Group Title: 7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow - ICMF 2010 Proceedings
Title: P2.86 - Research on Performance of Low-Temperature Exhaust Steam Reclamation Device
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 Material Information
Title: P2.86 - Research on Performance of Low-Temperature Exhaust Steam Reclamation Device Multiphase Flows with Heat and Mass Transfer
Series Title: 7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow - ICMF 2010 Proceedings
Physical Description: Conference Papers
Creator: Yan, J.-J.
Yang, J.-J.
Zhang, P.-F.
Li, X.-L.
Li, B.
Publisher: International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF)
Publication Date: June 4, 2010
 Subjects
Subject: waste steam recovery
entrainment ratio
resistance coefficient
 Notes
Abstract: A new low-temperature exhaust steam reclamation device (ESRD) based on supersonic steam-water two-phase flow characteristic was proposed in this paper. The performance of ESRD was studied experimentally for different fluid parameters. The experimental results showed that the entrainment ratio of ESRD decreased with inlet water pressure (0.4MPa-1.0MPa) and inlet water temperature (25℃-60℃) respectively, but it increased with inlet steam pressure (0.05MPa-0.25MPa). The increase of back-pressure at outlet had no impact on the entrainment ratio. The change tendency of resistance coefficient with fluid parameters was opposite to that of entrainment ratio. A simplified mathematical model was developed to predict the performance of ESRD based on conservation of mass, momentum and energy as well as the present experimental data. The predictions agreed well with the experimental data within ±15% error.
General Note: The International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF) first was held in Tsukuba, Japan in 1991 and the second ICMF took place in Kyoto, Japan in 1995. During this conference, it was decided to establish an International Governing Board which oversees the major aspects of the conference and makes decisions about future conference locations. Due to the great importance of the field, it was furthermore decided to hold the conference every three years successively in Asia including Australia, Europe including Africa, Russia and the Near East and America. Hence, ICMF 1998 was held in Lyon, France, ICMF 2001 in New Orleans, USA, ICMF 2004 in Yokohama, Japan, and ICMF 2007 in Leipzig, Germany. ICMF-2010 is devoted to all aspects of Multiphase Flow. Researchers from all over the world gathered in order to introduce their recent advances in the field and thereby promote the exchange of new ideas, results and techniques. The conference is a key event in Multiphase Flow and supports the advancement of science in this very important field. The major research topics relevant for the conference are as follows: Bio-Fluid Dynamics; Boiling; Bubbly Flows; Cavitation; Colloidal and Suspension Dynamics; Collision, Agglomeration and Breakup; Computational Techniques for Multiphase Flows; Droplet Flows; Environmental and Geophysical Flows; Experimental Methods for Multiphase Flows; Fluidized and Circulating Fluidized Beds; Fluid Structure Interactions; Granular Media; Industrial Applications; Instabilities; Interfacial Flows; Micro and Nano-Scale Multiphase Flows; Microgravity in Two-Phase Flow; Multiphase Flows with Heat and Mass Transfer; Non-Newtonian Multiphase Flows; Particle-Laden Flows; Particle, Bubble and Drop Dynamics; Reactive Multiphase Flows
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Bibliographic ID: UF00102023
Volume ID: VID00512
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: P286-Yan-ICMF2010.pdf

Full Text

Paper number


7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL USA, May 30-June 4, 2010


Research on Performance of Low-Temperature Exhaust Steam Reclamation Device


Jun-jie Yan*, Jian-jun Yang, Peng-fei Zhang, Xiao-long Li,Bo Li

Xi'an Jiaotong University, State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering
Xi'an, 710049, China
Email: yanjj @mail.xjtu.edu.cn

Keywords: waste steam recovery, entrainment ratio, resistance coefficient




Abstract

A new low-temperature exhaust steam reclamation device (ESRD) based on supersonic steam-water two-phase flow
characteristic was proposed in this paper. The performance of ESRD was studied experimentally for different fluid parameters.
The experimental results showed that the entrainment ratio of ESRD decreased with inlet water pressure (0.4MPa-1.0MPa) and
inlet water temperature (250C-600C) respectively, but it increased with inlet steam pressure (0.05MPa-0.25MPa). The increase
of back-pressure at outlet had no impact on the entrainment ratio. The change tendency of resistance coefficient with fluid
parameters was opposite to that of entrainment ratio. A simplified mathematical model was developed to predict the
performance of ESRD based on conservation of mass, momentum and energy as well as the present experimental data. The
predictions agreed well with the experimental data within 15% error.


