Group Title: 7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow - ICMF 2010 Proceedings
Title: P3.80 - Flow Rate Measurement of Slug Flow Based on Dual-Plane Cross-Section Information System
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00102023/00549
 Material Information
Title: P3.80 - Flow Rate Measurement of Slug Flow Based on Dual-Plane Cross-Section Information System
Series Title: 7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow - ICMF 2010 Proceedings
Physical Description: Conference Papers
Creator: Zhang, F.
Dong, F.
Publisher: International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF)
Publication Date: June 4, 2010
 Subjects
Subject: gas-liquid two-phase flow
slug flow
cross-section resistance information measuring system
flow rate
 Notes
Abstract: Gas/liquid two phase flow especially the slug flow receives great attention in the field of multi-phase flow research for its conmen appearance in many industry processes. Researchers worldwide apply themselves to the work of slug flow generation, transmission and parameter measurement. However the present measurement methods can not fully fill the industrial requirement. In this paper, an electrode-electrode cross-correlation method is put forward to make the mixed velocity measurement of slug flow. The experiment is carried out in a 50mm diameter horizontal pipe, the dual-plane system used is 16-electrode structured with a speed of 450 frames/s for each measuring plane. Excitation manner has been sorted into three kinds: water excitation (WE), gas excitation (GE) and Interface excitation (IE) based on the regular phase distribution of slug flow and the position of exciting electrode-pair. Different from the traditional data preprocess, single electrode analysis method proposed in this work gives more sensitive and correct results. The experiment error of electrode-electrode cross-correlation method is within 10% and acceptable.
General Note: The International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF) first was held in Tsukuba, Japan in 1991 and the second ICMF took place in Kyoto, Japan in 1995. During this conference, it was decided to establish an International Governing Board which oversees the major aspects of the conference and makes decisions about future conference locations. Due to the great importance of the field, it was furthermore decided to hold the conference every three years successively in Asia including Australia, Europe including Africa, Russia and the Near East and America. Hence, ICMF 1998 was held in Lyon, France, ICMF 2001 in New Orleans, USA, ICMF 2004 in Yokohama, Japan, and ICMF 2007 in Leipzig, Germany. ICMF-2010 is devoted to all aspects of Multiphase Flow. Researchers from all over the world gathered in order to introduce their recent advances in the field and thereby promote the exchange of new ideas, results and techniques. The conference is a key event in Multiphase Flow and supports the advancement of science in this very important field. The major research topics relevant for the conference are as follows: Bio-Fluid Dynamics; Boiling; Bubbly Flows; Cavitation; Colloidal and Suspension Dynamics; Collision, Agglomeration and Breakup; Computational Techniques for Multiphase Flows; Droplet Flows; Environmental and Geophysical Flows; Experimental Methods for Multiphase Flows; Fluidized and Circulating Fluidized Beds; Fluid Structure Interactions; Granular Media; Industrial Applications; Instabilities; Interfacial Flows; Micro and Nano-Scale Multiphase Flows; Microgravity in Two-Phase Flow; Multiphase Flows with Heat and Mass Transfer; Non-Newtonian Multiphase Flows; Particle-Laden Flows; Particle, Bubble and Drop Dynamics; Reactive Multiphase Flows
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00102023
Volume ID: VID00549
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: P380-Zhang-ICMF2010.pdf

Full Text

7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL USA, May 30-June 4, 2010


Flow Rate Measurement of Slug Flow Based on Dual-Plane Cross-Section Resistance
Information Measuring System


Fusheng Zhang and Feng Dong

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Process Measurement and Control, School of Electrical Engineering and Automation,
Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
E-mail: fdonwi; ilju i cdu en



Keywords: Gas-liquid two-phase flow, slug flow, cross-section resistance information measuring system, flow rate





Abstract

Gas/liquid two phase flow especially the slug flow receives great attention in the field of multi-phase flow research for its
conmen appearance in many industry processes. Researchers worldwide apply themselves to the work of slug flow generation,
transmission and parameter measurement. However the present measurement methods can not fully fill the industrial
requirement. In this paper, an electrode-electrode cross-correlation method is put forward to make the mixed velocity
measurement of slug flow. The experiment is carried out in a 50mm diameter horizontal pipe, the dual-plane system used is
16-electrode structured with a speed of 450 frames/s for each measuring plane. Excitation manner has been sorted into three
kinds: water excitation (WE), gas excitation (GE) and Interface excitation (IE) based on the regular phase distribution of slug
flow and the position of exciting electrode-pair. Different from the traditional data preprocess, single electrode analysis method
proposed in this work gives more sensitive and correct results. The experiment error of electrode-electrode cross-correlation
method is within 10% and acceptable.


