Group Title: Forum (Conservation & Development Forum)
Title: Forum
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00102051/00002
 Material Information
Title: Forum the newsletter of the Conservation & Development Forum
Uniform Title: Forum (Conservation & Development Forum)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 43 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Conservation & Development Forum
Conservation & Development Forum
Publisher: Conservation & Development Forum, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla
Gainesville, Fla
Publication Date: 1997?-
Copyright Date: 1998
 Subjects
Subject: Conservation of natural resources -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Issue no. 1-
General Note: Title from caption.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00102051
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 37311582

Full Text


















































-~L~oE~sC~.
West Virginia Community
Forestry Initiative
A strategic planning workshop for the WNest
Virginia Community Forestry Initiative was held
at the Mountain Institute's Spruce Knob Mountain
Center on April 16-17, 1999. The workshop,
jointly organized and sponsored by West Virgimia
University and the Mountain Institute with sup-
port from the Conservation and Development
Forum, brought together community forestry
practitioners and resource professionals to begin
to develop a community forestry agenda for West
Virginia and the Central Appalachian region;
identified relevant interests and resources that can
contribute to such an initiative; and suggest com-
munity forestry programs, initiatives, and demon-
stration projects needed within the region.
Participants agreed to form a Community
Forestry Network (CFN) of West Virginia to
begin the process of enhancing communication
between individuals and organizations interested
in community-based forestry in West Virginia.
Possible future projects of the CFN include orga-
nizing a Central Appalachian Community
Forestry Conference, developing an applied
research agenda in support of forest landowners,


and helping forest landowners form markeding
cooperatives. F~or more informationn on the
Community Forestry Netw~ork of West Vir-ginia,~
please contact Steve Selin at (3041 293-3721 or-
email at SSELIN@WVU.EDU.DU


Program &

Activities Update

Latin American Network
on Gender and Natural Resources
In November, I'-'----, the International Andecan
Seminar Management"'~ Of Naturanl Re'So)lvelS j'""'ll C
Genderl Per--~ ; was convlenedl byi the Serninario
Permanent de Inv~estigacion Agraria iPem~anent
Seminar on Agrarian Research, or- SEPLA), in ..11.~i~--
oration with the Gender Studies Program of the
Universidadt Cato~lica of Peru and with sponsorship
by the Consecrvration Oxfam A~merica, and the Netherlandts Development
Organization. The seminar brought together more
than 1I.I: participants representing development
agencies, universities, and non-governmental orga-
nizations to review~ the state of research and practice
related to gender and natural resource use.
Working groups organized within the Seminar
dleveloped a Research Agenda to guide future
analysis, and agreed on the outlines of a Latin
American Network that would provide opportuni-
ties for exchange among development organiza-
tions and research institutions. The Network will
promote and disseminate research and working
papers related to gender and natural resource
management, develop synthesis papers for presen-
tation at the Biennial Meeting of SEPIA in August
1(999, promote the organization of discussion
groups on specific themes of concern to the field'
and organize periodic meetings of researchers and
professionals to promote debate and dialogue.
A web site for the Network is now being estab-
lished, and ai Spani-h-lln-.angua electronic bulletin
for thle NetworkcTI it-lil soon be available.


The following publications are available
upon request from CDF (cdf~tcd.ufl.edu):
The CDF Discussion Paper Community in
Conservation: Beyond Enchantment and
Disenchantment, authored by Dr. Arun Agrawal of
Ytale University with comments by Dr. Tania Li of
Co.~lboua~l~ University and Dr. Richard Chase Smith of
Ox~fam America, offers a review of shifting notions of
conununrlit .l~: from the romantic to the disillusioned,
and analyzes the implications of these concepts of
community for conservation and development.

The CDF; Discussion Paper Governance
Issues in Conservation and Development,
edited by Dr. G~oran Hyden of the University of
Florida with contributions from Hezron R.
Mogaka and G~odber Wv' Tumushabe, Ann
Grodzins Gold, and Ronald J. Herring, brings
together four separate contributions on concep-
tual and practical issues of governance in conser-
vation and development that were initially made
at the CDF conference Forum 97: New Linkages in
Conservation and Development in November 1997.

A third CDF Discussion Paper, IEmerging
Innovations in small-scale Water Resource
Development: Cases from India, addresses
issues surrounding the development and restora-
nlon of traditional water management methods mn
India and includes papers by Anil Agraw~al and
Sunita Narain, C. R. Shanmugham and Al P

and UjjwYal Pradhan. Also available from DH-AN
Foundation, India.

The Proceedings of the Workshop on
Conservation and Development of Tank
Irrigation for Livelihood Promotion, held
in Madurai, Tamil Nadu in June 1996, have been
jointly published with Professional Assistance
for Development Action (PRADAN) of India.
Complimentary copies are available from CDF
and PRA~DAN.


A fourth CDF Discussion Paper, Culturally
Conflicting Views of Nature, presents a diver-
sity of views on nature and conservation, and
examines 'nature' as both cause and consequence
of social and political conflict. Contributors
include Kent Redford, Amita Baviskar, Terry
Fenge, Anna Tsing, Warrika Rose Turner, and
011i.-1 Karanth. The papers were initially presented
at the CDF conference, Forum '97: New Linkages in
Conservation and Development.


1.


,~F:*


NOWS &i NoteS


Upcoming

Publications




















































~--nlLY
-r~ a;~
'Z:;
;$
:~h"


COMMUNICATION PLAYS A PIVOTAL ROLE IN THE SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION OF ANY ORGANIZING, NETWORKING, OUTREACH, OR FUNDRAISING ACTIV-
ITY. TRADITIONALLY, COMMUNICATIONS HAVE OFTEN BEEN VIEWED AS THE LAST COMPONENT OF A PROGRAM OR PROJECT TO BE CONSIDERED; ONCE THE:
ORGANIZATIONAL PROGRAM OR OBJECTIVE HAS BEEN DETERMINED AND THE STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING IT FINE-TUNED, THE MATERIALS ARE DEVELOPED
TO COMMUNICATE THESE MESSAGES PERSUASIVELY TO THE TARGET AUDIENCE.

COMMUNICATION AND INFORMATION DISSEMINATION ARE ALSO FUNDAMENTAL COMPONENTS OF SUCCESSFUL ACTIONS DESIGNED TO BRING ABOUT SOCIAL
CHANGE, WHETHER THE PROTECTION OF ECOLOGICAL VALUES OR THE ACHIEVEMENT OF GREATER EQUITY AND DEMOCRACY IN DECISIONS REGARDING ALLOCA-
TION AND MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES. DESIGNED CREATIVELY, OUR COMMUNICATIONS CAN HELP US NOT ONLY TO REACH NEW AUDIENCES, BUT ALSO
TO GIVE VOICE TO HUMAN NEEDS AND PRIORITIES, CONTRIBUTE TO GREATER UNDERSTANDING AMONG COMPETING VALUE SYSTEMS AND CULTURES, ENCOURAGE
BROAD PARTICIPATION IN DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES, AND PROVIDE NEEDED INFORMATION TO THOSE SEEKING TO DETERMINE THEIR OWN FUTURES.

