THE RESID~ENCES OFi EUCLID AVENjUE, CLEVELAND, OHIO
AE- 683 HEGIONAL HISTORY PROJECT
PROFESSOR F. BLAIR REEVE~S
JORGE L. CURRAIS
It was my intent in this project to study the residential
architecture of one small area of the country that being Euclid
Avenue in Cleveland, Ohio. I started out with an extremely narrow
topic so that I could do an in depth study of the evolution of that
architecture. Ideally, I wanted to search out several specific ex-
amp3les from each different period in. the history of Cleveland, ana-
lyze all the forces that shaved the structure, and study the finral
result and its characteristics. As I collected my sources, however,
I discovered that the diversity in the designs was too great and my
sources too limited in order to nroceed with ny project as I had
origina.lly intended. So, I broadened miy topic to include more examples
of the residences and tried. to create a "collageF" on the history of
the Avenue. In short, that is how the project stands now.
M~y project is a survey of the residences of E;uclid Avenue in
Cleveland from 1796 to 1900. It takes a look at each house and
explores the history of each and the history of its owners. In a
larger scope, the project traces the stylistic trends in the He-
sidjentiall Architecture of the city and analyzes the forces which
created those styles.
I. THEs PION~EER, SET~TLE~ iUTi 1796 1815
The city of Cleveland was designed to be the capital of the
Western Reserve of Connecticut. The origin and definition of this
area go back to 1776. At the end of the Revolutionary War, seven of
the thirteen original colonies claimed land extending westward to
the Mississippi Hiver or beyond, Connecticut's claim stemmed from
the charter granted by King Charles the second on April 23, 1662.,
The abandonment of these claims by several states was due to the
Articles of Confederation. In making her cession in 1786, Connecticut
reserved an extensive tract of land; 120 miles west from the Pennsyl-
va~nia border between 41 and 42 degrees north latitudes. Tihis tract
was then called the Western Heserve. Coninecticut gave up political
control of the area in 1800.
In 1786, steps were already being taken to dispose of th~e lasnds.
Commission of three ;?en was anointed to survey the land east of
the CuyvahoFga Hiver into the townships six miles square and sell it
for six shilling~s an acre. At the time, however, the ind~ian~s of then
a~rea were not pac~ified, and only one sale was made due to the h;igh
risk, The sale was that of 24,000 acres to general Samuel H.~ Parsons.
In Mlay, 1795, a new plan was devised to dispose of the lands.
A treatyr of the same year confined the indians of the lands west of
the Cuyahoga River and this encouraged buyers, By september of that
year the entire tract of land had been sold for $1,200,000 to the
Connecticut Land Convany.
In. the sprinf- of 1796, under the leadership of hoses Cleveland,
a party was organized to survey the Reserve and to locate and lay
out its principal town on an appropriate site. The site chosen was
on the shore~ of Lake Erie at the mouth of the Cuyahoga Hiver.
The original map of the city of Cleveland laid down a ten acre
public square bisected by two wide streets; Superior, 132 feet wide,
At this stage in the town's development, its inhabitants were
far to occupied with the back-breaking tasks of clearing the land
and maintaining themselves in the face of the rigors of the pioneer
life to be concerned with appearances. Their dwellings were those
which couzld7 be constructed most easily and with t~he least waste of
time. Log cabins which required considerably less work and also less
skill than the frame houses they had knownr in New England could be
quickly erected, using the logs thee builder had, in any case, to cut
in order to clear his land. Most of them were certainly very modest,
consisting of one or perhaps two rooms, and theyv were usually confined
to one floor. The logs used were some fifteen to eighteen feet in
length and were notched near the ends so as to lock together at the
corners. The cracks between logs were stuffed with moss, andrl windows
were frequently omitted. The door was na~lrrow and often closed by a
blanket. The chimney consisted of crossed logs, fire-proofed by clay,
Window glass was a luxury and the floor might well be packed earth
at first, though as soon as possible a "puncheon" floor would be laid,
The roof consisted of slit "'shakes", until time could be found for
the laborious ta5ske of splittingr out shingles. Only three framed d-well-
inPgs were found. in the town. All the structural members and siding
were built with hand tools. Few nails were required as most joists
were mortised and tenoned.
The only structure adequately described wsas the first Court House
erected in 1812-1814, by Levi Johnson, a ca~rpente~r. The Court House
was about twenty-five feet by fifty feet and two stories in height.
The exterior of the building was covered with clapboards and Dainted
red. It was a simple, oblong structure without adornment of any
kind. After almost two decades of existence, Cleveland was still a
very primitive place. Despite its frontier character, it was on the
brink of rapid development and increasing prosperity. (Please see
the following pagfe for a picture of the Court House.)
ran roughly east and west, and Ontario, 90 feet wide, ran north and
south, Using these as axes a large tract was described by four streets:
Lake street (lakeside avenue) on the north, Huron on the south, Water
(west 9th) on the west, and Erie (east 9th) on the east. Four shorter
streets served to extend the town east, south, and west: Bath street
(vacated), Federal (st, clair), Miami (east 6th), and Ohio (central
The tracts described by the main streets were divided into lots
of 2 x 10 chains. They were regular in shape and two acres in extent.
Two hundred and twenty-two lots were laid out on the map of the city.
The principal features of the working plan of Cleveland were then
completed. As the lots were purchased,. new streets were laid out along
the dividing lines between lots.
The town remained for several years little more than a chart drawn
from survey notes. On the site the only evidence of a settlement were
a scattering of log cabins and a woods road or two where the avenues
were planned. Many thincrs influenced the slow growth of the city,
First, the journeyy from the east was hard, since there were no roads,
Secondly, there was very little in Cleveland to attract new immigrants.
Third, the land was all virgin woods and every foot had to be cut,
burned, and grubbed. Lastly, a platrue almost depopulated the town by
1800, bu.t a much larger number lived in the outskirts.
The townm gorew slowly after 1800. The threat of the British on Lake
Erie frightened away many during the War of 1812. By 1815, the pop-
ulation of Cleveland had risen to 150. In the neighborhood of 1815,
CIPveland consisted of two main streets, Superior and Water. The
square was half-forested, and its cleared area filled with stumps,
The horses were scattered and separated by uncut forest. A few small
stores, a tannery, and several public houses constituted the commercial
activity of the town,
The first Court House in 1814
View of Public Square in 1830
np-ii~~ ~ii5aF ~
II. THE NEW VILLAGE 1815-1830
Due in large measure to improved transportation, the town in-
creased in size and population. The first stimulation was provided
by the construction of roads connecting Cleveland with the Ohio Hiver
in 1813. In 1821, two new routes connected both Pittsburghh and Bjuffalo
with Cleveland. Stage and mail coach routes were established. The first
bridge crossing the Cuyahoga Hiver was built before 1822.
The hazards of lake travel were also reduced. In 1818, the first
steamboat on Lake Erie reached the city. In 1825, the federal govern-
ment appropriated :;5,000 for w~ork on the Cleveland harbor and pier.
By 18~28, the project wqas a suLccess. An even more important water
route was constructed in 1827 with the opening of a canal from the
Ohio River to Cleveland.
In 1815, the town was incorporated. and new streets were added
(se~e rman). A7onP the new~ streets was the radical. departure from the
traditional gridiron plan in the construction of central hirrhway,
destined to be renamed Euclid Avenue. It was cut througj from its
terminus at Huron street to the southeast coener of the public square.
It was apparent that this road would become an important route from
the East and plans for its early development were laid out. Another
important addition w~as the layingr? of streets describing the ~periphery
of the public square.
The first actual enlargement of the city limits was made in 1829.
(see map ). All of this expansion was in response to the increasing
population. By 1830 there were 1,075 people in the town, while in
1820 there were only 150; an increase of seven times in a decade.
Along with the physical Drogress, there were numerous indications
that the Pioneer period was nearing its close. In 1818 the first news-
paper appeared "The Gazette and Commercial Reg~ister". The first
formal school was erected in 1817 on St. Clair street. A larger one
was built in 1821. In 1829 Trinity Church was built and established
the first house of worship in the town.
The construction of the first saw mill on HIill Creek occurred in
1800 and by 1830, there were 48 mills in existence in Cleveland an~d
the surrounding areas. 1814was the, first year that a brick structure
was erected. This was the residence of Alfred Kelley. Many others
followed and in 1828, the second Court House was built of brick with
stone and wood trim. Cut stone was the last material to be exploited
for building pilrcoses. No evidence of extensive u~se is found until
the building of the second Court House.
In the absence of any pictorial record, one may visualize the
town in 1530 a~s a mixture of log cabins of the earlier period, as
well as small frame houses of few rooms and a handful of more ambiitiou
buildings. The :Intter include the Alfred Kelley home, Trinity Chu~rch,
and of course, the Cou~rt House.
Chronolom:ically the earliest important luild?.ingr in Clevela~nd wras
the residence of Alfred Kelley~ which was built in 1817.
The Alfred Kelley Residence
It was the First residence of brick to be buiilt in the village, It
was a solid house consisting of a cubical central pavillion covered
byv a aable roof flanked by smaller winEgEs. The house had the good pro-
nortions of a professional design.
The second Court House was the nost important building of the
The Second Cuyahoma. County Court House
i s o:! a
Public Square in 1859
The building, a veryv ambitious nrojiect for the date, was brick with
woode.n floor and trim of stone. It was built by the firn of con~trac-
tors of Noble & Hill, and all the details of sash, poorfranes, and
floor finishes were hand worked. It was a simple building composed
of a square block raised on a low stone basement with an entablature
which encompasses all sides of the structure, also of stone. The prin-
cinal facade faced north on the square and was ornamented by six pi-
lasters, four of which support a perdiment. It has a flatened hipped
roof with two balustrates one at the eaves and one at the base of
The first Trinity Church dates from 1828-1829 and was a flimsy
frane structure in the so-called "Gothic" of that time.
The first Trinity Church
It bu.rned in the year 1853. It had a single entrance at the base
, 157 EacHd Avenie, bu~s to Jast.
of a square tower wh!-ich projects half its depth from the center of
the west facade. The roof ia s simple Rable and the tower is sur-
rmounted by four steenly pointed stirers. The Iain body of the7 church
was boarded horizon~tallyr, while the tower and pediment wjere boarded
Also at this tine, the first recorded house was built on Euclid
Avenue. In 1924, Nathan Perry, Jr. bought a NE;. corne-r lot of 100
acres which extended to the lake. There, the Perry Residence was built.
The center tortion of the house at 2157 Euclid Iwas the~ orif-nal house.
As the family rrrew, the house was expanded. Perry's house wtas isolated,
and he made his fortune by trading for furs from the indians, w~ho
often spent the nimht bundled in blankets before his fire. He came
to Cleveland in 1808, after snendiinfr four years in the cam~p of Chief
Red Jacket of the Senecas, while his father acquired lands in the
Reserve. His first house was on Superior and Water street. It also
doubled, as his store, which was an improvement over an early trading
nost. Perry became the first established merchant in Cleveland. Under
the Cleveland Charter of 1815, Perry was made one of the original
trustees, along with Samuel Williamson who also had a house on Euclid
Avenue. He went on the become a very influential person, so much
that he built a street from St. Clair to Euclid and gave it his name
The woods were beins nushed along unpaved and unliphted Euclid
Avenue. Amonir the 7en who emoloyed architects to buiLd rnew homes of
Classical and Colonial design were Samuel 'dilliamson, Sherlock J.,
Andrews,, George Hoadley, Harveyv Rice, AIhaz iierchant;, Lyman~ Kendall,
Sa~muel Cowles, and Truman P, Handy. Beyond Erie street lived Thomras
Kelley, Henry Dodge, and Nathan Perry, Jr. A virginia rail fence lined
the street from Bond to Erie street in 1832. The Euclid road, as it
w~as called, w~as increasing in importance, affordingr the nost popular
road from Cleveland to Buffalo,
A new era was making itself felt in Cleveland by 1830. The com-
cletion of the canal in 1827 created many chanrres in the fortune of
the townm, and made significant changes in its appearance.
III.THE MERCANTILE TOWN 1830 1854
As transportation from the East improved and fares were reduced,
the population of Cleveland g~rew. The established businesses crosoered
andJ new ones a~ppeaared i~n large numbers; producing a thriving mercan-
tile center. This quarter century molded the present characteristics
of the center of the city.
The 18306s and 1840's were the canal period in the history of
Cleveland, Until the advent of the railroads at mid-century, no single
influence had a more stimulating effect upon the city. The first seg-
nent of the canal was completed in 1827 and five years later the lake
was finally linked by water with the Ohio River. The increase in vol-
une of traffic that went through Cleveland is indicated by the tolls
Thereafter, the competition of the railroads made the canals de-
cline until the infinitesimal toll of $21.45 was collected in 1907.
