RANS Modeling of a Particulate Turbulent Downward Jet
Alexander Kartushinsky Efstathios E. MichaelideS2
STallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee, 21E, 12618 Tallinn, Estonia,
fax: (+372) 6703601, ph. (+372) 6703610, email: aleksander.kartusinski@ttu.ee;
2 University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio TX, 78249, USA
Fax: 2 1045 865 04, Ph. 2 1045 85 580, email : stathi s.michaelides@utsa. edu
Abstract
The Reynolds Average NavierStokes equations are used to perform a complete and accurate
modeling for the symmetric gassolid turbulent round jet in three different orientations a)
downward flow, b) upward flow and c) zero gravity. The twofluid model is applied to describe
the averaged characteristics of the gas and particulate phases, including the particle mass
concentration, the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation in the mixture of gassolid
particles. The model includes effects such as particleturbulence interaction; turbulence
production; and turbulence modulation. The drag and gravity forces are incorporated into the
system of equations using appropriate closure models that have been tested and validated in the
past. A finite difference numerical scheme for the solution of the set of the governing equations
and the closure relations is applied. The results of the model were validated by comparison with
experimental data. The computational results show the influence of the particulate phase on the
velocity and turbulence structure of the j et.
1. Introduction
The classical study by Abramovich [1] and the several subsequent studies on this subject make
the round, symmetric jet one of the most wellstudied and wellcalibrated problems in fluid
dynamics. The round, symmetrical multiphase jet (with particles, drops or bubbles) has also been
studied by several researchers both experimentally and computationally [2, 3]. Experimental
investigations of such jets have been performed by several research teams, including [4, 5] who
investigated how the fluid velocity and turbulent kinetic energy structures are affected by the
presence of particles and bubbles. The experimental investigation of the twophase turbulent jet
[6] showed that there is a marked anisotropy in the fluctuations of the velocity of the dispersed
phase in both the axial and radial directions and that the anisotropy increased with heavier
particles.
On the theoretical front Abramovich [7] used Prandtl's mixinglength theory to take into
account the feedback of the particles on the turbulent structure and predicted attenuation of
turbulence by the particles. This effect was not confirmed experimentally or numerically until
almost two decades later and for Eine particles only [8, 9]. With the greater availability of
computational power, several numerical studies have been performed on the subject of round
turbulent particulate jets using the turbulent boundary layer approximation [1012].
A LagrangianEulerian approach was used in [13] for a twophase jet laden with
Stokesian particles. The modeling of a nonisothermal turbulent round jet carrying small and
large particles was accomplished using a large eddy simulation (LES) approach coupled with a
Lagrangian method for the modeling of particles in the dispersed phase [14].
A full numerical simulation using the complete Reynolds Averaged NavierStokes
(RANS) equations is the subject of the current investigation. The RANS method and the two
fluid approach for the gas and the dispersed phase are used to model the flow of the two phases
and their interactions. The system of equations for the mass and momentum conservation
equations and the turbulence closure equations (an extended kE model) are derived and solved
using a Einite difference scheme. The dispersed phase is considered monodisperse and is dilute,
so particleparticle collisions do not affect significantly the flow structure. The particles are
subjected to the viscous drag and gravitation forces. The coefficient of the particles' turbulent
diffusion was used to close the mass conservation equation for the dispersed phase. Similarly,
the introduction of the particle turbulent viscosity coefficient was used as a closure equation for
the momentum equation of the dispersed phase. For the turbulence modeling, we have used the
original formulation of the kE model with the addition of the particulate interactions through the
slip velocity of the particles supplemented with the hybrid length scale, which accounts for the
turbulence modulation. We refer to this model as the extended ke model for particleturbulence
interactions. Both the particle turbulent diffusion coefficient and the particle viscosity coefficient
were calculated from a PDF model, which is described in [15]. The model results are well tested
by comparison with experimental results obtained from singlephase turbulent round jet [1] and
also, from the existing experimental results of twophase round jet [5, 11]. The results obtained
for the 2D twophase round turbulent jet describe more accurately the development of the
particulate jet than those obtained using the twophase turbulent boundary layer approach or the
quasi2D approach [10, 11].