Introduction

Slug flow is an important flow regime of gas-liquid
two-phase flow. The parameter measurement of slug flow
receives great attention in both scientific and engineering
field for its conmen appearance in many industry processes
such as petroleum industry, chemical industry, metallurgical
industry, nuclear industry and so on (Hewitt, 1978).
Researchers worldwide applied themselves to the slug flow
generation, recognition, transmission and parameter
measurement. The accuracy of the slug flow flowrate
measurement method exists nowadays can not fully fill the
requirement of industrial processes.
The measurement methods exist for flowrate measurement
include Coriolis meter (Shanmugavalli and Umapathy et al.,
2010), differential pressure (DP) meter with two-phase flow
models, such as orifice plate DP meter (Murdock, 1962),
Venturi meter (Lin, 1982) and V-Cone meter (Steven, 2002),
volumetric meter (Thorn and Johansen ea al., 1997),
correlation technology (Xu, 1988), ultrasonic technique and
so on. Cross-correlation technique as an important method
of flowrate measurement receives great attention in the field
of multi-phase flow (Lucas and Jin 2001, Dong and Xu ea
al., 2005). The mathematical fundamental of
cross-correlation technique is stochastic process. By
analysing the stochastic noise signal of two homogeneous
sensors installed with the same axis, cross-correlation
technique turns flowrate measurement into the transfer time
measurement between the two sensors. The homogenous


sensor could be optical, acoustic, electrical sensor .etc.
Cross-correlation method based on electrical resistance
tomography (ERT) takes electrical sensor, electrode arrays,
as its correlation sensor. The system usually has two
electrode-planes respectively as upstream and downstream
sensor. The ERT based cross-correlation mainly contains
two generic data dealing methods. The first is pixel-pixel
correlation after cross images had been reconstructed (Deng
and Peng et al., 2004). The second is feature-feature
correlation, in which the feature is extracted out to represent
the phase distribution of the cross-section (Dong and Xu ea
al., 2005). The pixel correlation has the advantage of
detailed analysis to the cross-sectional phase distribution
but with the limitation of image reconstruction accuracy
which remains a difficult issue in the corresponding
research field. The feature correlation method calculate the
voltage date directly with no need of image reconstruction,
however, it take the whole electrode plane as a correlation
sensor without any detailed information in the cross-section
analyzing ability according to the pixel correlation method.
A cross-correlation method based on cross-section
resistance information is put forward in this paper to make
the mixed velocity measurement of slug flow. Different
from above cross-correlation method, the correlation
calculation is directly carried out between the voltage data
of corresponding electrodes of the two electrode planes. It is
designed to have both merits of the non image
reconstruction and detailed information analyzing ability. In
this method, the exciting electrodes are sorted into three






7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL USA, May 30-June 4, 2010


kinds based on their cross-sectional position which include
electrode in gas, electrode in water and electrode at the
interface of them. Measured data are further sorted into
three kinds for each exciting style according to the
measured electrodes' cross-sectional position with the same
rule of exciting electrode classification. Correlation velocity
behavior of the above 9 kinds of electrode voltage data is
disused. With consideration to the velocity resolution of
correlation velocity, only 8 electrode pairs are needed to
participate in excitation process instead of 16 pairs in
conventional method. This character has improved velocity
resolution by 2 times in the same hardware condition.
Correlation velocity is related with mixed velocity, and gas
quality for gas/liquid two-phase flow. Because the gas
quality is under 0.05 in the experiment, only small impact
on correlation velocity occurs, so relation between gas
quality and correlation velocity is out consideration. Only
the relationship of mixed velocity and correlation velocity is
discussed in this paper. The experiment result shows that
this cross-correlation method is efficient for mixed velocity
measurement of slug flow.