Introduction

In the production of power industry, petrochemical
engineering industry, metallurgy industry and so on, a lot of
afterheat steam are produced. It could increase energy
efficiency and decrease environment pollution effectively by
recovering the afterheat steam. At present, the high and
medium temperature afterheat steam is usually changed into
electric energy by using exhaust heat boiler or drives
dynamic equipment directly. But for the low temperature
afterheat steam, the transfer efficient is low to change it into
electric energy, and it will use up a lot of high grade energy
to increase its grade by heat pump. So this afterheat steam
was called exhaust steam and discharged into atmosphere,
which not only waste energy and water resource but also
pollute the environment. The temperature of fluid to be
heated in industry production was usually lower than
exhaust steam. It was an effective method to heat the fluid
using exhaust steam. But it was not suitable to reclaim the
exhaust steam by surface heat exchanger, because there is
usually non-condensed gas in the exhaust steam and soluble
or insoluble solid particle in the fluid.
In this paper, a new device was proposed to reclaim the
exhaust steam based on supersonic steam-water two-phase
flow characteristic. The low-temperature exhaust steam
reclamation device (ESRD) was a heating apparatus which
used low-temperature steam to heat cold water. Cold water
was injected into a mixing chamber at a high speed and a
low pressure zone was generated around the outlet of water
spout. The exhaust steam was sucked into the mixing
chamber, where the steam mixed and exchanged heat
directly with water. Compared with the conventional surface
heat exchanger, ESRD had a lot of virtues such as higher
heat transfer coefficient, simpler structure, higher reliability,
no leakiness, no moving parts and higher practicability for


comprehensive use.
The working principal of ESRD was complex due to
steam-water condensation heat transfer and shock wave in
the chamber, which led to no perfect design method for
ESRD. At present, the theoretical and experimental study
about ESRD was lacking, but the pressure boosting
apparatus of steam-water two-phase flow with similar
structure and basic theory to ESRD has been investigated
extensively by Cattatdori etal['1, Trela etal[2], Deberne etal
[34], Narabayashi etal[5'6], Yan junjie etal[ 7. Cattatdori[11
developed a high pressure steam injector with central steam
nozzle configuration for next generation reactor. TrelaE21
described the steam injector using momentum balance and
determined the loss coefficient of steam injector.
Deberne 341 carried out local measurements of void fraction,
the static pressure and the static temperature in visualization
and proposed a model to calculate the performance of steam
injector with central water nozzle configuration.
Narabayashi[5'6] studied the supersonic steam injector
experimentally on the foundation of visualized tests, and
developed separate two-phase flow models installed in the
PHOENICS Code. Yan JunjieE71 experimentally studied the
performance of a steam-driven jet injector with central
steam nozzle configuration and developed a simplified
mathematical model based on conservation of mass,
momentum and energy.
Based on the experience of the pressure boosting apparatus
of steam-water two-phase flow, the performance of ESRD
was investigated in this paper. The effects of fluid
parameters (inlet water pressure, inlet water temperature,
inlet steam pressure and back pressure) on the performance
of ESRD were obtained. Moreover, a simplified
mathematical model based on conservation of mass,
momentum and energy was established to predict the
performance of ESRD. This work would be useful for the






Paper number


7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL USA, May 30-June 4, 2010


design and application of ESRD in many industries,
especially the reclamation of exhaust steam.

