Group Title: Circular ;
Title: One hundred bushels corn per acre /
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00102031/00001
 Material Information
Title: One hundred bushels corn per acre /
Series Title: Circular ;
Physical Description: 8 p. : ill ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Herrington, G. L ( Garvin Leon )
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla
Gainesville, Fla
Publication Date: 1919
Copyright Date: 1919
 Subjects
Subject: Corn -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Corn -- Yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by G.L. Herrington.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "December, 1919."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00102031
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 226314670

Full Text




December, 1919


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS

DIVERSITY OF FLORIDA DIVISION OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AND UNITED
STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATING
P. H. ROLFS, Director



ONE HUNDRED BUSHELS CORN PER ACRE

By G. L. HERRINGTON
Boys' Club Agent
The average yield of corn in Florida during the five year
period from 1915 to 1919 was 15.2 bushels per acre. The average
field for 1919 was 15 bushels per acre and the total production
as 13,470,000 bushels.
The yields are not as large as would be if a full crop of corn
as grown on all the corn land. Instead of placing the rows
our or five feet apart, they are placed seven or eight feet apart
n the thin lands and velvet beans or peanuts drilled between
he rows of corn. Fifty percent of the corn acreage is used in
is way, but the yield of peanuts or velvet beans is greater and
ore valuable than would be the increase in corn if the land was
voted exclusively to this crop.
Again our system of farming in the rich vegetable growing
districts gives the production of corn an unfavorable showing.
orn is considered a secondary crop in these localities and is
ot planted until late spring or early summer after the vege-
ables are harvested. The yields are not as great as would be if
wanted early in the spring, but the crop of vegetables is more
valuable than would be the increase of corn if the land was
voted entirely to its production.
All land on which corn is planted is included in the acreage
hen making up crop reports, hence it is only fair to explain
hat other crops are grown with half the acreage of corn and
that vegetables are on a portion of the richest land during the
most favorable season for the corn. It is not recommended that
these systems be changed, but perhaps the way to increase the
production of corn would be to improve some of the methods
practiced wherever corn is grown.


rcular 10







Florida Cooperative Extension


FIVE YEAR AVERAGE YIELDS IN BOYS' CORN CLUBS
During the past five years a total of 6,886 corn demonstrate
have been conducted by the corn club boys in Florida. Co
plete reports of 2,037 of these demonstrations have been s
mitted and the average yield per acre was 37.9 bushels produl
at an average cost of 45 cents per bushel.
In the reports from boys' corn clubs in 35 counties each ye
from 1915 to 1919, the highest yield from each county average
65.9 bushels in 1915; 71.8 bushels in 1916; 64.7 bushels in 191
65.7 bushels in 1918, and 60 bushels in 1919. This is evident
that creditable yields are not limited to any one portion of t
state.
SOME HIGHER YIELDS
During this same five year period, there were 468 yields
more than 50 bushels per acre; 103 yields of more than
bushels, and 29 of more than 90 bushels per acre. The corn cl
boys have not stopped even at 100 bushels per acre. Table No.
gives a detailed report of nine boys who have produced mo
than 100 bushels per acre.
SUMMARY OF 100 BUSHEL YIELDS




Sandy
191 Win. Fulton........... Hernando. 100.6 $.56 White Flint Hammoc
Sandy
1916 Port Geiger............. Nassau...... 119.6 .26 Hastings Prolific Loam
1916 Lawton Martin....... Marion...... 115.0 .13 Marion Co. White Muck
1916 Lewis Lee.............. Hernando. 100.6 .31 Hastings Prolific Hammoc
1917 LeRoy Alderman... Lake.......... 106.5 .39 Alexander's Muck
1917 Paul Parrish.......... Polk........... 102.1 .27 Hastings Prolific Hammoc
1917 Edgar Lock............ Lake.......... 100.5 .27 Alexander's Muck
1917 Lawton Martin....... Marion...... 100.1 .13 Marion Co. White Muck
1918 Lawton Martin....... Marion...... 115.0 .12 Marion Co. White Muck
(Average................. 106.71 .26

100 BUSHELS FOR THREE YEARS
The most notable instance is that one club member, Lawto
Martin of Marion county, succeeded in producing over 10
bushels for three years in succession. This record is without
parallel in Florida and would be a credit to a club member i
any state. It might appear then that some unusual method
were practiced, but the following statements taken from tl
reports of each of these crops show that plain methods of ir
telligent farming were followed.