2. The Governing equations
Because the flow of the two phases is in the vertical direction, the equations for the particulate
round jet flow are symmetric. The fullset of the ReynoldsAveraged NavierStokes (RANS)
equations (volume averaged) in two dimensions and in cylindrical coordinates have been used in
this study. A summary of the governing (conservation) equations is as follows:
A. For the particulate jet:
Al. Continuity
an a(ry)
 + = 0, (1)
8x rar
where x and r are the axial and radial coordinates; u and v are the axial and radial velocity
components of the gaseous phase in the twophase round jet.
A2. Momentum equation in the longitudinal direction:
Bu mu 8 fu 8 u 8 (u u,)
u + v 2vt + Wt + a (2)
ax ar 8x \ xl rar r xl z
where u, is the axial velocity component of the dispersed phase; a is the particle mass
concentration; vt is the coefficient of the turbulent viscosity; r= c 18py/p di~ is the
particle viscous response time, which is derived from viscous drag considerations; and p and p,
are the gas and particle material densities, respectively; d is the particle diameter; cD, is a
correction factor for nonStokesian drag [16] and is related to the particle drag coefficient:
c' +015e67.The particle Reynolds number is Res uu)2+VV Where vs
is the radial velocity component of the dispersed phase. The kinematic viscosity of the gas v is
neglected in equations of the gaseous phase because v << vt 
In the twodimensional model of the particle laden turbulent round submerged j et there is
no effect of particleparticle collision. We have followed the model by [17] for the following two
reasons:
a) The jet expansion, that leads to increased interparticle distance and by extend the time of the
particle collisions versus particle relaxation time and
b) The relatively low mass loadings with the corresponding very low volume concentration of
the particles.
The main components of the hydrodynamic force acting on the particles are: the drag, the
Saffman lift and the gravitational forces. These components along with particle's turbulent
dispersion, which is described by the turbulent diffusion coefficient of the particles and the
turbulent viscosity coefficient of the dispersed phase, determine the motion and dispersion of the
particles. It is assumed also that the particles enter the flow with no rotation in their motion and,
therefore there is no Magnus lift force.
A3. The turbulent kinetic energy and rate of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy are given by
the following equations:
dk 8k 8 vt 8k 8 vt 8k
u+ v  +r+k+P 3
dx dr 8x Gk kx sd ,d 3
dE dE 8 vt dE d vt dE E C,(I ) ," 4
u+v  +r +c Pk+sss(4
8x dr ax o 8x rar a, dr k
where k and E are the kinetic turbulent energy and its dissipation rate, respectively. Pk is the
turbulence production by velocity gradients and Ps is the turbulence production by the average
velocity slip between two phases [18]:
Pk =t(Z +I ++ ,(a
Ps = aus2+VVs2(4b)
A4. The turbulent viscosity vt is given by the closure equation:
vt = c (5)
where the typical constants of the kE model are: Gk s ,o = 1.3 c = 1.44, cs2 = 1.92 and
c, = 0.09, respectively.
A5. The radial velocity of the particulate jet may be obtained from the conservation of
momentum and, for the two dimensional jet flow is simply given by the following integral [1,
11]:
u 'rdro 8d au\ 8 fu 8v (uU, us
0 u2LX x a a x
B. The particulate, dispersed phase:
Bl. The continuity equation, which includes the diffusion of the solid particles in the j et is:
(3au, 8(rays) 8/ it 8 i
sI + D + D (7)
8x rar 8x s x rar sr
where Ds is the particle turbulent diffusion coefficient [15]:
Ds=2k(T+To, 1x(T),z (7a)
where To is the integral time and length scales for the single phase turbulent jet.
B2. The momentum equation for the dispersed phase in the axial direction is:
As 8 l1n as x ( s d s (u us
u h+ vs D uy+rays8 ++ +g, (8)
where vs=[ v+~ 1exp( ) is the viscosity of the dispersd phase due the part~ice
involvement into turbulent motion. The method to calculate this parameter is given in [15]. The
positive sign of the gravitational acceleration denotes that positive velocities are oriented in the
81n u
downward direction. The term D is the contribution of the drift diffusion model.
