Group Title: 7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow - ICMF 2010 Proceedings
Title: P2.63 - Direct Measurement of Fluid Force on Particles in Liquid by Telemetry System
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 Material Information
Title: P2.63 - Direct Measurement of Fluid Force on Particles in Liquid by Telemetry System Collision, Agglomeration and Breakup
Series Title: 7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow - ICMF 2010 Proceedings
Physical Description: Conference Papers
Creator: Sawano, T.
Kobayashi, Y.
Harada, S.
Publisher: International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF)
Publication Date: June 4, 2010
 Subjects
Subject: particle motion
fluid force
acceleration sensor
wireless system
 Notes
Abstract: For real-time measurement of the fluid force acting on a particle which moves freely in liquid, we have made a “sensor particle” with a built-in wireless sensor. The sensor particle contains 3-axis acceleration sensor, 3-axis magnetometer, microcomputer, wireless module and cells. The diameter of spherical outer shell is 30mm. We use the wireless module with radio-frequency of 315MHz which is able to send signals a few meters in liquid. The acceleration sensor used here is piezo-resistive type and it detects the gravitational acceleration in addition to the dynamic acceleration. We have applied the external magnetic field which is oriented in the same direction as the gravity field in order to detect the direction of gravitational acceleration by magnetometer. Firstly we measured the force acting on a settling particle toward a solid wall in liquid for checking the accuracy of the measurement system. The obtained instantaneous signal of acceleration (fluid force divided by mass) agrees well with theoretical prediction of particle motion in liquid. In addition, we applied our system to the motion of particle assemblage and have found the fluid force in multi-particle system quantitatively.
General Note: The International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF) first was held in Tsukuba, Japan in 1991 and the second ICMF took place in Kyoto, Japan in 1995. During this conference, it was decided to establish an International Governing Board which oversees the major aspects of the conference and makes decisions about future conference locations. Due to the great importance of the field, it was furthermore decided to hold the conference every three years successively in Asia including Australia, Europe including Africa, Russia and the Near East and America. Hence, ICMF 1998 was held in Lyon, France, ICMF 2001 in New Orleans, USA, ICMF 2004 in Yokohama, Japan, and ICMF 2007 in Leipzig, Germany. ICMF-2010 is devoted to all aspects of Multiphase Flow. Researchers from all over the world gathered in order to introduce their recent advances in the field and thereby promote the exchange of new ideas, results and techniques. The conference is a key event in Multiphase Flow and supports the advancement of science in this very important field. The major research topics relevant for the conference are as follows: Bio-Fluid Dynamics; Boiling; Bubbly Flows; Cavitation; Colloidal and Suspension Dynamics; Collision, Agglomeration and Breakup; Computational Techniques for Multiphase Flows; Droplet Flows; Environmental and Geophysical Flows; Experimental Methods for Multiphase Flows; Fluidized and Circulating Fluidized Beds; Fluid Structure Interactions; Granular Media; Industrial Applications; Instabilities; Interfacial Flows; Micro and Nano-Scale Multiphase Flows; Microgravity in Two-Phase Flow; Multiphase Flows with Heat and Mass Transfer; Non-Newtonian Multiphase Flows; Particle-Laden Flows; Particle, Bubble and Drop Dynamics; Reactive Multiphase Flows
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00102023
Volume ID: VID00500
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: P263-Sawano-ICMF2010.pdf

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Paper No 7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL USA, May 30-June 4, 2010


Direct Measurement of Fluid Force on Particles in Liquid by Telemetry System


Takanori Sawano, Yosuke Kobayashi and Shusaku Harada

Division of Field Engineering for Environment, Graduate School of Engineering,
Hokkaido University, N13W8, Sapporo, 060-8628, JAPAN

sawano@trans-er.eng.hokudai.ac.jp, kobayashi@ trans-er.eng.hokudai.ac.jp and harada@eng.hokudai.ac.jp


