Group Title: Forum (Conservation & Development Forum)
Title: Forum
Full Citation
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 Material Information
Title: Forum the newsletter of the Conservation & Development Forum
Uniform Title: Forum (Conservation & Development Forum)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Conservation & Development Forum
Conservation & Development Forum
Publisher: Conservation & Development Forum, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla
Gainesville, Fla
Publication Date: 1997?-
Subjects / Keywords: Conservation of natural resources -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Issue no. 1-
General Note: Title from caption.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00102051
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 37311582

Full Text

The Newsletter of the i
Issue Number
Conservation & Development Forum

Gainesville, Florida USA

Issue Number 4


.A '.





The viewpoints expressed below are based
on excerpts from selected presentations at
the panel session "Communication and
Information Dissemination in Conservation
and Development," convened at the
conference Forum '97: New Linkages in
Conservation and Development, Istanbul,
Turkey, November 16-21, 1997, and from
Susan C. Stonich (1998), "Information
Technologies, Advocacy, and Development:
Resistance and Backlash to Industrial
Shrimp Farming," Cartography and
Geographic Information Systems 25(2):
113-122, based on the paper originally
presented at Forum '97.

Television Trust for the Environment (TVE)
was established in the United Kingdom in 1984
with a mission to promote global public aware-
ness of environment and development issues
through video production and dissemination.
TVE has raised funds from almost 100 organiza-
tions to support the production of over 300 films.
TVE also works to build the capacity of the media
sector in developing countries, and has estab-
lished partnerships with some 50 organizations
worldwide to duplicate and distribute films on
environment and development.
As Zoe Stephenson of TVE explains their work,
"...watching those films can expand the limits of
our imagination, our knowledge, our understand-
ing. And they shift our mind sets, and they have
power to tug at our heartstrings too, and I think
that ability to move people is very valuable. And I
think that film has the potential to expand our
sense of community with the visions it gives us of
other human lives, through empathy, through
identification, which the medium encourages. To
have an expanded sense of recognition, of famil-
iarity, of belonging, it expands our moral universe
to include those people, those plants, those ani-
mals, those places to which we feel a sense of
responsibility and concern."
Chuck Savitt is the Director of Island Press, a
non-profit publisher of books on environment cre-
ated in the United States in 1984. Although Island
Press is among the foremost publishers of research
and analysis on current issues in environment and
development, he explains that "Our books are real-
ly only as important as the information that is in
them, and we view them as one vehicle by which
that information or message gets carried. We try to
work with all of the organizations that we publish
with to think through where a book fits in a broad-
er public relations strategy, and so we very often
will use an author, and the book, as a mechanism
to get the message out, and we'll develop public
relations campaigns, and we try to get each organi-
zation to think about their book as part of a cam-
paign. And we do things that don't necessarily
make sense from an economic perspective, where
we will take an author and a book and we will set
up editorial board visits around the country, and
college lecture tours, and meetings with chambers
of commerce and NGOs, whatever is appropriate to
the given book, so that the message is often much
broader than what can be communicated in the
book. The book really becomes the vehicle to allow
the person to be a spokesperson for a set of ideas
and a body of information."
Diane MacEachern in 1987 formed Vanguard
Communications, a public relations agency that

assists organizations working for environmental
and social change. The firm's clients represent envi-
ronment, civil liberties, civil rights, human rights,
women's issues, and child care issues. She echoes
Savitt's concern that a communications product not
be viewed as an end in itself, but rather as one
component of a broad and well-considered strate-
gy. "For me, communications is never the goal ....
It's not enough to get a story in a newspaper or pro-
duce a beautiful publication, or to build a nice site
on the Internet. Communications is much more a
tool of the work that we do, that allows us to meet
certain change objectives that we have, and some of
those are to effect public policy or to pass legisla-
tion, to educate people, very frequently to mobi-
lize...We also use communications to build organi-
zations. There are many, many organizations that
do tremendous work, yet they frequently wonder
why they may not have any money or they don't
have political clout or power, and that is often
because they haven't engaged in the communica-
tions necessary to tell various audiences that in fact
that's who they are."
According to MacEachern, a successful commu-
nications strategy depends not only on knowing
the objective of the campaign, pinpointing the
audience, and defining the message, but also care-
fully choosing the method of delivering the mes-
sage. Her definition of public relations is better
described as public engagement: "...what do you
want to say to these people? There is a real tempta-
tion to tell them what you want them to know, as
opposed to what they need to know in order to
take action. And it's very different.. .We definitely
use communications to empower people. We have
often found that people don't know how much
power they have because no one has ever told
them. They have never had the experience of being
empowered through communications, and we
often use these communications to in fact remind
people, at least in our country, which is supposed
to be a democracy, that in fact you have the power
to act on behalf of social-change objectives."
MacEachern also stresses the importance of the
language used to communicate to the public. "It's
very important as you target audiences to identify the
language, the message, and actually there is a differ-
ence between language and message, because mes-
sage is basically the end result of the language that
you use..." MacEachern provided the example of a
group working to protect nearly 6 million acres of
wilderness in southern Utah. Her firm convened
focus groups around the country and queried them
about the proposed campaign. These results high-
lighted the necessity of using language appropriate to
the target audience. "The NGO community in the
United States constantly talks about ecosystems, con-
servation and biodiversity, and flora and fauna, and
the people that we need to move like animals and
plants and wildlife and wilderness." MacEachern reit-
erated, "What we learned very definitely was, don't
use words like biodiversity, ecosystem, conservation,
ungulates, you know, just stay away from anything
that you could use to talk to a scientist, but not to
your mother or the guy next door."
In the case of the Nepal Forum of Environmental
Journalists (NEFEJ), public information and public
engagement on environmental issues are even more
directly related to the process of national democrati-
zation. Hasta Gurung of NEFEJ explains that the
organization was established to raise awareness
regarding the need for public involvement in con-
servation, which was at the time widely viewed as
the exclusive domain of government. "Though