PassenPger arrival by the cana.l was even more affected and by 1855
not a single passenger entered the town by canalboats.
The volume of shipninff on the lake rose simultaneously, and by
1841l there were 1,561 sailing$ vessels in Lake Erie, After mid-century,
the steam-Toropelled vessel gradually replaced the sailing ship. By
1839, over 30 paddle and side-wheelers were in operation, and by 1850
they were in the height of popularity. In the late 1850's, however,
they were replaced by propeller-driven ships. These have continued
until today, handling heavy bulk loads on the lake,
Hirrhwayr transportation also developed rapidly during these decades,
These improvements encouraged stage lines and Conestona weapons for
the transport of freight,
B3y all these means the' population was a~iugmented and the economy
of Cleveland stimulated. The population climbed from 1,075 in 1830
to 17,034 by mid-century. Byv 1853 thce -population alriost doubled in
3 years to 30,000. To meet the demands, lateral expansion of the
city was accelerated (see map). The period was climaxed by the union
of Cleveland with Ohio City west of the river in 1854. Many new streets
were added in the new and older quariiters of the city. Accoman~ying
this rapid lateral expansion of the town, important changes were made
in its character and anpearance. The center of the city became built
up in some sectors to the noint of overcrowding. The wholsale district
expanded and the residential areas spread~ outwards as the Tetail. con-
cerns took over the central areas. In 1833, w~e can see in the view
of public square that this was the retail district, bu;t private resi-
dences still exist between the store~s.
The commercial architecture succeeded in chemneSn the character
of l-?rRe areas. The characteristic new harilding wras a three or four
story brick building, and tl: first street to be- invadedi by It was
Sunerior Street in 1846
By 1846, the street had taken a wholly new appearance, similar to
Bank Street in 18h0. The buildings were erected adjacent to each other
with no open snaces available by the end of the canal days. By 1854
Superior, Ontario, Water, and Bank all had achieved the new commerciala
look. With the retail district moving northward towards the lake, the
old homes of the original residential area were pushed out until in
1854 only a. fringe of houses remained along the lakeshore. By the end
of the period, even the early houses of the 1830's around Public
Square had been torn down for commercial structures.
The years of expansion introduced for the first time the need for
public services and utilities. In 1833 dirt roads without sidewalks
served well enough. Lone before 1854, however, the crowded streets
and over-built lots made new dienands. M~ud and dirt were a nuisance
and street lightinff was imperative. In the 18401s the first attempt
at nlanking the main arteries of the city was tried. The wooden sur-
faces were: soon found to be inadequate they required constant, chan-
gSinR due to wheel we3arinp: and' rotting. It was not until the 1860's
that the wood?-blockt paying kncuown as Nicholson pavement ca7e into use
a~nd only in the 1870's did any modern payilng appear. Pedestrians were
treated better as the city council passed an ordinance in 1854 com-
pelline Dropertyr owners to pave their sidewalks. In 1853, th-e first
sewer drainage of streets wyas built. All water was: supplied by wells
at first, ~utt by 1n46 two small reservoirs were built insit7e the city,
In 1849 a much larger reservoir to supply the center of town with
running water was built. The first gas company also had its start
that same year. The first job of the company was to supply and in-
stall lighting to the main streets of the city. The lamps were placed
200 feet apart on Superior, Erie, Water, Merwin, Bank, and Public
IV. THE HOUSES OF EUCLID AVENUE - 1830 1853
It is at this tine thatt Euclid Avenue bep-an its career as an
avenue of fine holes. The man of 1846 47 shows an atlc:st unbroken
row of houses from the square to Muirson street, many of them con-
siderablyr pretentious. The move toward Euclid can be traced to the
Case residence and Lemnen house of the 1820's, -'hese were thei~ first
to occury Prublic Squvare. Thzis trend continued? Iwith thei Winslow:i andi
Crittenden houses, occupying the square where it intersectsi Euclid
Avenue in 1832, Shortly thereafter, Euclid Avonue b~came a favorite
locality. By the 180j's it was solidly built .ith -:esidences i-ell
FeyondC the line of Erie st leet, with a scatt -?ing oif houses s9-il
The character of the avenue can be seen In the photograph taker
near Erie street. Though it dates from the 1860's the houses in most
cases wreyrf built in th~e Ccanl? era.
Euclid Avenue in 1860
In contrast to the simple wooden-frame houses established in large
plots which characterized the earlier residential areas, a sophis-
ticated city district appears. The houses are all of masonry or brick
and two or more stories in height. They are set well back in the
street, providing a Renerous yard inside the iron fences, but they
are closely spaced at equal intervals front one another. The facades
form a single straight line, Biving the street an air of dign~ity.
Several innovations in architectural practice made these accom-
plishments possible. New material of finer and more durable quality
became practical by reason of the invention of new nower tools for
their shaping, Architecturally the western community was RrowinP up.
The most radical chance was the decline of the use of wood.
First, it was less abundant than in early days. Also, the influences
andl demaRnd. of fire-nroof construction arose, But still ?ore important:~
w~as the new taste for more monumental forms which deman7ded 'the so~liditY
and scale of mai~sonry. Sever~lal manufactured materials w~er-e introdul~cedd
during the canal period. Some iron was made available and glass from
Pittsburgch made windows increase in sizes. Along with the materials
came a number of technological improvements, such as the Ballon Prame.
At the same time new power-driven tools appeared. A typical one was
a Lath-cuttinR ma~chi~ne that could transform a rouaEh log into Lath at
the rate of 130 a minute. The most significant of the tools was a
stone dressing machine introduced in 1848. It made the use of stone,
marble, and others available to churches a~nd private residences, There
was even a partially synthetic material for ma2kinrS bricks called
"artificial sandstone". The material, which appears to have been the
forerunner of contem~porary concrete block, was promptly put to use.
In terms of architeoutral styles, the earlier residences were
either vernaculare wood framed houses or, in the early 1830's,
Georgian. By 1836, the Greek Revival was in full swing and reached
its most pretentious stateF with the Worthineton Hesidence in 1852.
As early as the 18lC0's examples of the Gothic appear and near the
mid-century the Italian forms become popular, especially those in
the A.J. DowEning book, "Cottage Residences". We shall now site some
examples of the Euclid Avenue Hesidences and trace the evolution of
the styles in more detail.
A. DUNHAM TAVERN 1832
Built in 1832, at 6709 Euclid Avenue, it was a residence and
shortly thereafter it was turned into a stare stop, Dunham'Tavern
was the oldest structure in the central city.
Duinham Tavern in 1842
It is also the oldest structure left standing on Euclid Avenue, Rufus
and Jane Pratt Dunham, of Mansfield, Massachussetts, were the original
owners. Tlhey purchased 13 and /4 acres of land facing the Euclid
road for $147.00 in 1825. There, a small log home was built that same
year. By 1832, Dunbam owned 140 acres that stretched northward from
Eniclid to Houg~h. He replaced his original logf home with a newer log
structure called Dunham Tavern. The tavern was well outside of Cleve-
land's city limits in the earlier days and that is why it became a
stame stop, In 1842, the structure now standing was erected. It is
a two story frame buildingS with stout hewn timbers, fastened togret-
her with wooden pins and ha~nd-w~rought spikes. A number of luxuries
were installed in the new structure a lead bathtub, a water tank
filled from an,outside cistern by a force pump, and bedrooms that
were connected to the office by a call system, consisting of wires
that tinkled bells. Here, travellers going by stage found lodgingi
before going on to Cleveland. Traorers stored their furs in the stone
smokehouse and drivers sleet in the barn when the Inn was filled,
In 1853, the tavern was deeded to Ben and John Welch for $6,000.00.
As sta~e travel was outmoted by the railroads, Dunham Tavern ceased
to serve the public and became a private home. It was purchased in
1886 by Dr. James A. Stephens, serving as his residence until his
death in 1930. I~ 1936 a group called Dunham Tavern, Inc. was organized
to preserve the famous Inn, In the early 1930's,.An. Donald Gray, a
landscane architect leased thee tavern for offices and throurgh- his
persistence influenced others to save it from destruction. Among
those interested were I.T. Frary, L.H. Norton, and Abram Garfield.
Today, the Tavern is operated as a museum depictinP the early life
of the settlers and is onen to the public.
Forms of the Greek Revival can be seen in the front entrance and
in the recessed. porch in the far wing. The house can~ not be cited as
a convincing example of the style, since it is morel vernacular in
its plain and simple design and ornamentation,
B, CRITTENDEN RESIDENCE 1833
Newton E. Crittenden moved to Cleveland in 1826 and opened the
first jewelry store in a small brick buildinF$ next to the Franklin
residence. His 9~500,00 stock of goods was obtained on credit and
he lived in the store, By the 1830's Crittenden was one of the richest
and leading merchants in Cleveland. He bought a site, on Public Square,
between Ontario street and Euclid avenue, for $6,000.00 and proceeded
to build the most ambitious home in Cleveland at that tine,
The a Crittende Residenc in 183
the itc ofthe Croof ndten rcessined doowa inict tebeini
of Greek Revival taste. This was a conservative building of a style
beinrr used in many parts of New England., In 1868 Crittenden moved
into a newer home further east on Euclid street. The house was de-
molished in 1888 to make way for the Society for Savings building
by Burnham and Root, still in existence today.
C. WINSLOW RESIDENCE 1832 1833
Hichard Winslow was a business man who camre to Cleveland in 1819.
In 1831, he opened a wholesale grocery store on Superior street and
w~ent on to 1ake a fortune in b~uildiinr lake vessels. He also 1-name
a. judge in the cit~y of Cleveland in 1836. The house it.;elf ?::s built
on Public Square, the southeast corner, in `1832 by Levi Johns-ion,
pioneer builder of the early days.
The Winslow Residence in 1832
The facade., is similar to that of the crittenden Riesidence, but the
details are Greeki Hevival, All the walls were smooth-finished anid
the roof wa~s flatened as to be completely hidden by a solid balus-
trate above the cornice, giving-? the facade a strong horizontal em-
phasis. The entablature is classical in proportions and the central
doorway is covered by a portico supported on Doric columns. The h-ouse
is neither traditional nor Greek Hevival, but a mixture of both.
It was destroyed in 1871 to make way for an ice-skatingf rink.
D. ERASTUS GAYLORD RESIDENCE 1836
Erastus Gaylord camle to Cleveland in 1833. He was a banker who,
in 1846 became president of the Canal Bank of Cleveland. The house,
however, was built on Euclid Avenue by Dr. David Long, who sold it
to Gaylord in 1845, Long came to Cleveland in the 1810's and became
the first physician in the city. He was twenty-three years old aba
he came from Hebron, New York. He was enrolled in th~ college of
Physicians and Surgeons in New York City. In the 1830's, he moved
into a stone house on Superior street which doubled as a notions and
dry Roods store. Amone other things he ran for city commissioner,
was appointed to the Board of Health in 1832, and was president of
the Cleveland Anti-slavery Society in 1834.
The Erastus Gaylord Residence in 1836
The Anson Smith Residence in 1846
The house was a characteristic Greek Revival residence of the
1830's. It was a stone house and had a two story central pavilion
and single story wings which was a popular arrangement in the Greek
Revival style. A large portico dominates the facade and a full en-
tablatunre encircled thF entire central Davillion. This home is an
early example of the monumental effects executed in durable materials,
which na~rked the beginnings of a highly prosperous period in the life
of the town.
E. THE THUMAN: P. HAND3Y HESIDENCE 1842
The beautiful Euclid Avenue home was a two story, brick mansion.
Orieinallv, the house wsas "'out in, the woods"; but, by 1872 it was
nestled in a deen lawn among other homes.
The Truman P. Handy Residence in 1842
The house was a Greek Revival. mansion dominated by a porti.co of rive
massive stone v~illars, A full entablature surrounds the house andl is
suirnounted by a. veryr low5 pitched roo0f, It wnas another example of the
"temple" form without lateral wings and raised on a higrh, stone base-
Trumlan P. Handy was a banker who made his fortune w9ith t7he Commer-
cial Baink of Lake Erie in 1832. He went on to become Dresident of the
State, Bank of Ohio in the late 1840's, the first president of the
Clearing House Agency in 1858, and one of the leadinff citizens of
Cleveland. He was also an incorporator of the Cleveland & Newburgh
Hailroad Comnany in 1834 and treasurer of the Cleveland, Columbus,
& Cincinnati Hailroad. Company, which beca7e part of the New York
Central System later on,
Handy sold the house to George B. Senter, who resided in it until
18;72, when it becane the Union Club Buildin%, one of the most im-
portant social organizations in the wrest. Senter sold the house for
$60,000.00. He made his fortune in various ways, and was involved
in politics, He served as mayor of Cleveland in. 1859 60.