Keywords: particle motion, fluid force, acceleration sensor, wireless system

Abstract

For real-time measurement of the fluid force acting on a particle which moves freely in liquid, we have made a "sensor
particle" with a built-in wireless sensor. The sensor particle contains 3-axis acceleration sensor, 3-axis magnetometer,
microcomputer, wireless module and cells. The diameter of spherical outer shell is 30mm. We use the wireless module with
radio-frequency of 315MHz which is able to send signals a few meters in liquid. The acceleration sensor used here is
piezo-resistive type and it detects the gravitational acceleration in addition to the dynamic acceleration. We have applied the
external magnetic field which is oriented in the same direction as the gravity field in order to detect the direction of
gravitational acceleration by magnetometer. Firstly we measured the force acting on a settling particle toward a solid wall in
liquid for checking the accuracy of the measurement system. The obtained instantaneous signal of acceleration (fluid force
divided by mass) agrees well with theoretical prediction of particle motion in liquid. In addition, we applied our system to the
motion of particle assemblage and have found the fluid force in multi-particle system quantitatively.


Introduction

The behavior of particulate materials in fluid is important in
various fields such as mechanical, chemical and
environmental engineering. Although there have been
many experimental, theoretical and numerical studies on the
dynamics of particles in fluid, it has not been understood yet
in detail. Two largest difficulties are to understand
particle-fluid and particle-particle interactions. In particular,
these interactions are quite complicated in liquid-solid flow
because the density of solid particle is comparable to that of
surrounding fluid. Consequently the unsteady fluid forces
are significant on the particle motion (Clowe et al., 1998).
Moreover, hydrodynamic interaction between particles
plays an important role on particle-particle interaction
because of less effect of particle inertia.
The measurement systems for detecting particle motion in
flow field have been developed in the related field of PIV
system (Adrian, 2005). In recent years, tomographic
techniques have come into practical use of non-invasive
monitoring of particulate motion in fluid flow (Chaouki et
al., 1997). Basically, these systems detect the instantaneous
particle position which changes every second. Therefore
they can not measure the force acting on particles directly
and can do nothing but calculate the force by differential
approach.
On the other hand, the measuring devices have been
downsized by the development of MEMS technology (Ho &
Tai, 1998). Recently, a prototype system for measuring fluid
force on particle using MEMS sensor has been proposed
(Zhang et al., 2009). We have also developed a "sensor
particle" with a built-in MEMS sensor, which can measure
the fluid force acting on particle moving freely in liquid.
Our system can get real-time and non-invasive measurement


of the force acting on particle. This paper describes the
design, the measuring principle and the accuracy of the
sensor particle we made, and its practical application to the
multiphase flow.


Experimental System

Design of Sensor Particle
Figure 1 shows the appearance of sensor particle with a
built-in wireless sensor system. The sensor system is
composed of a 3-axis acceleration sensor (Hitachi Metals,
H34C), a 3-axis magnetometer (Aichi-MI, AMI402), a
microcomputer (Microchip, PIC16F877A), a wireless
transmitter module and cells. Table 1 indicates the operating
conditions and the characteristics of sensors and wireless
modules. The acceleration sensor, the magnetometer and the
microcomputer are deposited on both side of a circular
substrate 16mm in diameter. The wireless module is
deposited on the square substrate measuring 11mm by


Figure 1: Appearance of sensor particle with a built-in
sensor system.









conditions and characteristics of


Supply Voltage 3.0V (Typ.)
Size 3.4x3.7x0.92mm
Acceleration Sensor Ssitivi 333-27mV G
(Hitachi Metals,H34C) Sensitivity 3332
Measurement Range 3G
Frequency Response DC-100Hz
SupplyVoltage 3.0V (Typ.)
Size 3.5 4.0 1.45mm
Magnetometer Sensitivity 3.0mV/ T(Typ.)
(Aichi-MI, AM302) Dynamic Range 0.2mT
Frequency Response 1kHz (Max.)
SupplyVoltage 3.0V (Typ.)
Size 10x 10x4.4mm
Wireless Module Frequeny 315Hz
(ITEC, iTX315S) Frequency 31 MHz
TX Data Rate 9600bps
Modulation Method FSK


Paper No


Figure 2: Circuit diagram of sensor system.