Nepal had adopted and implemented conservation
policies in the early 1970s, Nepali media didn't see
its role as informing the public about conservation
and development. Conservation was regarded as
something that can be done by the government
alone...With this background, Nepal Forum of
Environmental Journalists was established by
like-minded journalists in 1986. The principal
objective of the Forum is to raise awareness of the
people regarding the need for involvement in
conservation to help them better manage their
lives and see to it their actions do not degrade the
environment." NEFEJ's activities include public
information through print, radio, and other
media; providing information and training on
environmental issues to journalists; and providing
fora for discussion and debate on environmental
issues among politicians, journalists, and experts.
NEFEJ recently collaborated with a number of
other organizations to establish its own commu-
nity radio station in Kathmandu.
Susan Stonich of the University of California
has for many years conducted research on the use
of information and communications technologies
by popular resistance movements. She points to
the importance of electronic media in providing a
means for the public to voice their interests and
establish contact with others outside their immedi-
ate area. "Through the use of personal computers,
modems, and improved telecommunications, new
global communities are being established daily
Members of indigenous organizations, peasant
groups, women's groups, ecological movements,
human rights activists, and many others have made
impressive use of new communications networks
in order to further their goals and objectives."'
Stonich also, however, cautions us that infor-
mation technologies can just as often reinforce,
rather than serve to correct, existing problems of
control of and access to information. For example,
she points out that access to the Internet continues
to be biased in favor of male, university-educated
users, who often tend to be urban rather than rural
residents. In the case of electronic and Internet
networks established to coordinate resistance to
the development of shrimp farming, smaller orga-
nizations encountered difficulty accessing infor-
mation due to problems in purchasing equipment,
lack of proper training in its use and maintenance,
poor infrastructure resulting in irregular access,
and language barriers. Web sites are typically
established by non-governmental organizations in
the North rather than the South, and are used "to
communicate information to the public in indus-
trial countries rather than to facilitate communica-
tion, provide critical information, or to coordinate
action among members."2 Technical information
has been widely available through industry and
other private sites, but is primarily accessible to
professional and academic users rather than to
small Southern organizations or to the public.
Stonich challenges us to alter this trend: "... local
and poor people in developing nations have their
own preferred destinies as well as their own views
about what constitutes 'development.' The challenge
is to find ways to allow their effective participation
in considering the kinds of [information technolo-
gies] that might be appropriate for their specific
vision of development and the future."3 A

1Stonich, 114.
21bid., 118.
31bid., 121.

Everyone at the news conference knew the prob-
lem: Cartagena Bay, nestled on the Caribbean coast
of Colombia, had been horribly polluted for years.
People came to hear about the solution: a citizens'
public education campaign designed to pressure
the local government to clean up the bay.
A man in the back of the room listened intently
to the former mayor of Cartagena who-along with
international and Colombian conservationists-
talked about the need for people to get involved in
a very real way After the briefing, the man went up
to introduce himself to the speakers. "I am a taxi
driver in Cartagena," he said, "and we have needed
this kind of project for a very long time. We are
upset about what is happening to our water and
our city. We are ready to work for change, if we
know what we can do to make a difference."
The Cartagena project, a citizen force for
change, was an example of using communications
as a conservation tool. And by inviting the people
of Cartagena to participate in developing their
own awareness campaign, it was also using a new
approach to communications.
That approach recognizes that the taxi driver
and the mayor both have a stake in cleaning up the
bay. So do barrio housewives, street vendors, fish-
ermen, tourist operators and schoolteachers. The
Cartagena communications project was designed
not as a top-down campaign imposed upon the
city by a group of outsiders; rather, it was a
dynamic, bottom-up effort driven by the needs
and aspirations of Cartagena's many publics.
From changing attitudes to taking actions, peo-
ple in developing countries everywhere are poised
to find their own voices, and to make those voices

work for themselves and for their communities.
The basic message is the same around the world:
people care about the environmental quality of
their lives, and they are no longer willing to leave
their concerns for others to define and address.
Communication in the hands of the people also
means communication of many kinds. Citizen-based
communications goes beyond the traditional channels
of mass media. People communicate in their market-
place, in their streets, in their schools, churches and
community groups. Word-of-mouth has not been
replaced by e-mail, not even in developed countries.
And people communicate over time; when they get
their hands and hearts around an issue, they tend to
stick with it until it reaches some form of resolution.
It helps to differentiate this new approach-
communications through what has come to be
called "public engagement"-from what we know
as traditional communications. Consider these
descriptors of public engagement: dialogue-based,
two-way, bottom-up, audience-driven. Compare
them to these descriptors of traditional communi-
cations: monologue-driven, one-way, top-down,
In traditional communications, strategists seek
to achieve a particular, often short-term, goal, such
as visibility for an organization or project, or
achievement of an advocacy objective. In commu-
nications based on public engagement, the goal is
first to involve or "engage" diverse publics in a
process that could lead to the design of a commu-
nications strategy using traditional, but also
non-traditional, channels. The engagement process
itself becomes a new kind of communication. That
is what the Cartagena project was all about.