Circular 10, One Hundred Bushels Corn Per Acre


1916 CROP

"I had been hearing of the corn club and decided to join. I
ent my name to the county agent in January, and father let
ne have an acre of rich muck land. March 6 I broke it 6
inches deep and harrowed well. March
1 I disked and let stand until March
o0 and planted with a planter. The
ows were 41/2 feet apart and the corn
tood 8 inches apart in the drill. The
wire worms damaged the stand about
our percent. The corn grew off fast
nd so did the grass and weeds. I
cultivated three times with a cultivator
nd three times with a disk cultivator
nd hoed twice. July 23 we had a storm
what broke it down badly and caused a
loss of about eight percent. Before
harvesting I went thru and selected
seed for next year from stalks bearing
two or three ears."
1917 CROP
"The soil is reclaimed muck land and
ranges from 2 to 10 feet deep, under-
laid with clay and sand. It had corn
on it last year and has been farmed for
four years. We grew no winter cover
crop, but it was covered with weeds and
natural grasses. I broke this land
March 3, about 5 inches deep and har-
rowed it the next day. March 24 I
planted with a planter and the soil was
in good condition. The rows were 4
feet wide and the corn was planted 10 Fig. 1.- Lawton Martin
of Marion county, who
inches apart in the drill. The stand was for three consecutive
medium to good. No fertilizer was used. years grew over 100
bushels of corn on an
I first barred off the corn with a disk acre of land.
siding cultivator, and a few days later
sided it with a 10 inch sweep. Other cultivations were with the
disk cultivator and on the following dates: April 26, May 5,
May 10, and May 25. June 10 I ran out the middles with a large
sweep. There was no damage done by insect pests or disease,








4 Florida Cooperative Extension

but a hard wind damaged it twenty, percent. I made 100.1 busl
els, the average on similar land in this section being from 40 t
90 bushels per acre."


Fig. 2.-Bird's eye view of Lawton Martin's acre of corn
1918 CROP
"My acre of land is in the eastern part of Marion county on
the reclaimed muck of the Ocklawaha river. It is rich, deep,
black soil, composed of decayed vegetation which makes it very
fertile. I cleaned and broke my acre March 6 and harrowed
immediately after breaking. I planted March 20 with a one row
planter, making the rows 41/2 feet apart and dropping the corn
10 inches apart in the drill. The stand was good and little re-
planting was necessary. I got the seed from my grandfather.
It is some that he secured from the Indians in the early years
of 1800. After crossing it with prolific varieties it produces two
and three ears to each stalk. A disk cultivator was used the








Circular 10, One Hundred Bushels Corn Per Acre


allowing dates: April 18, May 2, and May 26. June 7 I used a
)inch sweep and hoed the corn. Three men helped harvest
d the yield was 115 bushels."

MUCK LAND
As these three yields were produced on muck land the methods
ed should be helpful to all corn club boys using this type of
il and to muck-land farmers. The area of such land in Florida
estimated by the State Geologist to be 3,952,820 acres. The
rest tract is in the Everglades, but small tracts are found
ruout the state.

FERTILITY OF THE SOIL
No fertilizer was used in growing any of these three crops.
he young corn was dark green in color and grew rapidly. The
talks when mature were very large. This would indicate that
he soil is well supplied with nitrogen, and there is evidently
o deficiency in phosphoric acid and potash. After several years'
dropping most muck lands respond to applications of fertilizers
composed largely of phosphoric acid and potash.
All chemical analyses that have been made of muck lands in
Florida, show an average of ammonia 3.10%, phosphoric acid
18%, and potash .08%. As the process of vegetation goes on,
nitrogen in the form of ammonia will become available. Im-
nense crops of legumes can be grown, turned under when needed
o supply nitrogen, and will be found cheaper than nitrogenous
commercial fertilizer.

PREPARATION OF THE LAND
In preparing the land on which these three year record yields
were grown, the work was begun early in March and the land
roken 5 to 6 inches deep. On upland where there is a compact
clay subsoil the shallow breaking would not be satisfactory, but
the muck land is spongy and corn roots can penetrate to the
necessary depth without deep breaking. The two-horse mold-
board plow was used in breaking.