Nomenclature

A Area(m2)
P Pressure(Pa)
C specific heat capacity(kJ/(kg- C))
f resistance coefficient
m mass fluh\,kg si
t Temperature(C)
u Velocity(m/s)

Greek letters
p mass density (kg/m3)
y latent heat of vaporization (kJ/kg)
) entrainment ratio

Subsripts
0 section 0
a section a
b section b
c section c
d section d
s exhaust steam
w water


Experimental system

Fig. 1 shows the experimental system of ESRD, which
consists mainly of ESRD, a water tank, a cooling tower, an
electromagnetic flow meter, two water pumps, some valves,
three pressure transducers and K-type thermocouples. In the
experiment, the inlet water pressure is adjusted by water
valve. The steam pressure and back-pressure are adjusted by
steam valve and back-pressure valve. The inlet water
temperature is adjusted by valve 1 and valve 2. As valve 1 is
closed and valve 2 is open, the outlet hot water of ESRD is
cooled by cooling tower firstly, and then the cooled water is
discharged into water tank. The inlet water temperature is
maintained constantly at 30C. When valve 1 is open and
valve 2 is closed, the outlet hot water is pumped into water
tank directly. The inlet water temperature is increased
gradually from 25 C to 70 C.
The schematic diagram of ESRD, which includes water
nozzle, suction chamber, mixing chamber, throat pipe and
diffuser, is shown in Fig.2. Nine pressure measurement
points are arranged inside mixing chamber. The distance (L)
between spout and throat is adjusted by gasket. The fluid
parameters and structure parameters are shown in Table 1.
ESRD Backprcssure valve


Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of experimental system


Mixing chamber


steam
Fig.2 Schematic diagram of ESRD
Table 1 Parameters of fluid and structure
Inlet steam pressure (MPa) 0.05-0.25
Inlet water pressure (MPa) 0.4-1.0
Inlet water temperature (C) 25-60
Water nozzle outlet diameter (mm) 9
Throat diameter (mm) 11
Distance between spout and throat (mm) 25-155
The following parameters are measured during the tests:
Inlet and outlet fluid pressure and temperature
Pressure inside mixing chamber
The performance of injection and resistance were important
for the design and application of ESRD. In this paper, two
dimensionless parameters, entrainment ratio 4 and
resistance coefficientfwere introduced.
Entrainment ratio 6 was defined as the ratio of suction
exhaust steam mass to inlet water mass. It was obtained by
heat equilibrium equation:
c p(td -t0o)
c, (t, t)+y
Resistance coefficient f was defined as the ratio of the
difference between inlet water pressure and outlet water
maximum pressure to water kinetic energy at outlet section
of water nozzle.
f Po, Pma
f -
P U,2/2
In the experiment, the outlet water back pressure increased
gradually by shutting down the back-pressure valve slowly
until the flow in mixing chamber was blocked and the
suction steam flux equaled to zero, the corresponding
back-pressure was defined as the maximal outlet water
pressure.
The uncertainties of 6 and f of measured temperature,
pressures and water flux are 1 C, 0.2% and 0.5%
respectively, according to method of MoffatE81, the
uncertainties of z and f are 2.5% 21.6%, 1.2%0 2.0%,
respectively.

Experiment results

In this part, the pressure profiles of mixing chamber were
studied experimentally under different fluid parameters.
Secondly, the effects of fluid parameters on the entrainment
ratio and resistance coefficient of ESRD were studied.

Pressure profiles of mixing chamber

Figs.3-6 showed the pressure profiles inside the mixing
chamber as a function of dimensionless axial distance x/Lm,
under different inlet water pressures, inlet water
temperatures, inlet exhaust steam pressures and outlet water
back-pressures respectively. The pressure at x/Lm=l.O is
outlet water pressure of ESRD. The pressure in mixing
chamber increased with exhaust steam pressure and inlet






Paper number


7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL USA, May 30-June 4, 2010


water temperature, but decreased with inlet water pressure.
As the outlet water back-pressure increasing, a steam-water
condensation shock wave appeared at outlet section of
throat pipe but the pressure in contraction chamber was not
affected.