But whether a communications strategy is
top-down or bottom-up, it must address three
questions in order to be effective- What audiences
do we need to reach W\\hat is the message we want
to communicate to those audiences? What is the
best way to reach those audiences' Constructing
the answers to these three questions will help
develop a workable communications plan, and
probably \will reveal whether a public engagement
or a traditional approach would be best.
Communicauons for conservaton and develop-
ment does not ignore the fact that solid science must
form the basis of lasting environmental change. In
fact, it recognizes that science provides the actual
data upon which communications campaigns are
built. In the "Rivers of Life' communications cam-
paign in Pune, India, sharing scientific data about the
contamination level of three local nvers was the first
step in garnenng public support for conservation
Likewise, economic arguments are ke\ to conser-
vation communications. Effective use of economic
resources provides the practical reason [or govern-
ments to choose to keep forests standing, for exam-
ple. An intact forest can provide economic benefits
over the long term rather than the shorter term gains
of logging. Government officials use science and
econon-ics as tools to forge conservation policy
But public communication is the ultimate tool,
going to the hearts and minds of the people who
live on and use the land and the vater Successful
communication of conservation meaning to
them can provide the motivation for people to
choose nature as a partner.
How can concerned conservationists and devel-
opment professionals best go about the task of
employing communications as a tool, maximizing its
great potential? Projects like those in Cartagena and
Pune are a beginning; they join an increasing number
of innovative efforts throughout the developing
world. It is critical'to craft and support these kinds of
pilot programs. But that is just the first step. Sharing
information, building on existing models, leveraging
ideas and support are the next critical steps toward
creating a global network of communications efforts
that can effect large-scale change. Three areas of focus
best encompass this approach. They are:

* Developing and applying a combination of tools
through model projects designed to empower citi-
zens. From materials development to radio and
video productions to street fairs and open-air
workshops to full-fledged public education cam-
paigns, public participation is key to engaging and
empowering people as agents of change.

* Building and leveraging local and regional net-
works of environment journalists. Journalists are
the primary multipliers of information, and envi-
ronmental journalists in developing countries are
searching for the kinds of environmental data
and information sources, editorial support, and
professional networking that can make them as
effective as possible. (See sidebar on organizing a
journalist seminar.)

* Growing a global communications network that
shares lessons and spreads the word. If our ulti-
mate goal is to find a sustained environmental
awareness in all countries at risk of losing their
natural resources, we must build a global network
of messengers-communications experts-with
access to current and powerful information and
experiences that can make a difference.

These three components are interdependent;
they complete a circle of learning and leveraging in
international communications. We can learn from
models, if the lessons are clear, and shared effec-
tively. We can increase and enhance media cover-
age of environment and development issues, if
journalists better understand the context of those
issues. And, perhaps most importantly, we can con-
tinue and sustain this work if we have in place
around the world a corps of committed, informed
communicators of many kinds who can participate
by sharing ideas and results with each other. 3

Pat Kelly, Kelly Communications

Communication Skills:



Mallory D. McDuff, University of Florida,
and Susan K. Jacobson, University of Florida

\\VheLher the li:tue i- elephant ra.ds oin larmers field ind C:mteroon or the t11 mntna.emert Io
deer herd- 1 Sin ublirblat- NEcv York, con'rSaer.aton
piob lemsn are people problem: and public iuppot i
and pariLicipaLo n are key to the .ui:e-ssi of consit-
vition intlit tate-
Exanrtples vorldmvdde demon-trate the pivotal
role O public att.Lidesi in dectrminrig th: -i.ccE--
or l.ilItre of con0' atiotn, efforts in the case of
re-intrirduction of the ,ra.v .fl in 'iello' stv..onec Park i bioloist5 concILudcd tl-ai. wtan,
reco'.erF. .lUeLi'5 are perccpuonatl h angn mortr t,.
do v-ath deepi', held pcrsional valuess aboit the eov-
einment ouisimde influences, peo.:ples riel.tioi'!iLip
to nature, and the poltic:il role of special ttcle.t
group-t than to wolves s themnelvees AFrintt ca iA
1995 In e5,-.ence re:earchiers could spend years
.Liudling the hebiolog.:,' ofgr ' in pr:Fpati,:on
Icr reintrcrdiiction but re, elit could laIil
..-ilthouLl ct fecti. cotunrn.inti a.itioti strategies: t
garner public support
One a.enuie fir Tiiin-i pubiLC supportrt :.
Lhirouch eiec tc-' conI,"ml icLi'tiLIC l ti ,laiA ers at
Toriucueio Nation.ail Park in- C:Lta Ricai, for exani-
ple trained local guide-. sito p'rc.e t C i ouLitit.-l [i't t11
diiturbint net-ini Y -0 Lueiues [hro.gilh i colTt Li'nni-
cticin- progarim rather thin thioougih corisi.irction
ot e\pensci.e pi'-Ticai brrner ,or :tt icti cniorci-
mIIl Lt iiJAob-0or and Rcbhie 1':', The S. tLhe
Milanatee Club in Filon daJ acticld a s.ucces.sliii
communicatLion istrieat' jat diflereni i beholder
group---rom boaters arnd property' '., ners, to'
Le.achi i and police ; mraketi-anrid gained thet
Siippoil t r n aniice 5anctLniaric: and Ibo:itii'L rei u-
Iltionns i JLaob-o 1n 1 1i99,1
Ctommni.irLtaion ellorts cain Ie critical lor
influencing, people- attitude:, knovwledee arnd
belaj'.ors- aioLt .conser.micr i suLie Indecd,. the
complextiv of ch.-ill:lcri'ge:e facing rnatiul l CsouLrce
iinTiangtrgi.- ugctL-i the urgcrnt need loI ttiniinit in
communlitcion skit ll 10 .onrer ai.tornict: At at
I AN conference Con ccner'.aie on ind uStISIa tliible
de elopT nintt -SCclntil st r,1 '1 ilini t LIiatLic i con ecr-
.ation .and de'.elopmient orgnt, r uation-rt eCImphasl- :ed
conrmuniclton ,r and problcnm- nol'.mn, abLlitle- as
important .i ills necleded i', potential ernplo .ees,
and placed Icss. tiniporit.iince on c .itc iplinar", tehrtini-
cal skill i acob-onr arid RobLeion 1990'
10e biologist:. and retouile niLanagers tradiLLot-n-
a11\ i0.1i on11 cir lennliti anticl techinL,.il ipect- ci
-pecic:s or eoSistmins arnd lack skills for communi-
ctLint1g '.,.ith di'.-cse public ij.icobs:co'n 19O
Communication s-:ills are inot '.terved -nas JI part of
the proless.-i nil identiy o ccons-er.'ation biologists
and largcl'.. g'o unaddre-sccd in academic and pro-
lessional training Foi example, a suiveiie b
Kennedv and Roper i 199'STI found that \.ildlile
biologists '. lth the LI 5 Fore-t Senimce comirplamned
that their training ',.as deficient in kills lor under-
standing public ittLIudeC and aluC- Cainnon ci .ciA
.1996' sur'.eved facul ; in UL S cons-e.ation biolo-
g'' programni and iound thid onl', hall ol the 85