VIEWED IN THIS WAY, COMMUNICATIONS ACTIVITIES BECOME AN INTERACTIVE PROCESS THAT NOT ONLY CONVEYS A PRE-DETERMINED MESSAGE, BUT ALSO
PROVIDES OPPORTUNITIES FOR ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING BASED ON FEEDBACK FROM ITS TARGET AUDIENCE. SUCH A PROCESS ALSO OFFERS A WIDE
ARRAY OF TOOLS THAT ARE AVAILABLE TO HELP US MOVE BEYOND STANDARD FORMATS AND ORGANIZATIONAL LANGUAGE IN REACHING OUR COMMUNITY.

THIS ISSUE OF FORUM BRINGS TOGETHER A NUMBER OF INNOVATORS IN THE FIELD OF COMMUNICATION AND INFORMATION DISSEMINATION. THEY ENGAGE
COMMUNICATION ISSUES THROUGH A VARIETY OF MEDIA, BUT EACH STRESSES THE MULTIPLE CONTRIBUTIONS OF WELI-DESIGNED, INNOVATIVE COMMUNI-
CATIONS STRATEGIES TO A VARIETY OF OBJECTIVES, RANGING FROM ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT TO PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT AND PARTICIPATION TO
EXPANDED POLICY DIALOGUE. TOGETHER, THEY SUGGEST THE ENORMOUS POTENTIAL FOR COMMUNICATIONS TO ENHANCE THE: EFFECTIVENESS OF GROUPS
AND ORGANIZATIONS ATTEMPTING TO INTEGRATE RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT.


F
X -
t~
_ ~


t



4
s
d


1


; 1

r


~ ~~, sl
"4,-


'II
,r-


""., %~ifl:;
C? C~
~ -~'


ry: ,
r

..;~: 3


F7IPr'~

,F


IZ





The viewpoints expressed below are based
on excerpts from selected presentations at
the panel session "Communication and
Information Dissemination in Conservation
and Development," convened at the
conference Forum '97: New Linkages in
Conservation and Development, Istanbul,
Turkey, November 16-21, 1997, and from
Susan C. Stonich (1998), "Informartion
Technologies, Advocacy, and Develo pment:
Resistance and Backlhash to Industrial
Shrimp Farming," Cartography and
Geographic Information Systems 25(2):
113-122, based on the pap7er originally
presented at Forum '97.

Television Trust for the Environment (TVE)
was established in the United Kingdom in 1984
with a mission to promote global public aware-
ness of environment and development issues
through video production and dissemination,
TVE~ has raised funds from almost 100 organiza-
tions to support the production of over 300 films.
TV also works to build the capacity of the media
sector in de\-eloping countries and has e~stab-
llshed partnerships \\nh some 50 organizations
w~orldwride to duplicate and distribute films on
nmiro~nmentr andr de~'elopmelu "
As Zoe Stephenson of TVE explains their work,
...watching those films can expand the limits of
our imagination, our knowledge, our understand-
ing. And they shift our mind sets, and they have
power to tug at our heartstrings too, and I think
that ability to move people is very valuable. And I
think that film has the potential to expand our
sense of community with the visions it gives us of
other human lives, through empathy, through
identification, which the medium encourages. To
have an expanded sense of recognition, of famil-
iarity, of belonging, it expands our moral universe
to include those people, those plants, those ani-
mals, those places to which we feel a sense of
responsibility and concern."
Chuck Savitt is the Director of Island Press, a
non-profit publisher of books on environment cre-
ated in the United States in 1984. Although Island
Press is among the foremost publishers of research
and analysis on current issues in environment and
development, he explains that "Our books are real-
ly only as important as the information that is in
them, and we view them as one vehicle by which
that information or message gets carried. We try to
work with all of the organizations that we publish
with to think through where a book fits in a broad-
er public relations strategy, and so we very often
will use an author, and the book, as a mechanism
to get the message out, and we'll develop public
relations campaigns, and we try to get each organi-
zation to think about their book as part of a cam-
paign. And we do things that don't necessarily
make sense from an economic perspective, where
we will take an author and a book and we will set
up editorial board visits around the country, and
college lecture tours, and meetings with chambers
of commerce and NGOs, whatever is appropriate to
the given book, so that the message is often much
broader than what can be communicated in the
book. The book really becomes the vehicle to allow
the person to be a spokesperson for a set of ideas
and a body of information."
Diane MacEachern in 1987 formed Vanguard
Communications, a public relations agency that


assists organizations working for environmental
and social change. The firm's clients represent envi-
ronment, civil liberties, civil rights, human rights,
women's issues, and child care issues. She echoes
Savitt's concern that a communications product not
be viewed as an end in itself, but rather as one
component of a broad and well-considered strate-
gy. "For me, communications is never the goal. . .
It's not enough to get a story in a newspaper or pro-
duce a beautiful publication, or to build a nice site
on the Internet. Communications is much more a
tool of the work that we do, that allows us to meet
certain change objectives that we have, and some of
those are to effect public policy or to pass legisla-
tion, to educate people, very frequently to mobi-
lize...We also use communications to build organi-
zations. There are many, many organizations that
do tremendous work, yet they frequently wonder
why they may not have any money or they don't
have political clout or power, and that is often
because they haven't engaged in the communica-
tions necessary to tell various audiences that in fact
that's who they are."
According to MacEachern, a successful commu-
nications strategy depends not only on knowing
the objective of the campaign, pinpointing the
audience, and defining the message, but also care-
fully~ choosing the method of dleiirenng the mes-
sage Her deflrutlon of public relations Is better
desenhed'~,.",.~~ as pubhe engacement :'..what do you
want to say to these people? There is a real tempta-
tion to tell them what you want them to know, as
opposed to what they need to know in order to
take action. And it's very different...We definitely
use communications to empower people. We have
often found that people don't know how much
power they have because no one has ever told
them. They have never had the experience of being
empowered through communications, and we
often use these communications to in fact remind
people, at least in our country, which is supposed
to be a democracy, that in fact you have the power
to act on behalf of social-change objectives."
MacEachern also stresses the importance of the
language used to commnicate to the public. "It's
very important as you target audiences to identify the
language, the message, and actually there is a differ-
ence between language and message, because mes-
sage is basically the end result of the language that
you use..." MacEachern provided the example of a
group working to protect nearly 6 million acres of
wilderness in southern Utah. Her firm convened
focus groups around the country and queried them
about the proposed campaign. These results high-
lighted the necessity of using language appropriate to
the target audience. "The NGO community in the
United States constantly talks about ecosystems, con-
servation and biodiversity, and flora and fauna, and
the people that we need to move like animals and
plants and v.11Jhdle and wilderness." MacEachern reit-
erated, "What we learned very definitely was, don't
use words like biodiversity, ecosystem, conservation,
ungulates, you know, just stay away from anything
that you could use to talk to a scientist, but not to
your mother or the guy next door."
In the case of the Nepal Forum of Environmental
Journalists (NE~EJ), public information and public
engagement on environmental issues are even more
dirle Il; related to the process of national democrati-
zation. Hasta Gurung of NEFEJ explains that the
organization was established to raise awareness
regarding the need for public involvement in con-
servation, which was at the time widely viewed as
the exclusive domain of government. "Though