B3. Momentum equation in the radial direction:
u ~+ v v + 2ry
Fs (u us), (9)
where the Saffman (shear) lift force is determined by the expression:
3.0759p uv [u\
F, Iu s (9a)
s p,d Iu a
and the correction coefficient uy is obtained from [19] as:
r10.3314 pexp(0.1Res)+ 0.3314Jj Res <; 40
0.0524JPe Res > 40 (b
8x aBr 8x aBr
with the shear rate p =
2lv 2 (uus)2 + VVs 2
C. Transformation to similarity coordinate system:
In order to facilitate the computations and obtain more comprehensible results, it is used the jet
similarity transformation and define the following new variables, which are related to the
similarity conditions that are met in round submerged jets [20, 21]:
r r/R 8 8 8 8 yz 8
z =, a = 1 + y(x / R), ,,(10)
R +yx 1 + y(x /R)' Br ac~z 8x 8x a 8z2
where the coeffieient of transformation is y=0.09 and R is the radius of the orifice.
3. Boundary conditions
The jet emanates from an orifice facing the downward direction. Since the main flow direction of
the jet is in the direction of gravity, the symmetry conditions at the jet centerline are expected to
be valid. In the first few diameters, the velocity profie of the jet evolves from the "top hat"
profile or uniform velocity to the developed jet profie. This evolution typically takes less than
20 orifice diameters and in our computations it was completed between 13 and 16 orifice
diameters. At the outer boundary of the jet, the longitudinal velocity vanishes asymptotically. In
the computations of this study, the outer boundary of the jet was defined as the location where
the longitudinal velocity was 2% of the centerline velocity. Thus, the boundary conditions used
in the study are as follows:
A. The entrance conditions for the particulate jet, at x=0 for r < /R, are:
u(0, z)= u(0,0) (1 z)! ", us = u(0, z); v(0, z)= vs (0,) = 0; k(0, z)= 2.5 103
s(0, z)= 10 k3/2(0, z), u(0, z)= m*, (18)
where m* is the initial mass loading of the flow.
B. At the jet axis, the symmetry conditions are applied:
Bu 8k 88 au, 82
, v =v, =0 (19)
8z 8z 8z 8z 8zs
C. The outer boundary in the radial direction of the j et is defined as the radial distance where the
axial velocity of the jet is equal to 2% of its orifice velocity. At this distance the following
boundary conditions are prescribed [10, 13, 21]:
us =0.0u(0,0),lr km=t.= Oam =0.0a(0,0)~a, svZava = 0 (20)
D. The exit boundary conditions at the forward end of the computational domain:
Bu 8k 88 av au 8v 8 2
    0 (2 1)
8z 8z 8z 8z 8z 8z 8zX=eXlt
4. Numerical computations and results
A finite difference tridiagonal matrix algorithm has been used for the computation of the
jet parameters. The discretized governing equations are cast along both directions. We use an up
wind difference scheme for the convective terms, which results in a firstorder scheme, using an
equidistant mesh size grid. The number of iterations is determined by the minimum value of the
residual (less than 0.1%) for the axial velocity of the gaseous phase and the turbulent energy.
This minimum value is determined by comparison between the previous and the current
parameters throughout the flow domain (jet domain). The dimensions of the domain are
(width)x(length)=1 50x9,000. These conditions for the iteration procedure are typical in jet flows
and allow the spatial development of the 2D turbulent single phase and particulate j ets.
The first row of nodes in the radial direction contains 50 points corresponding to a mesh
size of Ar=0.02. The number of grid points was increased downstream using the condition,
 <; 0.01, which has been recommended in [22]. Therefore, the jet expansion was determined
and conditioned by the smooth behavior of the axial component of the carrier velocity. In the
overall computations, the area of the flow increased up to 2.5 times as the flow progressed
downward, that is up to 150 radial nodes from the initial set of 50 nodes. For the actual
computations we used the similarity transformation of the jet described by Eq. (10) and used the
variables x and z. However, the results are reported in the figures that follow in terms of the
actual coordinates x and r.