rec'pondling .tin'.-. iiieL t alC-i ':Lourss: in iih.iman
intierctionn ,kill, such a '.ntit.n and orall o-rnLmu-
rticationis leadets hip and ad,.,ca.,
Trainirng at botl th ui i.:cr-it, l'.Cdl d tie in-
etti.ce le'.cl tmLit inttcgrate ;,ipaiL.i, bLiildin c in
C'mni.inictrLion -kills. itrio h: te iec icui.imi .anind
dhrouchL hands -cin c-:.peiiti-:c : acnitc ,ii r.:cat.ich pi.:-
lec't_ intern-hiIp, v.,rk'lrk ps p ,and corrintu.iiti',-
baled prolect' \\c prop:_' that a 11n ag iend.a .:r
traiintrin con, r l'. o'rtit'-t iln -om m rit tuao.. rtI'
addite- the f'll'o.-iti', -kLill- in urnd-i'-
iatndilict ,aid partictptil:Ito fro1-m multiple
stakeholder groups thr:ugch :takcholdc nal,is
and audic-rice rc-:sarc:h. k0n:'.. licde oi 1,'tmat: and
itii[taton -:kill_- l,.,r -hodic-in public tricirting aind
'orkshops-., abllit.- t disc i-- .iue: lithi tihe pu.b-
IL. make pre-_entations and recog.,ni: and address:
judit n,_,: nt .;,',,.l.-: rit.[ ,or:...'r-r- -killk to ui n_ 1: -tm
nmleis t,_ dit:em'in ial.c inLL !'r!Lma. i, .i't i.s n -I pr. '_es
Cedie--e intk-i;c'.'._- adL itLitil plc: c:,iliretn.-e-
or rte internEt kno:.'.ledge of basic d i tcin and lOr-
ru-at [, d'ic.,.lpini rt teipr eti.e.t n .Li.ri l.: i 13-.
br.chuie,: p li. tt[ _il: ,or .-hibit[- under ai, rid-
tin of content and dlie.rci. st e2i: for ,n.iron-
mnental Ieducatt:I- tor children id adult- arind kil-l:
in loni,_-',ri'ieC a1ld t'.'jl.iL ing c'onnt fi.Intu .a ,-,on
,:l!o't in m Oler 1.0 imtlpi'' c cori:sr' '' initiit'. ei
ITrani3nt in commu.':iltiricationrt s!l: .: ,er-s
ci'nscr'.tat.:io prl-ics:ioriilt: a.L..c-": tO -, miattc
irictlihod lor Lindeint.Lrt1ndirig l target CL udaiLFic
cOtnm rptIterndinri. dclilif.ct .Cognitttt.:r'i :m-,il arnd
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ntuniCL.ion -skill': con:;racl.lon elio'rL: 'should
refcI nc. moic inmptl irom tak ii_[kl.i: arjd mtri:
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CDF Small Grants Program

CDF's Small Grants Program aims to facilitate cross-
regional and cross-cultural exchange, and to encour-
age experimentation with non-traditional forms
of information dissemination, communication and
conflict management. The program provides
grants specifically for the purpose of supporting
travel and related expenses for these activities.
1999 Small Grants Program awards are as follows:

Foundation of the Peoples of the South
Pacific International (FSPI) (Vanuatu) to
support the participation of a mariculture expert in
the FSPI Annual Conference of FSPI-NGOs and in
the FSPI-South Pacific Regional Environmental
Program (SPREP) Conflict Management in Rural
Livelihood Training Course. Through this expert
involvement, FSPI will help to foster community
stewardship and responsibility in coastal area plan-
ning and management through the design of a
framework to enable rural coastal communities to
participate in identifying and solving complex
resource issues. The approach will encourage com-
munities to bring traditional and non-traditional
practices together to manage their coastal environ-
ments in a sustainable manner, and will help them
to anticipate and cope with potential conflicts.