15mm. These substrates are connected by electronic wires
and are put into a spherical shell made from polystyrene.
The outer diameter of the shell is d=30mm. The shell is
openable and divides into two pieces. For waterproof, the
joint is sealed by a ring rubber packing from the inside. We
adjusted the mass bias of sensor particle by the adherence of
clayey silicone paste on the inner surface of the shell.
We checked the bias of mass qualitatively in the following
way. The sensor particle was settled in a stationary fluid in
various conditions of initial attitude. If the particle rotates
unnaturally, the amount and location of clayey paste was
adjusted. The above procedure was repeated until the
unnatural rotation of particle has not been observed. The
total mass of sensor particle (including shell, substrates,
cells, clayey paste) mp is adjustable by the amount of clayey
paste and it ranges from 14.0 to 15.0g. The eventual density
of sensor particle pp is 1015 to 1090 kg/m3.
Figure 2 shows the circuit diagram of sensor system. The
analog signals obtained from the acceleration sensor and the
magnetometer are converted to 10bit digital signals and they
are serialized by USART in microcomputer. The serial
signal is sent to TX module and is transmitted to RX
module wirelessly. The received signal by RX module is
transmitted to PC through RS-232C cable. The set of six
signals (3-axis acceleration and 3-axis magnetic vectors) is
obtained every 33milliseconds.


Detection of Dynamic Acceleration

S The acceleration sensor used here is 3-axis piezo-resistive
type. It detects the gravitational acceleration in addition to
the dynamic acceleration as most of the MEMS acceleration
sensors. For the measurement of the force acting on a
particle, only the dynamic acceleration (force divided by
mass) has to be detected. However, it is difficult to get rid of
the gravity and to measure only the dynamic acceleration
with arbitrary attitude of particle. In order to overcome this
difficulty, we have applied the external magnetic field
which is oriented in the same direction as the gravity field.
Figure 3 illustrates the concept of our measurement system.
The 3-axis magnetometer can detect the direction of
magnetic field even in any attitude of sensor particle. The
magnetometer outputs the voltages proportional to the
components of magnetic vector b =(bx, by, bz) in the
coordinates (x, y, z) which is fixed on sensor particle. In
consequence, the vector of gravitational acceleration g can
be calculated as follows;
b
g = g (1)

where g is the constant of gravitational acceleration (g =9.8
mr/s).


magnetic field


sensor coordinates
(x y. z)
X-r-


gravitational acceleration


Smagnetometer output
b= (b ,k.bk)


dynamic acceleration a



acceleration sensor output
a =(aa",ad)


Figure3: Schematics of coordinates and output from
sensor particle in magnetic field.


Table 1: Operating
sensors and modiiles


7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL USA, May 30-June 4, 2010

Wireless Transmission of Signals
It is known that the absorption of electromagnetic wave in
liquid is very large and it greatly depends on the frequency
(Jackson, 1999). For example, the absorption coefficient of
electromagnetic wave a [cm'1] for frequency f-2GHz is
around unity in pure water, i.e., the wave decays within a
few centimeters. On the other hand, the absorption
coefficient of the wave with = 300MHz is a -102 cm1. It
means that the wave can go through water for a few meters.
Therefore we use the wireless module with radio-frequency
of 315MHz. We performed preliminary experiments on the
signal transmission in water and confirmed that the signal
successfully transmits from water in a vessel which is tens
of centimeters on a side to the outside by our wireless
system.


