd disking to incorporate is preferred.
rABLE 3. Recommended Fertilization of Small Gramns Without Benefit of
Recommended Fertihizer Application
pounds per acre of :
~urface Soil N P20g K20
land 32* 641 96
.oamy Sand or Sandy Loam 32* 96 96
'eat or Muckr 0 72 96
'Supplemental nitrogen is needed for good grain or forage yields. On plantings for
prain production, apply 3550 pounds of nitrogen (105-150 pounds of ammonium
nitrate or its equlvilant) in late January or early February. On plantings for forage
production, apply 35 50 pounds of nitrogen just after the stand is established and an
additional 35-50 pounds in late January or early February. Splitting the nitrogen
application gives better distribution of forage growth.
Use a grain drill, and plant high-quality weed-
ee seed that have been treated with a recom-
lended fungicide for control of seed-borne
eae.Soil moisture conditions at planting time
would be favorable for germination and growth.
pare seedbed by disking land to incorporate
esoeand turning to bury crop residues. Keep
TABLE 4. Recommended Seeding Rates and ~eeding Dates for Small Grains.
Plantings for Grain
Plantings for Forage
Forage and Grain Production
Barley 1% 2
Nov. 15 Dec. 15
Dec. 1 -Dec. 31
Nov. 15 Dec. 15
Nov. 15 Dec. 15
Sept. 15 Oct. 31
Oct. 15 -Nov. 15
Oct. 15 -Nov. 15
*In plantings for grazing only, the grazing season may be lengthened and forage production increased by reducing the seeding
rate of the small grain to two-thirds of the lower rate, and adding 10 to 12 pounds of an adapted variety of ryegrass or one of
the following: 2 pounds improved southern white clover, 15 pounds reseeding crimson clover, 4 pounds of arrowleaf clover,
8 pounds annual white sweetelover, 6 pounds of red clove:, 15 pounds of hairy vetch, 20 pounds of common vetch, or 40
pounds of sweet lupine. The legume included in the mixture should be adapted to the soil, and the seed should be inoculated
with the proper culture of nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
If grain is to be harvested, do not allow grazing
after the plants begin to joint. Grain should not be
harvested until the moisture content has dropped
to twelve percent unless drying facilities are
I Preemergence seedling blight of small grains
can be reduced by the following methods:
A. Use good quality seed.
B. Treat seed with one of the following
fungicides: Arasan 75, Arasan 50, Arasan
4-S, Arasan 70-S, Captan 75, Orthocide
C. Use a crop rotation system that excludes
small grains or other cereal crops.
D. Avoid deep planting of seed because the
longer the seed or seedling is below the soil
suface, the greater the chance of seedling
II Pythium root rot of wheat, barley, oats and
rye can best be controlled by treating the seed and
not planting prior to the recommended planting
dates for the specific crop.
III Wheat leaf rust, powdery mildew and wheat
soil borne mosaic virus are best controlled by using
resistant varieties (Table 1).
seedbed free of weeds until planting time by
harrowing as necessary. /
Interplanting small grain into a perennial warm
season grass sod ("sod-seeding") is frequently
desirable. This practice is most satisfactory during
cold weather when the grass is completely dormant
and not competing with the small grain for
moisture and fertility. The sod can be lightly
disked to form a seedbed or small grain may be
planted with a "sod-seeding" matching. Regardless
of planting method, soil fertility must not be
Seeding rates and dates shown in Table 4
should be based on the kind of small grain and the
use to be made of the crop.
Do not graze until plants have reached a height
of eight to ten inches. If possible, practice
rotational grazing, leaving stubble about three
inches high and allowing intervals of three to four
weeks between gratings. If grazing is continuous,
control animal numbers or daily grazing periods so
that plant height is maintained between five and
ten inches. Surplus forage may be cut for hay or
silage when the first seedheads appear.