F., TE~E AISONi SMITH RESID>EiCE 1846
(for photoeranh see "Erastus Gaylord Eesidence")
The Anson Smith house was two stories, built of brick and raised
on a low basement. The house was placed well back front the street
with a spacious yard on the sides. The dominant feature was a wooden
Doric portico of four monumental columns and a full entablatu~re
which enconnasses the entire house. The doorway beneath the portico
is also marked by pilasters abaj a full entablature. This was the first
example of the Temple form without the lateral wings in CleveLand.
No information on Anson snith was found.
The house adjacent to it in the nhotograph is the N.C. Baldwin
residence built in 18L47, Baldwhin joined Noble H. Nlerwin in the
connission business in the 1830's. He was also a m~ember of the firm
Giddinss, B'aldwin, and Company which owned the first regular steam-
ship lines on Lake Erie. In later years, Ealdwin turned to b~ankina
and real estate.
The house is atnoth~er example of the Greek R~evival style, this
tine with small, semi-circular one story pavillions on both sides.
The house has a large portico surmounted by a "ull entablature
around the whole house and a pedimented roof of low pitch.
'G. THE TH!OMAS BOLTON RE~SIDiCENCE 1846
During the 1840's, the Gothic style was introduced in cleveland.
The publications of D~owning, Willian Brown, and Edward Shaw popularize
the style and the practice of leading architects, Richard Upjohn
in particular, pave it authority. One of the earliest houses to
adopt the new fashion was the residence of tholas Bolton in 1846.
The Thomas Bolton Residence in 1846
It was a small cottao~e with lateral one story wings and~ a low spreadini
Rable in the Greek tradition, but the ornamental details were new.
The barene-board under t!?e vable roof was elaborately carved i~n a
series of slender arches resembling a decorative corbel table~, and.
the sinrrle window in the Rabl wJas a. Lancet under a pointed a-ch.
All1 three porches on the facad.e wuere decorated with Tudor archi'es in
wooded and crowned by crenellations, These fashio~nable Gothic details
had been added to a simple Greek Revival building in response to the
changcino_ fashions of the time. The sources ma~y have been DowninfT's
1842 edition the details of the porch closely resemble that of the
Thomas Bolton was one of the mrost successful lawyers in cleveland.
In 18?7, he formed a partnership with Moses Kelley, his Harvard class-
mate. Bolton cane to Cleveland in 1835, and both partners were prom -
Ment enough to serve as city councilmen and other official capacities.
He gained fame when in 18Lc1, he def~nde~d three runaway slaves who
The Thomas Bolton Residence in 1846
It was a small cottage with lateral one story wings and a l~ow spreading
gable in the Greek tradition, but the ornamental details were new.
The bar~e-board under the Rable roof was elaborately ca~ved iLn a
series of slender arches resembling a dcorative corbel table, and
the single window in the Rable wias a Lancet under a pointed arch.
All1 three porches on the facade were decoratedd with Tiudor arches in
wooded and crowned by crenellations, These fashzionable Gothic details
had been added to a simple Greek Revival building in response to the
chang~~in fashions of the time. The sources may have been Downrinp's
1842 edition the details of the porch closely resemble that of the
Thomas Bolton was one of the most successful lawyers in? cleveland.
In 18?7, he formed a partnership with Moses Kelley, his Harvard class-
mate, Bolton cane to Cleveland in 18j35, and both partners were prom -
n~ent enough to serve as city councilmen and other official capacities.
He g~aine-d famre when in 1841, he defended three runaway slaves who
were captured by their owners and brought to trial, against vicious
threats on his life and family, he secured their discharge. He was
also a prominent figure in the organizing of the Republican Farty
in Cleveland, and served as judge from 1856 to 1866. In 1851, he moved
to a. seventy acre farm~ on Euclid and East 71st, where he and his part-
ner built identical homes, He died in 1870, at the sre of 62 and his
partner, Moses Kelley passed on the following year.
H. THE H!ENEY B. PAYNE RESIDENCE 1849
Of the many Gothic Revival houses built during these years,
one of the finest and most completely documented was that; of Hienry
B. Payne. Unlike the Vernacular Bolton house, the mansion, on Euclid
and Perry Streets,. was a large, cut stone desiign in the miost fa-
shionable Gothic manner,.
Henry B. Payne Residence, 18O(9
The house lacks the picturesque silhoutte and irregular plan
often found in this style, but all the Gothic details are there:
the steep-pitched roof with carved barge boards, the wooden pin-
nacle and paired chimneys, the pointed window arches and the pro-
jectingf bays on brackets. It attracted the attention of "The
Daily Democrat" on March 10, 1849:
"Among the finest houses put up in this city for the
last few years, we think the house of H.B. Payne,Esq.,
on the corner of Euclid and Perry Streets, is the best.
Its outer proportions and appearance are admirable;
its style of architecture massive and enduring its
finish beautiful, and all interior arrangements, for
elegance, comfort, convenience and health, equal to
any residence we have ever seen. This house is well
worth looking at by those who intend to build fine
houses here this season; and there are a number.,..
Mr. CW, Heard is the architect of the house of Mr.
Henry B. Payne was a lawy~;er who came to Cleveland in the
1830's. He served in the City Commission and otherofficial ac-
tivities. In 1863, Henry Chisholm, Andros Stone, Jephtha H.
Wade and Payne incorporated the Cleveland Rolling Mill Com-
pany, later to be called American Steel and Wire Company. He
was president of the Citizens Savings and Loan Association;
founder of the Union Steel Screw Company in 1872 along with
the Stones and the Chisholms. Late in the 1880's the financier
became involved with the railroads, and in 1889 he built the
Perry-Payne building for $1,000,000,00. It was named after
himself and his wife's maiden name- daughter of Natchan Ferry
Jr. Payne died in 1896,.
I, THE HENRY B. GAYLORD RESIDENCE 1849
The Gothic style was of short duration in Cleveland anid
it was abandoned in the 1840's, its place taken by the forms
of the Italian manner. The style was considered at the time
to be peculiarly American; in fact, the style was often called
"Tuscan or American Style",
These houses were built of brick or stone in cubic forms,
flattened hioped roofs with eaves, and round-headed windows.
The style seems to have been developed by Richard Upjohin.
Downing also published some Tuscan designs in his 1853 edition.
Chronologically, the first fine residence in this style was
the Henry B. Gaylord house on Euclid Avenue.
The Henry B. Gaylord Residence, 1849
It was large, brick structure with stone and wood trim. The
main block was two stories high and surmounted by a flattened
hipped roof. The heavy cornice was supported by brackets grouped
in pairs, which gave a massive character to the design. The
single-story wing to the left of the block had a similar cor-
nice above solid columns and a recessed doorway behind an en-
tablature decorated with Classical Revival motiffs. It was an
expensive and well designed residence which was solidly cons-
In the 3iew of Euclid Avenue in 1860 shown at the intro-
duction of this section, we see the Gaylord house situated
fourth from the right. From the other houses we can see that
the cubic house with the overhanging eaves and the hippedl roof
was very popular at the time, Note also the characteristic fea-
ture of a curved moulding over the windows and doors, carried
on a small bracket, No information on the owners of the houses
Henryr B. Gaylord was a relative of Erastus Gaylord, famous
banker and merchant, Nao information other than this was found
pertaining to Henry B, Gaylord's businesses or life.
J. THE GEOHGE WORTHINGTON RESIDENCE 1852
Dne of the last and most elaborate of the residences in
the Greek Revival Style was the Worthington mansion at Euclid
Avenue and Forest St. (East ;37th).
The George wor~thington~esidence 1852
W1hen the house was built, it lay on a large lawn well beyond
the crowded center of the town at the outskirts of the residen-
tial district. It was the forerunnfer of a row of pretentious
houses which lined this part of Euclid Avenue in the 1860's
to the 1880's, Following its example, the residences were set
farther back from the street to take full advantage of the ridge
which lies North of Euclid, This area was fully developed by
1876 when it was described by Payne in his "Cleveland Illus-
"Other world-famous streets may have crrander architec-
ture for a short distance; single lawnms may be more
lavishly decorated with flowerbeds and. statuary; or
there may be other isolated beauties which surpass
anything this famous avenue can show, But no avenue
in the world can present to the delighted visitor
such a continuous succession of charming residences
and such uniformly beautiful grounds for so great a
distance. Each house has grounds mrore or less spa-
cious, stretching from the ridPge on which the house
stands down to the line of the street at some distance;
the turf of these lawns is almost invariably of vel-
vety softness and of a rich green, showingp watchful
care and liberal expenditure in its maintenance."
The Worthingfton house itself was of brick, built on a stone
basement. Both the main pavilion and the lower wings were orna-
mented by an elaborate Ionic order in wood surmounted by a
heavy balustrade. These were beautifully wrouPght and hand-
somely proportioned orders which vouched for the high quality
of taste and workmanship which had been attained by this time.
The plates of Asher Benjamin or Minard Lafever were available
as models for such a portico. One of the features of the late
Greek Revival house was the added height of the windows, which
reflected the higher ceilings of the interior. They indicate
the tendency towards greater interior spaciousness which was
to culminate in the residences of the next two decades.
George Worthington came to Cleveland in 1829. At this time
immigrants were arriving at the rate of 600 in a fortnight to
work on the canal. Worthington noticed how poorly equipped with
tools they were and saw his opportunity. He borrowed .1500 and~
purchased an assortment of implements in the East, shipping
his stock, The supply sold quickly, he doubled his money, and
bought more stock wi-th which he opened the first store of The
Geo. Worthington Company. In 1835, he bought out his competitor
and moved to the corner of Water Street. In 1849, worthington
formed the Cleveland Iron Company for the manufacturing of
cast and wrought iron. The bulk of the output from this com-
pany was sold through his retail stores, H~e died in 1871, but
his company continued a2nd today is one of cleveland's oldest
in Doint of continuous existence undijer its original naime.
K. THE JOSEPH PERKINS RESIDENCE 1851-1853
The Perkins house is the first fully developed Italian
Villa type, brought to Cleveland by Richard Upjohn in 185,..
The Joseph Perkins House 15-185
In~~~~~~~~~~~~;; th intepojcigpaiin idct afei
bl neio ptalarnemn hch wa h cifadat
immigrants were arriving at the rate of 600 in a fortnight to
work on the canal. Worthington noticed how poorly equipped with
tools they were and saw his opportunity. He borrowed .500 and
purchased an assortment of implements in the East, shipping
his stock, The supply sold quickly, he doubled his money, and
bought more stock wi-th which he opened the first store of The
Geo. Worthington Company. In 1835j, he bought out his competitor
and moved to the corner of Water Street. In 1849, Wborthington-
formed the Cleveland Iron Company for the manufacturing of
cast and wrought iron. The bulk of the output from this com-
pany was sold through his retail stores. H3e died in 1871, but
his company continued a2nd today is one of cleveland's oldest
in point of continuous existence und'ler its origfinal name.
K. THE JOSEPH PERKINS RESIDENCE 1851-1853
The Perkins house is the first fully developed Italia~n
Villa type, brought to Cleveland by Richard Upjohn, in 185,..
The Joseph Perkins House 1851-1853
In the design, the projecting pavilions indicate a flexi-
ble interior spatial arrangement which was the chief advantage
of this style. Also, by reason of its simple cubic forms, va-
riety was possible without the structural difficulties of the
Gothic style and at a much cheaper cost. The house is entirely
built of stone and sits on an elevated basement. It has the
characteristic overhanging eaves supported by brackets, and
a teardrop canopy made of metal over a low, first story bal-
cony. It has an open porch on two sides of the house and a
recessed doorway behind a simple entrance arch,
Having settled the vast estate of his father, Joseph Per-
kins came to Cleveland in 1852 at, the age of 33, He .immediately
occupied the house which was being built for him. He became
prominent in banking and business. In 1867, he developed a
reform plan, by which prisoners were classified and no longer
were thrown together in cells by lot. He also reformed the
infirmary system! of the State of Ohio. He became president of
The Bank of Commerce in the 1860's and died in 1885,.
L. THE JACOB PERKINS RESIDENCE 1853
This design was built adjacent to the Joseph Perkins house
when the "Tuscan Style" was quickly adopted by the local de-
The Jacob Perkins Residence, 1853
sig~ners. It is a slightly more elaborate house with a flat
roof supported by the characteristic brackets. The "freedom"
of the interior spaces can be seen by the varying heights and
shapes of the cubes. The central "tourette" incorporates a
stair and note the stone balcony with the teardrop hood made
of metal. The balcony helps emphasize the entranceway inside
a simple porch. The very wide, overhanging eaves were a much
favored detail at the time. The house sat on a raised stone
basement and was constructed of bricks with stone and wood
Jacob Perkins was the brother of Josep~h Perkins, He w~as
the president of the Cleveland and Mahoning Valley Railroad
Company, which later became the Erie Hailroad. The company
seemed impossible to finance at first, so Perkins invested
$160,000,00 of his inheritance in the venture. In 1857 the
railroad was open to the Mahoning Valley coal fields, which
dealt a mighty financial blow~ to the canal commerce, Just
before he died, Perkins remarked in jest, "If I die you may
inscribe on my tombstone,'Died of the Mahoning Valley Rail-
roads," He died at an early age in 1859.
