Group Title: 7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow - ICMF 2010 Proceedings
Title: 9.2.3 - 3-D Solid Flow Patterns in the Exit Region of a Gas-Solid CFB Riser
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00102023/00220
 Material Information
Title: 9.2.3 - 3-D Solid Flow Patterns in the Exit Region of a Gas-Solid CFB Riser Fluidized and Circulating Fluidized Beds
Series Title: 7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow - ICMF 2010 Proceedings
Physical Description: Conference Papers
Creator: Wang, F.
Marashdeh, Q.
Fan, L.-S.
Publisher: International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF)
Publication Date: June 4, 2010
 Subjects
Subject: gas-solid circulating fluidized bed
bend
exit region
3-D electrical capacitance volume tomography
ECVT
 Notes
Abstract: Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography (ECVT) has been developed at The Ohio State University to image multi-phase flow systems. A 3-D ECVT sensor for a right angle bend is developed to image flow passing through the exit region in a 0.05 m (2 in) ID gas-solid circulating fluidized bed (CFB) system. Fluid catalytic cracking catalysts (Group A) are used as the fluidized particles. The experimental results obtained from the developed sensor provide quantitative information of gas-solid flows in the exit region of the CFB riser. The instantaneous 3-D dynamic gas-solid flow structures in the bed are analyzed based on quantitative ECVT images. The experimental results indicate that a non-centro-symmetric core-annulus flow structure is formed both in the vertical and horizontal parts of the bend at the exit region of the riser. Experimental results revealed that the solids holdup near the upper wall of the annulus region at the starting part of the horizontal duct of the bend is higher than that in other locations of the annulus region. It is also observed that the solids holdup at the top wall region at the start of the horizontal duct of the bend increases slightly with solids flux and superficial gas velocity.
General Note: The International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF) first was held in Tsukuba, Japan in 1991 and the second ICMF took place in Kyoto, Japan in 1995. During this conference, it was decided to establish an International Governing Board which oversees the major aspects of the conference and makes decisions about future conference locations. Due to the great importance of the field, it was furthermore decided to hold the conference every three years successively in Asia including Australia, Europe including Africa, Russia and the Near East and America. Hence, ICMF 1998 was held in Lyon, France, ICMF 2001 in New Orleans, USA, ICMF 2004 in Yokohama, Japan, and ICMF 2007 in Leipzig, Germany. ICMF-2010 is devoted to all aspects of Multiphase Flow. Researchers from all over the world gathered in order to introduce their recent advances in the field and thereby promote the exchange of new ideas, results and techniques. The conference is a key event in Multiphase Flow and supports the advancement of science in this very important field. The major research topics relevant for the conference are as follows: Bio-Fluid Dynamics; Boiling; Bubbly Flows; Cavitation; Colloidal and Suspension Dynamics; Collision, Agglomeration and Breakup; Computational Techniques for Multiphase Flows; Droplet Flows; Environmental and Geophysical Flows; Experimental Methods for Multiphase Flows; Fluidized and Circulating Fluidized Beds; Fluid Structure Interactions; Granular Media; Industrial Applications; Instabilities; Interfacial Flows; Micro and Nano-Scale Multiphase Flows; Microgravity in Two-Phase Flow; Multiphase Flows with Heat and Mass Transfer; Non-Newtonian Multiphase Flows; Particle-Laden Flows; Particle, Bubble and Drop Dynamics; Reactive Multiphase Flows
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Bibliographic ID: UF00102023
Volume ID: VID00220
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: 923-Wang-ICMF2010.pdf

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7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL USA, May 30-June 4, 2010




3-D Solid Flow Patterns in the Exit Region of a Gas-Solid CFB Riser


Fei Wang, Qussai Marashdeh and Liang-Shih Fan*

William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
The Ohio State University
140 West 19thAvenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
*To whom correspondence should be addressed (fan @chbmeng.ohio-state.edu)


Keywords: gas-solid circulating fluidized bed, bend, exit region, 3-D electrical capacitance volume tomography, ECVT