Nepal had adopted and implemented conservation
policies in the early 1970s, Nepali media didn't see
its role as informing the public about conservation
and development. Conservation was regarded as
something that can be done by the government
alone...With this background, Nepal Forum of
Environmental Journalists was established by
like-minded journalists in 1986. The principal
objective of the Forum is to raise awareness of the
people regarding the need for involvement in
conservation to help them better manage their
lives and see to it their actions do not degrade the
environment." NEFEJ's activities include public
information through print, radio, and other
media; providing information and training on
environmental issues to journalists; and providing
fora for discussion and debate on environmental
issues among politicians, journalists, and experts.
NEFE) recently collaborated with a number of
other organizations to establish its own commu-
nity radio station in Kathmandu.
Susan Stonich of the University of California
has for many years conducted research on the use
of information and communications technologies
by popular resistance movements. She points to
the importance of electronic media in providing a
means for the public to voice their interests and
establish contact with others outside their immedi-
ate area. "Through the use of personal computers,
modems, and improved telecommunications~alew
global communities are being established daily.
Members of indigenous organizat-ions, peasant
groups, women's groups, ecological movements,
human rights activists, and many others have made
impressive use of new communications networks
in order to further their goals and objectives."'
Stonich also, however, cautions us that infor-
mation technologies can just as often reinforce,
rather than serve to correct, existing problems of
control of and access to information. For example,
she points out that access to the Internet continues
to be biased in favor of male, university-educated
users, who often tend to be urban rather than rural
residents. In the case of electronic and Internet
networks established to coordinate resistance to
the development of shrimp farming, smaller orga-
nizations encountered difficulty accessing infor-
mation due to problems in purchasing equipment,
lack of proper training in its use and maintenance,
poor infrastructure resulting in irregular access,
and language barriers. Web sites are typically
established by non-governmental organizations in
the North rather than the South, and are used "to
communicate information to the public in indus-
trial countries rather than to facilitate communica-
tion, provide critical information, or to coordinate
action among members."2 Technical information
has been widely available through industry and
other private sites, but is primarily accessible to
professional and academic users rather than to
small Southern organizations or to the public.
Stonich challenges us to alter this trend: "... local
and poor people in developing nations have their
own preferred destinies as well as their own views
about what constitutes 'development.' The challenge
is to find ways to allow their effective participation
in considering the kinds of [information technolo-
gies] that might be appropriate for their specific
vision of development and the future."3

Notes:

1Sani c. lit








But whether a communications strategy is
top-down or bottom-up, it must address three
questions in order to be effective: What audiences
do we need to reach? WVhat is the message we want
to commmunicate to those audiences? What is the
best way to reach those audiences? Constructing
the answers to these three questions will help
develop a workable communications plan, and
probably will reveal whether a public engagement
or a traditional approach would be best.
Communications for conservation and develop-
ment does not ignore the fact that solid science must
form the basis of lasting environmental change. In
fact, it recognizes that science provides the actual
data upon which communications campaigns are
built. In the "Rivers of Life" communications cam-
paign in Pune, India, sharing scientific data about the
contamination level of three local rivers was the first
step in garnering public support for conservation.
Likewise, economic arguments are key to conser-
vation communications. Effective use of economic
resources provides the practical reason for govern-
ments to choose to keep forests standing, for exam-
ple. An intact forest can provide economic benefits
over the long term rather than the shorter term gains
of logging. Government officials use science and
economics as tools to forge conservation policy.
But public communication is the ultimate tool,
going to the hearts and minds of the people who
live on and use the land and the water. Successful
communication of conservation's meaning to
them. can provide the motivation for people to
choose nature as a partner.
How can concerned conservationists and devel-



Pune are a beginning; they join an increasing number
of innovative efforts throughout the developing
world. It is critical to craft and support these kinds of
pilot programs. But that is just the first step. Sharing

ideas and support are the next cnlc~al steps toward
creating a global network of` communication efforts
that can effect large-scale change Three areas of locus
be~st encompass this approach The] are

Dle\eloping and applymig a comnbination of rcookl
hrou~igh model projects designed [o empowe\'tr call-
zens. From matenals development to radio and
video productions to street fairs and open-air
workshops to full-fledged public education cam-
paigns, public participation is key to engaging and
empowering people as agents of change.

Building and leveraging local and regional net-
works of environment journalists. Journalists are
the primary multipliers of information, and envi-
ronmental journalists in developing countries are
searching for the kinds of environmental data
and information sources, editorial support, and
professional networking that can make them as
effective as possible. (See sidebar on organizing a
journalist seminar.)

Growing a global communications network that
shares lessons and spreads the word. If our ulti-
mate goal is to find a sustained environmental
awareness in all countries at risk of losing their
natural resources, we must build a global network
of messengers-communications experts--with
access to current and powerful information and
experiences that can make a difference.

These three components are interdependent;
they complete a circle of learning and leveraging in
international communications. We can learn from
models, if the lessons are clear, and shared effec-
tivrely. We can increase and enhance media cover-
age of environment and development issues, if
journalists better understand the context of those
issues. And, perhaps most importantly, we can con-
tinue and sustain this work if we have in place
around the world a corps of committed, informed
communicators of many kinds who can participate
by sharing ideas and results with each other. Ga


Everyone at the news conference knew the prob-
lem: Cartagena Bay, nestled on the Caribbean coast
of Colombia, had been horribly polluted for years,
People came to hear about the solution: a citizens'
public education campaign designed to pressure
the local government to clean up the bay.
A man in the back of the room listened intently
to the former mayor of Cartagena who--along with
international and Colombian conservationists-
talked about the need for people to get involved in
a very real wcay. After the briefing, the man went up
to introduce himself to the speakers. "I am a taxi
driver in Cartagena," he said, "and we have needed
this kind of project for a very long time. We are
upset about wNhat is happening to our water and
our city. We are ready to work for change, if we
know what we can do to make a difference."
The Cartagena project, a citizen force for
change, was an example of using communications
as a conservation tool. And by inviting the people
of Cartagena to participate in developing their
own awareness campaign, it was also using a new
approach to communications.
That approach recognizes that the taxi driver
and the mayor both have a stake in cleaning up the
bay. So do barrio housewives, street vendors, fish-
ermen, tourist operators and schoolteachers. T~he
Cartagena communications project was designed
not as a top-down campaign imposed upon the
city by a group of outsiders; rather, it was a
dynamic, bottom-up effort driven by the needs
and aspirations of Cartagena's many publics.
From changing attitudes to taking actions, peo-
ple in developing countries everywhere are poised
to find their own voices, and to make those voices