Human Nature (USA) to support cross-regional
exchange for the development of the theatrical pro-
duction, Global Warming, the Musical. The produc-
tion will apply the tools of musical comedy-story,
song, dance, and humor-to the task of increasing
awareness of what climate change is, what its caus-
es are and what are the consequences for the plan-
et and for society. The story is set in the land of the
Inuit people of the Arctic, who are among those
who may be most immediately affected by climate
change. In order to assure accurate representation
of the Inuit culture and context, the creators of
Global Warming, the Musical will journey to the
Arctic to meet with members of the Inuit people, to
learn about Inuit music and dance, and recruit an
Inuit troupe member for the production. Through
these meetings, Human Nature seeks to ensure
accurate representation of Inuit culture and to
emphasize the importance of culture to the field of
conservation and development in general.

Nepal Forum of Environmental Journalists
(NEFEJ) (Nepal) to support a series of district-
level seminars on environment and development.
The seminars will bring together local leaders
(including District Development Committee and
Village Development Committee office-holders),
local line agencies, NGO representatives and
experts to solve common local problems. The
workshops aim to improve the local decision-mak-
ing process by supplying technical information,
including information on available technologies
and strategies for their use, and by fostering broad-
er dialogue among workshop participants.

Southern Sustainable Agriculture Working
Group (SSAWG) (USA) to support travel and
related expenses for participants in SSAWG's Annual
Conference to be held in January 2000. The annual
conference of the SSAWG is designed to increase the
number of farmers using sustainable and ecological-
ly sound practices in the southern United States.
Through presentation of examples of successful sus-
tainable operations, discussions of current scientific
research on sustainable farming, investigations of
public policy, product showcases, and updates on
advances toward sustainable agriculture already
made in the region, SSAWG seeks to encourage and
support adoption of sustainable farming practices,
create a regional network that can be tapped into for
continued exchange of information, and provide
tools for building the capacity of grassroots organi-
zations to support sustainable farming activities.

Kenya Community Media Network (KCOM-
NET) (Kenya) to support regional participation in a
cultural festival to be convened by KCOMNET in
August 1999. KCOMNET is a national network of
individuals, media practitioners and organizations,
and non-governmental organizations interested in
development communications and committed to the
promotion of community media in Kenya. In August,
KCOMNET will convene a cultural festival to bring
together a variety of community groups involved in
theater, puppetry, music and song, community
newsletters and information centers, and community
video production to exchange experiences in the
development and use of community media.

Wildlife Conservation Society (Guatemala)
to support participation by residents of the village
of Uaxactun, Guatemala to attend the 3rd Annual
congress of the Sociedad Mesoamericana para la
Conservaci6n y Biologia in July 1999. At the
Congress, selected village members will participate
in a session entitled "Participation by Community
Members and use of Local Knowledge in the
Conservation of Natural Resources" where they
will present a village-based viewpoint of commu-
nity-based conservation. Participants will also pro-
mote the formation of the "Amigos of Uaxactun,"
to enlist outside support for local conservation and
development initiatives.

African Centre for Technology Studies
(ACTS) (Kenya) in support of a Consultative
Forum on community management of water
resources in Kenya and Tanzania. The Forum will
bring together community water leaders, policy mak-
ers and water scientists from Kenya and Tanzania in
order to share and exchange experiences from their
ongoing initiatives in meeting water demands, high-
lighting challenges, problems and successes from
each case. The Forum will seek broad input on the
results of two previous studies of community water
management that were conducted over the past three
years in Kenya and Tanzania, with a view toward
informing the policy and legal frameworks that are
being reformed in both countries.

Capitania del Alto y Bajo Izozog (CABI)
(Bolivia) to support participation by indigenous
wildlife managers in the IVth International
Congress on Wildlife Management in Paraguay on
October 4-8, 1999. The mission of the Congress is
to optimize the uses, techniques andmanagement of
Amazonian fauna in order to promote sustainable
socioeconomic development and nature conserva-
tion. An additional objective of the Congress is the
creation of a Latin American Society for Wildlife
Management. Participation by CABI representatives
in the Congress is expected to strengthen commu-
nity wildlife management efforts in the Bolivian
Chaco, as well as to advance the creation of the
Latin American Society for Wildlife Management.

choose seminar
QUj objectives
A team of local planners should analyze the problems
S it seeks to address through a seminar, i.e., lack of pub-
lic knowledge about specific issues, lack of sufficient
4 attention from the mass media, etc. From these find-
ings, the planners can choose an appropriate focus for
f the gathering.
GI 0


the program
An average amount of time for a sub-
stantive journalist seminar is three
days-two days of introducing topics
and one day of pure discussion and
conclusions. Balance plenary sessions
with small-group work. Use facilita-
tors to encourage participation. Write
a specific agenda that includes breaks.
Time spent socializing is prime time
for informal discussion.

the seminar


S, define the
theme &
the topics

Choose a single, well defined theme, i.e., the most misunderstood, controver-
sial or important issue receiving the least attention. Include several related top-
ics for discussion. Avoid purely academic, political or scientific perspectives or
language. Choose a theme that will encourage discussion among journalists.

identify the
__ Limit the number to no more than 50. The selec-
tion process is crucial. Start with a complete list of
0 information channels in the region, including all
print and electronic media. Identify directors of
those media and ask their help in identifying two
^ or three journalists from each media who have
reported about the environment in the recent
f l past. Recruit through the mail, telephone, e-mail
and word-of-mouth.