All the results in the following figures are presented in dimensionless form. We followed
the usual method for rendering the spatial and flow variables dimensionless [1, 20] and used the
following characteristic quantities to render the pertinent variables dimensionless:
a) For the radial dimensions the halfradius of the jet, R1/2. This is the radial distance where the
velocity of the j et is equal to onehalf of the value of the centerline velocity.
b) For the longitudinal distances the initial orifice radius, R, is used.
c) For the longitudinal velocities and turbulence parameters, the pertinent centerline velocity,
U,, either at the entrance of the jet or at the corresponding axial distance, u(x,0) or us(x,0), as
stated in the text.
d) For all the particles parameters, their distributions are normalized with their numerical values
at the centerline of the j et.
The numerical modeling of the twophase turbulent round jet is performed for the
following flow conditions: the particle sizes of glass beads (p~ = 2500kg/m ), d=0.2 mm with
mass loading: m*=1 are used. The Stokesian response time, z corresponding for these flow
conditions has the following values: z =0.307 for glass beads of d=0.2 mm.
For the validation of the numerical results we compared the singlephase results with the now
classical experimental data of Abramovitch [1], which has become the yardstick for experimental
and computational studies.
The flow conditions in the simulation results are as follows: jet diameter at the orifice
exit, D=2R=30.5mm and mean flow velocity at the jet exit 10m/s. The exit Reynolds number
corresponding to this velocity is Re = 2.2104. The exit velocity and the Reynolds number are
two parameters that vary in some of the computations as indicated in the text and the captions of
the figures. This is dilute enough to result to negligible interparticle collisions.
Figure 1 shows the distribution of the axial velocity component of the single phase jet as
well as the comparison of the numerical data with the experimental results from [1]. The exit
crosssection is at x/R=60 and the mid section is at x/R=30. It is observed that the numerical
results agree very well with the experiments, a fact that validates the numerical method used
here. Also confirmed is the selfsimilarity of the jet, which is expected to occur at downstream
distances x/R greater than 20. The selfsimilarity of the jet follows the quasionedimensional
approach, such as the turbulent boundary layer approach. The selfsimilarity is not so obvious in
the case of a 2D approach with the diffusive terms in both the axial and the radial directions.
However, the results of this investigation show that selfsimilarity is preserved in the two
dimensional case, most probably because the effects of the inertia of the jet dominate any
diffusion effects.
 x/R=30
....... x/R= 60
x experimental
1
O 0.75
o
a0.25
o
.5
Figure 1. Normalized axial velocity of the j et and experimental data. The experimental data are
from [1].
Figure 2 shows the development of the normalized radius determined by the half magnitude of
the gaseous phase velocity, R1/2 for single phase and dispersed phase. The experimental data are
taken from [1]. It is observed that the half radius is reduced by the addition of the particles in the
jet which corresponds to experimental study of [5].
0.5 1 1
Radial distance, r/R1/2
7.5
o
~o "single ph, R1/2
.2 two ph,R1/2
at I single ph,R1/2,exp
0 15 30 45 60
Axial distance, 2x/D
Figure 2. Normalized half radius of the j et velocity. The experimental data, denoted by o, are
from [1].
Figure 3 depicts the distribution of the parameter d/Lo, the ratio of the particle diameter to the
integral turbulence length scale, which is very important in turbulence modulation. The length Lo
is defined as: La = k /2 0E, Where ko and so are turbulent energy and its rate of dissipation in
the single phase jet. The particles are glass beads with sizes d=0.2 and 0.5mm. According to this
distribution and following Crowe's criteria [8, 9, 23] the particles are expected to generate
turbulence in the initial part of the flow where d/Lo>0. 1 and attenuate the turbulence at distances
greater than 2x/D=20, where d/Lo<0.1.
 d/Lo, d=0.2mm
.5r e d/Lo, d=0.5mm
0
0 20 40 60
Axial d ista nce, 2x/D
Figure 3. Normalized distribution of parameter d/Lo along the jet.