work for themselves and for their communities.
The basic message is the same around the world:
people care about the e-nvironmental quality of
their lives, and they are no longer willing to leave
their concerns for others to define and address.
Commnication in the hands of the people also
means communication of many kinds. Citizen-based
commnications goes beyond the traditional channels
of mass media. People communicate in their market-
place, in their streets, in their schools, churches and
community groups. Word-of-mouth has not been
replaced by e-mail, not even in developed countries.
And people communicate over time; when they get
their hands and hearts around an issue, they tend to
stick with it until it reaches some form of resolution.
It helps to differentiate this new approach-
communications through what has come to be
called "public engagement"--from what we know
as traditional communications. Consider these
descriptors of public engagement: dialogue-based,
two-way, bottom-up, audience-drivren. Compare
them to these descriptors of traditional communi-
cations: monologue-driven, one-way, top-down,
audience-focused.
In traditional communications, strategists seek
to achieve a particular, often short-term, goal, such
as visibility for an organization or project, or
achievement of an advocacyi objective. In commu-
nications based on public engagement, the goal is
first to involve or "engage"' diverse publics in a
process that could lead to the design of a commu-
nications -Iraicyi using traditional, but also
non-traditional, channels. The engagement process
itself becomes a new kind of comnmunication. That
is what the Cartagena project was all about.


COMMUNICATION


EBflQ


._ __ _ ~


Pat Kelly, Kelly Communications






















~'~"""f"B~


Whether the issue is elephant raids on a farmer's
cassava fields in Cameroon or the management of
deer herds in suburban New York, conservation
problems are people problems, and public support
and participation are key to the success of conser-
vation initiatives.
Examples worldwide demonstrate the pivotal
role of public attitudes in determining the success
or failure of conservation efforts. In the case of
reintroduction of the gray wolf in Yellowstone
National Park, biologists concluded that "many
recovery issues are perceptional, having more to
do w-ith deeply held personal values about the gov-
ernment, outside influences, people's relanonsnhip
to nature, and the political role of special interest
groups than to wolves themselves" (Fritts et al.
1995! In essence, researchers could spend years
studying: the biology of gray wolvecs in~ prcparatiion
for reintrodluction, but recovery efforts could fail
without effective communications strategies to
garner public support.
One avenue for gaining public support is
through effective communications. Managers at
Tortuguero National Park in Costa Rica, for exam-
ple, trained local guides to prevent tourists from
disturbing nesting sea turtles through a communi-
cations program, rather than through construction
of expensive physical barriers or stricter enforce-
ment Gacobson and Robles 1992). The Save the
Manatee Club in Florida targeted a successful
communications strategy at different stakeholder
groups--from boaters and property owners, to
teachers and policy makers--and gained their
support for manatee sanctuaries and boating regu-
lations Oacobson 1999).
Communication efforts can be critical for
influencing people's attitudes, knowledge, and
behaviors about conservation issues. Indeed, the
complexity of challenges facing natural resource
managers suggests the urgent need for training in
communication skills for conservationists. At a
1989 conference on conservation and sustainable
development, scientists from international conser-
vation and development organizations emphasized
communication and problem-solviing abilities as
important skills needed by potential employees,
and placed less importance on disciplinary techni-
cal skills Uacobson and Robinson 1990).
Yet biologists and resource managers tradition-
ally focus on scientific and technical aspects of
species or ecosystems and lack skills for communi-
cating with diverse publics Uacobson 1990).
Communication skills are not viewed as a part of
the professional identity of conservation biologists
and largely go unaddressedl in academic and pro-
fessionaS training. IFor example, a survey by
Kennedy and Roper (1989) found that wildlife
biologists with the U.S. Forest Service complained
that their training was deficient in skills for- unerI-
standing public attitudes and values. Cannon e~t al.
(199)c) surve red faculty in U.S. conservation biolo-
gy programs and found that only half of' the 85


responding universities offer courses in human
interaction skills, such as written and oral commu-
nications, leadership, and advocacy.
Training at both the university level and the in-
service level must integrate capacity building in
communications skills into the curriculum and
through hands-on experience such as research pro-
jects, internships, workshops, and community-
based projects. ~We propose that an agenda for
training conservationists in comnmunicat-ions
address the following strategies: skills in under-
standing and targeting participation from multiple
stakeholder groups through stakeholder anRlysis
and audience research; know:le~dge~ ofi ionnasls nd
facllhration skills for holding public meetings and
workshops; ability to discuss Issues with the pulb-
lic, make presentations, and recognize and address
audlience needs an~d co~ncerns; skills to use mass
media to disseminate infor-mation, through pr-ess
releases, interviews,.3J< r.lL-i;r~~ press conferences,
or the Internet; knowledge of basic design and fo~r-
mat for developing interpretive materials such as
brochures, posters, trails, or exhibits; understand-
ing of content and delivery systems for environ-
mental education for children and adults; and skills
in monitoring and evaluating communication
efforts in order to improve conservation initiatives.
Training in communication skills offers
conservation professionals access to systematic
methods for understanding target audiences,
comprehending different cognition systems, and
analyzing alternative activities for achieving goals
and objectives. As scientists improve their com-
munication skills, conservation efforts should
reflect more input from stakeholders and more
diverse and innovative solutions to pressing
resource management problems.

By Mallory D. McDuff. Graduate Research Assistant and Susan K. Jacobson,
Professor and Director, Program for Studies in Tropical Conservanion. Depanment
of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, PO. Box 110430, University of Flonnda.
Gainesvile, R. 326H1-04130. Jacobsons new~ lxok, COmmunication Shriis iir
Ginservation Pitlessilnals. due out in June 1999 by Island Press, desenbes effcuri\e
c~ommunication tools and techniques to promote consenrvaion. Order from- Bisnd
Press, Dept. 2AL. PO. Box 7, Covelo. CA. 95328. Phone 1-800-828-1302 ior
onlmne at wwnt~islandpress org.

References
Cannon.J.R. ) M Dlict. and L.A. Dietz, 1996. Training conservanion biolveSiti
in human mnteracuion skills. Colnsemutian Biology 10:1277-1282.
ienuts, S itL. E. Bangs,3..x ema1ine, wG. airesrri and 3.r1 C;are 1')9 RLesenni
wolves1,~ to he nolnhern Rockyv Mountains of the L mlted States. L D Carkvn. il
F~nitr-, and D-,R Seip Erraby nrid Conentioc~ir~ n lli H~bbesi in a \v
Cinadol~n Cirumpo~lar Institute. Edmonton. A\lbera Pages 10;-12j
'~cosn. 1000 Graduaue edutano~n in commservano~n biolop~ conson aii;~


Iorcon x:,l, 000. amemmno ppse noinnnwn

J.wobso~iin i.K.andl .GRohmsonloool. t he~in iiinservanoneta-I~ili-


uR~
i~F



~r ~BF

3
~
,, .x2.
~i~ ~ t~ *1
Q.. ~g

'' ~


i: I


1- f,
~ ~.
~.w*






z O
I;1E~
c ~1

I"


1.