Logistical arrangements are key to the planning
process. They include an array of decisions, includ-
ing location of the seminar (with adequate large
and small rooms), catering, transportation to the
site, lodging, materials duplication and distribu-
tion, equipment, and many other details. Often
sponsors can be found to underwrite travel or reg-
istration costs if the seminar itself is not sponsored.


identify the
Choose presentations that not only are
based on the central theme, but also
build on the interest and experience of
the participants. Invite a diverse group
of presenters, preferably from various
countries (or regions) and areas of
expertise. Request written presenta-
tions in advance, both for publication
and to spot points that are unclear.

the work plan
Organizing the seminar could take from three
to six months. Create a timeline and work plan
early on and revise it as often as necessary.

Although the seminar is a closed door event, publicizing it can encourage pub-
lic interest and debate about the issues. Contact the mass media, conservation
institutions, NGOs, universities, government agencies, schools and cultural
organizations to publicize the fact that prominent journalists are gathering to dis-
cuss important topics. This could bring welcome attention to the issues.

step* the seminar
Despite your best planning, unforeseen questions will arise during the semi-
nar itself. It helps to allocate on-site coordinators to assist. A suggested divi-
sion of labor is to have one person coordinate the presenters and institutions,
another to coordinate the participants, and a third to manage materials and
equipment. One designated person needs to provide oversight.



Extend the discussion beyond the seminar, and
encourage additional public interest, by publiciz-
ing the results. This can be done through publica-
tion of papers presented, showing videotapes of
key presentations or workshop discussions, or dis-
tributing press releases about the seminar's conclu-
sions. Often participants turn the seminar itself, or
some of the issues discussed, into news stories for
their own media outlets. Encourage further discus-
sion by making it easy to get information about the
seminar and its results.

the results



A 4 .







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bk-!F 0


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"b' __

14 00


Jacklyn Cock, Professor of Sociology at the University of Witwatersrand and
Member, South African National Parks Board

Being among the 200 people who attended the
Justice for All: Racial Equity and Environmental Well-
being conference at the University of Colorado in
September 1998 was an inspiring experience. The
conference was intended to "counter the notion
that concerns about natural resource conservation
and management exist as the exclusive province of
white people, that people of color are primarily
interested in urban issues." It clearly succeeded in
this objective and demonstrated that people of
color and American Indians are not only the sub-
jects of environmental racism in rural as well as
urban settings, but are extremely active in strug-
gles to achieve environmental justice.
Three factors made this conference "inspira-
tional." Firstly, I was impressed by the linkages
made by many speakers between the movements
for social and environmental justice. Clearly, a new
holistic paradigm is emerging which is not afraid
to confront the issues of power and inequality,
though no alternatives to free-market global capi-
talism were proposed. Secondly, most of the con-
ference participants were minorities, "a rarity at an
environmental conference" according to the New
York Times of the 13th September. Lastly, many of
these minority peoples articulated this new holis-
tic paradigm with passion and analytical depth. To
mention only three examples, the conference
heard a powerful historical analysis of the white-
dominated mainstream environmental movement
from sociologist Corceta Taylor, the only black
woman to obtain a doctorate in forestry from Yale
University. We also heard a powerful appeal from
William Yellowtail, the first American Indian to
hold the post of regional administrator for the
Environmental Protection Agency, to "make room
for people of colour in decisions about environ-
mental and lands management," and from Robert
Stanton, the first black director of the National
Park Service, for more recruitment of minorities.
Many of these themes of racism, dispossession
and exclusion had a particular resonance for this
observer from South Africa. Environmental racism
took many extreme forms in apartheid South

Africa. As regards protected areas, the majority of
South Africans were subjected to a double exclu-
sion-exclusion as visitors and consumers of
National Parks' educational and recreational
opportunities, and exclusion from power, authori-
ty and influence in decision-making and policy
formulation within the National Parks organisa-
tion. The National Parks organisation was domi-
nated by conservationists who were exclusively
concerned with preserving biodiversity, to the
neglect of human needs and social issues.
In 1996, a new Board of Directors of the
National Parks was appointed through a process of
public nomination. This new Board is more repre-
sentative in racial, gender and political terms and
is strongly committed to the transformation of the
South African National Parks (SANP) as part of the
broader project of transforming South Africa into a
just, democratic and non-racial society.
We are trying to move beyond the narrow, preser-
vationist notion of conservation that was established
throughout Africa by colonial authorities. Our goal is
an indigenous, community-based model of conserva-
tion which focuses on environmental justice, human
benefits and sustainable utilisation.
The first issue of environmental justice we are
trying to address is that of land. The establish-
ment of many national parks and game reserves
meant dispossession for local people. This is not
unique to South Africa-for example, in the
1850s, U.S. troops flushed the Ahwaneechee
Indians out of the Yosemite Valley. The first war-
den of the world-famous Kruger National Park
(the oldest national park in the world after
Yellowstone) earned the nickname "Skukuza"-
which derives from Shangaan to mean "the
sweeper"-for the way he forced the indigenous
inhabitants out of the park in the early 1900s.
Social justice demands that the land claims of dis-
possessed, local communities should be
addressed. In this regard, we have had a recent
success in the resolution of the land claim by the
Makuleke community who were forcefully
removed from their land in 1968. This was a par-

