Group Title: 7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow - ICMF 2010 Proceedings
Title: 2.2.4 - Interfacial magnetophoresis in magnetic fluids
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 Material Information
Title: 2.2.4 - Interfacial magnetophoresis in magnetic fluids Particle Bubble and Drop Dynamics
Series Title: 7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow - ICMF 2010 Proceedings
Physical Description: Conference Papers
Creator: Yecko, P.
Trubatch, A.D.
Lee, W.-K.
Publisher: International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF)
Publication Date: June 4, 2010
Subject: magnetic fluid
interfacial flow
Abstract: We report on two examples of magnetophoretically driven microfluidic flows. First, we examine the aggregation of bubbles into chains within a magnetic fluid, or ferrofluid. Bubbles are examined both directly, using X-ray phase contrast imaging, and computationally, using a volume of fluid (VOF) simulation code. High resolution X-ray images in the bulk of water-based ferrofluid (EMG-607/707) reveal that gas bubbles with diameters of a few 100 μm readily attract one another along the field direction, forming linear chains of two or more bubbles. For the simulations, magnetic stresses are captured using an interfacial force that is derived from a multigrid solution of Maxwell’s equations. A novel multiple color function scheme for the two phase flow allows nearby bubbles to come into contact without coalescing, as would normally occur in a VOF model. Measurement of trajectories in experiments shows that attraction is driven by the magnetophoretic force resulting from the induced fields of the bubbles. Bubble trajectories in both simulations and experiments also shows evidence of unsteady drag effects. To address magnetic interfacial forces more generally, we examine a second example: instability driven by magnetic interfacial stress in layered channel flow in a microchannel. Linear theory makes precise predictions of modal growth rates for uniform fields applied parallel to and normal to the channel walls, indicating that modest fields may be used efficienty to control processes such as pumping and droplet generation in channels a few 100 μm wide.
General Note: The International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF) first was held in Tsukuba, Japan in 1991 and the second ICMF took place in Kyoto, Japan in 1995. During this conference, it was decided to establish an International Governing Board which oversees the major aspects of the conference and makes decisions about future conference locations. Due to the great importance of the field, it was furthermore decided to hold the conference every three years successively in Asia including Australia, Europe including Africa, Russia and the Near East and America. Hence, ICMF 1998 was held in Lyon, France, ICMF 2001 in New Orleans, USA, ICMF 2004 in Yokohama, Japan, and ICMF 2007 in Leipzig, Germany. ICMF-2010 is devoted to all aspects of Multiphase Flow. Researchers from all over the world gathered in order to introduce their recent advances in the field and thereby promote the exchange of new ideas, results and techniques. The conference is a key event in Multiphase Flow and supports the advancement of science in this very important field. The major research topics relevant for the conference are as follows: Bio-Fluid Dynamics; Boiling; Bubbly Flows; Cavitation; Colloidal and Suspension Dynamics; Collision, Agglomeration and Breakup; Computational Techniques for Multiphase Flows; Droplet Flows; Environmental and Geophysical Flows; Experimental Methods for Multiphase Flows; Fluidized and Circulating Fluidized Beds; Fluid Structure Interactions; Granular Media; Industrial Applications; Instabilities; Interfacial Flows; Micro and Nano-Scale Multiphase Flows; Microgravity in Two-Phase Flow; Multiphase Flows with Heat and Mass Transfer; Non-Newtonian Multiphase Flows; Particle-Laden Flows; Particle, Bubble and Drop Dynamics; Reactive Multiphase Flows
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Volume ID: VID00046
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: 224-Yecko-ICMF2010.pdf

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7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow,
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL, May 30 -June 4, 2010

Interfacial Magnetophoresis in Magnetic Fluids

P. Yecko, A.D. Trubatch and W.-K. Leet

Department of Mathematical Sciences, Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ 07043, USA
t Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL 60439, USA and
Keywords: Magnetic fluid, bubbles, magnetophoresis, interfacial flow, ferrofluid


We report on two examples of magnetophoretically driven microfluidic flows. First, we examine the aggregation of
bubbles into chains within a magnetic fluid, or ferrofluid. Bubbles are examined both directly, using X-ray phase
contrast imaging, and computationally, using a volume of fluid (VOF) simulation code. High resolution X-ray images
in the bulk of water-based ferrofluid (EMG-607/707) reveal that gas bubbles with diameters of a few 100 pm readily
attract one another along the field direction, forming linear chains of two or more bubbles. For the simulations,
magnetic stresses are captured using an interfacial force that is derived from a multigrid solution of Maxwell's
equations. A novel multiple color function scheme for the two phase flow allows nearby bubbles to come into contact
without coalescing, as would normally occur in a VOF model. Measurement of trajectories in experiments shows that
attraction is driven by the magnetophoretic force resulting from the induced fields of the bubbles. Bubble trajectories
in both simulations and experiments also shows evidence of unsteady drag effects. To address magnetic interfacial
forces more generally, we examine a second example: instability driven by magnetic interfacial stress in layered
channel flow in a microchannel. Linear theory makes precise predictions of modal growth rates for uniform fields
applied parallel to and normal to the channel walls, indicating that modest fields may be used efficient to control
processes such as pumping and droplet generation in channels a few 100 pm wide.


Fluids with suspended nanoscale magnetic particles, re-
ferred to as magnetic fluids or ferrofluids, posses a range
of scientifically interesting and technologically desirable
properties, most notably that their properties and flows
can be modified by applied magnetic fields (Holm and
Weis 2005; Rosensweig 1985). Well known applica-
tions of ferrofluids include liquid seals in devices such
as hard-disk drives and crystal growing furnaces, and as
coolants in loudspeakers (Rinaldi et al. 2005). Recently,
ferrofluids have begun to be utilized in micro-scale and
nano-scale self assembly (Ganguly et al. 2005a; Yellen
et al. 2005), microfluidic pumping (Hartshorne et al.
2004), eye surgery (Afkhami et al. 2008), drug de-
livery (Gangulya et al. 2005b; Alexiou et al. 2001),
chemotherapy (Alexiou et al. 2005), magnetic cell sepa-
ration (Zborowski and Chalmers 2005) and as magnetic
MRI contrast agents (Pankhurst et al. 2003). Ferroflu-
ids are thus increasingly utilized at small scales, and in
configurations involving an interface with a gas or an-
other liquid; several other potential applications are re-