....,
~LW~,:

~:i~

~*;.
: ; ;r


Communication Skills:


A MISSING


CONSERVATI ON


Mallory D. McDuff, University of Florida,
and Susan K. Jacobson, University of Florida


~41r
4~i;
; ~~r~FL?"
*ipr;


















































CDIF Small Grants Program


congress of the Sociedad Mesoamericana para la
Conservanicin ! Biologia in Jul; 1999 At the
Congress, selected ?Illage memlbers w ill paracipilte
In a session ntitleiid '"Pa7rlicpano~n byl commnitylnr
Members and~ us-e of Lcal; K~noilledgeI~~i In theI

\<-lil presentL d '.llagec-b33ced n ew\ point ofl commu-nL

mote the formation of the "Amigos of Uaxactun,"
to enlist outside support for local conservation and
development initiatives.

African Centre for Technology Studies
(ACTS) (Kenya) in support of a Consultative
Forum on community management of water
resources in Kenya and Tanzania. The Forum will
bring together community water leaders, policy mak-
ers and water scientists from Kenya and Tanzania in
order to share and exchange experiences from their
ongoing initiatives in meeting water demands, high-
lighting challenges, problems and successes from
each case. The F~orum will seek broad input on the
results of two previous studies of community water
management that were conducted over the past three
years in Kenya and Tanzania, with a view. toward
informing the policy and legal frameworks that are
being reformed in both countries,

Capitania del Alto y Bajo Izozog (CABl)
(Bolivia) to support participation by indigenous
wildlife managers in the IVth International
Congress on W'ildlife Management in Paraguay on
October 4-8, 1999. The mission of the Congress is
to optimize the uses, techniques andmanagement of
Amazonian fauna in order to promote sustainable
socioeconomic development and nature conserva-
tion. An additional objective of the Congress is the
creation of a Latin American Society for it.11ifel~
Management. Participation by CABI representatives
in the Congress is expected to strengthen commu-
nity wildlife management efforts in the Boliv;ian
Chaco, as well as to advance the creation of the
Latin American Society for Wildlife Management.


Y


L I~


CDFs Small Grants Program aims to facilitate cross-
regional and cr-oss-cultur-al exchange, and to encour-

ofl Il'ljnformann Jl-ssenunanonn cornmurucanuon and
conflict management. The program provides
grants specfically for the purpose of supporting
travel and related expenses for these activities.
1999 Small Grants Program awards are as follows:

Foundation of the Peoples of the South
Pacific International (FSPI) (Vanuatu) to
support the participation of a mariculture expert in
the F;SPI Annal Conference of FSPI-NGOs and in
the F;SPI-South Pacific Regional Environmental
Program (SPREP) Conflict Management in Rural
Livelihood Training Course. Through this expert
involvement, FSPI will help to foster community
stewardship and responsibility in coastal area plan-
ning and management through the design of a
framework to enable rural coastal communities to
participate in identifying and solving complex
resource issues. The approach will encourage com-
munities to bring traditional and non-traditional
practices together to manage their coastal environ-
ments in a sustainable manner, and will help them
to anticipate and cope with potential conflicts.

Human Nature (USA) to support cross-regional
exchange for the development of the theatrical pro-
duction, Global Warming, the Musical. The produc-
tion will apply the tools of musical comedy-~-story,
song, dance, and humor--to the task of increasing
awareness of what climate change is, what its caus-
es are and what are the consequences for the plan-
et and for society. The story is set in the land of the
Inuit people of the Arctic, wvho are among those
who may be most immediately affected by climate
change. In order to assure accurate representation
of the Inuit culture and context, the creators of
Global War-ming, the Musical will journey to the
Arctic to meet with members of the Inuit pe...pk.1. to
learn about Inuit music and dance, and recruit an
Inuit troupe member for the production. T-hrough
these meetings, Human Nature seeks to ensure
accurate representation of Inuit culture and to
emphasize the importance of culture to the field of
conservation and development in general.


Nepal Forum of Environmental Journalists
(NEFEJ) (Nepal) to support a ser-ies of district-

The seminars wvill bring together local leaders
(including District Development Committee and
Village Dev~elopment Committee office-holders),
local lIme agencies, NGO representani-ers and
experts to sol\e common local problems The
workshops aim to Improve the local de~ctston-mak-
ing: proceis by supplying tec~hnical Iniiormation,
includiing Inf'onrmaon~ o~n ava~lable~ technorlogies
and strategies for their use, and by fostering broad-
er dialogue among workshop participants.

Southern Sustainable Agriculture Working
Group (SSAWG) (USA) to support travel and
related expenses for participants in SSAWG's Annual
Conference to be held in January 2000. The annal
conference of the SSAWG is designed to increase the
number of farmers using sustainable and ecological-
ly sound practices in the southern United States.
Through presentation of examples of successful sus-
tainable operations, discussions of current scientific
research on sustainable farming, investigations of
public policy, product showcases, and updates on
advances toward sustainable agriculture already
made in the region, SSAWMiG seeks to encourage and
support adoption of sustainable farming practices,
create a regional network that can be tapped into for
continued exchange of information, and provide
tools for building the capacity of grassroots organi-
zations to support sustainable farming activities.

Kenya Community Media Network (KCOM-
NIET) (Kenya) to support regional participation in a
cultural festival to be convened by KCOT.I".ET in
August 1999. KCOMNET is a national network of
individuals, media practitioners and organizations,
and non-governmental organizations interested in
development communications and committed to the
promotion of community media in KenyIa. In A~ugust,
KCO'.lINET will convene a cultural festival to bring
together a variety of community groups involved in
theater, puppetry, music and song, community
newsletters and information centers, and community
video production to exchange experiences in the
development and use of community media.


Wildlife Conservation Society (Guatemala)
to support' participation by residents of the village




ii
I.. .i


e


choose semi n~*?ar

objectives
A team of local planners should analyze the problems
Q) it seeks to address through a seminar, i.e., lack of pub-
lic knowledge about specific issues, lack of sufficient
attention from the mass media, etc. From these find
ings, the planners can choose an appropriate focus for
V) the gathering.


Choose a single, well defined theme, i.e., the most misunderstood, controver-
sial or important issue receiving the least attention. Include several related top-
ics for discussion. Avoid purely academic, political or scientific perspectives or
language. Choose a theme that will encourage discussion among journalists.