M. CHANGES IN EUCLID AVENUE 1830-1853
Wherever the residential areas expanded to, the churches
and schools followed, In the 1830js, the logical choice for
a church was Public Square. In the 1850's Euclid and Superior
Streets were chosen as the residences moved East. Among the
important churches erected at the time were the original Old
Stone Church in 1832; st. Mary's Church, the first Roman- Ca-
tholic Church in Cleveland, in 1838; and the most sophistica-
ted Gothic designs among Cleveland's Churches, St. Paul's
Church at the corner of Sheriff and. Euclid Streets. The struc-
ture was designed by Heard and Porter and was built in 1848.
St. Paul's Church, 1848-1858
The beautiful structure was not completed until 1858 due
to a disastrous fire that occurred during its construction. In
exterior anpearance, St, Paul's is dependent on Richard Up-
john's desiFgn for Tr~inity Church in New York. The Church
was razed in 1876 to build a four-story music shop called.
Brainard's. It was one of the first commercial structures to
invade the famous avenue.
The canal days made other changes on Euclid Street. The
first paying of any kind came in 1834, It was planiked from
Public Square to Erie St. when Euclid was declared a state
road, A horse-pulled railway on wooden rails existed on the
street in the 1830's; but the project resulted in failure
after seven years. By the 1840's, the street was in awful con-
ditions, Normally, the streets were maintained by such labor
as the citizens provided, which usually was not very much.
By the 1850's,. residences lined Euclid Street and not a
single shop or store was there to be found, Street and side-
walk improvements finally came about during this decade. In
1859, "Lake Euclid" was drtined and naved with gravel. This
was the name given to the intersection of Euclid and Erie
Streets which was always muddy and rotted, A more common
name was the "frog pond", The gravel paying successfully re-
placed the wood block paying from Public Square to Erie St,
It was not until the start of the Industrial Period that
such commodities as sewers,stre~et draining, was licgchting and
garbage collecting appeared on Euclid, Omnibus services star-
ted at the same time, but were diverted off Euclid into
Prospect by the outraged citizens of upper Euclid.
As the Street gained favor and reputation as a fine re-
sidential area, the real estate value ;jumped to new highiis.
In the 1830!s, Euclid frontage property was selling at $2,00
per foot near the center of town. By the next decade, the
value had jumped to about $46,00 per foot-front, By the be-
ginnins of the Industrial Period, the value was up to an
incredible $500,00 per foot-front. An example of this was a
lot purchased by Joseph E, Sheffield in 18360, The lot was
east of 13th street aind-hadl a 100 foot frontage on Euclid
Avenue. The depth of the lot was 600 feet and the price was
an enormous $24,000.00- quite a sum to pay prior to the Civil
Yet, even at such hish prices, the street was filled with
homes. As far a~s W~illson Avenue, Euclid was "Prosperity Street"l
U,.S.A. Beyond Sheriff were the residences of Judge Cowles,
Truman P. Handy, Henry Chisholm, Henry Gaylord, M~artin Scott,
and Lemuel CrawFord, Beyond Erie Street, wealthy Clevelanders
had begun to build stately mansions in deep, spacious lawns.
The words of the editor of the "Zanesville Times" stated
it well. In a reprint in the "Cleveland Herald" on May 27,
1868, he said,
"The fine architectural taste of the mansions which
wealth has spared no pains in perfecting, the exten-
sive grounds, the velvet green lawns, rare flowers
and plants, the fountains that adorn each residen~e,
many of them costing their owners $100,000,00 before
completion, are alone worth a trip to the lake to see,"
We shall look at many of these mansions in the n;ext sectfon.,
At the end of the canal days one thing was certain, an~d that
was that the Golden Age of Euclid Street had begun.
View of Euclid Avenue c. 1860
V. THE INDUSTRIAL CITY 1854-1900
After the turn of the century, Cleveland entered a second period
of ranid expansion and change. The impetus for that growth was provided
by inrtustryv and. the railroads. A new wave of innisration was fostered
and the city limits were extended. The most important single event of
this time was the extension to Cleveland of the railroads. By 1861,
the city led the nation in miles of railroads in active service. The
railroads increased the passenFger and freight traffic to Cleveland
mnpn-fold in the next decades. Transportation by water remained im-
portant and played a vital role in the expansion of industry.
As a terminus for both forms of transportration, cleveland attracted.,
new industries which descended on the abundance of raw materials. At
the head of this list was the Drocessina of iron-ore and the manufac-
ture of iron and steel, As early as 1834-, the first cast and wrought
iron manufacutring plant was established. By 18rc6 the number had in-
creasedl to 6, and. by thei 18801s inumemrable steel and iron Plants ex-
isted in the city, By 1890, the frontiers of industrial Cleveland
could be defined as the area between East 105th street and West 65th,
nre-empting the entire lake frontag~e.
When the capacity of the center of town to acco7adate industry
wI~as reached, the subulrban areas were invaded. Wholesale firms and
warehouses followed in the wake of manufacturing.
The interest, and activity caused by the development of industry
and transportation brought an upswing in the population. By 1860, the
population was close to 60,000 and in 1870 it stood at almost 93,000.
By the turn of the century, Cleveland had an incredible total of 381,786
inhabitants; an increase of more than fou~r times in 30 years. As the
Donulation increased, new streets and areas were added to the city to
keen up with thp demands.
The introduction of the railroads and the heavy industry on one
hand and the expansion of the retail districts on the other,,adversly
affected the livability of the town. The disintegration of the better
streets, such as Euclid Avenue, was slower. Even so, in the face of
the forces of industrialization i.ts fine character was difficult to
maintain. The first blow to the street was the DlacinP of the Cleveland
& Pittsburgh Line, crossing Wilson avenue at Euclid. The seeds of de-
cay were planted as soon as the railroad arrived. By the end of the
century its best days were over and today it is exclusively a commer-
The civic problems attendant upon this development mounted pro-
Dortionately. Extension of the town a~nd the increase in traffic made
better surfacing of the streets imperative. Wood planking was no longer
adequate. The Nicholson naving tended to buckle from the effects of
frost. By 1871, coal, tar on stone foundations were tried and in the
next years macadanlized Davenent was first used. In 1872, the first
steam roller greatly facilitated the lavinP: of such surfaces. The ex-
Densive pavements were extended slowly, however, and until 1880 only
the streets in the center of the town were paved, while the residential
streets had. to be content with loose F-ravelled roads. In 1884, the
first electric street railroad anneared. Finally, towards the turn of
the centunry, the internal combustion engine and the automobile made
a revolutionary chance in transportation and in the search for better
With congestion in the city, came other problems: refuse disposal,
surface water drainage, and water supply. The first problem was effec-
tivelv solved by 1865 with the addition of 23,116 feet of sewer pipes.
Thereafter efforts were redoubled to Drovide a coordinated system, The
second nroblem was harder to solve. Garbage collection in the 18601s
was done by a private contract basis, Collection by the city failed
until regularized an2d aided by a disposal plant at the end of the cen-
tury. Water supnls was efficiently eased by a new intake system, pumps,
and. a larger engine house built in 1876.
The twin nuisances of water and air pollution were first getting
out of hand in the early 1870's, By the 1880's, they had reached the
proportions of a blight,at the center' of the town which spread with
the extension of the railroads and manufacturing. In 1881, the health
department lodrged formal protests against industrial waste disposal
D3ratices, burt these were disregarded, The problem had not been correctsd
by the turn of the century.
The architecture of Cleveland after 18n54 was an integral part of
the development of the city. The expansion of iron and steel provided
builders with new tools and materials. More efficient plumbinc and
heating systems were developed along with household couipment for
washine: and cleaninrr. The professionn" was also chan~ing. Though the
"naster-builder" such as C.W. Heard still held. firmly to his position,
there were now an increasinep number of professionally trained archi-
Stylistic changes accompanied these innovations. Provincialism
and. the Vernacular style began to disappear as early as 18340. Th~e rail-
road tied the mlidwest to thie architectural trnnd of the east. The car-
nenter's manual a7ndl other design books became less important as a
source for designs. B~y the 1860's, the formal art was to be dominated
by the Mansard roof and the "French" style. It was a style of high
ceilings and large windows. Wall thickness was increased sometimes to
as much as 24 inches. In the late 1870's the Victorian style invaded,
the city. Towards the close of the century, the strong Homanesque of
Richard~son was felt, along with the Shinsle style and the Pillared
Mansion style originated in Newport. An important architect in the
city at the end of the period was Charles F. Schweinfurth, who designed
many of the mansions of Euclid Avenue just before the turn of the cen-
VI. THE HOUSES OF EUCLID AVENUE 1854 1900
A. THE H.B. HURLBUET RESIDENCE 18j5
The overall form of the Italian Villa style was still used
during the late 1850's, but significant changes were made in
its details. In 1855, Heard and Porter erected this 413,000.00
mansion for H.B. Hurlburt on Euclid Street.
The H. B. Hurlburt Residence, 1855
The house retained the square block form of the Italian
manner with its characteristic projections and a central cu-
lnola. To this familiar style, however, have now been added
a textured surface of colored brick and elaborate metalorna-
ments at the various roof lines, The result is a nore ornate
effect than the simple forms of the original style permitted.;
a clear indication of a change in taste. Such designs as this
one were often given the name of "Oriental Villa Style" at the
time. Several designs of this type are to be found in the pu-
blications of Samuel Sloan in this same period. In 1910,
Anthony Carlyn bought the Hurlburt house and tore it down to
build himself a "pillared mansion". No information on the new
structure was found in any of the sources, so the new resi-
dence was probably never carried out,.
Hinman B. Hurlburt was a banker, art patron and philan-
thropist. The Hurlburt house lawnz was once decorated with bronze
dogs, which gives one an idea of Hurlburt's eccentric tastes.
At the time of his death in 1884, Mr. Hurlburt left a sun of
money for a museum to be built in Cleveland, Finally, in 1916,
when the Cleveland Museum of Art was formally dedicated, his
dreams were realized. The Hinman B. Hurlburt Trust became an
endowment fund for the new museum.
B. TH'E AMASSA STONE HESIDENCE 1858
Railroads and bridges were paramount in the life of Amassa
Stone. In his early days he was involved in the Newburgh B01-
ling Mill, which by 1861 was producing 50 tons of rairoad iron
a day. In 1872, the same owners founded the Steel Screw Com-
pazny, making the only wood screws from Bessemer Steel in the
country, Before he came to this country, Amassa Stone and his
brother-in-law William Howe, perfected the Howe Truss Bridge.
They erected hundreds of bridges, among them the first Pivot
Drawbridges of long span in the world. By the late 18501s,
bridges were being erected out of steel or iron and the Howe
Truss principle w~as not the best. still, Amassa stone h!eldl out;
for a 150-foot bridge erected on the Howe Truss principle to
be built across the Ashtabula Gorge. On the evening of Decem-
ber 29, 1876, the bridges main arch gave way causing a train to
plunge into the Gorge. Stone's health failed when he learned
of the Ashtabula Disaster, which supposedly hastened his un-
timely death in 1883..
Although the same overall arrangement of the Hurlburt house
is used in the Amassa Stone residence, the exterior effect of
this buildinrr is quite different. The architect, not known,
has succeeded in obliterating the simple shapes of the Italian
villa by his elaborate handling of the forms and surfers.
The Amassa Stone Hesidence, 1858
The facade of the house is divided into bold projecting
bays flanking the porch and covered balcony. The plain wall
surfaces have disappeared in the heavy window enframement an~d
the recessed niches at each floor level. The brackets sunpuorting
the widely projecting eaves have been doubled in size, and? the
silhouette of the building is complicated by heavy stone orna-
ments in the shape of vases. Within the limits of the Italian
form this is about as far as the architect could go toward or-
nate and massive design. The description of the house by the
"Cleveland Leader" on January 28, 1858 adds pertinent informa-
tion on this famous residence:
"The most prominent among the costly residences which
have made our city, particularly Euclid St., so famous
is that of Amassa stone, Jr. The exterior is a massive
structure, with over 700,000 brick being used.
The style of its architecture is regarded as an
American style. The main building is 50 xC 60 feet,
with two projections, one on each side. The height
of its stories is 15 and 13 fset respectively, The
wing of the building is 27 by 47 feet. The entire
partitions and walls are of brick, The exterior walls
are 23 inches in thickness, with a hollow space of
eight inches to protect the interior of the building
fron the constant changes of the atmosphere.