Nomenclature


coefficient matrix
distance between the planes (m)
pressure (Pa)
volt (v)
final correlation velocity (m/s)
velocity resolution (/n)


Greek letters
6 system acquisition time for each frame (frame/s)


Cross-Section Resistance Information Measuring
System

The cross-section resistance information measuring system
uses the same hardware platform with ERT technique and its
function is not limited to the image reconstruction. The
system could realize the phase distribution analysis by
image reconstruction or make the flow regime recognition,
parameter calculation right through the direct analysis of the
electrode voltage data either. The physics fundamental of
resistancial cross-section information measuring system is
that different medium has different conductivity. The change
of medium distribution in the cross-section leads to the
change of cross-sectional conductivity distribution which
can be measured by the system (Tan and Dong et al., 2007).
Adjacent excitation manner is usually ultilized in
resistancial cross-section information measuring system
shown in figure 1. Different from the working process of
ex-generation parallel system (Tan and Dong et al., 2007),
the voltage data of electrodes are directly and
simultaneously measured in one exciting process, while
voltages between adjacent electordes are measured in the
ex-generation parallel system. Exciting current is then
injected into the next pair of adjacent electrodes until all the
adjacent electrodes have been excited. Except the voltages
of exciting electrodes, a frame of cross-section information
can be represented by 16 x14 voltage data.


Exciting Switching Voltage


*4 r


'I--bi'


Exciting current
Figure 1: System working principle and electrode
structure

A dual-plane cross-section resistance information measuring
system (Zhang and Dong et al., 2010) with 16-electrode
architecture is used in this work. 16 electrodes are uniformly
distributed in each measuring plane and the distance
between two planes is 10mm shown in figure 1. PXI (PCI
extensions for Instrumentation) modular instruments and
FPGA technique have been adopted in the system to
improve the real-time parameter. The data acquisition speed
is up to 450 frames/s for each electrode plane.

Signal Processes

The data structure of cross-section resistance information
measuring system for each frame is 16x16 including the
voltage data of exciting electrode pair. The data dimension
is large and hard to be calculated or be related with flow
parameter. In traditional system, the voltage data of exciting
electrode pair are not acquired because the voltage value is
much large than the data of other electrodes and the
hardware acquisition ability is limited. To reduce the data
dimension the following data reprocess is carried out. 14
measured voltage data except the exciting electrodes data
are made adjacent subtraction in one pair exciting process.
Thus a data structure of 16x 13 is formed for a frame. F, is
extracted out to represent the feature of one excitation.


=13A )


Where v is the j th voltage data at the i th excitation,

V is the V value when the pipe is full of water.
Figure 2 shows a F, series of 500 frames in length. Slug
flow recognition could be efficiently carried out based on
F, series (Zhang and Dong et al., 2008). The F, section
with high value represents the gas slug of slug flow and F,
section with a small value represents the liquid slug.

200


a2 -m
-200

20---

0" ^
-1.00 H ^^ ^


F, Number
Figure 2: F, series of slug flow






7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL USA, May 30-June 4, 2010


With fast technology development, acquisition device with
high faster speed and wider range such as PXI platform
appears. The voltage data of exciting electrode pair is also
fetched in the system used in this paper. The 16x16 data for
each frame is sorted into two parts: 16x2 exciting part and
16x14 non-exciting part. The former could be used for slug
flow recognition and the latter part is directly used in the
cross-correlation calculation.

Data Classification

Liquid and gas phases are regularly distributed in slug flow
of horizontal pipeline. The body of a gas slug can be
considered as stratified flow, and the head and tail of gas
slug as the time integration of stratified flow. Since slug
flow has above regular phase distribution, the electrode pair
in excitation is cut into three manners based on their
cross-sectional position, which include under water
excitation (WE), exposed in gas excitation (GE) and
Interface excitation (IE). Measured electrodes are sorted
into three kinds in a further step for each excitation based on
the same position rule, shown in figure 3. In this way,
measured voltage data in each frame has been divided into
R, (i = 1 ..9 ) with different position in the cross-section.


Gas
Excitation

9 Interface
Excitation


2 Water / 7 Water
3 6 Excitation
4 5
Figure 3: Electrode classification in excitation and
measurement

R, (i = 1..9 ) series of slug flow for 1000 frames in length
is shown in figure 4. R, ( i=1.-9 ) have different
responses to the gas slug and liquid slug and have good
differentiating ability from each other.


20- R1 measured electrode in water
R2 measured electrode in gas
R3 measured electrode at interface
15



> -')


Frame Number /N


(a) Measured voltage in water excitation


5 20-

S15-
0


4 measured electrode in water
5- measured electrode in gas
-R measured electrode at interface


Frame Number /N


(b) Measured voltage in gas excitation


-- R7 measured electrode in water
- R8 measured electrode in gas
- Rg measured electrode at interface


11 III I *


:IY TP LJ
0 250 500 750 1000
Frame Number IN

(C) Measured voltage in interface excitation

Figure 4: V, series in WE, GE and IE


Cross-Correlation Technique Based
Cross-section Resistance Information


on the


In the traditional cross-correlation calculation based on
cross-section resistance information, the whole electrode
plane has been considered as a single correlation sensor. R,
series from upstream and downstream plane are respectively
defined as x(t) and y(t). Correlation function R~ (r) is
defined as follows in order to analyze the similarity degree
of x(t) and y(t).