L~ml the mbe to no mo t n 50 The selec-
tion process is crucial. Start with I !:..my-a-:1.: tv-r at
information channels in the region, mnclucimg all
print and electronic media. Identify directors of
those media and ask their help in identifying two
or three journalists from each media wvho have
reported about the environment in the recent
past. Recruit through the mail, telephone, e-mail
ad vvrd-of- oth.


a .0 ,


the program
An average amount of time for a sub~
stantive journalist seminar is three
days--two days of introducing topics
and one day of pure discussion and
conclusions. Balance plenary sessions
with small-group work. Use facilita-
tors to encourage participation. Write
a specific agenda that includes breaks.
Time spent socializing is prime time
for informal discussion.






publicize
the sem niar


Choose presentations that not only are
based on the central theme, but also
build on the interest and e perience of
the participants. Invite a diverse group
of presenters, preferably from various
countries (or regions) and areas of
expertise. Request written presenta-
tions in advance, both for publication
and to spot points that are unclear.


loqist ics
Logistical arrangements are key to the planning
process. They include an array of decisions, includ-
ing location of the seminar withh adequate large
and rm.lI rooms), catering, transportation to the
site, lodging, materials duplication and distribu-
tion, equipment, and many other details. Often
sponsors can be found to underwrite travel or reg-
istration costs if the seminar itself is not sponsored.


Organizing the seminar could take from three
to six months. Create a timeline and work plan
early on and revise it as often as necessary.


Although the seminar is a closed door event, publicizing it can encourage pub-
lic interest and debate about the issues. Contact the mass media, conservation
institutions, NGOs, universities, government agencies, schools and cultural
organizations to publicize the fact that prominent journalists are gathering to dis-
cuss important topics. This could bring welcome attention to the issues.


Extend the discussion beyond the seminar, and
encourage additional public interest, by publiciz-
ing the results. This can be done through publica-
tion of papers presented, showing videotapes of
key presentations or workshop discussions, or dis-
tributing press releases about the seminar's conclu-
sions. Often participants turn the seminar itself, or
some of the issues discussed, into news stories for
their own media outlets. Encourage further discus-
sion by making it easy to get information about the
seminar and its results.


Despite your best planning, unforeseen questions will arise during the semin-
narr itself. It helps to allocate on-site coordinators to assist. A use a J~cl divi-
sion of labor is to have one person coordinate the presenters and institutions,
another to coordinate the participants, and a third to manage materials and
equipment. One designated person needs to provide oversight.


define the
:them. r

the topics


tep


identify the


C1

QS


publicize
the feSU St


StS P


a,


th seti 7a








""Yt~
I$;E~;-~LrtlC7
ru, ~t~ c.


~4a ~)illr)L*13~~

"&~ti, Ir~,*~rel


Ir


Ip r

^1.


be
r


'1 T~


~a`*"


a(B ~r


:::::::::::::5


C


TL j


'6


'1;


II


C:";C
~,
.~-
~
I~ ~4~ 3
Sile "f "a:
u '~P*
~; ~ *~i


,, Mi~i~~.,


t;',~FJII
II!


i
' r~e i~Bn
*~s,
2'~ ~


1L~ I
;c*
r
'~;~-r


~3c*
~Oi~


lyFi~, ~ ~C
.1--I '"[gC;,


a~3'' ?YXj~'s~L"*~p


~Ylr*
f:I (E
tr'


44


F
ii~t"~k~g;
"'r y


Qi


I .r,


IF~Jb~-
'


'r1.


' 1 *j
"I~CtY


~rdi
~h~B"
"i~ r
~d~aeB~Q~
- $
~n~

























































ticularly horrific removal which involved 3,000
people being forced at gunpoint to burn their own
homes. The Makuleke community has achieved
their demand that their rights to the northern part
of the Kruger Park be reinstated. In return for full
ownership and title, they have agreed to use the
land in a way that is compatible with conserva-
tion. The area will be managed by a Joint
Management Body. We hope to accommodate a
number of other land claims in the same spirit of
negotiation and compromise.
As Stanton emphasized about the U.S., envi-
ronmental justice in South Africa also involves
significant internal changes in the National Park
Service. Specifically, it means ensuring that all
levels of the internal organisation of the SANP
reflect the demographic structure of our society.
This involves black leadership, which we have
partly achieved through the appointment of a
black chairperson of the Board and a number of
black directors. The Board is strongly committed
to a policy of human resource development and
affirmative action.
We are also committed to moving away from
a style of authoritarian management to an active
strategy of community involvement and interac-
tion between the SANP and neighboring com-
munities. Spearheaded by our Department of
Social Ecology under the able leadership of Dr.
Yvonne Dladla, we have formalised interactions
in a number of Community forums. There are a
number of projects underway which involve
partnerships with local communities to promote
their economic empowerment. H-owever, achiev-
ing a balance between commercial and conser-
vation interests will be one of our most signifi-
cant challenges. In this respect, I suspect that we
have much to learn from the negative aspects of
commercialization in the U.S. However, in rela-
tion to national parks specifically, there is clear-
ly much to be gained from conversations
between people from the North and the South
who are committed to a broadened and holistic
concept of environmental justice. G


.,,,uacklyn Cock, Professor of Sociology at the University of Witwatersrand and
Member, South African National Parks Board


Africa. As regards protected areas, the majority of
South Africans were subjected to a double exclu-
sion--exclusion as visitors and consumers of
National Parks' educational and recreational
opportunities, and exclusion from. power, authori-
ty and influence in decision-making and policy
formulation within the National Parks organisa-
tion. The National Parks organisation was domi-
nated by conservationists who were exclusively
concerned with preserving biodiversity, to the
neglect of human, needs and social issues.
In 1996, a new Board of Directors of the
National Parks was appointed through a process of
public nomination. This new Board is more repre-
sentative in racial, gender and political terms and
is strongly committed to the transformation of the
South African National Parks (SANP) as part of the
broader project of transforming South Africa into a
just, democratic and non-racial society.
We are trying to move beyond the narrow, preser-
vationist notion of conservation that wvas established
throughout Africa by colonial authorities. Our goal is
an indigenous, community-based model of conserva-
tion which focuses on environmental justice, human
benefits and sustainable utilisation.
The first issue of environmental justice we are
trying to address is that of land. The establish-
ment of many national parks and game reserves
meant dispossession for local people. This is not
unique to South Africa--for example, in the
1850s, U.S. troops flushed the Ahwaneechee
Indians out of the Yosemite Valley. The first war-
den of the world-famous Kruger National Park
(the oldest national park in the world after
Yellowstone) earned the nickname "Skukuza"- -
which derives from Shangaan to mean "the
sweeper"-for the way he forced the indigenous
inhabitants out of the park in the early 1900s.
Social justice demands that the land claims of dis-
possessed, local communities should be
addressed. In this regard, we have had a recent
success in the resolution of the land claim by the
Makuleke community who were forcefully
removed from their land in 1968. This was a par-