Abstract

Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography (ECVT) has been developed at The Ohio State University to image multi-phase
flow systems. A 3-D ECVT sensor for a right angle bend is developed to image flow passing through the exit region in a 0.05
m (2 in) ID gas-solid circulating fluidized bed (CFB) system. Fluid catalytic cracking catalysts (Group A) are used as the
fluidized particles. The experimental results obtained from the developed sensor provide quantitative information of gas-solid
flows in the exit region of the CFB riser. The instantaneous 3-D dynamic gas-solid flow structures in the bed are analyzed
based on quantitative ECVT images. The experimental results indicate that a non-centro-symmetric core-annulus flow
structure is formed both in the vertical and horizontal parts of the bend at the exit region of the riser. Experimental results
revealed that the solids holdup near the upper wall of the annulus region at the starting part of the horizontal duct of the bend is
higher than that in other locations of the annulus region. It is also observed that the solids holdup at the top wall region at the
start of the horizontal duct of the bend increases slightly with solids flux and superficial gas velocity.


Introduction

Gas-solid flows have been employed extensively in
industrial operations (Kunii and Levenspiel, 1991; Fan and
Zhu, 1998). Bent vessels are commonly used in solids
handling systems such as an exit of a riser in a gas-solid
circulating fluidize bed (CFB) and elbows to change the
solids transport direction in solids pneumatic conveying.
The details of the gas-solid flow behaviours in such bends
are of great importance for the design of the CFB reactors
and pneumatic conveying systems. Due to the lack of
advanced imaging technologies in the past, visualizations of
three-dimensional gas-solid flow patterns and measurements
of volumetric solids holdup in bends were rarely reported.
Currently, there are two main methods of measurement,
intrusive and non-intrusive techniques, applied to gas-solid
flows. Classification of these methods is predicated on the
mechanism by which measurement signals are acquired. For
intrusive techniques, the measurement sensor, such as a
capacitance probe (Lanneau, 1960; Geldart and Kelsey,
1972), optical fiber probe (Yasui and Johanson, 1958; Cui
and Chaouki, 2004), endoscopic probe (Peters et al., 1983;
Du et al., 2004) or pressure transducer probes (Kang et al.,
1967; Geldart and Xie, 1992), requires direct contact with
the flow media to receive the desired signals. Therefore, the
probe must penetrate the wall of the process and potentially
disturb the physical flow behaviors. Conversely,
non-intrusive techniques are based on remote acquisition of
the measurement signals from sensors mounted away from


the flow and avoiding interference with the internal of a
multiphase flow system. Non-intrusive techniques are
widely applied for the measurements of gas-solid flows. In
this regard, ECVT has emerged as a practical technology for
realistic measurements without interfering with the flow
(Warsito et al., 2007; Marashdeh et al., 2008; Wang et al.,
2009; Wang et al., 2010a). ECVT has provided the means
for imaging gas-solid flows in complex geometries due to
the flexibility of its sensors (Marashdeh et al., 2008; Wang
et al., 2009; Wang et al., 2010ab).

In this paper, an advanced ECVT sensor system is designed
for imaging gas-solid flows in complex geometries. The
developed sensor is used for imaging real-time
three-dimensional gas-solid flows in a 900 bend at the exit
region of a CFB riser. The instantaneous 3-D dynamic
gas-solid flow structures in the bed are analyzed based on
quantitative ECVT images. The volumetric solids holdup in
the exit region of the CFB riser at varying superficial gas
velocity and solids flux is also probed.

Nomenclature

dp particle size (im)
FR Froude number
Gs Solids flux (kg/m2s)
g gravity constant (m/s2)
ne number of capacitance electrodes
Q gas flow rate (SCFH)





7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL USA, May 30-June 4, 2010


mean radius of the curved path in the bend (m)
time (s)
superficial gas velocity (m/s)
particle velocity (m/s)


Greek letters
pp particle density (kg/m3)
Es solids holdup

Subsripts
p particle
s solids

Experimental Setup

Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of the gas-solid circulating
fluidized bed. The CFB unit, made of Plexiglas, consists of
a 0.05 m ID riser with a height of 2.6 m, a porous distributor,
a 900 bend, a cyclone system, a standpipe/downer and an
L-shape non-mechanical valve. The FCC particles (Galdart
group A) with a mean diameter of 60 [m and a particle
density of 1400 kg/m3 and air were used as the fluidized
particles and fluidizing gas. A porous plate with a pore size
of 20 [m and a fractional free area of 60% was used as the
distributor of the CFB riser. The gas flow rate in the riser
was controlled by a flowmeter in the main gas line. Another
flowmeter was used to control the aeration gas flow rate at
the bottom of the downer to provide different solids flux in
the CFB. The 3-D ECVT sensor was mounted at the exit
region of the CFB riser. Figure 2 is a photo of the real
gas-solid circulating fluidized bed mounted with the ECVT
bend sensor at the Ohio State University.