ticularly horrific removal which involved 3,000
people being forced at gunpoint to burn their own
homes. The Makuleke community has achieved
their demand that their rights to the northern part
of the Kruger Park be reinstated. In return for full
ownership and title, they have agreed to use the
land in a way that is compatible with conserva-
tion. The area will be managed by a Joint
Management Body. We hope to accommodate a
number of other land claims in the same spirit of
negotiation and compromise.
As Stanton emphasized about the U.S., envi-
ronmental justice in South Africa also involves
significant internal changes in the National Park
Service. Specifically, it means ensuring that all
levels of the internal organisation of the SANP
reflect the demographic structure of our society.
This involves black leadership, which we have
partly achieved through the appointment of a
black chairperson of the Board and a number of
black directors. The Board is strongly committed
to a policy of human resource development and
affirmative action.
We are also committed to moving away from
a style of authoritarian management to an active
strategy of community involvement and interac-
tion between the SANP and neighboring com-
munities. Spearheaded by our Department of
Social Ecology under the able leadership of Dr.
Yvonne Dladla, we have formalised interactions
in a number of Community forums. There are a
number of projects underway which involve
partnerships with local communities to promote
their economic empowerment. However, achiev-
ing a balance between commercial and conser-
vation interests will be one of our most signifi-
cant challenges. In this respect, I suspect that we
have much to learn from the negative aspects of
commercialization in the U.S. However, in rela-
tion to national parks specifically, there is clear-
ly much to be gained from conversations
between people from the North and the South
who are committed to a broadened and holistic
concept of environmental justice.

Partner Profile

Historically, the management of national parks in
South Africa was dominated by conservationists
whose management strategies focused only on the
ecologically threatened fauna and flora within
them. Communities living adjacent to national
parks, often economically marginalized and with
high levels of unemployment, were alienated from
activities of national parks, deriving minimal bene-
fits from the resources and opportunities found in
the parks. Some of the communities have been dis-
possessed of their ancestral land in the creation of
national parks. In addition, park management
strategies and plans ignored the indigenous knowl-
edge of environmental and cultural systems. The
vision and mission of Social Ecology articulates the
intention to redress these past imbalances.
South African National Parks (SANP), created
in 1926, administers 18 national parks. The Social
Ecology Department was established within the
SANP in 1994 to adopt, promote, and practice an
integrated environmental management approach
that recognizes ecological and social systems as
critical in conserving South Africa's assets and cul-
tural heritage. By transforming an established sys-
tem for managing the natural environment to one
which encompasses cultural resources and
engages all sections of the community, Social
Ecology is developing a new conservation ethic
based on integrated interdisciplinary environmen-
tal heritage management.
In 1996, the Social Ecology Department led the
SANP to formally adopt a new mission statement
"to manage a system of national parks that repre-
sents the indigenous wildlife, vegetation, land-
scapes and significant cultural assets of South
Africa for the pride and benefit of the nation." The
Social Ecology Department was formally granted
full directorate status in mid-1997, reflecting the
priority given to this dimension of parks manage-
ment. The energies of the Department are now

geared towards developing policy frameworks and
programs that reflect this new philosophy.

Social Ecology:


The Social Ecology Department seeks to facilitate
mutually beneficial partnerships with local commu-
nities by enabling stakeholders to derive optimum
and equitable benefit from opportunities created
through the national parks system, thereby promot-
ing a national conservation ethic. The primary aim
of the Social Ecology Department is to integrate
conservation with development by transforming the
SANP's traditional conservation approach and prac-
tice of "keeping people away" to a more holistic
approach of integrated natural and cultural heritage
management which recognizes the significance of
community participation in conservation.
The vision of the Social Ecology Department is
an integrated approach to conservation that is con-
ducive to sustainable development and that will
enable communities to reclaim their cultural
pride, while engaging in activities that benefit
them economically. That vision goes beyond a
"band-aid program" to appease local communities,
for example by donating money for building
schools or sharing game meat. This approach,
however tempting, does not change the status
quo, but rather merely strengthens the power of
traditional conservationists over the community.
Equal partnerships between local communities
and national parks is an elusive concept. The rela-
tionship is at best unequal as the control of
resources rests with national park officials, and
those involved in program development and
implementation exercise considerable power over
communities. This relationship manifests itself in

paternalism, wherein the conservation bodies
make a slight shift from keeping local communi-
ties out, but profess to conserving the natural and
cultural assets on their behalf, rather than with
their full participation. The nature of the relation-
ship between the community and the park needs
to change fundamentally. Therefore, it is critical to
acknowledge and confront these issues, to enable
SNAP to develop partnership projects that are
socially and economically empowering.

Social Ecology:


* The establishment of communication
structures and linkages with all stakeholders.
The Department establishes fora to address issues
and opportunities that could impact the partner-
ships between national parks and communities,
while seeking to enhance the capacity of commu-
nities to participate effectively in managing natural
and cultural resources.
* The facilitation of community-oriented
environmental education programs.
Youth programs develop community-based knowl-
edge and leadership skills to enable communities
to act and solve local environmental problems.
* The promotion of community-driven
economic empowerment enterprises.
The SANP has adopted an economic empowerment
policy as a means of translating opportunities
derived through the park system into tangible ben-
efits for the sustainable development of communi-
ties living around parks. The SANP Procurement
Policy has been changed to accommodate emerging
entrepreneurs from local communities, and Social
Ecology facilitates business partnerships between
SANP and communities.

* The development of environmental and
cultural interpretation projects which recog-
nize and integrate African cultural values.
Currently, the focus is on capacity-building in
national parks to strengthen the SANP to effective-
ly engage in mutually beneficial partnerships with
communities adjacent to national parks. Pivotal to
this process is the integration of social ecology into
the general management structures and procedures
of the organization. Strategies include comprehen-
sive training for Social Ecology staff and other
SANP staff (primarily park managers and rangers),
as well as the development of pilot projects in
selected parks to assist in the eventual develop-
ment of a participatory field-tested best practice
framework for Social Ecology.