I





Paper No


On the other hand, The acceleration sensor outputs the
voltages proportional to the vector sum of the dynamic
acceleration and the gravitational acceleration in sensor
coordinates a = (ax, ay, iz) By using Eq. (1), the dynamic
acceleration vector a is calculated by subtracting the gravity
from the output of acceleration sensor in the following way;
b
a=a-g-. (2)

The acceleration vector given by Eq.(2) can be obtained as
the components in sensor coordinates, i.e., a = (ax, ay, az) .
By calculating dot product of a to unit vector of
gravitational direction b b, the vertical component a.
and horizontal component aH are obtained respectively;
b
a,= a g, (3)



b ~ b
aH = a2 a (4)




External Magnet Field and Error Estimation
The external magnetic field was made by two planar
permanent magnets. The size of magnetic plate is 425mm in
length, 425mm in width and 20mm in height. The
separation between two plates is 2200mm. The test vessel
was put on the central part between the magnets. We


a


/-
I


1.0 -
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
-0.2
0


30 60
angle 0(deg.)


(a) vertical acceleration av


7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL USA, May 30-June 4, 2010

checked the linearity of the magnetic field around the test
vessel by preliminary experiment. The measured magnetic
field is not exactly vertical owing to the terrestrial
magnetism. The angle of measured magnetic vector against
vertical line A0 is around 10 deg. at maximum and A0 is
3-8 deg. in the most part of the measurement region.
If the applied magnetic field is inclined against the gravity
field, it causes the error of both vertical and horizontal
components of acceleration. Figure 4 shows the results of
sensitivity analyses of acceleration components with
inclined magnetic field. The horizontal axes in Fig.4 (a) and
(b) indicate the angle between a correct acceleration vector
and the vertical line. The black lines are the vertical and
horizontal components of acceleration with the magnetic
error A0 = 0. The red and blue lines are the maximum and
minimum acceleration components with the error A0 = 8
deg. respectively. As can be seen in Fig.4, the vertical
acceleration av is not sensitive for smaller angle 0, while the
horizontal acceleration aH is very sensitive. It means that,
when the sensor particle moves almost vertically, the effect
of magnetic error on the measured vertical acceleration av is
minor. For example, the particle moves within the angle =
15 deg. against the vertical line, the accuracy of vertical
acceleration is within 96.6%, while the accuracy of
horizontal acceleration is very poor. This will be improved
by changing the magnetic field more linear. It is found from
these analyses that our system can be applied to the
measurement of vertical fluid force acting on particles
which is in vertical motion such as the gravitational settling.


horizontal line


30 60
angle 0(deg.)


(b) horizontal acceleration aH


Figure 4: Error of acceleration signals caused by inclined magnetic field for AO=8 deg.






Paper No


Results and Discussion

Fluid Force on a Particle Settling in Liquid
In order to check the accuracy of our measurement system,
we measured the fluid force acting on a settling particle
toward a solid wall in liquid. The test vessel is 600mm long,
300mm wide and 360mm high. A solenoid is put in the
upper part of the vessel as a releasing device of sensor
particle. A tiny iron chip is put on the outer shell of sensor
particle. The resulting mass of sensor particle mp is 14.6g
and the density p = 1060 kg/m3. Silicone oil (density pf=
969 kg/m3, viscosity /,= 57.5mPa-s at 18.5C) is filled into
the test vessel and the sensor particle is attached on the
solenoid. The distance between the solenoid and the bottom
wall is 208mm. After the particle and fluid are at rest, the
solenoid is turned off and the sensor particle starts to settle
by gravity. The settling behavior is recorded by digital video
camera and the transmitted signal from sensor particle is
received by RX module which is put on the outside of the
vessel. The obtained acceleration and magnetic signals are
immediately sent to PC. Then the vertical acceleration av
and the vertical force acting on particle F=mpav is calculated
by Eq.(3) in real-time.
There are some models for describing the accelerated
motion of particle in liquid (Clift et al., 1978). Odar and
Hamilton (1964) have proposed the fluid force models for
accelerated motion of a particle at moderate Reynolds
number as follows.