viewed in (Rinaldi et al. 2005). Relative easy manipula-
bility makes magnetic fluid a very promising alternative
in the advancement of microfluidic technologies, such
as precisely tuned pumping or droplet formation(Ozen
et al. 2006; Lin et al. 2004), where magnetic fluid can
be used to drive a juxtaposed non-magnetic fluid. Mag-
netic control is particularly attractive in light of the chal-
lenges in controlling fluids using electric fields (which
may require high voltages), thermal forcing (which may
require high temperatures) or complex channel geome-
tries (which may be technically difficult).
A robust and flexible numerical model capable of ac-
curately simulating interracial ferrofluid flows would be
an efficient and valuable alternative to experimentation
in the discovery and design of new applications. But
so far, direct numerical simulation (DNS) of interfacial
ferrofluid flows has been seldom performed. In most
cases, only static fluid configurations have been sim-
ulated, in which the dynamic Navier Stokes equations
are not solved and which employ numerical methods
that cannot be easily extended to dynamical problems
(Lavrova et al. 2006). The DNS code that we apply

7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow,
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL, May 30 -June 4, 2010

and validate here is flexible and robust; in the absence
of magnetic effects it has proved to accurately model a
broad range of interfacial flows, including rising bubbles
(Gueyffier et al. 1999) and primary atomization (Boeck
et al. 2007). Bubbles are an important instance of an in-
terfacial flow which are ubiquitous in many industrial
and natural examples, often exerting a ,igililk.ii im-
pact on the transport properties of the flow. Broadly
speaking, a "bubble" may also refer to a droplet of a
non-magnetic fluid immersed in ferrofluid.
Direct observations within ferrofluids are severely
quashed by the opacity of the fluid to visible light. To
circumvent this difficulty, most of the previous experi-
mental work using optical techniques has been limited
to thin films (tens of pm) or highly diluted samples.
Specifically, thin film studies have been performed to in-
vestigate the formation of clusters (Hayes 1975; Horng
et al. 2001; Jones 1985; Taketomi et al. 1991) and the
(2-dimensional) shape of bubbles (Bashtovoi et al. 2005;
Drenckhan et al. 2003). However, such thin sample en-
vironments are subject to wall effects (Wang et al. 2003;
Wiedenmann and Heinemann 2005) and may not be rep-
resentative of a 3-dimensional system. In particular, the
bubbles in these studies had diameters larger than the
thin sample constraints and are thus not "free" but at-
tached to the walls of the sample cells.
X-rays have been used previously to image bubbles in
bulk ferrofluids, but, in those studies (Jeyadevan et al.
1999; Nakatsuka et al. 1999), the resolution has been
insufficient to quantify interface dynamics and shapes.
Indeed, to the best of our knowledge, there has not been
any previously reported high-resolution measurement of
bubble shapes or dynamics in a bulk ferrofluid sample.
More generally, there is a lack of experimental data re-
garding multiphase ferrofluid systems. This lack of ex-
perimental data is , because most of the new
applications being discussed for ferrofluids, such as bio-
medicine, involve multiphase configurations.
Here, we describe observations obtained by syn-
chrotron x-ray phase-contrast imaging. By this method,
we measured the shape and dynamics of small (< 1
mm diameter) bubbles in a tube (9.5 mm outer diam-
eter and 6.5 mm inner diameter) filled with ferrofluid.
We used a water-based suspension of magnetite parti-
cles with mean diameter of 10nm (FerroTec EMG-607
or EMG-707) and bubbles of both air and water vapor.
The phase-effects dramatically enhance the image con-
trast, which enables one to track the bubbles and their
shapes. Bubbles with diameters as small as 10 pm can
be seen and easily quantified. In particular, the forma-
tion of bubble chains aligned parallel to the applied uni-
form field can be seen (Fig. 1). This is the first time
that the bubble dynamics within a bulk ferrofluid sample
have been tracked with pm-level accuracy.

Figure 1: A four bubble chain (boxed) in EMG-607,
bubble diameters ~ 0.1 mm.

Acceleration between two bubbles lined up along
the applied field will result from the attractive magne-
tophoretic force arising from the the non-uniform exter-
nal fields induced by each bubble. To compute this force,
a solution for the field (or potential) is needed.
Our observations have shown bubble Reynolds num-
bers up to 0(1) are common during aggregation events.
In this regime, it is unreasonable to rely entirely on an
unsteady Stokes flow simulation, such as a boundary
integral method. Rather, we are required to solve the
Navier Stokes equations for interfacial flow of magnetic
fluid. The numerical modeling of incompressible flu-
ids with interfaces is a broad problem with many ap-
proaches (see Scardovelli and Zaleski 1999; Tryggva-
son et al. to be published 2010, for a review). One of the
most successful and robust approaches is to treat a multi-
component fluid as a single fluid with abrupt changes in
density and viscosity and use an auxiliary function to
capture the interface. The two most common interface
capturing methods are the Level Set method, in which
the interface is the zero contour of a smooth function
such as the signed distance from the interface, and the
Volume of Fluid (VOF) method, in which a color (or
phase) function gives the fraction of each computational
cell that is occupied by the reference phase. Level-set
methods naturally allow precise computation of the ge-
ometric quantities, such as the normal and curvature of
the interface, yet tend to conserve volume (mass) poorly.