Social Ecology:

Typically, the approach to integrating environmen-
tal and social functions within park management
is for national parks to have a community liaison
unit which functions as support to parks. Social
Ecology has been established as a core function
rather than a marginalized support function with-
in the SANP Conceptualization of Social Ecology
as a core function and the introduction of an inte-
grated approach to natural and cultural resource
management within a national park system is the
first not only in South Africa but in the world.
Internationally there is interest in this new model
of integrating socio-economic and cultural systems
into the functioning of a national park.
Social Ecology has contributed toward change
and development of new SANP organizational
policies and practices in a number of ways.
Important examples include the following:

* Social Ecology contributed to the formulation
and implementation of the SANP Economic
Empowerment Policy, which seeks to promote and
create business with local emerging entrepreneurs
living adjacent to the park, makes a commitment
to review the SANP tendering process to be acces-
sible to emerging local entrepreneurs, and pro-
motes the buying of arts and crafts from local com-
munities to sell in SANP retail shops and commu-
nity sales outlets. Social Ecology, in collaboration
with local communities, has successfully estab-
lished arts and crafts projects such as the Numbi
Gate-Skukuza Alliance, the Local Craft Market in
Wilderness Park, the Flea Market in Golden Gate,
and the Tsitsikamma Community Market. In addi-
tion, the Crop Production Project supplies some
parks with fresh produce. Social Ecology has also
trained community members as field guides to
establish their own cultural eco-tourism enterpris-
es in Karoo, Richtersveld, and Augrabies National
Parks, and facilitated the establishment of commu-
nity-managed guest houses and Textile Women's
Project in Richtersveld.

* Community-Park Fora have been established in
all the national parks to promote and facilitate the
integration of community participatory approach-
es in the management practices of the various
SANP departments and national parks. A SANP
Policy for the participation of local communities in
the preparation of the park management plan and
to monitor its implementation has been approved
by the SANP Board. This means that local com-
munities will have direct influence on the func-
tioning and management of the national parks.

* Social Ecology contributed towards the develop-
ment of a Land Claim Policy that ensures the interests
and rights of national parks and local communities are
protected in settling land claims. The Makuleke Land
Claim Agreement between Kruger and Makuleke
Community is one of the success stories.

* Social Ecology manages a successful developmen-
tally oriented National Youth Symposium, and orga-
nized a successful Environmental Youth Summit in
Kruger National Park on September 27-October 1,
1998. Attended by 200 youths from South Africa,
Namibia, Swaziland, and Botswana, the Summit for-
mulated an Environmental Youth Charter that out-
lines their vision of how youth can actively partici-
pate in ensuring that natural, cultural, and commu-
nity resources are promoted and protected.

* Recently, Social Ecology organized the Voices,
Values and Identities-Heritage Interpretation
Symposium to create serious engagement about
cultural heritage interpretation in South Africa.
SANP is providing the leadership in this area, both
in South Africa and internationally.

I -

fou e *1 94 -
personnel.:*I 45
fous potctd. res plcy ulua


and helping forest landowners form marketing
cooperatives. For more information on the
Community Forestry Network of West Virginia,
please contact Steve Selin at (304) 293-3721 or
email at SSELIN@WVU.EDU.

News & Notes

The following publications are available
upon request from CDF (
The CDF Discussion Paper Community in
Conservation: Beyond Enchantment and
Disenchantment, authored by Dr. Arun Agrawal of
Yale University with comments by Dr. Tania Li of
Dalhousie University and Dr. Richard Chase Smith of
Oxfam America, offers a review of shifting notions of
community from the romantic to the disillusioned,
and analyzes the implications of these concepts of
community for conservation and development.

The CDF Discussion Paper Governance
Issues in Conservation and Development,
edited by Dr. Goran Hyden of the University of
Florida with contributions from Hezron R.
Mogaka and Godber W Tumushabe, Ann
Grodzins Gold, and Ronald J. Herring, brings
together four separate contributions on concep-
tual and practical issues of governance in conser-
vation and development that were initially made
at the CDF conference Forum 97: New Linkages in
Conservation and Development in November 1997.

A third CDF Discussion Paper, Emerging
Innovations in Small-Scale Water Resource
Development: Cases from India, addresses
issues surrounding the development and restora-
tion of traditional water management methods in
India and includes papers by Anil Agrawal and
Sunita Narain, C. R. Shanmugham and M. P
Vasimalai, Annasaheb Hazare, and M. P Vasimalai
and Ujjwal Pradhan. Also available from DHAN
Foundation, India.

The Proceedings of the Workshop on
Conservation and Development of Tank
Irrigation for Livelihood Promotion, held
in Madurai, Tamil Nadu in June 1996, have been
jointly published with Professional Assistance
for Development Action (PRADAN) of India.
Complimentary copies are available from CDF



A fourth CDF Discussion Paper, Culturally
Conflicting Views of Nature, presents a diver-
sity of views on nature and conservation, and
examines 'nature' as both cause and consequence
of social and political conflict. Contributors
include Kent Redford, Amita Baviskar, Terry
Fenge, Anna Tsing, Warrika Rose Turner, and
Ullas Karanth. The papers were initially presented
at the CDF conference, Forum '97: New Linkages in
Conservation and Development.

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