Bemng among the 200 people who attended the
Justice for All: Racial Equity and Enviro~nmen~tal '.' li-
being conference at the University of Colorado in
September 1998 was an inspiring experience. The
conference was intended to "counter the notion
that concerns about natural resource conservation
and management exist as the exclusive province of
white people, that people of color are primarily
interested in urban issues." It clearly succeeded in
this objective and demonstrated that people of
color and American Indians are nlot only the sub-
jects of environmental racism in rural as well as
urban settings, but are extremely active in strug-
gles to achieve environmental justice.
Three factors made this conference "inspira-
tional." F~irstly, I was impressed by the linkages
made by many speakers between the movements
for social and environmental justice. Clearly, a new
holistic paradigm is emerging which is not afraid
to confront the issues of power and inequality,
though no alternatives to free-market global capi-
talism were proposed. Secondly, most of the con-
ference participants were minorities, "a rarity at an
environmental conference"' according to the New
York Times of the 13th September. Lastly, many of
these minority peoples articulated this new holis-
tic paradigm with passion and analytical depth. To
mention only three examples, the conference
heard a powerful historical analysis of the white-
dominated mainstream environmental movement
from sociologist Corceta Taylor, the only black
woman to obtain a doctorate in forestry from Yale
University. We also heard a powerful appeal from
William Yellowtail, the first American Indian to
hold the post of regional administrator for the
Environmental Protection Agency, to "make room
for people of colour in decisions about environ-
mental and lands management," and from Robert
Stanton, the first black director of the National
Park Service, for more recruitment of minorities.
Many of these themes of racism, dispossession
and exclusion had a particular resonance for this
observer from South Africa. Environmental racism
took many extreme forms in apartheid South























































paternalsm, wherein the conservation bodies
make a slight shift from keeping local communi-
ties out, but profess to conserving the natural and
cultural assets on their behalf, rather than with
their full participation. The nature of the relation-
ship between the community and the park needs
to change fundamentally. Therefore, it is critical to
acknowledge and confront these issues, to enable
SNAP to develop partnership projects that are
socially and economically empowering.




Socia I Ecolog y:



* The establishment of communication
structures and linkages with all stakeholders.
The Department establishes fora to address issues
and opportunities that could impact the partner-
ships between national parks and communities,
while seeking to enhance the capacity of commun-
nitiess to participate effectively in managing natural
and cultural resources.
* The facilitation of community-oriented
environmental education programs.
Youth programs develop community-based knowvl-
edge and leadership skills to enable communities
to act and solve local environmental problems.
* The promotion of community-driven
economic empowerment enterprises.
The SANP has adopted an economic empowerment
policy as a means of translating opportunities
derived through the park system into tangible ben-
efits for the sustainable development of communi-
ties living around parks. The SANP Procurement
Policy has been changed to accommodate emerging
entrepreneurs from local communities, and Social
Ecology facilitates business partnerships between
SANP and communities.


gearedc towardls developing~ policy frameworksi~ and
progras'; thalt reflCCt this neCw philosophy




Social Ecology:





The Social Ecology Department seeks to facilitate
mutually beneficial partnerships with local commu-
nities by enabling stakeholders to derive optimum
and equitable benefit from opportunities created
through the national parks system, thereby promot-
ing a national conservation ethic. The primary aim
of the Social Ecology Department is to integrate
conservation with development by transforming the
SANP's traditional conservation approach and prac-
tice of "keeping people awvay" to a more holistic
approach of integrated natural and cultural heritage
management which recognizes the significance of
community participation in conservation.
The vision of the Social Ecology Department is
an integrated approach to conservation that is con-
ducive to sustainable development and that will
enable communities to reclaim their cultural
pride, while engaging in activities that benefit
them economically. That vision goes beyond a
"band-aid program" to appease local communities,
for example by donating money for building
schools or sharing game meat. This approach,
however tempting, does not change the status
quo, but rather merely strengthens the power of
traditional conservationists over the community.
Equal partnerships between local communities
and national parks is an elusive concept. The rela-
tionship is at best unequal as the control of
resources rests with national park officials, and
those involved in program development and
implementation exercise considerable power over
communities. This relationship manifests itself in


Partner Profile

HI-,+ll.n,01,, the management of national parks in
South Africa was dominated by conservationists
whose management strategies focused only on the
ecologically threatened fauna and flora within
them. Communities living adjacent to national
parks, often economically marginalized and with
high levels of unemployment, were alienated from
activities of national parks, deriving minimal bene-
fits from the resources and opportunities found in
the parks. Some of the communities have been dis-
possessed of their ancestral land in the creation of
national parks. In addition, park management
strategies and plans ignored the indigenous knowl-
edge of environmental and cultural systems. The
vision and mission of Social Ecology articulates the
intention to redress these past imbalances.
South African National Parks (SANP), created
in 1926, administers 18 national parks. The Social
Ecology Department was established within the
SANP in 1994r to adopt, promote, and practice an
integrated environmental management approach
that recognizes ecological and social systems as
critical in conserving South Africa's assets and cul-
tural heritage. By transforming an established sys-
tem for managing the natural environment to one
which encompasses cultural resources and
engages all sections of the community, Social
Ecology is developing a new conservation ethic
based on integrated interdisciplinary environmen-
tal heritage management.
In 1996, the Social Ecology Department led the
SANP to formally adopt a new mission statement
"to manage a system of national parks that repre-
sents the indigenous wildlife, vegetation, land-
scapes and significant cultural assets of South
Africa for the pride and benefit of the nation." The
Social Ecology Department was formally granted
full directorate status in mid-1997, reflecting the
priority given to this dimension of parks manage-
ment. The energies of the Department are now























































*The development of environmental and
cultural interpretation projects which recoq-
nize and integrate African cultural values.
Currently, the focus is on capacity-building in
national parks to strengthen the SANP to effective-
ly engage in mutually beneficial partnerships with
commnities adjacent to national parks. Pivotal to
this process is the integration of social ecology into
the general management structures and procedures
of the organization. Strategies include comprehen-
sive training for Social Ecology staff and other
SANP staff (primarily park managers and rangers),
as well as the development of pilot projects in
selected parks to assist in the eventual develop-
ment of a participatory field-tested best practice
framework for Social Ecology.





ACH IE VEMEN TS of

Socila Ecolog y:

Typically, the approach to integrating environment_
tal and social functions within park management
is for national parks to have a community liaison
unit which functions as support to parks. Social
Ecology has been established as a core function
rather than a marginalized support function with-
in the SANE! Conceptualization of Social Ecology
as a core function and the introduction of an inte_
grated approach to natural and cultural resource
management within a national park system is the
first not only in South Africa but in the world.
Internationally there is interest in this new model
of integrating socio-economic and cultural systems
into the functioning of a national park.
Social Ecology has contributed toward change
and development of new SANP organizational
policies and practices in a number of ways.
Important examples include the following:


* Social Ecology manages a successful developmen-
tally oriented National Youth Symposium, and orga-
nized a successful Environmental Youth Summit in
Kruger National Park on September 27--October 1,
1998. Attended by 200 youths from South Africa,
Namibia, Swaziland, and Botswana, the Summit for-
mulated an Environmental Youth Charter that out-
lines their vision of how youth can actively partici-
pate in ensuring that natural, cultural, and commu-
nity resources are promoted and protected.