VOF methods, on the other hand, conserve volume more
precisely, but generally involve estimates of the interface
curvature. The inaccurate curvatures estimates of VOF
methods are one of the sources of the so-called spuri-
ous currents (Scardovelli and Zaleski 1999) observed in
VOF simulations.
All single-fluid methods, including VOF, Level Set
but also others, such as the CIP and phase field meth-
ods, are prone to inaccuracies, one source of which is
the need to solve the pressure Poisson equation with a
coefficient which is discontinuous at the interface, where
the density jumps in value (Tryggvason et al. to be pub-
lished 2010). This problem worsens for large density
jumps, such as for air and water. While the problem
may be mitigated by using a more robust elliptic solver,
this approach is computationally very expensive. An al-
ternative is to abandon the single fluid approach in favor
of so-called sharp interface methods, such as the Im-
mersed Interface or Ghost Fluid methods, but at the cost
of a considerably more complex numerical scheme. For
problems that are also physically complex, such as mag-
netic fluids, increased code complexity is highly unde-
sirable. Instead, we adopt a common approach, and use
an artificially large gas density, preserving both speed
and accuracy with little sacrifice, as the density ratio
plays a minor role in many problems involving bubbles
(Tryggvason et al. to be published 2010).
In a previous work (Korlie et al. 2008), we described
a volume-of-fluid (VOF) numerical method for the sim-
ulation of dynamic two-phase flows of magnetic flu-
ids, including rising bubbles and falling droplets. Aside
from the jump in density and viscosity generally found
at fluid interfaces, in a magnetic fluid there will usually
be a jump in magnetic properties. The influence of the
magnetic field on the fluid dynamics originates from the
Maxwell stress and can be reduced to a normal stress
acting at the interface. This stress depends on the mag-
netic field at the interface and on the relative magnitudes
of the magnetic permeabilities of the two fluids.
In the current work, we have expanded our previous
VOF method to include multiple color functions as in-
dicators of separate bubbles. By computing the inter-
facial stresses from distinct color functions, we avoid
the merger of bubbles that occurs automatically in VOF
methods (when interfaces of distinct bubbles approach
one another). We are therefore able to simulate aggrega-
tion of bubbles. Although this method is not directly mo-
tivated by molecular and physical properties of the fluid,
it nevertheless plays the role of an effective disjoining
pressure and has been used, previously, in a combined
VOF/LS framework to effectively study the impact of a
droplet onto a flat interface (Coyajee et al. 2006).
We simulate and measure the dynamics of aggrega-
tion using two dimensional computational models. Sim-

7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow,
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL, May 30 -June 4, 2010

ulation results are compared to theoretical predictions
stemming from a simple balance of drag and dipole in-
duced magnetophoretic forces. The theory does not ac-
count for the nonlinearity of the magnetic material, non-
zero Reynolds number effects, nor the deformability of
the bubbles, all of which are likely to be important in
both simulations and experiments. Nevertheless, the-
ory does provide the common benchmark of a simple
scaling relation prediction for both the 2D and 3D cases
that should be valid over some part of the aggregation
path. In numerical simulations we have generally used
the same physical parameters as in experiment, but there
are differences due to the computational constraints, as
described above, and because some quantities (e.g. the
density inside a bubble) are uncertain and not easily
measured. Our goal is to explain the observed bubble
behavior in terms of the hydrodynamic and Maxwell
stresses and to demonstrate that VOF-based numerical
methods are able to efficiently and accurately model ag-
gregation. Although the experiments are, naturally, three
dimensional, the value of two-dimensional simulations
is that they are both efficient and they can provide valu-
able insight into the dynamics where analytic solutions
are intractable and experimental measurements are diffi-
In the second part of this paper, we study the stabil-
ity of a sheared ferrofluid interface in order to provide a
more complete understanding of multiphase ferrohydro-
dynamic flow. Low Reynolds number flow in a straight
channel is examined due to its relevance to microflu-
idic applications and to our experiments. Our desire is
to know which fields are most effective at destabiliza-
tion, as evidenced by the growth rate of linear instability,
and at what scales this instability will develop, as evi-
denced by the wavenumber of fastest modal growth. We
also plan to use the stability predictions of this work to
validate our numerical simulation code, currently being
used to model bubbles in magnetic fluids (Korlie et al.
2008). The magnetic flow stability problem was stud-
ied more completely in the recent paper (Yecko 2010),
henceforth Y10. In that work stable non-magnetic base
flows are considered, the Reynolds and Weber numbers
are fixed (Re We 1 ), and only exactly parallel or
exactly normal field orientations are considered, while
a fully nonlinear magnetic material model based on the
Langevin description is employed.

1 Bubble Magnetophoresis

Mathematical Background
We consider nonmagnetic bubbles in a magnetic fluid
with permeability p /1 po and susceptibility X
p//po 1, where the material is linear (i.e.x indepen-
dent of H) and the magnetization, M = MoxH is par-

7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow,
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL, May 30 -June 4, 2010


Y-L 2 (a)



m, n, r, Pr

x t2 P2 U (y))



Hp No

Figure 2: Sketch of the base steady flow and field con-

allel to the H field. Each fluid phase has constant den-
sity, p, and dynamical viscosity, r. The gives a modified
Navier-Stokes equation

S( +u. Vu)

-Vp+pg + lVu--1H H Vt

where g is gravity and we assume incompressible media,
such that
V u 0. (2)

In (1), the pressure p represents only the hydrodynamic
At the interface, some quantities are required to be
continuous, for example the velocity field, while others,
such as the pressure, have jumps as a result of discon-
tinuities or singularities in the mathematical representa-
tion of physical quantities, such as viscosity. Specific
jump conditions at the interface result from a force bal-
ance of discontinuous and singular terms.
To model the system for simulation by a VOF method,
we treat the fluid and bubbles as a single fluid with spa-
tially varying density, viscosity and magnetic perme-
ability. The phases are distinguished by the value of
a characteristic function (x, t), which is equal to one
in the reference or primary phase, and zero in the sec-
ondary phase. If there is no phase change, the charac-
teristic function is passively advected by the flow and
its time evolution is described by a standard advection
equation, d-/dt = 0. The spatial distribution of the
density p in the single fluid approach is then defined as
P = Pi + (1 7) p2. A similar expression holds for
the viscosity and the susceptibility.
Magnetic forces are captured in the rightmost term of
(1). While this term vanishes in the bulk of each fluid,
where p is constant, on the interface, where p jumps
in value, V/ = Sn, where 6 is a delta-function (the
"derivative" of a step function) and n is the normal to
the interface (Melcher 1963; Rosensweig 1985).