The ceilings of the parlor an~d library are of
recess, panel, and cornice work, and have a most hand-
some effect. The staircase in the hall is finished in
mahogany. The newel posts, balusters, andi railing,
and the doors of the parlor, reception room, and li-
brary are finished of rose wood; those of the other
apartments are of oak. From the hall door is the view
of the second hall floor, by means of an oval opening
in the ceiling. The roofs are of tin and thoroughly
painted. The furnace is fireproof, being solidly en-
cased in brick and stone work, designed to convey, by
means of requisite pipes, heated air over the entire
Attached to the furnace is a capacious boiler for
beating water. A supply of hot and cold water is
found in nearly every apartment. The portion of the
floor covering the furnace is of English encaustic
tiling. The entire basement is constructed of stone
and brick,. In the rear of the basement is the wing
basement which is fitted up as a model laundry and
fuel room. It is the finest, the most complete and
convenient residence west of Hudson."
To be noted in this contemporary description are the mas-
sively thick and insulated walls and the height and flexibility
of the roomS. Very few houses in town could equal the luxury of
this expensive mansion, but it is interesting to see what the
latest technical improvements could produce at this time when
the opportunity was presented.
C. THE H. W. KITCHENS RESIDENCE 1860
A much more conservative style of house was built on Euiclid
Avenue in the next years and later occupied by Dr. H. W. Pitchers.,
The H. W. Kitchens Residence, 1860
It is characteristic of a large number of the hou~ses
d'7ting; from the 1860"s. One of it's diisting~uishingg features
is the addition of a half story under-the eaves which was
lighted by narrow horizontal windows within th~e architra~e.
The roof was made of tin and the house itself is made of
double brick walls over a sone basement.
Dr. H.W. kitchen was a Drominent physician in Cleveland
in theyear 1873. He was instrumental in developing a method
of recording the vital statistics of the city. No other infor-
mation was found regarding him.
D. THE JOHN D. HOCKEFELLER RESIDENCE 1868
The Rockefeller house is among the earliest Mansard Yoof
desian~s in the city. The roof allowed an entire additionally
story. It had most of the features of the Kitchen's House,
but each floor was higher than in the older building.
The John D. Rockefeller House, 1368
It is not ?ret a fully formed "French" Style which will
emerge in the 1F703s. When Rockefeller purchased the property
at the soulthwelFst corner of Euclid7 and Case, there were another
two ho~ses alreliv in existence on his plot. He ord~ered. One o~f
the houises torn dlowsn and theL other wats jacked un an:- noved to
Prospect and Case where it became a school. It was the first
attend to move a brick residence in Cleveland,
The Rockefeller mansion was a plain brick structure
relieved by arched windows and sat on a low stone basement.
It had a stone stable and carriage house which, ironically;
survived the house which was razed in the 1930's to make way
for a qRs station and narki.ns lot. The architrave treatment and
the brackets are very similar to the Kitchens Residence.
The walls were twenty-four inches thick and the interior parti-
tions were also of brick. Many types of fine woods were said
to have been used for the interior trims and finishes. All
exterior trim was of stone. The windows were very high and
narrow and the ceiling heights were fou~rteeni feet a2nd twelve
f et, resnectivelyi. High Victorian in detail, the house is
essentially a Tusca~n Villa with a Mansard roof on it.
John D. Rockefeller was born at Richford, New York, July 8,
1839, the son of thrifty and resourceful william A. Rockefeller,.
As a lad, young John D. learned the value of work, the wisdom of
saving money, and the importance of practical trading. The
family moved to cleveland in 1853, and he entered the High School
l,7ter calledC Central. At the age of fifteen, he became a member
of the Erie Street Baptist Church(later Euclid Avenue Baptist
Church), thuas formring a~n association that became deen-rooted
and claimed his earnest support. Young Rockefeller financed
a commercial course at E. G. Folsom's Commercial College (later
Snencerian School) in the House Block. Having graduated in
Aucust, 1855, he searched until laite fall for a. job, when Hewitt
a.nd Tuttle?, commission mecrchants, hireii him on trial as a zookeeper.
On the last day of Decenber he w~as rewarded w~ith the nricely
sum1 of fifty dollars for services to date, His business ex-
Derience, although difficult and ill-1-aying, was of ine~stimable
value to the yvoune ma7n who quickly demonstrated his a-bility and
learned to deal skillfully wsith ren. At the aReC of nineteen,
his father ordered him to build a house, John D. drew the plans,
fou~nd the materials and a builder, and the red- brick structure
on Chesire Street was the family house for nany years. The
Titusville oil rush in 1859 captured Rockefeller's interest, and
he turned. from7 the commission business to oi~l refininvg. Thi-rough
efficient manaqgement, wise investments, and careful se-~nding-s, he
and his associates eyr~ually bought upo struegling comnetitors
andl stabilized the business. In 1870 the crreaniza~ti:n a7d
his nolicy of strict econnny proved i~mmnsely profitable, and
soon the comnary was not only providing eP~loyment for thousands
of workerss, bu.t Cleveland had become the capital of petroleum;
Drodulcti -n. On, May 23, 1937, he di~ed at his lwinterY home~ "Thre
Casen~ents"', Ormond. Beach, Florida. His remains we~re brouabt to
Cleve~lean~d, Mlay 2,7, for quiet burial be~side his wi!fe andi his
another, Eliza Davison Rockefeller, in Lake Viewr Cenetery
E, .THE JEPHTHA H. WADE RESIDENCE 1870
The house, al Ite version of the Tuscan Villa Style, was
built on Euclid Aven~ue at Fortieth 'Street. A highli wrough-t- iron
fence e~ncloserd theF m.:nsion made of stone and tlatt of hisr sanlr'
Hlandall F:1joi0n5-v e hom'e.
The ephte H -Wae Huse,187
The ornate Rae villars rentedly cost athosn olr ah
Widely ~ ~ 2 seael ntespcosgonswrecta o h
coachmen -7nd Egardener. They remained lone after the Wade House
wass ra7.e~d. The house has the late Tuscan Style's overhancring:
eaves on borackrets and the elaborate architrave treatnent.;
The w~ind~ows however are not su~rmTounltedj by arches an-d thie Lentrancez
poorti~co is oeiven an. extra quality of magnificance~ by ai double stair,
The brackets a~re extremely lar~e and thes roof is flait and3 maRde of
ti~n. Thp cunola is not, overly ornate as in thet Sto~ne house, b!ut
it's presence ind~iica~tes the "Oriental Villa" influence. The
interiors Iweret all nanelled w~ith w~ood andC~ finelyCi c-:rv~ed colrnices
framedc the ceiline~rs. In 1P70, Wade entertained Prpsideitt
Ulysses S. Grant in this hoUse and presented him ~ithl flowie~rs :-nd
choice cgranes from his famous g~arden.
Jephtha Wsde began as a nortra~it painter a~t first, but sooni
tu~rndci into a businessman a~nd ind~stria~l magna-t~e becomingi one of
Clevelandis most influential nen. He became interested in the horse
teleqr~ah in the 1840's and undertook to build a line from
Detroit to Jackson, M'ichian. He installed and ina~~ueuatedi the
first telegaranhic service in that region. He went on to be
president of the Bacnk of Commerce after Parker Handy, Josenh
Perkins, Amasa Stonce and Sylvester T. Everett, all of w.:hom had
houses on Eucli~. Avenue, H-e w~as also instrumental in the
founding of the Cleveland Holling Mill Comrany on November 97, 1863,
alonp7 with Henry Chisholm, the Stones and H.B. Payne which
Droduced the first B~essemner Steel in the country. He was also
involved with the Clevelaniland Newburg~h Railroad Company andl
wave the city of Cleveland Wade Park and the New Zoo in 1890,
the same year he died.
F. THE H.C. FORD RESIDEIICE 1874
The H.C. Ford House was possibly erected by one of the fol-
lowing individuals Horatio C. Ford or H. Clark Ford. It was
probably the latter of the tw~ojwh-o was an important bulsinessman
in Cleveland. In 1885, he built a rour stor-t commercial bulildingr
on Euclird and Public Squa~re and in 1895, he erected a skyscra--
Der on the same site. He went on to become the Dresident of
the 'illiat-son Conn3anyl in 1897 and a trustee of theP Clevel~and
Trust Compa~nY in 1894. Neither of the twho Fords Was annra'~-ntlyr
related. to Henzry Ford. H. Clark Ford was a resi~dent of Cleveland~
The Ford.HIouse was p~robrably one of the earliest pulre "Frec'1'h"
designs in Cleveland.
The H.C. Ford House, 187lC
Here thte vertical shanes of the windows and porch openings,
the h~ish tower and theit Mansand roof point to the Victorian
ilesisns tha.t weIFr" to come. The sir:nle surrf-ces of theic ea lier
de~simr n s ave wayT to t~he rllstica~tionl and quoins found in th!e Ford
House, It was constructed~ entirelyr of stonegas w~oo~ annd briPck
were less fa.vored :s theF~ nerriod ad~vanced. The -windows a~re
su~r'lountedC byr arches andi thle roof still has extrslplyr projecting
eaves sunnortedi by brscket.. Tile double?-sta~ir entrance of the
Wade: Hou~se, is reneatedi andC the towler to t:?e left Inri the lajrve stable
a~nd coach house on tho riciht eives us a smlall ind~icattion of the
vestness and layout of most residences at the tim~e.
G. R.K. WdIN\SLOWr HOUSE 1878
The W~inslow House is the most; outstandinga exa ml~e of Hieh
Victorian that existed in Cleveland.
240 /C l) VNU
R. K. Winslow House, 1878
It was on a. snacious lot at Euclid sand Tw1entyi-Fourth~l
Street a~nd wats entirely built of stone,the upper stories being
ru!Stica~tei a~nd car~ryingl the characteristic quaiOns in the corners.
Note the use of the Gothic Style for the window details and the
da~rniers on the Man7sardr roof. The roof w-as constructed of tin
and is su3rmountedd byV ialustrarle of wroucrht iron. By this time,
the enves are no longer surnorted by brackets nor is the curious
architrave foundri The house is a cuirious rnixture of the
Victorian Three floor -nlan nd1? Gothic detailine_. The extension
on the left is a carrimee noritco where a side entrance was
n~rovided for n~oor weatherr conditions. The house wa.s torn drJown in
1937 to build a twenty-one s o y bu~ildinq for Fenn College.
The corner of Twlentyr-fourth and Euclid wais rewarded acs the -?ost
beau~tifu~l in the townm with the Winslow House in the north east
corner, the Devereux Houise west of the Samuel Mather Home, and
to the! east the L.C. Hannsiiouse, The Hickox House andi The Chir;hiolm
Rufus K. Winslow was an innortant businessman who was a
member of thep Clevela-nd~ Chamnber of CommeFrce~ Ind ownmer of the
Plazin Dea2l-r Pu;blishin-? Connany. He was also one of the founders
of the C~leveland 7iuseum.n of Na~tural History.
H. H AULADRW EIEC 1879-1882
The n-alatisl Homanesauei Anlirnrs Hom~e was brepgun in; 1879
a7n? it reauzired. th-rpe ?ears ~o Ferect the~ rnsion on Eurclid andl
East Thirtieth S'treet.,
Trhe S;auel Andrews Residen3?ce, 187?9-1882
Thet interior was all of nanel woodwasrk and waJ~s lavishily
dciCoratedC and?; furnish.4 d. Th!is chtra~cti-rizedi this -oeri~od of
Eucl~id Ave~nue., Shortlyr after its comnvetio~n, the owner found tha-t
it waJs toor la-rre for orac~tical ulse: andt too costl-r tor imaintac7in-
hence the nam~e of "Andrews Folly" w~as given to the estate. A
hundreds? servant~s w~ere renulliredi to take? careF of thelF house.ljF It was
closed for the 9reat-r nart of a7 auarter century; thnen the furniture
wa~s old a3ndJ the landnrerk wass tore dlown in 1923.
The house is desienpd in the Richardsonian~ Honanesque so
nonular in, the 170~r's. The architect is not kn1own a~s no so:rces
named hin., The walls of the massive? mansion were entirely built of
stone and covered ;aith ivy. It sat oneat rusticated stonie basement.
In the fall1 of 1862, Sanuel Anzdrewi~s formed an oil refiniina-
buxsi-ness knwn!r as A~nd? ~ws, Clark andrr Cornany. The C1lark brrother~s,
Mlaurice B., JameIs H.,, anri Rihchard E. renresorted theF "Cla~rk"
in th-~ c3nnany nlalF ,ndJ John D. Riockefeller ren~7-resen;ted~ the
"'Connan~v". Latn r, in 1865, Rockefe~ller brou.~ht out the Clark
Brothers' inrterrest andr w~ith Andjrews snt, on7 ti".r fiyrm of Boo0ke~feller
andf Andirews. They onerl-t~ed an oil refinePry, on the bankl of"
Ki~no^!e~ uRyun, synd their office wa~cc~s in? the Sext~on BurildJiri e at the.
foot of 'uner ror S;tre-t. Henryi E.: Flaclrc7-r are ilrto thl~e firm in
18367. On J~.Yanuryr 10. 1870, the sam~e th2rne men1, RloneVr w.iith
Stenohen V. Harkness Rnd. Willian Rockeifeller inlcornerated:l1~( tlle
.Stalnda~rd Oil C~onnarrny ulnd~r Ohio\ lawr~s. ~the connany's initial
canitsl ?imouint. ua to oYne rllion ilollars.