SEED CORN
A local variety of corn was reported to have been used the first
year. To quote his own statement in the corn club record bobk
it was "Indian and native corn". It is a corn that his people have
used for several years and was crossed with a variety known
as Marion county white.








Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 3.-10-ear exhibit from 115 bushel yield, 1916


Fig. 4.-10-ear exhibit from 100.1 bushel yield, 1917


Fig. 5.-10-ear exhibit from 115 bushel yield, 1918







Circular 10, One Hundred Bushels Corn Per Acre


In 1917 the Marion county white variety, more pure, was
sed, but the rest of the farm was planted with that variety
sed in 1916. By comparing the photographs of the 10-ear ex-
ibits for 1916 and 1917, figs. 3 and 4, much similarity is de-
ected. The pure variety being mixed with corn of the rest of
he farm this year no doubt improved the yielding qualities of
he latter.
In his report for 1918 the club member tells of getting his
eed corn from his grandfather who obtained it from the "In-
ians in the early years of 1800". Again it is stated that it was
crossed with a prolific variety. He does not infer that he used
entirely a different corn in 1918, but used that selected from a
;ross of Marion county white and the variety which had been
own on the plantation for several years.
Like many other club members thruout the state this boy
selected his seed corn in the field. May we not get a lesson here
on the value of improved varieties of seed corn as well as a
productive type of soil? Improved seed corn is not necessarily
a pedigreed variety ordered from a seedsman in a distant part of
the country. Any club member or farmer can improve his own
corn by selecting it a few years in the field. If he does not care
to use his own, it is usually advisable to begin with seed that has
been improved by some one in the same community, or at least
in the same portion of the state.
These large yields are no doubt due to some extent to the
selection of seed corn. Figs. 3, 4 and 5 were made from the
exhibits selected for county and state corn club contests.

MEASURING LAND AND CORN
The county agent and state boys' club agent measured the
land each year and assisted in measuring the corn in 1916 and
1917, while three farmers measured the corn in 1918.

COST OF PRODUCTION
The rules of the boys' corn club work in the South require that
10 cents an hour be charged for man labor and five cents an hour
be charged for horse labor. These charges were used in the
corn club contest as would be apparent from the low cost of
production shown in the table, "Summary of 100 Bushel
Yields", and were reasonable estimates for farm prices in 1916.
Wages increased the two years following but the same estimates
for the corn club contests were used.








Florida Cooperative Extension


In order to make these two years' work represent actu
farm conditions in Florida, we will estimate labor worth
cents an hour for man in 1917 and 171/2 cents in 1918, and f
horse labor 71 cents an hour for each of the two years.
The cost of growing the acre of corn each year would th
be $15.13, $16.01 and $19.72 respectively. Evidently these figure
are high enough to cover all cost, for in 1915 the Mississip
Experiment Station gave $12.50 as the. cost of growing an ac
of corn in that state.
COST AND PROFITS
Following is a general summary, estimating costs and profit
in the reports submitted for the three crops:
1916 Crop 1917 Crop 1918 Cro
Rent of land..--------.........................$ 5.00 $ 5.00 $ 5.00
Preparation of seedbed......-... 2.50 2.18 2.36
Cost of seed....---.....-................--- .25 .50 .50
Cost of planting......................----- .30 .15 .49
Cost of cultivation...-----...... 3.33 3.68 2.74
Cost of gathering----......-........... 3.75 4.50 8.63

total cost .-------.............................$ 15.13 $ 16.01 $ 19.72
Cost per bushel---............--........ -.13 .16 .17
Hours of man labor-----............. 56 48 1/2 64 1/
Hours of horse labor-----........... 33 40 38
Cost for man labor per hour.... .10. .15 .175
Cost for horse labor per hour.. .05 .075 .075
Bushels yielded per acre-...-..... 115 100.1 115
Estimated value per bushel...... 1.00 1.75 1.50
Total value -.......................-- ...-. 115.00 175.18 172.50
Net profit ................... ........ -------- 99.89 159.17 152.68
The corn grown on these three acres was not all sold, but the
above estimated values were what corn sold for in that com-
munity.




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