The effects of the magnetic field reduce to a singular
normal force acting on the interfaces, just as for the force
of interfacial tension. We are then able to describe a two-
fluid system with a dynamic interface using the single

p( + u Vu) -Vp+ pg +V uD (3)
+acOTs n + FM6s n,

where: Dij (duj/dxi + dui/dxj) is the rate-of-
strain tensor; 8s is a distribution identifying the inter-
face; a is the interfacial tension coefficient; K is the in-
terface curvature; and TM is the magnitude of the mag-
netic interfacial force. In terms of the jump in magnetic
normal stress at the interface,

M = n n (/HHH H2)], (4)

where the square brackets denote the jump across the
interface and H = HI.
One can use the continuity of normal B and tangential
H to find a more convenient expression for the magnetic
interfacial force,

-M = ',) [H +/HJ (5)

where the subscripts i and o refer to inner and outer,
while n and t denote normal and tangential components.
This expression clearly shows that the difference / -
po determines the sign of the magnetic interfacial force,
while the ratio pI/p~, determines the relative importance
of the normal field component.
In the absence of free currents, the magneto-
quasistatic Maxwell's equations are

VxH 0 V B 0,

where B /o(H + M), are more conveniently posed
in terms of a magnetic potential, p:

V. (1 + x)V 0, (6)

where H Vp. On boundaries and interfaces it is re-
quired that [n B] 0 and [n x H] 0 Equation (6)
is also solved in a single domain where X varies discon-
tinuously from the value Xi to Xo at the interface. In this
way, the conditions that normal B and tangential H re-
main continuous are naturally captured by the solution.
Magnetophoretic Attraction between Bubbles
Because there are no tangential interfacial stresses in
a magnetic fluid, three types of interactions are expected
to occur in a pair configuration: (i) magnetophoretic ef-
fects, due primarily to the non-uniform field induced by
the companion bubble; (ii) drag, including that depend-
ing on the flow induced by the motion; and (iii) hydro-
dynamic effects due to film drainage at small separa-
tions. Drainage of the fluid separating two approaching

interfaces is a low-Re phenomenon that controls the fi-
nal contact. Drainage is not of primary concern here; its
effects will be noted but not examined in detail.
Computing the magnetophoretic force between two
objects is a complex problem which has, as yet, no
simple closed form result even in the simplest case -
when the objects are identical, spherical and aligned
either along or normal to the imposed uniform field.
In discussing this problem, we refer extensively to the
problem of the dielectrophoretic force between dielec-
tric objects, which has received considerably more at-
tention. For perfect dielectrics and linear magnetic ma-
terials these two problems are exact analogs upon iden-
tifying the fields E, D with H, B and the dielectric per-
mitivity E with the magnetic permeability p. In our ex-
periments, the largest bubble exposed to maximum field
exhibited a deformation D ~ 0.04. Bubbles undergo-
ing aggregation in our experiments have D ~ 10 2 and
remain nearly spherical. We therefore choose to restrict
our attention to spherical objects from here on.
A spherical bubble immersed in magnetic fluid and
placed in a uniform field will modify the field, adding a
dipole contribution. This solution can be found in elec-
tromagnetism texts (i.e. Stratton 2007). In the case of a
sphere of radius R centered at the origin with uniform
imposed field H, Hay, the potential 40 outside the
sphere is given by

co(r, 0) = -H rcos 0- Ha cos ,
3 + 2X r2

from which we can compute the radial field component
H,r -dO/Or, or:

7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow,
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL, May 30 -June 4, 2010

order contributions. Thus, the expression (7) is not ex-
act for the force between two bubbles in an external
uniform field, since each individual bubble imposes a
nonuniform field on its companion. When the field non-
uniformity is not too large, however, (7) will give ap-
proximately correct results. Computing the net force in
the case of the bubble pair requires a summation over
all the active multiple pairs for each bubble, a signif-
icant computational challenge. In solving the Maxwell
equations and computing the normal stresses in our VOF
simulations, we are implicitly performing exactly this
calculation in the two-dimensional case. Later, in Fig-
ure 6, we will show the magnetic potential 0 as com-
puted by the multigrid algorithm within our simulation
code. The field is found directly from this potential and
magnetophoretic force is realized as the normal stress of
To estimate the dynamics of the observed bubble ag-
gregation, we assume that one bubble's non-uniform
field acts as a driving field Hd on the companion bubble.
We further assume that only viscous stresses oppose the
motion, to obtain the balance

67rlRU = FMAP,

where Stokes drag appears on the left hand side and U is
the velocity of the bubble. Hence, in three-dimensions,
the bubbles should approach with velocity

U3d OC 4

while, in two dimensions,

H, = H cos 0 (1

For an ellipsoid, the X factors are modified but the 0 and
r dependence is the same. In two dimensions (for an
infinite cylinder) the equivalent expressions are:

o02(r, 0) = -H r cos 0 Ha X cCs 0,
2+X r

H,2 Hcs 2+ r2 x )

A non-uniform field Hd drives a magnetophoretic
force on a spherical dipole of radius R given by

FMAP = 27po(1 + x)R3 VH2, (7)

(for a derivation, see e.g. Jones 1995). A uniform
field induces a dipole around a spherical bubble; a non-
uniform field will also induce quadrupolar and all higher

Computational method
Equations (2)-(4) are solved numerically by including
the magnetic interfacial force (5) and a multigrid relax-
ation algorithm to solve (6) within an existing VOF code
(Korlie et al. 2008) derived from SURFER (Lafaurie et al.
1994). In VOF methods, the interface is captured by us-
ing a color function C, with values in [0, 1], that is the
discrete version of the characteristic function, 7. In par-
ticular, C'i 1 when the computational cell (i,j) is
fully occupied by the reference phase, C" 0 when
only the secondary phase is present and 0 < Cj < 1
when the interface cuts the cell where the value of the
color function represents the fraction of the cell occu-
pied by the reference phase. The C function is used
to track the identity of the fluid, to reconstruct the in-
terface (here with a piecewise-linear interface calcula-
tion, VOF-PLIC) and to compute its normal and curva-
ture at any computational point. In terms of the color

2X R3
3 + 2 r3 )