Pow/MPa
-.-0.4
*-0.6
'--' 0.8
1.0


V\\
Y


00 02 04 06 08 10
x/Lm

Fig.3 Pressure profiles for different inlet water pressures
(L=85mm, to=30C, Pos=0.15MPa)


00 02 04 06 08 10
x/Lm

Fig.4 Pressure profiles for different inlet water temperatures
(L=85mm, Pow=0.6MPa, Pos=0.1MPa)

P [.11i
024
-- 0.05
020 -- 0.10
V- 0.15
016- -- 0.20
0.25
0 12- V

0 08 e- m.
004 --


000
00 02 04 06 08 10
x/Lm

Fig.5 Pressure profiles for different inlet exhaust steam
pressures(L=85mm, Pow=0.6MPa, tow=30C)


03-

., 02-

01-

00-


Pd/MPa
-*-0.1
-*-0.54 *


00 02 04 06 08 10
x/L

Fig.6 Pressure profiles for different outlet water
back-pressures
(L=85mm, Pow=0.8MPa, Pos=0.1MPa, tow=30C)

Entrainment ratio

The characteristic curves of entrainment ratio against
exhaust steam pressure at different inlet water pressures and
spout-throat distances are shown in Fig.7. The entrainment
ratio increased with inlet exhaust steam pressure, but the
increase rates were different for different spout-throat
distances. At L=40mm (Fig.7-a), the entrainment ratio
increased linearly with inlet exhaust steam pressure, but at
L=70mm (Fig.7-b), the increase rate gradually decreased
with inlet exhaust steam pressure.
Fig.8 shows the characteristic curves of suction exhaust
steam flux against inlet exhaust steam pressure under
different inlet water pressures. The suction exhaust steam
flux increased with inlet exhaust steam pressure but the
increase rate was also different for different spout-throat
distances. Fig.8 also shows the exhaust steam flux changes
with inlet water pressure under different spout-throat
distances. At L=40mm (Fig.8-a), the exhaust steam flux
changed little with inlet water pressure, but at L=70mm
(Fig.8-b), the steam flux increased obviously with inlet
water pressure.
As shown in Fig.7 and Fig.8, the entrainment ratio
decreased but the exhaust steam flux increased with inlet
water pressure. This was because the inlet water flux
increased as inlet water pressure increased, but the inlet
water flux increased more than the suction exhaust steam
flux increased.


010-


008-


006-


uu
005 010 015 020 025
P 1.11






Paper number


7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL USA, May 30-June 4, 2010


(a) L=40mm, tow=30 C, Pd=0.1MPa
012-
P MPa
010- --0.4
-*-0.6
008 0.8
1.0
006

004-

0 02



005 010 015 020 025
P 111'

(b) L=70mm, tow=30C, Pd=0.1MPa
Fig.7 Entrainment ratio against inlet exhaust steam pressure


05-

04-

03-

0r
02-

01-

00-






08-
07-
06-
05-
04-
03-
02-
01-

00-


005 010 015 020 025
P 1 !i'
(a) L=40mm, tow=30C, Pd=O.1MPa


005 010 015
P I i'


the exhaust
temperature.


steam flux decreased with inlet water


009- L
Limm
008- --40
\ --55
007- 70

006- 85
100
S005- 115
004- .130
-- *145
003- 1
0 02 .zz

001 ,
20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65
tc

Fig.9 Entrainment ratio against inlet water temperature
(Pw,=0.6MPa, Pos=0.1MPa, Pd=0.1MPa)
In the experiment, the characteristics curves of outlet water
temperature changed with inlet water temperature were
found different at different spout-throat distances. Fig.10
shows the characteristic curves of undercooling (the
difference between the saturation temperature at inlet
exhaust steam pressure and outlet water temperature)
against inlet water temperature under different spout-throat
distances. At L=40mm and L=55mm, the undercooling
decreased gradually with inlet water temperature, but at
L>70mm, the undercooling increased firstly and reached the
maximum point at about tow=40C, then it decreased with
inlet water temperature.