Gas outlet




Cyclone ECVT sensor


Downer




Gas


Riser


Distributor


Gas
Figure 1: Schematic diagram of the gas-solid circulating
fluidized bed mounted with an ECVT sensor.


figure 2: Photo ot the real gas-solid circulating luimdized
bed mounted with the ECVT bend sensor at the Ohio State
University.

In ECVT technology, a volume image of different materials
in the testing domain is reconstructed based on utilizing
nonlinear distributions of electric field lines. An ECVT
system consists of three basic components: (1) a capacitance
sensor, (2) a data acquisition system, and (3) a computer
system for reconstruction and viewing. Figure 3 is a
schematic diagram of the ECVT system incorporating the
three components. The capacitance sensor is made of a
n
number of capacitance electrodes, e, distributed around
the peripheral of the domain of interest. Additionally, there

are ne (e -1)/2 combinations of independent
capacitance measurements between all pairs of electrode.
The ECVT image reconstruction is based on an optimization
reconstruction technique called the neural network
multi-criterion optimization image reconstruction technique
(NN-MOIRT) (Warsito and Fan, 2001). The technique has
also been extended to reconstruct volume images from 3D
capacitance sensors. This extension increased the accuracy
of reconstructed images.

Recent developments have focused on the ECVT sensor
design with 3D features for detecting the capacitance
variations due to permittivity perturbations in the imaging
volume. For imaging complex geometries using ECVT,
sensor design is the main element of the imaging system to
define the volume under interrogation. In this work, an
ECVT sensor is designed to image the transition region in a
right angle bend. The design is aimed at concentrating the
electric field variation at and around the corer of the bend
by arranging 12 electrodes in two layers perpendicular to









each other as depicted in Figure 4. While the plates at each
layer image the flow entering and exiting the bend, it is the
interaction between plates in both layers that most reveals
the flow dynamics in the region where the flow changes
direction. ECVT sensor design is developed intuitively and
confirmed by computer simulation (Marashdeh et al., 2008).
Simulations in this case confirmed the sensitivity
distribution is focused at and around the bend comer. Figure
5 is the actual photo of the ECVT sensor mounted on the
testing apparatus.

The acquisition frequency is 80 Hz and the reconstruction
resolution is 20 x 20 x 20 for the three-dimensional
reconstructed images of all tests.




W

PC/WS for accurate
reconstruction Control
reconstruction
display


Electrodes Data Electronics
acquisition
system

Fluidized bed or
bubble column

Sensoring system
Figure 3: Schematic diagram of the ECVT system.


7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL USA, May 30-June 4, 2010

ECVT Verification

The measurements from ECVT were validated using ECT,
optical fiber probe, and a pressure transducer. More details
about the optical fiber probe measurements are described in
Wang (2010a). Figure 6 shows the comparison of
time-averaged cross-sectional solids concentrations obtained
by ECT and optical fiber probe and the time-averaged
volume solids concentration obtained by ECVT and
pressure transducer for a 0.1 m ID gas-solid fluidized bed
with FCC particles. Figure 7 shows the radial profiles of
time-averaged solids concentration in a 0.1 m ID gas-solid
fluidized bed with FCC particles obtained by ECVT, ECT
and optical fiber probe. The overall solids holdup and the
radial profiles of the solids holdup obtained from different
techniques are consistent.



08
o Cptic fiber prcbe
0 ECT
07 AEOVT
X Pressure transcdcer
06

05 X
4 os
a A
041

03

02
0 02 04 06 08
Ug (ns)

Figure 6: Comparison of the time-averaged
cross-sectional solids concentrations obtained by ECT and
optical fiber probe and the time-averaged volume solids
concentration obtained by ECVT and pressure transducer
for a 4-in gas-solid fluidized bed with FCC particles (dp= 60
pm; pp= 1400 kg/m3).