U2d o r3

function C, the material properties in the single fluid ap-
proach are defined as follows: p = p1C + (1 C)p2,
ri = lC + (1 C)12 and x = XC + (1 C)X2.
In our experimental observations, when small-scale
bubbles come into contact, they do not coalesce, most
likely a direct result of the large capillary forces found
at such small radii. However, in VOF models, coales-
cence occurs automatically whenever two interfaces first
occupy the same computational grid box. We have cho-
sen to address coalescence suppression as a numerical
issue, rather than as a physical one. The use of a single
color function does not allow more than one interface to
be represented inside a single computational cell. Be-
cause of the local linear interface reconstruction, for a
good approximation its radius of curvature should be at
least four times the grid spacing. Furthermore, when
different interface lines approach each other they affect
the reconstruction when they are within the same sten-
cil, which is used to compute the normal vector, at a
distance of two to three grid spacings. In a standard
two-dimensional VOF simulation, the approaching in-
terface lines will be locally highly distorted and auto-
matically merge in a few time steps. We avoid this nu-
merical merging between separate bubbles by introduc-
ing multiple color functions, C, one for each distinct
bubble. The advection of the different color functions,
the reconstruction of the associated interfaces and the
computation of the surface tension forces are performed
separately for each bubble. For all other aspects of the
computation, including the multigrid solution of the in-
compressibility condition, the separate color functions
are treated as a single function. Interface coalescence
is thus largely suppressed without introducing an artifi-
cial suppression mechanism. In exceptional cases, merg-
ing/overlapping still occurs, mainly due to the linear in-
terface reconstruction, but this has happened rarely and
does not influence the results in an appreciable manner.
To our knowledge, multiple color functions have been
used previously only with a combined VOF/LS tech-
nique (Coyajee et al. 2006).
The solution of (6) is made difficult by the fact that the
coefficient, 1 + X, experiences a jump at the interface.
We use a multigrid algorithm, as described in (Korlie
et al. 2008). The magneto-quasistatic Maxwell system is
solved using Neumann boundary conditions on the po-
tential at the top and bottom of the domain correspond-
ing to a uniform vertical field while, on the horizontal
walls, periodic boundary conditions are applied.
Experimental procedure
The experiments were conducted at the XOR 32-ID
beamline at the Advanced Photon Source in Argonne
National Laboratory. The ferrofluid setup consisted of
a 9.6 mm outer diameter (6.5 mm inner diameter) plexi-
glass tube held fixed between the poles of an electromag-

7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow,
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL, May 30 -June 4, 2010

net. The tube axis was vertical and the applied field was
horizontal. Probe measurements confirmed that the field
in the middle of the poles, where the measurements were
done, was fairly uniform to about 1 mT/mm. The field
can be varied by changing the applied current to the elec-
tromagnet; the maximum field (at 6 amps) was measured
to be 0.175 T (H = 1.4 x 105 A/m). 25 keV x-rays were
used, with a sample-detector distance of about 0.5 m for
good phase-contrast. A 100 pm thick yttrium aluminum
garnet scintillator was used to convert the transmitted x-
rays into visible light that was then imaged onto a video-
rate (30 frames per second) CCD camera (Cohu, USA)
using a 5X microscope objective with the accompany-
ing tube lens. The CCD camera exposure rate was set to
1 ms so as to minimize bubble motion related blurring.
The field of view was about 1.3 mm horizontal x 0.9
mm vertical and the spatial resolution of the setup was
estimated to be 2-3 pm. The video was recorded onto
miniDV tapes and subsequently digitized using commer-
cial software (Apple iMovie).
Two water-based ferrofluids were used, EMG-607 and
EMG-707, having cationic and anionic surfactant coat-
ings respectively; both were obtained from Ferrotec Inc.
The following physical characteristics were provided by
Ferrotec: density p 1.1 g/cc, viscosity v 5 m Pa s,
initial susceptibility Xo 1.7 (for EMG-707, Xo 1.5),
saturation magnetization Mo 11 mT and average par-
ticle diameter d 10 nm. These values were also ap-
plied in the numerical models. We also examined a di-
lute solution (1:4 dilution of EFH-l:mineral oil), also
from Ferrotec.
Initially, we attempted to generate small bubbles with
a syringe, but in order to prevent the syringe needle from
introducing non-uniformities in the magnetic field, the
needle had to be placed far from the region of interest.
However, this configuration created the problem of di-
recting bubbles created far away into the uniform field
region because the field gradients around the uniform
field region tend to expel the non-magnetic bubble. The
result was that we were unsuccessful in introducing bub-
bles created from a syringe needle outside the uniform
field region into the uniform-field region.
Instead, we relied on the high intensity of the x-ray
beam to create bubbles via ionization. In the presence of
an imposed field, the agglomerations of magnetic parti-
cles serve as nucleation sites for the bubbles. The advan-
tage of this process is that the bubbles are created within
the uniform field and exactly in the location where we
are imaging. The disadvantage is that there is little con-
trol over the number of bubbles or their locations within
the x-ray beam. In Fig. 1, the magnetic particle ag-
glomerations are clearly visible as dark bands aligned
parallel to the imposed magnetic field. Such macro-
chains are well known and were seen in early experi-

ments by Hayes (1975) and Kreuger (1980) and were
first explained theoretically even earlier by de Gennes
and Pincus (1970).

2 Sheared Microchannel Interfaces

To more directly examine the effect of magnetic forces
on the dynamics of an interface, we examine a very gen-
eral flow stability problem. This flow consists of two
viscous layers in a channel, separated by an initially flat
horizontal interface and acted on by a horizontal pres-
sure gradient and either a normal or a parallel magnetic
field, as depicted schematically in Fig. 2. The fluids have
constant densities, Pi and P2 and viscosities, p1 and p2
and occupy depths L1 and L2, and interfacial tension a
acts on the initially interface, whose location is given by
y =r(x, t).
The magnetization M of the magnetic fluid is given
by the Langevin constitutive relation:

M Ms (coth

1) H
E/ H,

where 3 = 4 MH and Ms Mdyv is the sat-
uration magnetization; Md is the domain magnetization
of particles of radius a and Yv is their bulk volume frac-
tion in the ferrofluid. For strong fields we find M --
MsH/H. For weak fields, the relation M = IH is a
good approximation, which we have used above in ex-
amining the bubbles. The quantity X, is the initial sus-
ceptibility and is given by

Ms, 47ra3 poM3n v
XI -= (11)
3H 9 kT
XI is clearly constant for isothermal flows, as we assume
here. Without loss of generality, in place of (10) we may
write M = X(H)H, where

(H) = (cothi~- ) (12)

The magneto-quasi-static Maxwell equations now ap-
pear in the form

V. ([1+ x()]V) = 0. (13)

Steady solutions
A uniform magnetic field H (H,, H,) is applied to
the flow; only purely parallel (P) fields Hp (Ha, 0),
and purely normal (N) fields HN = (0, Ha) are consid-
ered, where Ha is a constant. The steady unperturbed
flow U ) (U(J)(y), 0) is quadratic in y and is iden-
tical to that of layered channel flow of two ordinary vis-
cous fluids; the functional form is readily found in the
literature (Hooper 1989; Yecko 2010).