65-

60-

55-

50-

S45-

40-


0 20 0 25


(b) L=70mm, tow=30C, Pd=0.1MPa
Fig.8 Exhaust steam flux against inlet exhaust steam
pressure
As shown in Fig.9, the entrainment ratio decreased with
inlet water temperature but the decreasing rates were not the
same at different spout-throat distances. When L=40mm and
L=55mm, the decreasing rates were flat with inlet water
temperature, but when L>70mm, the decreasing rates were
obvious with the inlet water temperature while inlet water
temperature was lower (tow<35C). As mentioned above, the
pressure of mixing chamber increased with inlet water
temperature, which decreased the pressure difference
between the mixing chamber and exhaust steam. Therefore


Ll mm
-- 40
-- 55
70
-v- 85
100
-4-115
130
- 145

4 -----


20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65
tolc

Fig. 10 Undercooling against inlet water temperature
(Pow=0.6MPa, Pos=0.1MPa, Pd=0.1MPa)
The characteristic carves of entrainment ratio against
back-pressure are shown in Fig.11. The entrainment ratio
kept invariant basically with back-pressure. As mentioned
above, the back-pressure had no impact on the pressure in
contraction mixing chamber, and so the pressure difference
for sucking exhaust steam kept invariant. It should be
emphasized that the outlet water pressure could not be
larger than the maximum pressure, otherwise, the flow in
mixing chamber was blocked and the suction steam flux
equaled to zero suddenly.






Paper number


7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL USA, May 30-June 4, 2010


-- P O.1MPa
-*-Pmx
0- d.


10 25 40 55 70 85 100 115 130 145 160
L/mm
Fig. 11 Entrainment ratio against spout-throat distance at
different outlet water back-pressure
(Pow=1.0MPa, tow=30C, Pos=0.1MPa)

Resistance coefficient

The characteristic curves of resistance coefficient against
inlet exhaust steam pressure under different inlet water
pressures are shown in Fig.12. The resistance coefficient
decreased with inlet exhaust steam pressure but increased
with inlet water pressure. As known in the experiment, the
maximal outlet water pressure increased with inlet water
pressure. But the increase degree of suction exhaust steam
flux was less than the inlet water flux with inlet water
pressure. And the increase degree of momentum exchange
between steam and water as well as the mechanical energy
produced in the process of condensation heat transfer were
less correspondently. Therefore, the increase degree of
maximal outlet water pressure was less than the inlet water
pressure and the resistance coefficient increased with inlet
water.


08-
06-
04-
02-
00-
-02-
-04-
-06-
-08-


PMPa
--0.4
-a-0.6
0.8
y 1.0
S V


005 010 015
P 1 iI


020 025


Fig. 12 Resistance coefficient against exhaust steam pressure
(L=40m, tow=30C)
As shown in Fig. 13, the resistance coefficient increased with
inlet water temperature under different inlet water pressures.
As mentioned above, the pressure in contraction chamber
increased with inlet water temperature and the resistance
force increased in mixing chamber. The suction exhaust
steam flux decreased with inlet water temperature, resulting
not only the momentum exchange between steam and water
but also the mechanical energy produced in the process of
condensation heat transfer was decreased. Therefore, the


resistance coefficient
temperature.
08-

07- __

06-

05-

04-

03-

02-

20 25 30


increased with inlet water


35 40 45 50 5 60 65


Fig. 13 Resistance coefficient against inlet water temperature
(L=100mm, Pos=0.1MPa)

Theoretical analysis

The mathematical model of ESRD is shown in Fig. 14.
ESRD consists mainly of the following four parts: water
nozzle, steam nozzle, mixing chamber and diffuser.
Cold water injected into mixing chamber at high speed by
water nozzle and exhaust steam was sucked into mixing
chamber by steam nozzle. Cold water and exhaust steam
mixed in mixing chamber accompanied with the transfer of
mass, momentum and energy (from section a to section b).
A steam-water two-phase flow condensation shock wave
was formed at the outlet of throat pipe and steam was
condensed completely (from section b to section c). The
flow inside the diffuser is incompressible because of the
water. The diffuser simply changes kinetic energy into
pressure (from section c to section d).
o a b d
Exhaust steam b-