Figure 4: Configuration of the ECVT bend sensor.


0.4-


0.2-


figure : rnoto or me EtLvi sensor mountea on me
testing circulating fluidized bed.


Results and Discussion


Key Ug(m/s)
* 0.19 (Optical Fiber)
* 0.19 (ECT)
A 0.19 (ECVT)


D=0.1 m


I


Key Ug(m/s)
o 0.68 (Optical Fiber)
o 0.68 (ECT)
A 0.68 (ECVT)
i I

a
zx
D]


0


UU,
u.ut - i i -- i i i--
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
r/R



Figure 7: Radial profiles of time-averaged solids
concentration in a 4-in gas-solid fluidized bed with FCC
particles (dp = 60 pim; pp = 1400 kg/m3) obtained by ECVT,
ECT and optical fiber probe.

ECVT has the capability for imaging gas-solid flows in
complex geometries due to the flexibility of its sensors.


U.6-









Figure 8 shows an example of ECVT applied for imaging
gas-solid flows in a 900 bend. In this demonstration, FCC
particles were discharged from the bend by gravitational
force when the outlet of the bend was facing to the ground.
The real-time three-dimensional solids holdup distributions
in the 900 bend are shown in Figure 8 (a)-(h). The read and
blue colours represent high and low solids concentration,
respectively.


(a) (b) (c)







(d) (e



4 *










Figure 8: Snapshots of solids free discharge in a 900 bend
obtained by ECVT: (a) t=0.0000; (b) t=0.0125 sec; (c)
t=0.0250 sec; (d) t=0.0375 sec; (e) t=0.0500 sec; (f)
t=0.0625 sec; (g) t=0.0750 sec; (h) t=0.0875 sec.

Solids Flux Calibration

The solids flux or the solids circulation rate is controlled by
the flow rate of the aeration gas of the L-shape
non-mechanical valve at the bottom of the downer shown in
Figure 1. The L-shape valve here has an obtuse angle elbow
and a declined leg to the riser, which is different from a
traditional L-valve with a right angle elbow and a horizontal
leg (Yang and Knowlton, 1993). Figure 9 shows the
calibration of the solids flux in the L-shape non-mechanical
valve. The solids flux is almost linear with the flow rate of
the aeration gas.

Solids Holdup Distribution in the Bend

The bend-sensor was used for imaging real-time
three-dimensional gas-solid flows at the exit region of the
CFB riser. The volumetric solids holdup distribution in the
exit region of the CFB riser at varying superficial gas
velocity and solids flux is probed. The instantaneous
three-dimensional dynamic gas-solid flow structures in the
bed are analyzed based on quantitative ECVT images. The
three-dimensional solids holdup distributions in the bend of
the riser are illustrated by slices in the volume image cut
through the bend vertically and horizontally. The
configurations of the vertical and horizontal slices are


7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL USA, May 30-June 4, 2010

illustrated in Figure 10. Figure 11 shows the solids holdup
distribution in the bend of the riser with a superficial gas
velocity, Ug, of 1.36 m/s and a solids flux, Gs, of 21.2
kg/m2s. The images indicate that a core-annulus flow
structure is formed both in the vertical and horizontal parts
of the bend at the exit region of the riser. The solids holdup
in the core region is relatively low compared to that in the
annulus region. The annulus structure is
non-centro-symmetric in the horizontal part of the bend
(Grace, et al., 2003). The solids holdup near the top wall of
the annulus region at the start of the horizontal duct, where
the flow changes direction, of the bend is higher than that in
other locations of the annulus region. The asymmetry is due
to the following reasons: (1) back mixing and reflection of
solids from the upper wall of the horizontal duct; (2) solids
in the bend are difficult to be entrained following the gas
streamlines due to an abrupt turn of the gas streamlines in
the bend; (3) a zone with low gas velocities at the upper
comer of the bend is formed. The images also indicate that
solids build up, or a solids "dune" is formed, at the bottom
of the horizontal duct of the bend. The sedimentation of
solids in the horizontal duct is due to the following reasons:
(1) the velocity of the main gas stream is not high enough to
carry all the solids horizontally to the cyclone, and thus the
sedimentation of solids occurs; (2) after an abrupt turn in the
bend, the gas streamlines shift towards the top of the
horizontal duct in the bend, which forms a zone with
relatively low gas flow rate at the bottom of the horizontal
duct.