I. THE SYL.ViESTEH~ T. EVER T-LT HOU(SEI 1883
Svlvester T. Everett commissioned Cherles ". Schweinfurth,
notedl 7rch~itFat, to de~sien for his brid~e, the for7?er Alice Louisa
Wadel, rrranadal.utghter of Jenth H. wdaie, a brown-stone manilsion at
the no~rthoSt corner of Euclidl and Caise~ Avenues, Wdhpn comnnletedi
in 1883, it Iwas the costliest home erected in. Cleveland. Its
Romanesous architecture reflected the cos;7onolitan nersonality
of Colonel Everett, ra~ilroadrl maLn~ate fin--n~cier and~c Heniublican
leadern, wh~o entprtai~ned dijstin-guish-a visitors from many foreign
nations a~s we~-ll as Pr~sfidents Gra~nt, Hayies, M~cKinle~y anrd Taft,, and
catntsainY s of ininjlstry a~nd finance, such as And~rew: Cairnerie andlr J.
The Sylvester T. Everett House Fron~t Facade
The Sylvester T. Eve~rett Houzse side view
A grand staircase swent upn through the magnificent structure,
Pa.st exqulisitF, sta~inedi-glatss windowsS anci elesment fulrn1ishines.S
On the hostess balcony, d~olniminatin the top flight, Mirs. Everet-t
ereeted her Puests as they entered the elaborate, third-floor
ba.ll~room. The M~oorish roomn, lined with sandalwood: featurred a
beaurti~fully cr-rved wi~shii~n well and fountain.
Hostess Balceny Everett House
Enramed? when an an-artmeFnt hotel called Del Preado w--as
erected. on theF line of his front lawnm, Everett rout ul- a- suite
fence in retaliaition. In the fall. of 1938, the nalat~ial residence,
one of the lasst of Cle~velandi's million dollar homITes, w~as torn d3own.,
As a. Ind~ of tw~elve~, in 18n50, :;vlvester T. E~verett hadr come~
to Cleveland from7 his father's farm in TrumbSull County to live with
his brdth~er, Dr. Henry Evere~t~t His ba~nking career beearn as mess-
enreer boy an-d collection clerk in 1851 with the house of
Brockway, Mason, Everett and Company. In 1864, he became
superintendent of a f~ennsyvlvannia oil produicing concern, continuing
for fou~r veners, when he returned. to Cleveland as manager of the
basnkinD house of Everett, Weddlell and? Conna~ny. Aside from his
executive connections with leading Cleveland banks,and as an
orcfanizsr of the Union NuatiLonal Brank, he hadi masny and va-ried~
interests in thLle Clevelanci RollinP Mill Comna~nv a~nd as nromiotor
of street railw~ayrs a~nd railroads. He finsanced. the first successful
electric street railw~ay in the couintryr in Akron, and. crJenized
the Erie, Pennsyrlvania., Eilectric M~otor Connany. Eveprett had
mininel intnerests in North Carolina, Visconsin, nd Diichigsan, and
m~ini~ns andC ranch nronFertiss in Colorad.o. From 1869 to> 1883, he
served as citp trea~surerl sunnortsd by both nolitical narties,
Yet he, waJs ai staunich Renublican, and a narty~ lead nr in state ani,
J. THE CHARLES F, B3RUSH RESIDENCE 1884
The Brush residence was a massive rusticated stone mansion
on Euclid Avenue and 37th Street.
The Charle F, Brush Hesidence, 1884
The gable end, with its chimneys connected by a parapet
recalls the early WJestern Reserve brick architecture. No other
residences had attempted to capture some of the spirit of the
earlier Ohio architecture until this design. There is no true
"style" found in this house, but instead we find elements of
many of the styles that flourished earlier including a classical.
order in the entrance porch, the rutstication of the Romainesque,
and the free plan design of the Tuscan villas, Unique elements
such as the large rusticated bases on the columns in the entrance
porch and the small lantern cupola found in the rear of the house
pertain to no architectural style of those days, Unfortu~nately,
the architect of the Brush residence is unknown to me, as no
source mentioned him. At the back of the house, Brush built an~
extremely large windmill that was used to power his laboratory
experiments. The house was torn down in the earl 1930's,
Charles Francis Brush was born in Euclid townYshin on Mlarch
17, 184C9. He was educated in the public schools of Cleveland
and at the University of Nichigan from which he graduated in
1869 with the degree of mining; engineer. He began the study of
electricity from a practical stanavoint in 1873, invented a
dynamo, and then devoted himself to the development of electrical
lighting. In 1878 he made the arc lamp practical, the first pu-
blic demonstration given on April 29, 1879 over Cleveland's
Public Square, Even more important, however, was his development
of the central power station, which made possible the distri-
bution of light and power. For his outstanding work in science,
he became a Chevalier of the French Legion of Honor, and won
the Rumford Medal and the Franklin Medal. Brush died June 15,
K, WILLIAM CHISHOLM RESIDENCE 1887
The Chisholm house is another exanole of Schweinfurth's
Richardsonian manner but in a smaller and less elaborate mode
than the Everett mansion. Situated on Euclid Avenue and 28th
Street, the mansion sits on an elevated,basement made of rus-
ticated browjnstone as is the rest of~the house.
The William Chiisholm House, 1887
The large, arched entrance was a favorite motiff of the
architect's, as was the design element of grouping small win-
dows divided by colonettes and surround the whole with a sculp-
tured band, He uses this notiff on the front gable window of the
Chisholm house and on side elevation near the rear tower on the
Everett mansion. The varying tower and gable heights an~d the
different projections reveal a very open floor plan, well de-
signed to suit the needs of the client. In 1910, Dr. William
T. Corlett bought the house and. built to the West a. stone of-
fice, which he joined to the house by a glass-covered pa~ssge-
way which was heated to house his Brazilian Orchids. The origi-
nal house when built in the 1880's cost $125,000,00. Among its
interior features was an antique chandelier from India wood
panelled walls, and carved wood ceilings and cornices. The re-
sidence was serving as a studio-apartment in the 1940's.
William Chisholm was a financier involved with the Cleve-
land Rolling M~ill Conpany and the Newburgh Mill Company. By
1875, Chisholm's investments in the iron industry ammounted to
$10,000,000,00, In 1887, Chisholm, Wade and Wallace originated the
Cleveland Shipbuilding Company, forerunner of the American Ship-
building Company, In 1897, the conpan~y built the largest dry
docks in the state of Ohio.
L, THE HARRY K. DEVEREUX RESIDENCE 1890
The Devereux residence was built for Julius' E, French in
1890 and designed by Cleveland's favorite- Charles Schweinfurth.
Here, his Hichardsonian manner is again apparent in the rock-
faced ashlar, the massive roofs, the large entrance a.rch- for
the coaches and the windows, The front dormer has Goth.kic indi-
cations, but in it Schweinfurth repeats his ~colon~naded window
treatment only without the sculptured banrd. Instead~, he places
the windows in a, simple, undeccorated arch. The d~esign~ is very
refined in its window placement and in the accentuating of the
interior levels in the exterior. Note the similarity between
the treatment of the walkway from the port-cochere to the entrance
in this house and the Everett Residence.
The Devereux Hesincence,1690
Harry K. Devereux was the son of General JH, Devereux
from whom he inhereted a large sun of noney when the latter
died in 1890. The elder Devereux made his fortune as the milita.
ry railroad superintendent of the Union during? the Civil War.
Later, he became superintendent of the Cleveland and Pittsburgh
railroad in 1869 and at the same time, was elected president
of the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railroad. In 1876, he
became president of two more lines. He lived in a spatious
home at 3226 Euclid Aven~ue, which was later con-verted into the
Fine Arts Building. His son's only claim to fame was that he
posed as the drummer boy in Archibald M. Willard's "The Spirit
of "76", He was also a noted playboy and socialite in Cleveland
and was reputedly the best harness race driver in the stabe.
M.THE W, J. BOARDMAN RESIDENCE 1893
The Boardman house represents today a unique departure from
the Romanesque by architect Charles F, Schweinfurth.
The W, J. Boardman House,1893
The house at Euclid Avenue and 36th Street is a mixture of
classical elements, Richardsonian design and the Shingle Style
in the form most associated with the early work of IicKim,
Mead and White, The basement of the house and the tower on the
left of the front facade, are constructed of rusticated. browvn-
stone. The simple Doric colonnade was constructed of granite.
A unique, if not out of place detail is the strange double win-
dow which projects out in a triangular shape. T~e overall
placement of the windows is not as effective as in other of
Schweinfurth's designs, NJote the carriage house at the right
background of the photograph, It was this type of architecture
that was usually to endure while the residences were quickly
W. J. Boardman was a lawyer and businessman in Cleveland.
No other information was found pertaining to Mlr. Boardman.
N. THE DAVID Z,. NORTONJ RESIDENCE: 1897
Again in the Norton house we find the incredibly varied
talents of Charles Schweinfurth at work.
The David Z Norton House, 1897
By the time that Schweinfurth designed this structure, he
had begun to abandon the Romanesque in favor of the Tud~or idiom
which he would follow for the rest of his life. The house was
built of stone and the design was still dominated by the Roma-
nesque entranceway complete with recessed doorway, pointed
Gothic arch,surmounted by a cren~ellated balcony. The cren~ella-
tions are indication of the Tudor influences and they are re-
peated on a second balcony which sits on a hexagonal bay
which houses the stairs. The bay is further do-inated by a
unique Tudor dormer, complete with expcsed timbers and plaster.
The house was located at Euclid Avenue and 73rd Street..
D~avid Z. Norton, one of the founders of the O~lebay, Norton
and Compan~y, was born in Cleveland in 1851, the son of Washington
Adams N~orton, who came to western Reserve in 1845 anid built a blast
furnace in Clyde, Ohio. Young Norton was educated in Cleveland
schools. He strated his business career in 1368 with the Conmercial
National Bank, resianina as cashier in 1890 to join in founding the
cornrnony thatt bore his name. N~ort~on maintain-d his interest in banking,
haorsver, and became p~Tresiident of the Citizens Savings & Loan Associa-
tion; and, uoon consolidation with other institutions to form the
Citizens Savines & Trust Company in 1903, he became vice-president
and. later president. He gave generously of time and wealth to the
cultural and. educational life of the city. He ma~rried3 Fiaryr Castle,
daughter of William B. Castle, in 1867 and died in 1928, twelve hours
after her funeral.
O. HENEY P. WHITE RESIDENCE 1901
The White residence on Euclid Avenue and 90th street is typical
of the residences built by properous Clevelanders at the turn of the
century.It is one of the few houses on Euclid Avenue which remains and
is in Rood repair. It is now used as a funeral home, T'^e design by
Frank B. N'eade is aFgain in the Richardsonian Homranesque with Gothic
details. Especially Gothic is the massive entrance Dorch surmlounted.
by a crenelated balcony, The corners have quoins made fron dlark brown-
stone, as is the rest of the house.
The Henry P. White Residence extericr
It has a steen cable roof with large dormers on the sides, Host of the
winrlow detailing is simple, linear, and straigh:t-forwar:d. PDrojectling
bars can be seen on the side facade under the domners.
The interior quality of the house can be seen in these two views.
The first floor hall is pa~nelledd with wood and the ceiling is of white
stucco and mnoldled in a pattern nuch favored in the English Stuart
and Tudor periods, I -
The Henry P. White Hesidence- interior
The upstairs study has an exposed wood beam ceilinp with stucco in
between. The window oriel on the left faced the stair landing, and
was a uniaue design innovation for the house.
The Henry P. White Residence interior
Henry P, Wjhite was a probate judge in Cleveland since the
1850's, He was very' much involved with the community's needs and was
a leading citizen at the time. He died in the early 1900's.
P. THE LEONARD C. HANNA RESIDENCE 1904
With this house, a Stanford White design, Euclid Avenue acquired
a mansion as pretentious a~s those in Newrport, R.I. The house is a two
story brick structure with white stone quoins and rusticated architraves
over the windows. The design is governed by a massive two story en-
trance colonnade with six corinthian columns, also of white stone. The
entire house is surrounded by a rich cornice surmounted by a stone
"alustradle. The hipped roof is also topped with a smaller balustrade.