Figure 5: Settling behaviors of sensor particle at intervals
of 0.2 seconds.


0.20

0.15

0.10

0.05

0.00

0.20

0.15

0.10

0.05

0.00

-0.05


0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
time t (s)
Figure 6: Fluid force acting on a settling particle. (a)
measured fluid force by sensor particle; (b) total fluid force
calculated by Eq.(5) without gravity and buoyant forces.


7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL USA, May 30-June 4, 2010

7d2 d2 a d3 dU
F = CD-- fU + A -pf-
8 12 dt
(5)
3d2 --- dU/dt' ,dt+ d3
+ AH Pf dt'+- tPp PA)g
2 f .- 7t-t 6
where U is the particle velocity. The first term of RHS in
Eq.(5) is steady drag, the second term is the added mass
force, the third is the history force and the fourth is the
gravity and buoyant forces. CD is the drag coefficient and
the coefficient AA and AH are the empirical coefficients
given by
.- 0.132M
AA =2.1-- (6)
1 1+0.12MH2

0.52M3
AH = 0.48 + 52M (7)
_4+M )3'
where MA is the acceleration modulus and MA=(., 1[ .* i0) 1~
(Clift et al., 1978). Although Eqs.(5) to (7) were derived on
the assumption of the harmonic motion of a particle, it
describes well the settling motion of a particle from rest
(Odar, 1966).
For comparison with the measured fluid force by sensor
particle, we integrated numerically the equation of motion
with the force given by Eq.(5) to (7) and calculated the
component of fluid force for each instant of time. The drag
coefficient CD is calculated from the empirical relation by
Morsi and Alexander (1972). In addition, we considered the
effect of bottom wall by setting CD to (24/Re)d/21G (Gl: the
distance between particle and wall) and setting AA = AH = 1
only in near-wall region. The former setting means that the
steady drag is replaced with lubrication force 3/2 ia'-1 /
The restitution of particle to the bottom wall is calculated by
the collision model taking the lubrication effect into
consideration (Barnocky & Davis, 1988; Joseph et al.,
2001).
Figure 5 shows the pictures of the settling behavior of
sensor particle at intervals of 0.2 seconds. Figure 6 (a)
indicates the measured results of the fluid force acting on
sensor particle and (b) is the total fluid force (except for
gravity and buoyant forces) on a settling particle predicted
by Eq.(5). The experiment was performed four times in the
same condition. As can be seen in Fig.6(a), the fluid force
initially increases and then it keeps constant. Just before the
particle collides with the wall, the fluid force rapidly


0.10

b 0.08

S0.06
a)
, 0.04

- 0.02


0.00 &f
0.0


0.2 0.4 0.6
time t (s)


0.8 1.0


Figure 7: Component of fluid force acting on a settling
particle by fluid force model.


expl + (a)
exp2
exp3 contact
exp3
+ exp4 +

- #
+ + 4r 4T + + ++ +


+


contact


I






Paper No


increases owing to the lubrication effect. The force after
collision indicates the contact force with the wall. Compared
Fig. 6(a) to (b), the overall change in the fluid force agrees
with each other. However the arrival time is different and
the measured results is shorter than that of the calculation by
Eq.(5). It is found from Fig.5 that the arrival time can be
estimated around 1.2 seconds from the experimental
pictures and it supports the validity of the measured results.
Therefore it appears that the discrepancy in the arrival time
comes from the accumulation of misestimation of the
instantaneous fluid force.
Figure 7 indicates the transition of steady and unsteady fluid
forces given by Eq.(5). When the particle starts to settle, the
accelerated motion is dominant and the unsteady fluid
forces (added mass force and history force) are larger than
the steady drag. Then the steady drag increases gradually
with increasing the particle velocity. Consequently the total
drag force varies with the change in the contributions of
these forces. Figure 7 indicates that our measurement
system can detect well such complicated changes of steady
and unsteady fluid forces.