7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow,
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL, May 30 -June 4, 2010

Perturbation equations
Perturbing the steady field and flow solution results
in a set of equations for the perturbation velocity, pres-
sure, and magnetic potential, which are neither de-
rived not reproduced here, but can be found in Yecko
(2010). Each perturbation quantity, y, has the usual
form y(x,y,t) -= (y' Wt), leading to an Orr-
Sommerfeld type equation in each layer, augmented by a
magnetic potential perturbation, interface matching con-
ditions on y = and boundary conditions on the walls.
The total stress tensor is the sum of fluid and Maxwell
contributions: ij = Eij + Mij, where Eij is the ordi-
nary fluid stress (see Y10 for details). A key property
determining the stability is the jump in normal stress
component at the interface, which is balanced by surface
tension: [7 .. ](2) [7 ,... \ |1) -a(2l/ zx2 +
dl/9z2). We adopt the same form of the magnetic stress
tensor as in Y10:

Mij = (1 + x)H;Hj 6ij (Po MdH + t H2

which leads to a net force only on an interface where
magnetic properties change (Rosensweig 1985; Oden-
bach 2009; Yecko 2010).
Nondimensionalizing leads to the following control
parameters: density ratio r := p2/pi, the Weber num-
ber We = PUL1 and a magnetic fluid parameter
Ma P ug2, and the (layer-j) Reynolds number based
on the interface velocity: Re(j) = pj UoL
The linear stability problem is then solved for eigen-
values, c, and eigenvectors, which are computed numer-
ically using the code developed in (Yecko 2008, 2010);
instability occurs for cw > 0, where cw := Im (w).

3 Results: Bubble Aggregation

In a sequence of experiments, water vapor bubbles cre-
ated by X-ray induced bubble nucleation were observed
and their subsequent dynamics recorded. Most bubbles
that we tracked had diameters in the range of 50 to 200
pm and readily aggregated with neighboring bubbles.
In this work, we use the term "aggregation" to refer to
the motion of two initially separated bubbles coming to-
gether to form a single bubble pair, as depicted in Fig.3
and Fig.4. We never observed a bubble pair merge to
form a single larger bubble. Aggregative motion oc-
curred approximately along the field lines, as the magne-
tophoretic force is expected to be attractive in this direc-
tion, but deviations were present due to the various ini-
tial locations of the two bubbles. Repulsion of two bub-
bles whose line of centers is perpendicular to the field
was also observed, but these events are easily missed

7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow,
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL, May 30 -June 4, 2010

Figure 3: Aggregated water vapor bubbles (boxed) in EMG-607 ferrofluid, frames extracted from 30 fps digitized
video; each frame has actual height 533 pm and width 316 pm; frames are 0.2 sec apart. The large overlapping bubble
in the lower right comer of the frames is in another plane.

due to the lack of a clear, easily distinguished end state.
The presence of magnetic nanoparticle chains appears to
strongly suppress motion laterally to the chains, but the
aggregation proceeds lengthwise along the chains.
Figure 3 shows an example of aggregation between
two bubbles. The Reynolds number in the figure se-
quence is Re ~ 0(10 2), although the value clearly
increases in the final moments before contact. As is typ-
ical in most of our experiments, additional bubbles are
present in the frame. This is because we have no di-
rect control over the number and location of the bubbles
generated by the x-ray beam. Many of the bubbles that
appear in the image are located at different depths and
even though they may appear, in projection, to intersect,
in reality they are not in contact. This is due in part to the
projection of bubbles at different depths, normal to the
image plane. In spite of the crowded environment, we
were able to identify several aggregation events clearly.
Once in contact, as in the last frame of Figure 3, the
pair persisted with its axis parallel to the field and of-
ten accumulated other bubbles, forming a longer chain.
We observed chains of up to seven bubbles. Note that
in the experimental images displayed here, the field is
oriented vertically, with a slight skew due to equipment
mis-alignment. In the laboratory, the field was applied
horizontally, but we have rotated the display to match
numerical simulations. There is no risk of confusion
since buoyant motion is negligible, as we know from the
small (gravitational) Bond number.
Next we present direct numerical simulation results of
bubble aggregation and then we analyze the dynamics
as a consequence of magnetophoretic force. In particu-
lar, we examine pairs of ferrofluid bubbles aligned such
that the separation of their centers is parallel to the ap-
plied uniform field H,. Without such initial alignment,
torques will also act on the bubbles and the resulting dy-
namics becomes much more complex. Simulations were

performed in 2D, but the results can be easily general-
ized to 3D geometry, as we do below.
The following conditions are fixed: fluid density
pp 103kg m 3, bubble density p, 102kg m 3,
fluid viscosity Ip 10 3Pa s, bubble viscosity p/
10 4 Pa s, interfacial tension a 0.07 N m 1. The
uniform field IH, I 20 kA m 1 and the bubble sep-
aration are parallel and along the y-axis. The bubble
radii are both set equal to rp 100/m and the initial
separation of their centers is Lo = 2rp. Note that with
the above value of the magnetic field the magnetic bond
number BoM z 1 when X 3. In the following results,
BOM will be varied by changing X.
Figure 4 shows a typical aggregation of a pair of bub-
bles in the case X = 3. The dynamics of the physical
process can be divided into four consecutive steps: slight
prolate deformation, magnetophoretic acceleration, hy-
drodynamically damped magnetophoretic motion, and
a final deceleration mediated by "drainage" of the fluid
film separating the adjacent bubbles. A zoom of the con-
tact region is shown in Figure 5, where the effectiveness
of the multiple color function approach can be inspected.
The potential solution from which the magnetophoretic
force originates is presented in Fig.6; this p field was
found using multigrid relaxation on the magneto-quasi-
static Maxwell equations and boundary conditions.
As can be estimated from the figure, Re ~ 0(0.1) for
the attractive motion of this case. At this Reynolds num-
ber the deviations from Stokes flow may not be negligi-
ble. Bubble motion under acceleration may also be mod-
ified by Bassett (or history) forces arising from boundary
layer development on the interface and by added mass
effects due to the displacement of ambient fluid (Crowe
et al. 1997). Stresses may also arise due to a nonuniform
ambient velocity field (Faxen forces) and influence the
dynamics of bubble aggregation.
In a laboratory experiment where many bubbles are