* Recently, Social Ecology organized the Voices,
Values and Identities---Heritage Interpretation
Symposium to create serious engagement about
cultural heritage interpretation in South Africa.
SANP is providing the leadership in this area, both
in South Africa and internationally.


* Social Ecology contributed to the formulation
and implementation of the SANP Economic
Empowerment Policy, which seeks to promote and
create business with local emerging entrepreneurs
living adjacent to the park, makes a commitment
to review the SANP tendering process to be acces-
sible to emerging local entrepreneurs, and pro-
motes the buying of arts and crafts from local com-
munities to sell in SANP retail shops and commu-
nity sales outlets. Social Ecology, in collaboration
with local communities, has successfully estab-
lished arts and crafts projects such as the Numnbi
Gate-Skukuza Alliance, the Local Craft Market in
Wilderness Park, the Flea Market in Golden Gate,
and the Tsitsikamma Community Market. In addi-
tion, the Crop Production Project supplies some
parks with fresh produce. Social Ecology has also
trained community members as field guides to
establish their owvn cultural eco-tourism enterpris-
es in Karoo, Richtersveld, and Augrabies National
Parks, and facilitated the establishment of commu-
nity-managed guest houses and Textile Women's
Project in Richtersveld.

* Community-Park Fora have been established in
all the national parks to promote and facilitate the
integration of community participatory approach-
es in the management practices of the various
SANP departments and national parks. A SANP
Policy for the participation of local communities in
the preparation of the park management plan and
to monitor its implementation has been approved
by the SANP Board. This means that local com-
munities will have direct influence on the func-
tioning and management of the national parks.

* Social Ecology contributed towards the develop-
ment of a land Claim Policy that ensures the interests
and rights of national parks and local commnities are
protected in settling land claims. The Makuleke Land
Claim Agreement between Kruger and Makuleke
Commuity is one of the success stories.






















































-~L~oE~sC~.
West Virginia Community
Forestry Initiative
A strategic planning workshop for the WNest
Virginia Community Forestry Initiative was held
at the Mountain Institute's Spruce Knob Mountain
Center on April 16-17, 1999. The workshop,
jointly organized and sponsored by West Virgimia
University and the Mountain Institute with sup-
port from the Conservation and Development
Forum, brought together community forestry
practitioners and resource professionals to begin
to develop a community forestry agenda for West
Virginia and the Central Appalachian region;
identified relevant interests and resources that can
contribute to such an initiative; and suggest com-
munity forestry programs, initiatives, and demon-
stration projects needed within the region.
Participants agreed to form a Community
Forestry Network (CFN) of West Virginia to
begin the process of enhancing communication
between individuals and organizations interested
in community-based forestry in West Virginia.
Possible future projects of the CFN include orga-
nizing a Central Appalachian Community
Forestry Conference, developing an applied
research agenda in support of forest landowners,


and helping forest landowners form markeding
cooperatives. F~or more informationn on the
Community Forestry Netw~ork of West Vir-ginia,~
please contact Steve Selin at (3041 293-3721 or-
email at SSELIN@WVU.EDU.DU


Program &

Activities Update

Latin American Network
on Gender and Natural Resources
In November, I'-'----, the International Andecan
Seminar Management"'~ Of Naturanl Re'So)lvelS j'""'ll C
Genderl Per--~ ; was convlenedl byi the Serninario
Permanent de Inv~estigacion Agraria iPem~anent
Seminar on Agrarian Research, or- SEPLA), in ..11.~i~--
oration with the Gender Studies Program of the
Universidadt Cato~lica of Peru and with sponsorship
by the Consecrvration Oxfam A~merica, and the Netherlandts Development
Organization. The seminar brought together more
than 1I.I: participants representing development
agencies, universities, and non-governmental orga-
nizations to review~ the state of research and practice
related to gender and natural resource use.
Working groups organized within the Seminar
dleveloped a Research Agenda to guide future
analysis, and agreed on the outlines of a Latin
American Network that would provide opportuni-
ties for exchange among development organiza-
tions and research institutions. The Network will
promote and disseminate research and working
papers related to gender and natural resource
management, develop synthesis papers for presen-
tation at the Biennial Meeting of SEPIA in August
1(999, promote the organization of discussion
groups on specific themes of concern to the field'
and organize periodic meetings of researchers and
professionals to promote debate and dialogue.
A web site for the Network is now being estab-
lished, and ai Spani-h-lln-.angua electronic bulletin
for thle NetworkcTI it-lil soon be available.


The following publications are available
upon request from CDF (cdf~tcd.ufl.edu):
The CDF Discussion Paper Community in
Conservation: Beyond Enchantment and
Disenchantment, authored by Dr. Arun Agrawal of
Ytale University with comments by Dr. Tania Li of
Co.~lboua~l~ University and Dr. Richard Chase Smith of
Ox~fam America, offers a review of shifting notions of
conununrlit .l~: from the romantic to the disillusioned,
and analyzes the implications of these concepts of
community for conservation and development.

The CDF; Discussion Paper Governance
Issues in Conservation and Development,
edited by Dr. G~oran Hyden of the University of
Florida with contributions from Hezron R.
Mogaka and G~odber Wv' Tumushabe, Ann
Grodzins Gold, and Ronald J. Herring, brings
together four separate contributions on concep-
tual and practical issues of governance in conser-
vation and development that were initially made
at the CDF conference Forum 97: New Linkages in
Conservation and Development in November 1997.

A third CDF Discussion Paper, IEmerging
Innovations in small-scale Water Resource
Development: Cases from India, addresses
issues surrounding the development and restora-
nlon of traditional water management methods mn
India and includes papers by Anil Agraw~al and
Sunita Narain, C. R. Shanmugham and Al P

and UjjwYal Pradhan. Also available from DH-AN
Foundation, India.

The Proceedings of the Workshop on
Conservation and Development of Tank
Irrigation for Livelihood Promotion, held
in Madurai, Tamil Nadu in June 1996, have been
jointly published with Professional Assistance
for Development Action (PRADAN) of India.
Complimentary copies are available from CDF
and PRA~DAN.


A fourth CDF Discussion Paper, Culturally
Conflicting Views of Nature, presents a diver-
sity of views on nature and conservation, and
examines 'nature' as both cause and consequence
of social and political conflict. Contributors
include Kent Redford, Amita Baviskar, Terry
Fenge, Anna Tsing, Warrika Rose Turner, and
011i.-1 Karanth. The papers were initially presented
at the CDF conference, Forum '97: New Linkages in
Conservation and Development.


1.


,~F:*


NOWS &i NoteS


Upcoming

Publications




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - Version 2.9.7 - mvs