The entire house was set on a raised stone basement which comes out
from the front of the house to form a platform bordered by railings
similar to those on the roof. The Stanford White DesigFn is pure class-
ical; heavily influenced by the buildings at the Wordlds Columbian
Exposition in Chicago.
The Leonard C, Hannra Residence
Leonard C, Hanna nade his fortune in the h.A. Hanna Company. The
Hanna Company was an outgrowth of the Rhodes & Card partnership in
Pig Iron & Iron Ore, initiated by M.A.Hanna and Daniel Rhodes'in the
1860's. In 1885, Hanna, Leonard C, Hanna, and Arnold Saunders took
over the firm andJ formed the Mi.A. Hanna & company, which continued
until 1922. The firmss interests were in iron ore, coal mines, and
Q. SAM'UEL M!ATHER RESIDENCE 1907
Perhan.s the final and grandest house built on Euclid Avenue was
the Sam~uel M~ather Residence. Built in 1907, at 2605 Euclid Avenue, the
residence was the last of its kind built on the famous avenue. It
was designed by Charles F. Schweinfurth and it was his last residential
commission. By then, he had totally abandoned the Romanesque for the
Tudor style. The house was very influential in many of the future
residential designs in other parts~of Cleveland.
The Sa?uel Hiather Residen~ce 1907
The house waJs e~xtremely nassive and contained 45 roo-ns, Unfortunately,
the larae size of the house took over most of the lot and the house
was dir c ly on Euclid Avenue. Hare woods, exquisite sculpture, and
the finest wyorkmnanshnip went into the house. It was occupied by the
Mather famila until 1940 when it becane the Cleveland Automobile
Club hpadqu~~arters. Today, it is a student center for the cleveland
Sam1ue1Fl ather was born in Clevelatnd in 1851, son of Sanuel L.
Na~tther, he w~as edu~catetd in the public schools and in St. Mark's School
of Southborouqh. He entered industry, continuing the leadership in the
iron-ore and' coal-mining businesses established by his father, and
became the senior member of Pickandls, Ma~ther, a.nd Company, Appreciating
that wealth presented an opportunity for practical sharing in Cleveland
social, cultural, and civic welfare, blather contributed generously and
quietly to worthy projects. He died on October 18, 1931,
R. ADDITIONAL HOUSES on EUCLID AVENUE and some NOTABLE CHURCHES
Below is a list of many of the houses for which no other infor-
mation was found besides that Riven below and no chotoeranh was ob-
1) The Judg~e Rufus P. Rannvey Residence 1876
The residence was built on Euclid Avenue and 27th street. The
house .was a solidly built and Rabledi stone house. It was: torn dJowcn;
later for the Gray Hotel. The Judae died in 1891.
2) The Charles A. Otis Residence 1870
Built at 3123 Euclid Avenue, this house was a large brick res-
idence and it became the John Huntin~t~on Polytechnic Institute. Otis
was the founder of the Otis Steel Em-ire in 1853, He died in 1905.
3) The Georg~e Hall Hesidence 1870
The residence was built across the street fron th~e Otis Residenice,
at 31465 Euclidl Avenue, This was a plain, three story residence ownred
by Georg~e Hall, a piano merchant. In the 1940's the house was used as
the Cleveland Osteopathic Hospital.
4) The James Hoyt Hesidence 1877
The residence was situiat~ed at 2445 Euclid Aivenue, James H~oyt was
a distinguished lawyer, born in Cleveland in 1852. Apar-t from his law
practice, he rleveloned connections with industry, banking,~ railroads,
sinhvipbu.ivldi and steam.rshi-r lines,
5) The John Hay Residence 1875
The Hays lived in a fashionable residence erected for th~enn next
to the Stone mansion on Euclid near Browsnell, Hay was a famous author
6) The Timothy D. Crock;er Hesidence 1870
Adjacent to "Andrew's Folly", the house was described as an im-
oressive residence on Euclid and Sterling. Crocker was a business man
and art patron.
7) The Dan P, Eells Hesidence 1880
To the west of the Hurlbut residence, the Eells house was a stone
mansion, at 3201 Eulclid. It later became the spencerian College. Eells
was an industrial magnate and a railroad tycoon,
8) The Georee W. Stockley Residence
The original house was at Euclid and Oliver street. In the early
1890's, Tom L. Johnson purchased the house and built a white stone
addition, washing it with a soot solution so that it would harmonize
with the original structure. By 1913, the house was being used as a
boarding house and it wras razed in 1926. Johnson was a politician who
served in the House of Representatives and in the Senate.
9) The Andrew Squire Hesidence 1896
The house was designed for luxurious living with a large library,
a recreation room, a wine cellar, a~nd a gymnasium. In 1938, the 27
room mansion was made into a Red Cross headquarters. Squire was an
eminent lawyer in cleveland.
10) The Peter M. Wedell Residence 1832
Designed by Johna.than Goldsmith, the house was a stone country
house on Euclid Avenue, in the style of an Italian Villa. wedell was
the ownr2er of the most suiccessfurl early hotel in Cleveland The lWedell
11) The J.E., French Hesid7ence 1890
Another Honanesquie residence designed by Charles F, Schweinfurth.
Little is known about Julius E. French,
12) The John L. Severance Residen~ce 1891
Severance was a partner of John D. Hockefeller in the Standard
Oil Company, owner of the Cleveland Linseed Oil Company, and the
Colonial Salt Company, The mansion was designed by Charles F. Schwein-
13) The F.F. Prentiss Residence 1897
The house, on 8811 Euclid Avenue, was very large. Today, it is
still partly visible in the Ineleside Hospital camplex. Francis Fluery
Prentiss was an idustrialist and nhilanthropist. Born in 1858, he came
to Cleveland in 1880 and started the Cleveland Twist Drill Company, He
died on Anril 1st, 1937.
The expansion of the churches to the Drimary residential areas
continued through the Industrial Age on E~uclid A~venue.
The Old Stone Church was rebuilt in 1853 by a mason, N.J.Warner. The
svire of the east tower was finished a decade later and removed after
a fire in 1884.
The Old Stone Church 1853
The Euclid Avenue Presbyterian Church was begun in 1853 at the
corner of Brownell street. The style is related to the Upjiohnv types
found in the Canal Era. It has plain walls and a dominant square tower.
See photogfraph on the next page.
.. 44P~' L
igtre 87. Eurclld Avenute Presbyterlan Church, 18.53-1859.
The Euclid Avenue Presbyterian
The Calvary Presbvterian Church was built in 1887 and was on
Euclid.A.vetnue and 79th street. This was a large, impressive structure
by Charles Schweinfurth, done in the Romanesque of his early days.
Note the round-headed openings, the great entrance archway, and the
massive crenellated towers. The church has a variety of window sizes,
gables, and ninna~cles. See photograph on the next page,
The Calvary Presbyterian Church 1887
The 'third Trinity Church was Schweinfurth' s crown~ing achieve-
ment in 1901., It is now known as Trinity Cathedral, He was still
working in his Romanesque with some Gothic inclination. The struc-
ture, considered the finest ecclesiastical architecture in Cleve-
land, was on Euclid Avenue and East 22nd Street.
Trinity Cathedral, 1901
One more interesting niece of a-chitecture rose on Euclid Avenue
in 1890, and that was the arcade by Smith ane Eisennann. It was a-d is
considered to be the most distinguished building of the city center.
Extendinr? 300 feet between Euclid and Superior, it waes conceived of
as a Preat complex of shops and offices. The structure cost ~876,000,00.
Outside, the influence of Hichardson is apparent in the entrance arch-
way and the aqueduct motif. The Euclid Avenue Entrance was remodeled
in the 19401s, but was the same as the Superio~r Etntance,
The Arcade in 1890 exterior
The, Arcade proper is an interior passage 60 feet wJide and 90
feet high, with a glass roof supported by iron trusses. Note the
ornate brass newell posts, the wrought-iron railings, and the lamp
posts. See Photomraph on next page.
r marl end of the Maen l. slass rentn ea11rurtur
The Euclid Avenue Arcade interior
Vtf. EPILOGU~JE THE1 DECLINE of EUCL1D AVENUE
No avenue in the world, it was claimed, presented such a contin-
uous succession of beautiful residences and uniform grounds for so
great a distance. In the 18701s, the peak of a Clevelander's ambition
was to have a mansion on the avenue beyond Erie street. In 1870, the
lonrr over due dianity of becoming an avenue was extended to Euclid.
The doom of lower Eucidd Avenue as a beautiful residential street
was sealed, however, when John Main opened a drug store and Thomas
O'Eourke opened his tailoring shop. Time erased most of the early re-
tailine business ventures; but three-quarters of a century later,
Burrows, book-and-office-supply-firm, pioneer on the avenue in 1871,
flourished several blocks east of the Public Sauare.
The entering wedEge of commercialism that darkened the horizon
of Euclid Avenue was the beginninR of a gradual buJ!t steady change that
continued decade after decade. In 1873 the Standard Bjlock, home office
of Standard oil was erected on the north side of Euclid. Across the
street, on the site of St. Paul's Church, at the southwest corner of
Sheriff, a four-story structure of the latest architecture wass erected
by the l~eadling music publisher and musical instrument dealer in 1876,
By the 1880's, the retail business trend was eastward on Euclid
and. not; on Superior, Still sone of the finest homes were bLuilt in this
decade eastward from Brownnell street and between Perry and Case avenues,
The increase of real estate value reflects the commercial trend
the avenue took after the 18709s, In the 1860's, the land was going
at approximately Iji50.00 per foot. As an interesting comparison, the
S.E. corner of Erie and Euclid was purchased. for $9,150.00 in 1865,
and by the turn of the century, the same lot was sold at @500,000.00.
By the 1890"s, the grandeur that was Eiiclid began to fade with
the DassinFe of the horse& buggSy and the coming; of the automobile.
Clevela7nd's bid for size and importance left its mark as commerce
and industry began to push eastward. Then, one by one there appeared
in the city directory, the nram~es of the "first"s families, located
in fine new suburban homes in the country side. On Euclid, the Erie
Street Streetcar Frontier fell as the right-of-way was granted for
extension of the tracks to Perry street, in 1890. Sadly, by the 1940's,
short-order diners, used. car lots, and filling stations spotted his-
toric Euclid Avenue. The mansions of massive architecture built by
influential families before the turn of the century were filled with
roofers who knew little,:if anything of about their homes glorious
past, Unner Euclid, by 1940 was thoroughly lined with commercial build-
inrrs well beyond east 30th street. The once beautiful avenue is now
completely devasted of its rich architectural bea~utyr and heritaSe.
Euclid Acenue North
between 24th & 30th
from left to right,
the homes of Bingham,
Devereux, M~ather,. L.C,.
Hanna & Hickox-Brown:
Euclid Avenue Ee-st
of 40th St., 1880
West of this aoint
diverted from the
Cutters racingf on the
Avenue- a favorite
Winter pastime of the
during the 1880es
Catler1 enrino sm Erus*lF Arpnew In dwr IRBth
Notable Persons in Cleve-land from 1796 to the 1900"s
The Master-masons and Architects of Cleveland
Important Dates concerning Euclid Avenue
Maps of Cleveland
THE MIASTER-MASONS AND ARCHITECTS OF CLEVELAND 1796 1900
The Early Years 1796 1830
It is probable that a majority of the smaller buildings, private
houses, and stores, were built by amateur carpenters. Certainly there
was no difficulty entailed in the construction of log houses which
continued to be built in the 1820's and the framins of a small building
required only a rudimentary knowledge of tools, But for the more ela-
borate structures including pretentious houses anrd public buildings.,
a higher degree of professional skill was dem~ande3d. No accurate count
of the number of trained carpenters is available for these years, but
a few names aprnear in the records, Levi Johnson, the pioneer crafts-
man who produced the uniquie first Court House, was prat~icing both as
a carnenter and as a shipbuilder throughout the period. Phil soovill
was a trained carpenter andl contractor an~d clim~axedl a longl a~nd suiccess-
ful nractice in buzildin? by the construction in 1825 of his Franktlin
House and its l~t~er rebuildling and en7la~~rgementYi in 1845. Thie nam.es of
Henry: L, Noble as designer and both Noble and George C'. Hill as build-
ers are connected wjth the second Court House erected in 1826-1828 on
the Publijc Squiar~e. Undcoubte~dly many more made their livline by the
Dractilce of theF buildingr trades, though their names a-re not, found be,-
None of these, of course,' had formal arch-itectural. training. Levi
Johnson and? Phil Scovill were carpenters, builders, and contractors,
and while certainly competent at their trades, they as certainly were
artisans rather than professional designers. Henry L. Noble who is
credit~d. as the designerr"' of the most greten~tionss buildings of the
period, the second Court House, is listed in the directoryr of 1837,
as "joiner-and burilder.l'
The Canal Era 1830-1853
The Canal period was dominated by one architectural firm, that
existed well into the 1860's. To trace the firm of Sineon Porter and
Charles Wallace Heard, we lust go back to 1829 when Simeon's brother
Lemuel died, and Simeon was engasedd to cormalete his works. In 1834?