Inlet water z
>- ------------


be
o a d
Fig. 14 Schematic diagram of calculation model
The mass flux of water m is measured by electromagnetic

flowmeter. The water velocity ua at outlet of water nozzle
(section a) can be calculated by
m,
U -- (1)
paw aw
where mw is the mass flux of inlet water, pa is the
density of water at section a, Aa is the area at the outlet
of water nozzle.
The water velocity at inlet of water nozzle (section 0) is
neglected due to the velocity is small enough compared to
that at outlet of water nozzle (section a). According to
Bernoulli equation, the outlet pressure of water nozzle pa,
can be obtained by
1
Paw = POW PawU,2 (2)
2)n





Paper number


where p,, is the pressure of inlet water, q is the water
nozzle coefficient.
The steam velocity ua at section a can be obtained with
the inlet steam velocity neglected by
S=[2(ho- h)]05 (3)
where hos and has are the steam enthalpies at section 0
and section a, respectively. In addition, the state equations
(h= h(P,t), h= h(P,s) andp= p(P,h)) were used, and
the steam flux ms can be obtained by
ms = PasasAas (4)
where pa is the density of steam at section a, Aa is the
area of exhaust steam at section a.
When the pressure in mixing chamber is less than the
critical pressure c,, the steam velocity uas will be obtained
by
k +
= 2 k PosPo, (5)

where k is the adiabatic exponential.
Moreover, the mass flux of steam ms could be calculated
by
F k 2 2 05
S=A 2 ( )k-1 psps (6)
LSk+l k+l1

Then the formula of entrainment ratio z canbe obtained
by

P [2(hok, h ]05 (7)
( (7)


+k + k ] (8)


Due to the complexity of the flow in mixing chamber, it is
difficult to use the local model to calculate the maximal
outlet water pressure. A finite volume method [] was
adopted in this paper, and the maximal outlet water pressure
was calculated by
d..... P.Ao + PoA + m,(u,, u) + m)(uo- u)- F u,( )(9)
P :A ap( )- )
A, 2 2
Where pC, ut are the water density and velocity at
section c, respectively. A, is the outlet area of throat pipe,

utd is the water velocity at section d.
According to the pressure profiles inside mixing chamber
introduced in Section 3, the pressure in the contraction
chamber kept unchanged basically. (z) was assumed to be
equal to the steam pressure at section a. The action area of
resistance was obtained by:
A = A, + A Ab (10)
Where Ab is the area of throat pipe. Then the resistance
force F in mixing chamber was calculated by
F = aP A (11)
Where the coefficient a has been fitted with the collected
experimental results to give: a =0.99-1.7.


7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL USA, May 30-June 4, 2010

According to above Equations, the resistance coefficientf
can be calculated by
P -P
f=P d (12)
PaUa, /2
Fig. 17 shows the calculated value of resistance coefficient
by above mathematic model and the experimental value.
The calculated values agree well with the experimental data
within 15% error at L=40mm, 55mm, and 70mm.
P 10-
2 L/mm
09- 40 +150-
55 *

^ 07- -15%

06- I

05- /4
..

04
03
03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10
Resistance coefficient-Experiment/MPa
Fig. 15 Comparison between calculation value and
experiment value of resistance coefficient

Conclusions

The performance of ESRD was studied experimentally.
Experiment results showed that the entrainment ratio and
resistance coefficient of ESRD were mainly affected by
inlet water pressure, inlet water temperature and inlet
exhaust steam pressure. The entrainment ratio of ESRD
decreased with inlet water pressure and inlet water
temperature respectively, but increased with inlet steam
pressure. The increase of outlet water back-pressure had no
impact on entrainment ratio. But the change tendency of
resistance coefficient with inlet fluid parameters was
opposite to that of entrainment ratio. A simplified
mathematical model was developed to predict the
performance of ESRD and the prediction agrees well with
the experimental data within + 15% error.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by National High-Tech Research
and Development Program of China (863 Program) (NO.
2006AA05Z230) and National Natural Science Foundation
of China (NO. 50676078)

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Paper number 7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow
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