The profiles of the longitudinal velocity components of gasphase in twophase j et system
for downward, upward and zero gravity jets versus the longitudinal velocity of the singlephase
are presented in Figure 4 for glass particles of 0.2 mm and mass loading of 1. The profiles are at
the downstream distance x/R=30. It is observed that in such coordinate all profiles are almost
selfsimilar up to r/R1/2 =1. After this distance the velocity profiles of the twophase jets
deviate significantly from that of the singlephase jet. At this location, the concentration of the
solids drops significantly, as it may be seen in Figure 8.
u: singleph ase
\l~ uu: nog ravity
u:downwa rd
u:upward
a 0.75 i\
0.
0 0.5 1 1.5
Radial distance, r/R1/2
Figure 4. Normalized axial velocity of gasphase for a j et with glass beads, 0.2 mm and mass
flow ratio m*=1 at x/R=30 and Re = 2.2 104
The normalized distribution of axial velocity component of the dispersed phase along the jet
crosssection at x/R=30 are shown in Figure 5 for the three cases: downward flow, upward flow
and neutrally buoyancy jets. As in the previous figure, the velocity profies drop significantly in
the vicinity of r/R1 2=1.3 where it appears that the twophase jet ends. Figure 5 also shows that
the profies of the axial velocity of the dispersed phase are fuller in the cases of the downward
and zerogravity jets.
,o 0 75
E 0.25
o us:solid:nog ravity
us:sol id: downwa rd
us :so lid: upwa rd
0 0.5 1 1.5
Rad ial d ista nce, r/R1/2
Figure 5. Normalized axial velocity of dispersed phase for a jet with glass beads, 0.2 mm and
mass flow ratio m*=1 at x/R=30 and Re = 2.2 104
The normalized distribution of the radial velocity components of gas and the dispersed phases
along the jet crosssection at x/R=30 are also shown in Figure 6 for downward flow, upward
flow and neutrally buoyancy jets as well as for the singlephase jet. Figure 6 shows that the
magnitudes of the radial velocity of the dispersed phase are negative for all the twophase jet
configurations. This implies that that twophase jet becomes narrower than the singlephase, jet,
which is corroborated by the axial velocity results of the previous figures. This effect to make the
jet narrower and is more pronounced for the downward flowing jet, where the particle axial drag
forces tend to accelerate the surrounding gas.
0.005
o , /
0 0.0 
00 ,  vIiglhse'
cr v: nog ray ity \ ,
o v: down wa rd *
= 0.015vupad ?
E  vs:solid: nog ravity l
o .. .vs:solid: downward L
00 vs:solid:upward
Rad ial d ista nce, r/R1/2
Figure 6. Normalized radial velocities of gas and dispersed phases for a j et with glass beads, 0.2
mm and mass flow ratio m*=1 at x/R=30 and Re = 2.2 104
Figure 7 shows the distribution of turbulent kinetic energy along the jet crosssection at x/R=30
for downward, upward and zero gravity flow of a jet carrying glass particles of 0.2 mm with
loading equal to 1. The observed distribution of the kinetic energy profiles indicates that: a) the
particles attenuate the turbulence, and b) the downward directed jet has significantly less
turbulence than those of upward and neutrally buoyancy j ets.
0.04
k: singlep hase
z~ kknogravity
I~ k: downwa rd
a0.03 k:upward
= 0.01
0.0
0 0.5 1 1.5
Radial distance, r/R1/2
Figure 7. Normalized turbulent kinetic energy profiles for a jet with glass particles 0.2 mm and
mass flow ratio: m*=1 for downward, upward and no gravity. The profiles are at x/R=30 and for
Re = 2.2 104
Figure 8 shows the radial distribution of the particle mass concentration at the crosssection
x/R=30 for three downward flow, upward flow and zero gravity flow with glass beads of 0.2 mm
diameter and flow mass ratio m*=1. The distribution of mass concentration is in agreement with
the velocity profiles. The mass distribution appears to be more uniform in the upward case
where the particles exert a restraining hydrodynamic force to the fluid.