Application to Multi-particle System
We applied our measurement system to settling of multi
particles in liquid. We made dummy particles which has the
same diameter and density as those of sensor particle. The
dummy particles is composed of the outer shell and ager gel.
We controlled the density of dummy particles by adding salt
in gels.
Figure 8 indicates pictures and the weight distribution of
dummy particle. We made 99 dummy particles. In Fig.8(a),
the orange particle is the sensor particle and the white is the
dummy particles. It is found from Fig.8(b) that there is
+0.05g variation in the weight of dummy particles. We
controlled the mass of the sensor particle by the adherence
of clayey silicone paste on the inner surface of the shell and
set it to be 14.55g which corresponds to the average weight
of dummy particles. The eventual density of sensor particle
p, is 1056 kg/m3.
The test vessel is cylindrical acrylic vessel which is 150mm
in diameter and 1000mm in height. Only the upper part of


time t (s)


(a)N= 40


7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL USA, May 30-June 4, 2010

20

a 15
S10 -
E 5 -

0

particle mass m (g)
Figure8: (a) picture of sensor particle (orange) and
dummy particles (white); (b) weight distribution of dummy
particles.


the test vessel is covered by a outer rectangular vessel.
There is a slit on the surface of the test vessel so as to put a
thin acrylic sheet (release sheet) into it. The thickness of the
release sheet is 0.3mm. The distance between the bottom of
the vessel and the release sheet is 755mm. Silicone oil
(density pf= 972 kg/m3, viscosity j= 63.2mPa-s at 14.6 C)
is filled into both the test vessel and the outer rectangular
vessel. Then the release sheet is put into the slit and the
sensor and dummy particles are put above the release sheet.
The sensor particle is placed in the center of the bed of
dummy particles. After the particle and fluid are at rest, the
release sheet is removed rapidly and the particles starts to
settle by gravity. The transmitted signal from sensor particle
is received by RX module which is put on the outside of the
vessel. The settling behavior of particle assemblage is
recorded by digital video camera. We performed the
experiment by changing the total number of particles N.
Figure 9 shows the settling behavior of particle assemblage
at intervals of 2.0 seconds and the measured results of the
fluid force acting on the sensor particle. As can be seen in
Fig.9, the particles settle by gravity and they interact with
each other. It is also found from Fig.9 that the settling time
is longer for larger number of particles. This is caused by
the dependence of the hindered settling velocity on particle
concentration.
The obtained signal from sensor particle consists of three
kinds of fluctuation. The minute fluctuation is the electronic
noise due to the signal transmission. The rapid and steep


00 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
time t (s)
(c)N= 100


Figure 9: Settling behavior and fluid force acting on a particle in assemblage. The picture shows at intervals of 2.0 seconds.


00 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
time t(s)

(b)N= 60






Paper No


change of the signal indicates the direct collision of sensor
particle with the adjacent particles. From the recording
images, we can consider that the convex signal is detected
when the sensor particle collides with the lower particle, and
the concave signal is detected when the sensor particle is
collided by the upper particle. The long-time and gentle
fluctuation indicates the hydrodynamic interaction between
particles. We could see it most frequently for N=60. This is
because the hydrodynamic interaction enlarges at moderate
concentration since the particle can move modestly under
the influence of the other particles.


Conclusions

We have made a "sensor particle" with a built-in wireless
sensor for real-time measurement of the fluid force acting
on particle which moves freely in liquid. We have applied
the external magnetic field which has the same direction as
the gravity field and have detected the direction of
gravitational acceleration by magnetometer. We have
measured the force acting on a settling particle toward a
solid wall in liquid for checking the accuracy of the
measurement system. The obtained instantaneous signal of
acceleration (fluid force divided by mass) agrees well with
the theoretical prediction of particle motion in liquid. In
addition, we have applied our system to the motion of
particle assembly and have found the fluid force acting on
multi-particle system.


7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL USA, May 30-June 4, 2010


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