T
R, ()= lim x(t)y(t+ r)dt (2)
T-4- *
0

The peak value time of correlation function is called
transmit time (To). Since the distance between the two
electrode-plane is already known, the correlation velocity
calculation has been transferred into transmit time To
calculation. Correlation velocity equation is as follows.


v= L (3)
/1o






7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL USA, May 30-June 4, 2010


Where v is correlation velocity, L =O.lm is the distance
between the two electrode planes.
In fact, the electrode in each plane has it own sensitivity
according to their position and can be considered as single
sensor in the cross-correlation process. The conventional
equilibrating method has removed the sensitivity of single
electrode. A cross-correlation measured based on the
measured voltage data of single electrode, such as alo with
blo shown in figure 1, is put forward in this paper. vi, of
upstream plane and V2, of downstream plane are defined
as x(t) and y(t) then used in (2) and (3) to make
primary correlation velocity R,.
Only 8 electrode pairs participate in excitation instead of all
the 16 electrode pairs in this electrode-electrode
cross-correlation method. WE and GE parts are used in the
head and tail of gas slug. Bottom electrodes no.3 to no.6 are
used as exciting electrodes in WE condition which means
electrode pairs of 3-4, 4-5, 5-6 are successively as electrode
pair with excitation, shown in figure 3. Upper electrodes
no.11 to no.14 are used as exciting electrodes in GE
condition. The reason is the liquid level of cross-section in
slug flow dynamic experiment is always above 1/3 of inner
diameter of the pipe, electrode no.3 to no.6 are always under
water and no.11 to no.14 are mostly likely to be exposed in
gas of the slug body. Electrode no.l, no.16, no.8 and no.9
are most likely appeared in the gas-liquid boundary area in
the gas slug body, so no.1 and no.16, no.8 and no.9
excitation are used as IE. Detail velocity information could
be released by analyzing the primary correlation velocity
performance of V,. Figure 5 show electrode correlation
velocity of GE, WE and IE. The red line is inlet mixed
velocity (U, = 1.92) of gas-liquid two-phase flow in the
experiment.


- 16.&1 electrodes excitation
-.- S&9 electrodes excitation


6 i
R*'
4 R'
2 I
0
1 2 3


R. R


4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Elect ode Sequence Number


(c) Correlation velocity of exciting electrode in interface
area (IE)

Figure 5: Primary correlation velocity of GE, WE, IE

As shown in figure 5, the GE condition gives more stable
and accuracy measurement for mixed velocity and measured
velocity of WE condition is larger than GE. This is because
water phase occupies the bottom of the pipe all the time,
small gas bubble may cause the increase of correlation
velocity. While exciting electrode in boundary area offers a
fluctuated and large velocity measurement, aroused by
relative movement and variable interfaces between the two
phases. Measured electrodes in gas area (R3, R6 and
R, ) perform better than the electrode in other areas.
The mean value of correlation velocity in R, is extracted
out as feature velocity V1 in the corresponding area. A

coefficient matrix C could be obtained by fitting V1 with

the inlet mixed velocity of sample data. In the experiment,
15 sets of slug flow experiment data are used as sample data
to get the coefficient C The final correlation velocity is
then calculated by using (4):


Vc = CxV


3&4 electrodes excitation
-- 4&5 electrodes excitation
A 5&6 electrodes excitation


Where Vc is the final correlation velocity, Vfi is mean


S23
> 2 I



1.5
1 2 3


* I
H, I l,


S value of measured R,.


R.
* *


4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Elec rode Sequence Number


I16


(a) Correlation velocity of exciting electrode under water
(WE)


3. 5 11&12 electrodes excitation
--- 12&13 electrodes excitation
3 A 13&14 electrodes excitation



I 2 I I R
1. I I I I
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Electrode Sequence Number

(b) Correlation velocity of exciting electrode in gas (GE)


Velocity Resolution of Electrode-Electrode Cross
Correlation

The velocity resolution of cross correlation technique based
on cross-section information is related with velocity which
is going to be measured, distance between cross correlation
sensors and system data acquisition ability. The velocity
resolution can be calculated by the following equation.