S0.75
m 0.25 1 alfa:nogravity
o alfa: downwa rd
alfa: upwa rd
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5
Radial distance, r/R1/2
Figure 8. Normalized mass concentration profiles of the dispersed phases at x/R=30 for glass
beads of 0.2 mm and m*=1 at Re = 2.2 104
The Figure 9 shows the distribution of the gasphase centerline velocity for the same three cases
of upward, downward and zerogravity flow. As one can see the particles attenuate the
turbulence kinetic energy and this results to slower rate of decrease of velocity in comparison
with the singlephase distribution (dashed line).
singleph
 gas,u pwa rd
 gas,downwa rd
gas,nog ravity
o
a, 0.75
m
S0.25
O
0)
30 45
Axial distance, x/R
Figure 9. Normalized centerline velocity of gasphase for twophase j et loaded with glass beads
of 0.2 mm and m*=1 for Re = 2.2 104
The normalized axial velocity of the dispersed phase us is shown in Figure 10 along the entire
jet length for the three cases considered here. In all cases the axial velocity of the dispersed
phase is higher that that of the gasphase. The rate of decrease is less pronounced for the
downward j et configuration.
gas,nog rav ity
o ~~ so lids,u pwa rd
a solids,downward
> 0.75
I solids,nogravity
0.
0 15 30 45 60
Axial distance, x/R
Figure 10. Normalized velocities of the gasp and dispersed phases, u, us along the centerline of
the jet for glass beads, 0.2 mm and m*=1 at Re = 2.2 104 (D=30.5 mm).
The axial distribution of the normalized turbulent kinetic energy, made dimensionless by its
value at the orifice exit is presented in Figure 11. The jet in this case has glass beads of d=0.2
and with mass loading m*=1. The singlephase results are also included for comparison. It is
observed that, after an initial decrease, which is due to the jet development and which is
independent of the particle loading, the turbulent kinetic energy increases rapidly. It
subsequently falls to a level that is close to its initial level. In general, the small glass particles of
0.2 mm attenuate the turbulence in the developed part of the jet. This tendency is more
pronounced in the case of the downward flow of the twophase jet. This is explained by the
significant increase of the characteristic length of the jet downstream as shown in Figure 3, that
is the increase of integral turbulent length scale, and is in agreement with several experimental
and analytical studies [2325].
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
O
k:singlephase
Sk: gas, upwa rd
 k:gas,downwa rd
k:gas,nogravity
30 45
Axial distance, x/R
Figure 11i. Normalized profiles of turbulent energy for a single phase j et and a j et loaded with
glass beads.
4. Conclusions
A complete RANS method with its pertinent closure equations for particle viscous drag, gravity,
turbulence modulation has been developed to describe the flow of a particulate jet. A finite
difference method with the aid of a tridiagonal matrix solver has been used for the solution of the
governing and closure equations. The results obtained for the gaseous and solids velocities were
compared with sets of experimental data. The results showed good agreement with the data and
the general trends expected from experimental data and the pertinent theory.
The results of the computations show that the particulate phase, even at low loadings and
low concentrations, has a significant effect on the flow parameters of the gaseous jet. The jet
becomes narrower with the heavier particles and higher loading because of the drag the solids
exert on it. As a result of this interaction, the solids velocity profile becomes flatter and the
concentration of the solids narrower. The higher radial velocity of the jet at higher loadings
indicates that more gas is entrained from the sides when the particleladen jet has higher inertia.
Finally, the effects of the particles on the turbulence of the carrier phase have been computed.
The general trends for the attenuation and enhancement of the turbulence by particles, which
have been observed by several experimental and analytical studies, have also been observed in
the numerical results of the RANS computations.
Acknowledgements. The work was performed within the frame of target financing from Proj ect
SF0140070s08 (Estonia) and partially supported by ETF grant Project ETF7620. The research of
the second author, EEM, has been partly supported by a grant from the DOE, through the
National Energy Technology Laboratory, (DENT0008064), Mr. Steven Seachman project
manager; and by a grant from the National Science Foundation (HRD0932339) Drs. Demetris
Kazakos and Richard Smith, project managers.. The authors are grateful for the technical support
of the computers of the University of Texas at San Antonio.
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