7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow,
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL, May 30 -June 4, 2010





Figure 4: Simulation of two bubble aggregation in ferrofluid: color function field time sequence; time units are
10 6 s and length units are 10 5 m. Initial separation is 1 bubble diameter.

t=0 2


Figure 5: Detail of the contact region between two
bubbles; (left): as it occurs at t 18 in the simulation of
figure 3; and (right): as it occurs in experiments; frame
width is 285 pm.

present, field nonuniformities due to the surrounding
bubbly medium are prevalent. Nevertheless, we have
seen in both simulations and experiments that aggrega-
tion dynamics is in good agreement with the above scal-
ings. In Figure 7(a) we compare a sequence of aggrega-
tion simulations with the prediction (9) where X is varied
to produce three distinct cases. Except for the onset of
motion (rightmost points) and the final approach (left-
most points) there is good agreement with the expected
r 3 dependence. As we have shown previously (Kor-
lie et al. 2008), bubbles under acceleration show devia-
tions in their trajectories that can be explained by added
mass effects. In comparing our numerical results to the
simple scaling relation (9), we stress that there are sys-
tematic deviations from an exact r 3 dependence which
are expected in a full Navier-Stokes based simulation in

-05 0 05

-05 0 05

Figure 6: Magnetic potential function, 0, correspond-
ing to droplet experiment of figure 3, as found by multi-
grid relaxation; in the presence of an imposed uniform
field and a neighboring bubble, the field of each bubble
is not an exact dipole, but approximately so; the conse-
quent gradients drive the magnetophoretic attraction.









0 1

7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow,
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL, May 30 -June 4, 2010

which hydrodynamic effects, including added mass, are
naturally captured.
In Fig.7(b) we show the equivalent behavior as ob-
served in experiments. The data in the figure include
the aggregation depicted in Fig. 3 and two similar events
at different field strength and for different size bubbles.
After onset and before final approach, a clear r 4 de-
pendence is apparent, consistent with the prediction of
(8) and with the analogous two-dimensional result of
the simulations. Although our imaging technique has
allowed us to visualize bubbles in ferrofluid in unprece-
dented detail, it remains an experimental challenge to
further resolve the temporal dynamics for an isolated
bubble pair. Until these challenges are surpassed, DNS
remains a viable tool to examine the dynamics of mag-
netophoresis in magnetic fluids.

4 Results: Interfacial Instability

Of greatest interest to the control of flows in small de-
vices are the parameters required to ensure stability or
instability of the interface, including the applied mag-
netic field (Ha), its orientation (P or N), the relative layer
thickness (n), and the relative magnetic permeabilities
(/r). Because ferrofluids exhibit a wide range of vis-
cosities, which may also vary with the applied field, the
effect of viscosity ratio (m) is also examined. Several
other control parameters are held fixed in the stability
calculations, namely: Re 1 We 1 Fr- 0
and r = 0.9. Control parameters are also given refer-
ence values at which each is fixed when not being var-
ied; these are: n 2, m 1.5, and p, 1/3. Note
that the permeability ratio pr is a control parameter and
refers only to the relative initial permeability values. For
a lower ferrofluid layer, the initial permeability ratio is
related to the initial susceptibility as p 1/1 + Xi,
while for an upper ferrofluid layer, p = 1 +X. The ref-
erence value = 1/3 is therefore equivalent to XI = 2
in a bottom layer of ferrofluid.
The base non-magnetic flow is that of two superposed
fluids in a channel, first studied by Yih (1967) who found
that a longwave mode, dependent on the viscosity strati-
fication, can be unstable even as Re 0. This so-called
interfacial (or Yih) mode was was found in later stability
studies (Renardy 1987; Hooper 1989; Yiantsios and Hig-
gins 1988) to exhibit a stable regime, sometimes called
the "thin layer effect" since in one manifestation long-
wave stability is ensured by choosing m and n such that
the less viscous layer is thin enough. In the cases exam-
ined here, the base non-magnetic flow is always main-
tained within this longwave stability regime, while sur-
face tension stabilizes the shorter waves. Thus, any in-
stability must be due to magnetic effects.
Figure 8a depicts the wavenumber of the fastest grow-

Figure 7: Velocity of bubble pair aggregation, U (in
pm/sec) as a function of centroid separation, r (in pm),
as found in simulations (a) and experiments (b), includ-
ing best fit lines. The fits were performed only using the
central data points (filled symbols): start-up and con-
tact transients are displayed using open symbols. In
(a) the simulations are 2D and an r 3 law is expected;
the plotted best fit lines have slopes (top to bottom) of
-2.8, -2.9, -3.1 and -3.2 with corresponding R2 fit
values (again top to bottom) of 0.953, 0.956, 0.954 and
0.973. In (b) an r 4 dependence is expected; the fit
values are -4, -4.6 and -4.2 for cases A,B,C, respec-
tively with corresponding R2 fit values of 0.915, 0.980
and 0.872.

A X=3
+ X=4

035 04 045 05
log r

055 06

ing instability as a function of Ha at fixed layer thickness
ratio n = 2, comparing a purely parallel (P, top data)
field to a purely normally (N, bottom data) oriented one.
Note that for the P field, the finite wavelength mode is
stabilized while in the N case the growth rate remains
S0. A numerical calculation of the neutral stability
curves and growth rates when the magnetic field is ap-
plied normal (N) to the interface is presented in Fig. 8b
for a range of applied field strength and layer thickness
ratios. The plotted results have also been maximized
over the wavenumber range, a = [0 5]. That the
N configuration is "more destabilizing" than the parallel
(P) field orientation, as can be seen by comparison with
the P neutral curve (dotted) and by the reduced growth
rates, approximately one-half of the equivalent N values.
It is noteworthy that for n < 1, corresponding to a thick
bottom layer of ferrofluid, P fields do not destabilize the
interface even at the largest Ha presented. Moreover, for
both P and N orientations, instability properties become
insensitive to the relative layer thickness for n > 5. Be-
haviors such as this are directly relevant to the design of
ferrofluid flows having a set of desired stability proper-
In related work on leaky dielectric fluids (Uguz et al.
2008; Uguz & Aubry 2008) the stability of microfluidic
channel flows was examined as a function of the rela-
tive permeability (and conductivity) of the fluids. Those
works presented regimes of "de-stabilization," defined
as regions in parameter space where the (electric) field
increases the growth rates of the interfacial mode even
if the growth rate remains negative. Destabilization in
Uguz et al. (2008); Uguz & Aubry (2008) was mea-
sured by examining the Maxwell stress contributions to
the interfacial stress balance in the limit Re 0, in-
cluding the contributions of the base field solution. Li
et al. (2007) computed a similar quantity, but by us-
ing longwave asymptotics. An equivalent result in the
present work is not possible because the base solution
and the perturbations depend on the nonlinear formula
(10). Instead, the following calculation was performed:
the growth rate of the most unstable mode was com-
puted for zero magnetic field, Ha 0, and for a small
parallel magnetic field, both calculations done over a
range of parameters. The difference of these two growth
rates can be interpreted as a measure of the field de-
stabilization (at zero field) and is depicted in Fig. 9a in
n m parameter space. Equivalent calculations per-
formed around different values of the imposed field (i.e.
around H = 1, 2, 3,...) each give a different result as
a result of (10). Nevertheless, for comparison and in an
attempt to quantify this property, we have also computed
the neutral curve in n m space (Fig. 9b) for Ha = 5,
chosen arbitrarily. While the two results in Fig. 11 are
qualitatively similar, it is also clear that they are not sim-