Av = v28/2L


Where Av is velocity resolution with corresponding
measuring velocity v, 6 is data acquisition time for each
frame by dual plane cross-section information system.
Based on the classification manner mentioned above, only 8
electrode pairs participate in excitation process. This
working principle effectively reduces the dimension of
every frame data. The PXI and FPGA based system adopted
in this paper can efficiently realize this working principle
and be flexibly switched to the normal working principle
and back. The data decrease would in turn reduce the impact


R
R.
"' I









of data stream to the ROM of the system, which will
prolong the successive working time.
As mentioned in the former section, a data array of 8x16
instead of 16x16 is needed to be collected for each data
frame, which means the system data acquisition is improved
by 2 times and as a consequence the cross correlation
velocity resolving ability improved by 2 times when L and
v are supposed with the same value. In this work, system
data acquisition time is 0.0022s, velocity range is
0.92-2.85m/s, so the velocity resolution of maximum and
minimum velocity are respectively 0.045 m/s and
1 iiim4-1 and the accuracy are respectively 1.6% and
+0.5%.

Experimental Facility

The experiment is carried out in Tianjin University
Multi-phase Flow Laboratory. Figure 6 shows the sketch of
the experiment facility and pipelines. The pipeline made of
stainless steel which is about 20m in length with an inner
diameter of 50mm. An organic glass window is located at
the backed of the pipeline in order to observe the flow
regimes.


Water Pump
Figure 6: Sketch of experiment facility and pipeline

The flowrate of gas and water phase are measured by
standard meter after they are pumped from the tanks. The
precision of the standard meter used in the experiment is
0.5%. The two phases flow into a horizontal pipeline
through a mixing ejector to make them initially fully mixed.
Cross-section resistance information measuring system is
installed at the downstream end of the pipe where the flow
regime is well developed and flow state is more stable. The
flowrate of gas and water are controlled by adjusting of the
valves with computer. Flowrate adjustment range of water
and gas are respectively 0.09-12 m3/h and 0.1-86 m3/h. The
inside temperature is about 220C. Fluid flows into a
coverless tank after measurement where gas goes back to
the air and water stays for recycling. A high-speed camera is
used during the experiment to record the flow state of slug
flow from side view through the organic glass window.
Bubble flow, plug flow, slug flow, stratified flow and
annular flow are common flow regimes generated by this
experiment facility. Slug flow is the measuring objects in
this work.

Results and Discussion

In the experiment, fluid velocity that can be measured is
limited by data acquisition speed of cross-section
information system. 20 sets of slug flow experiment data


7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL USA, May 30-June 4, 2010

with a mixed velocity range of 0.92- 2.85 m/s are used to
give the experiment result of electrode-electrode
cross-correlation. 15 sets data with the same velocity range
are used to fit the coefficient matrixC. Figure 7 shows the
experiment results of the electrode-electrode correlation
method with a comparison with result of traditional
correlation method.


--electrode-electrode correlation
-traditional correlation


1.0 1:5 2.0 2.5 3:0
Mixed Velocity of Slug Flow /mlh
Figure 7: Experiment result of mixed
measuement


velocity


The experiment shows that relative error is within 5% when
mixed velocity is under 2m/s. As the mixed velocity grows,
the system differentiating capability drops, which increases
the experiment error. The experiment error is within 10% on
the whole, while the relative error of traditional correlation
is larger than 5% and the velocity measured is always
smaller than the true value. The experiment result shows
that it is efficient to utilize this electrode-electrode
cross-correlation method to measure the mixed velocity of
gas-liquid slug flow, the experiment error is smaller than
traditional cross-correlation method on the whole.

Conclusions

Electrode-electrode cross-correlation method is put forward
in this paper. The electrode voltage cross correlation
velocity behavior has been analyzed. As for slug flow, the
correlation velocity measured in GE condition is more
accurate of the mixed velocity measurement than the WE
and IE condition. Measured data of electrodes in gas area
perform better than the electrode in other areas. This is
because that gas slug occupies in the upper pipe, while
water phase continuously occupies at the bottom, so GE
area electrodes are more sensitive to the change of phase
distribution.
The velocity resolution of this electrode-electrode cross
correlation method reaches +0.045 m/s and 0.0046 m/s
respectively under the maximum and minimum measuring
velocity. The experiment result shows that relative
experiment error is within 10% on the whole and the
accuracy decreases with the mixed velocity rising. In further
experiment and research, modify of velocity impact would
be taken into consideration. If a suitable fusion method is
implicated to deal with the primary correlation velocity, the
experiment would be better.

Acknowledgements

The author appreciates the support from National Natural









Science Foundation of China (No. 50776063) and Natural
Science Foundation of Tianjin (No. 08JCZDJC17700).

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