Figure 9: Calibration of
non-mechanical valve.


Q(SCFH)
the solids flux in the L-shape


(a) (b)
Figure 10: Configuration of the slices for the plots of the
tomographic images in the bend: (a) vertical slices; (b)
horizontal slices.










W comntrn.--ao ,9


0 O 01 01S 02 025 03 03 04


7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL USA, May 30-June 4, 2010

1997). In the Froude number concept, the gravitational
acceleration on the radial direction and the centrifugal
U2
acceleration, of a particle following a curved path in
R
the riser exit can be balanced where Up and R are the
particle velocity and mean radius of the curved path in the
bend, respectively. Solids with a higher Froude number, FR
U2
which is defined as FR = move to the outside of the
gR
bed (Harris et al., 2003). At a higher superficial gas velocity
in the riser, the centrifugal acceleration increases due to
high solids velocity in the bend, and more solids are
separated to the outside of the bend from the main stream.


3D C.oentin n


(b)
Figure 11: Solids holdup distribution in the bend of the
CFB riser at Ug=1.36 m/s and Gs=21.2 kg/m2s: (a) vertical
slices; (b) horizontal slices.

Figure 12 shows the time-averaged volume solids holdup at
the top wall region at the start of the horizontal duct, where
the flow changes direction, of the bend at a superficial gas
velocity of 1.16 m/s. The experimental results indicate that
the time-averaged volume solids holdup at the top wall
region increases with the solids flux in the CFB riser. More
solids are separated to the outside of the bend from the main
stream of the gas-solid flow at high solids flux in the CFB.


008

007 -

006 *

005 -


0 Of 01 015 02


025 03 035 04


30 Ccnrjni. "ip


S 0C 01 016 02 0 2 03 03s 04


(b)
Figure 13: Solids holdup distribution in the bend of the
CFB riser at Ug=1.16 m/s and Gs=21.2 kg/m2s: (a) vertical
slices; (b) horizontal slices.


Conclusions


Figure 12: Time-averaged volume solids holdup at the top
wall region at the start of the horizontal duct of the bend at
Ug=1.16 m/s.

Figure 13 shows the solids holdup distribution in the bend
of the riser with a superficial gas velocity, Ug, of 1.16 m/s
and a solids flux, Gs, of 21.2 kg/m2s. The comparison of
Figure 11 and 13 indicates that the solids holdup near the
top wall at the start of the horizontal duct of the bend
increases with the superficial gas velocity. A possible
explanation is the Froude number concept (van der Meer


In this paper, an advanced ECVT sensor system is designed
for imaging gas-solid flows in complex geometries. The
real-time three-dimensional gas-solid flows in a 900 bend at
the exit region of a CFB riser is imaged by ECVT. The
instantaneous 3-D dynamic gas-solid flow structures in the
bed are analyzed based on quantitative ECVT images. A
core-annulus flow structure is formed both in the vertical
and horizontal parts of the bend, at the exit region of the
riser. The annulus structure is non-centro-symmetric in the
horizontal part of the bend. The solids holdup at the top wall
of the annulus region where the flow changes direction is


Gs (kg/m2s)


0 o I01 ot, o I .) x 1


t: : 1









higher than that in other locations of the annulus region.
Solids build up or a solids "dune" is observed by ECVT at
the bottom of the horizontal duct of the bend. The solids
holdup at the top wall region where flow changes direction
increases with solids flux and superficial gas velocity in the
CFB riser.


Acknowledgements

The support of the US Department of Energy DOE/NETL
under Grant # DE-NT0005654 (Federal Project Manager:
Steven Seachman) and Tech4Imaging is greatly appreciated.
The CFB design adopted in this work is similar to the one
used by Professor Lynn Gladden group at University of
Cambridge, and their assistance in the design is gratefully
acknowledged. The assistance of Mr. Paul Green and Mr.
Leigh Evrard in the fabrication of the circulating fluidized
bed, Mr. Mustafa Mergaye in the fabrication of the sensor,
and Mr. Samuel Bayham in the operation of the circulating
fluidized bed is gratefully acknowledged.


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ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL USA, May 30-June 4, 2010

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