7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow,
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL, May 30 -June 4, 2010


1 2




0 v 5 H10 15 20

1 (b) N
15 2 25 3 35 4 45 5 55 6 65

Figure 8: (a): Wavenumber of maximum instability
growth-rate for Parallel field (upper blue data, triangles)
and Normal field (lower red data, circles) at n = 2,
m = 1.5 and = 1/3; for parallel field there is no
instability below Ha 5; (b): Growth rates and neu-
tral stability curves (heavy lines) in Ha n space for
m = 1.5, = 1/3 and field applied Normal to the in-
terface; the heavy dotted line in (b) corresponds to the P
neutral curve, for comparison.

ilar enough that "de-,i.iIlii,.iiiun i predictions would be
useful for nonlinear magnetic material. To accurately
predict instability of magnetic fluid flows, it is necessary
to perform an exact eigenvalue calculation, accounting
for the nonlinearity of the magnetic material.


We have presented an experimental and numerical anal-
ysis of micron scale bubbles in a ferrofluid, visualized in
high detail by using a new X-ray phase contrast method
and simulated using a magnetic VOF method. Under
applied magnetic fields up to 0.2 T, such small bubbles
are only slightly deformed and remain nearly spherical.

7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow,
ICMF 2010, Tampa, FL, May 30 -June 4, 2010

15 2 25 3 35

Figure 9: Stability measures in n m space: (a) shows
regions of stabilization (S) and destabilization (D) for
parallel field and = 1/3; (b) shows the growth rates
and neutral curve (heavy line) for parallel field of H,

Nevertheless, our experimental technique was capable
of resolving enough detail to distinguish between the
slightly different susceptibilities of the two ferrofluids,
EMG-607 and EMG-707.
Our VOF-type, Navier-Stokes-based code is not ide-
ally suited to compute static equilibrium solutions of
slightly deformed single bubbles. Moreover, the surface
tension is large at these scales and the Parker-Youngs
method of computing curvature produces errors that ac-
cumulate over time to form spurious velocities which al-
ter the equilibrium shape. In a separate work, a high
order height function based curvature method is being
implemented to eliminate these errors.
The dynamics of multiple bubbles is dominated
by magnetophoresis, originating in the approximately
dipole fields induced by nearby bubbles, and by hydro-
dynamic forces due to their motion, mainly drag. Drag
limited magnetophoretic dipole attraction has been ver-
ified by comparing numerical and experimental results,

and by comparing both to the predicted scaling of the
aggregative velocity. The deviations from the scaling
prediction seen in the simulations are due to hydrody-
namic effects, such as added mass, that are captured by
the DNS model but obscured in the data. Although we
have restricted our attention to gas bubbles, the results
here should apply also to droplets of a second liquid or
to solid particles immersed in ferrofluid.
Subsequent experimental and numerical efforts will
also examine the field dependent anisotropic viscosity
induced by the presence of the particle chains that are
clearly visible in the experimental images.
The linear stability problem for interfacial flow in
a microchannel, where one fluid is a ferrofluid having
a nonlinear magnetic permeability, indicates that both
parallel and normal oriented magnetic fields can pro-
duce instability. Parallel fields generally lead to smaller
growth-rate instabilities at smaller wavelength. Notably,
stability results were largely insensitive to whether the
ferrofluid was the top or bottom layer, but sensitive to
the layer thickness and viscosity ratios. Stability re-
sults clearly identify choices of ferrofluid (initial) sus-
ceptibilities and layer thicknesses where stability is as-
sured as well as other choices where strong instability
is guaranteed. We can estimate that choosing channel
sizes (1 mm) and flow rates (1 pl/sec) consistent with
those in the experiments in (Ozen et al. 2006; Song et al.
2007; Hatch et al. 2001), places us in the correct regime
Re 0 (1). Upon applying a B field magnitude of about
0.1 T (corresponding to fields H ~ 0(105) A/m and
typical of a rare earth permanent magnet) and assum-
ing typical ferrofluid susceptibility Xi = 2 (correspond-
ing to = 1/3), we expect growth-rates ci ~ 0(1)
are possible, especially for larger layer thickness ratios,
such as n z 5. Ten e-folding times of growth then oc-
cur in ten (non-dimensional) distance units downstream,
equivalent to two channel widths or about 2 mm. In
even smaller channels the same result applies as long as
flow rates are reduced so that Re 0 (1). Such rapid in-
stability growth has great potential to generate droplets
from a fluid stream, although a more conclusive predic-
tion of droplet generation demands a full nonlinear cal-
Aubry and collaborators (Aubry & Singh 2008;
Aubry et al. 2008) have shown that a two-fluid EHD
interface can be exploited as a means to direct self-
assembly of micro- and nano-particles. This possibil-
ity is of great value to micro- and nano manufacturing,
most notably chip fabrication. A similar technique had
also been proposed in the context of ferrofluids (Yellen
et al. 2005) where the need for a complete understand-
ing, including flow, has been emphasized in Song et al.


Use of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne Na-
tional Laboratory was supported by the U. S. De-
partment of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Ba-
sic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-


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