Holley, Coker 68-19, McNair 701 and
McNair 2203. If seed of the recom-
mended varieties is not available,
Wakeland, Hadden and Ga 1123 are
acceptable choices. The following
SMALL GRAIN PRODUCTION
In Florida, oats, rye and wheat are grown for
production of forage or grain or a combination of
forage and grain. Small grain production is con-
c ntrated on well drained soils in north and north-
Wheat is grown primarily as a grain crop, often
in rotation with soybeans or grain sorghum. Most
of the acreage planted to oats and rye is used in
hate fall, winter and early spring grazing programs.
Eye grows at lower temperatures and produces
More forage than oats or wheat. Oats are best
suited for a combination of forage and' grain pro-
duction. Barley is being grown as a feed grain on a
Triticale, the result of a cross between wheat
and rye, is a relatively new crop in Florida.
Iksearch indicates that, under our conditions, the
varieties of triticale presently available produce less
grain than wheat and less forage than rye. The
crop has potential, however, better adapted, higher
yielding varieties are needed before it can be
recommended in Florida.
The varieties of rye, wheat, oats and barley
recommended for grazing, grain or a combination
of grazing and grain have been evaluated in Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station variety trials for
at least three years.
Rye Florida Black for late fall and early
winter grazing. Pennington Winter-
grazer 70, ACCO WR-811, Explorer,
Wrens Abruzzi, McNair Vitagraze,j~
Pennington Penngraze W, Elbon, '
Weser, Wondergrazer, and Gator for
winter and spring grazing.
Oats Florida 500, Florida 501, Coker 227,
Floriland and Suregrain for winter and
Wheat Wakeland for winter and spring graz-
TAIBLE 1 Major Charac~teristics and Grain Yields of Smalirain Varieties Recommended for Grain Product,
Leaf Stem Powdery 3 yr. average
Rust Rust Mildew bu/acre
Maturity** Height Lodgg
good good good
good good fair
good poor good
good poor poor
* Data from research at AREC, Quincy, Florida.
** Numbers indicate days later in maturity than the first variety hited within each crop.
+ Resistant to wheat soil-borne mosaic virus
++ Resistant to spot blotch of barley.
TABLE 2. Forage Yields of Small Gramn Varietles Recommended for Forage Production'
Barley Florida 102.
Rye Weser, Wrens Abruzzi, Elbon, 1
For Grazing and Grain:
Oats Florida 501, Florida 500, Elan, Cok,
Rye* Weser, Elbon, Wrens Abruzzi
Wheat Wakeland, Holley, Coker 68-1
McNair 701, McNair 2203.
*For forage and seed rather than for forage and food or feed gra
Select soils that are naturally well drain
can be drained economically. Small grains w
tOlerate flOOding or waterlogged condition
soils are not well drained, make provision
pompt removal of any surplus water that r
accumulate during wet periods.
Proper liming practices are necessary fo-r ,
of several plat nutrienlts, favors increased
Pergrazn Wit~~aer 7
ifok ra 22
. Aerage yields for three years at AREC, Qulncy, Florida
** Calculated averages based on twvo years data
varieties have good disease resistance
and will yield well if planted early -
not later than November 10. Arthur,
Arthur 71, Abe and Oasis-
Oats Florida 501, Elan, Coker 227.
This publication was promulgated at an annual cost
of $124.33, or 2.5 cents per copy, as a recom-
mended guide on the production of small grain.
Use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose
of providing specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty
of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of
others of suitable composition.
This guide was prepared by J. T. Johnson, Assistant Agronomist;
and D. W. Jones, Agronomist in cooperation with R. D. Barnett,
Assistant Agronomist; and W. H. Chapman, Agronomist and Head,
Agricultural Research and Education Center, Quincy, and also
T. A. Kucharek, Assistant Plant Pathologist.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Cooperative Extensron Service, IFAS. Umversity of Florida
and Umited States Department of AgIculture, Cooperatmg
Joe N. Busby, Dean