Sineon was awarded the contract for the West-rn Heserve College chapel,
which survives in a somewhat altered form, and b-r 180,3 hei had built
three other buildings for the college, which still exist: Noeth College
the Observatory, and the Althenaeium. During this time Porter was build-
ing outside the college too, .both in the towin_ of Hudson and elsewhere.
"The Elm~s,"l the Brewster house, is~certainly his work, and the ilutting
house is certainly good enough to be his. Two of his churches, a Greek
Revival one in Srecksville and a Gothic one in Hudson, have been lost
to fire, but it is Dossible that G1e was the diesiccner of the church~ at
Streetsboro, now at the Hale Homestead.
In 1848, Porter moved to Cleveland, and shortly thereafter joined
Charles Wallace lieard,, son-in-law of Joh~nathan Goldsnith, in an archi-
tectural partnership, In the first three years, Heard and Porter de-
sipgned three important churches, of which only one, the Honanesque
"Old Stone" church survives. This, however, is likely to be Heard's
desiarn, as Porter, un to this time, had almost consistently worked
in some form of classical id~iom,. Other works of the partnership were
the Hinman B. Hurlbu~t house of 1855 on ECuclid Avenue, a Tuscan man-
sion with a precociously High Victorian diaper pattern in its brick-
work; the old Central High School of 1856, a large Romanesque building
with cast-iron columns as part of its interior structure; and. the prin-
cinal buiildting for Lakte Erie Female Seminary, now the Lake Erie College
fon. Womnwn in 1859, probably th2e largest build.in~e the partnershipp de-
Heard and Porter was dissolved in 1860, and Porter set up a prac-
tice of his own. In 1861 he was at work on another Cleveland high
school, and. tha~t year also received a contract for College Hall, now
Chapman Hall, at Mount Union College in Alliance. The Congreational
church in Hudson, a Gothic building~ comTpletedi in 1865, was also his
work. His last recorded work was killer Hall at Mlount Union College.
He died in 1871 at the arre of 64.
The Industrial Ame 1854-1900
The most successful firm of th-e im~mediaite Dost-war period was
Heard and Blythe, whose partners were Charles Heard, now~ sseprated
from Porter, and Heard's son-in-law Walter Blythe. Their residential
work in Cleveland has virtually disappeared. Neitherr men, at any stag~fe
of their careers, had any professional training in architecture. Heard
was, by training, a carpenter. Their knowledge of materials and their
skill of construction were the product of lonEc years of eatual exper-
ience in the building trades.
By the 1880's, H.H. Richardson's Romanesque manner was highly
influential, and. no architect in Cleveland used it better tha~n Charles
F. Sch~weinfurth. H-e was born in Auburn, New* York~ in1 2856. After grad-
uatingr fromn bigh SChool in. 18i72 heF spe~nt twor years in technical study,
then entored tho office of a prominent New York architect. In 1875 te
became supervising architect of the U.S. Treasury Denartment, but "not
being in sympathy with the restraint and methods of gavernmental ar-
chitecture," left in 1881 to take charge of an architect's office. This
may have been the New York office of H.H. Richardson, although there
is no certainty on the natter.
In 1883 he received a commission to desigSn the Euclid Avenue man-
sion of Sylvester T. Everett, and it was this commission t-at brought
him, at the aRe of twenty-sevenr, to a practice in Clevelald.. For a
short while Schweinfurth entered into a partnership with his brother
Ju~lius, but thlis soon ended. The Everatt Hesidence, which the brothers
designed together, was the Rreatest home built in Cleveland up to that
time and one of the greatest ever built in the city. It was in a pure
Richardsonian style, and Richardson himself praised it highly.
Schweinfurth continued in the Ronanesque manner through the 1880's,
as his Chisholm house of 1887 shows. In 1887 too be b~ean the Calvary
Presxvterian Church with its nassive towers and areat entrance arch
and its complex side elevation. The round arches, rock-faced ashlar,
mountainous roofs, and towering chimneys of the Romanesque Revival
style appealed to him, althouffh to the Richardsonian features that he
used he often. added a massive corner tower. The interiors, of course,
contained richly carved woodwork. Schweinfurth became knownrt as a per-
fe~ctionist; he built expensively, but saw to it that materials a~nd
workmanshin were of the higShest qua~lity, and his clients appreciated
'In 1894 Sch~weinf~rtth built an intersting house, square and for-
tress-like, for himself. The crenellated street front shows, in an
austere way,. the transition he was m~akine: at that period to Goth~ic.
The entrance is charming, with i's bluntly pointed arc'?way, its ex-
qu~isitely w~roupght lantern, and its intricately worked door. In 1896
the architect turned to classicism for his Backus Law Sch-ool at Wdestern
Reserve U~niversity, He was to build other work for the university,
mainly in the Tudor manner that was to be his favorite in the latter
nart of his career. In 1900 he was commissioned to do a series of
nassive stone bridges to carry traffic over Liberty Boulevard, a road
thaRt winds through a. Cleveland pa~Rrk. These bridges are all. different,
but hnve a ruggqed quality that suits the wild setting beautifully.
Schweinfurth designed in a variety of styles, but his favorite
period, in his later years was the Late E-pglish Gothic. Nost of his
work at the western Reserve University was Tudor, and so was his de-
siffn for one of the greatest and latest of the Euclid. Avenue mansions,
still standing, the Samue~l Mlather residence. This last was perhaps
the most imposive and most expensive house ever built in Cleveland;
even today, stripped of its la~ndscapins and its great entrance marquee,
it is impressive. His greatest work is Trinity Cathedral, finished in
1907, an English Pernendicular work in Indiana limestone, with rich
detailinP inside and outside.
Of himself Scweinfurth said:
I hold my former master in deepest resnect, very often recaling
their fine words and sympathy, thereby receiving renewed enthusiasm
and a striving for higher ideals. I have always studied out my pro-
blems making my ownm designs, Roine over all the details and superin-
tend~inn my owan work, k-nowinrr what I wanti and recogn~izuing it ;;-!ln seen,
so youi miay knlow~ that mry life ha~s been a ha~ppyJ a-nd? buisy one, if at times
IMPORTANT DATES CONCERNING EUCLID AVENUE:
1815 Euclid street laid out
1816 Euclid street surveyed
1820 Euclid street was only a narrow thoroughfare through the woods,
not cleared of woods yet.
1824 Perry house was built on Euclid, one of thve earliest d~ocumrented.
1530 There were over ten houses on Euclid st~reet.
1832 Euclid street was recognized as a public hi_5hway to buffalo.
1834 Euclid street waRs paved wsith? wood nlan~ks, fron Pe~rr street to
the city limits,
1834 Thne first street railway was built by Ahaz Merch-ant from K~enwa~rd
street to Public Square.
1842 Dunham Tavern was built. It's the oldest structures on Euclid
1850 ThrFie were no stores as yet onl Euc~lidi street.
1953 Omnibus service on Euclid street started by Ed Duty.
1859 A 25 foot gravel carriageway was laid from Public Square to
Euclid street, and the first sewer was laid to drain off water.
1Fh2 S~ent, 15, the city council authorized horse-car tracks to Erie.
1970 Euclid becomes an avenu~e.
11'70 WJillia-~m Taylor and Thoma~s Kilpatrick build the first commercial
structure on Euclid Avenue,
1873 Burrow's Booksellers and stationaries continue the commercial
1875 E~uclid Avenue surfaced w;ith? jbedina sand~stonee from P-ublic Square
to willson avenue.
1880 some of the finest houses were built on Euclid avenue, considered
the show lace of America. Sleiffh races became Docular on the
1886 The Euclid Avenue National Bank was built on Euclid Avenue.
1886 Euclid Avenue prepared with Medina sandstone to city limits.
1890 Grandeur fades on Euclid Avenue.
1890 Right-of-way granted for street car lines to Perry street. It
Was the doom of Euclid Avenue.
1895 Henryv chisholm residence razed. It was the residence left from
Bond to Erie street.
1900 The avenue is fully commercial from Public Square to Erie street
and new retail structures begin to appear past Erie street. The
death of the grandeur of Euclid Avenue has arrived.
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~IN~c~SAYn::) ~to~l~ ~ryr To Ilr~(
L .?(iC--CT II~ ~-~CI~C ~NIC;tlll~LRkaL~i:~-;i
The First Map of ClevelaY1-d, 1796
--~~_~~L~~~=\\_~YI___ TR T~ iI II~
3- 3--._ --75-:. ------ _-_
Map of the city of Cleveland, 1853
01opveland Leadrer Printing Company.
SHOWING ANNEXATIONS .
4 YF -----
. A K E
a~~~ o c e a v
O o LY+ F NC 9 G
Figure 6. Phla of Clevelanld showcintg aninexations.
A Incorporated as Village of Cleveland 12/23/1814.
B Annexed to Village of Cleveland by act of General Assembly
C Annexed to Village of Cleveland by act of General Assembly
D Incorporated with A. B. and C. as City of Cleveland
E -Ten-acre lots annexed to City of Cleveland 3/22/1850.
F City of Ohio annexed 5/5/1854. F. was incorporated as City
of Ohio 3/3/1836.
G Part of Brooklyn Towvnship annexed 2/20/1867.
HI Parts of Brooklyn and N~ewburgh Townships annexed
K Part of Newburgh Township 100 A lot No. 333 annexed
L East Cleveland Village annexed 10/24/1872.
MNOT Prsh sf erokln ,11e gh, and East Cleveland
P Part of Newburgh Township annexed 9/16/1873.
R Part of Brooklyn Village annexed 11/10/1890.
S Part of East Cleveland Township annexed 6/27/1892.
T Part of Newburg Township, part of original lot 312 annexed
U West Cleveland Village annexed 3/5/1894.
V Brooklyn Village annexed 4/30/1894.
W Clenville Village annexed 9/26/1898.
X Glenville Village, second ward, annexed 12/20/1902.
Y Linndale Village annexed 4/11/1904.
Z Part of Brooklyn Village annexed 4/11/1904. Reconsidered
and lost, 6/31/1904.
AA Part of Brooklyn Township annexed 1/11/1904.
BB Part of Newburgh Heights Village annexed 9/25/1905.
C C City of Glenville annexed 6/19/1905.
DD Village of Saith Brooklyn annexed 12/11/1905.
E E Village of Corbett, annexed.
FF Village of Collinwood annexed January, 1910.
Sources obtained up to Macy 5,; 975::
1. Bohassek, Charles
"Gordon Hall, the House of Dan-R. Hanna; Cleveland, Ohio";
Jarvis Hunt, Architect.
The Architectural Record, vol. 15, pages 18-38, January, 1904.,
2. Benton, Elbert Ja~y
Cultural Story of an American City Cleveland;
Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland, 1944.
3. Chapman, Edmund
Cleveland : Village to Metropolis;
Western Reserve University Press, Cleveland, 1964.
4. Frary, I.T.
"The Hebuilding of Longfwood, Residence of John L. Severance,
Esquiire; Cleveland"; Charles Shweinfurth, Architect.
The Architectural Record, vol, 41, pages 483-503, June 1917.
5. Frary, I.T.
"The Residence of F.E. Drury, Esquire; Cleveland"; Frank B.
Meade and James Hamilton, Architects.
The Architectural Record, vol. 38, pages 601-604, December, 1915.
6. Hatcher, Harlan
The Western Reserve : The Story of New Connecticut in Ohio;
Bobbs Merril Company, New York, 1966
7, "House of P.S. Jennines, Esquire; Cleveland"; F.S. Barnum,
Amlerican Architect and Building News, vol. 2, 416, December, 1877,
8, "House of Charles F. Brush, Esquire; Cleveland";
George H. Smith, Architect.
American Buildingfs Selections, vol. 1, plate 25.
9. "House of D.Z. Norton, Esquire; Cleveland";
Charles F. Schweinfurth, Architect.
American Architect and Building News, vol. 75, page 71, plate
1366, March, 1902.
10. "House of S.T. Everett, Cleveland";
Charles F, Schweinfurth, Architect.
American Buildings Selections, vol.1, plate 24,
11, "House of William G. Mather";
Cha~rles :Platt, Architect
The Architectural Record, vol. 26, page 313-320, November, 1909.
12. "Residence of G.W. Stockley, Cleveland";
Levr i" To Scofie~ld, Archlitect~.
American Buildings selections, vol. 1, plate 114.
13. "Residence of A.S. Ingalls, Cleveland";
Bohnard and Barsson, Architects
American Ardhltebt and Building News, vol. 99, no. 1847,
14. "Residence of Walter Flory, Esquire; Cleveland";
Howell and Thomas, Architects.
The Architectural Record, vol. 48, page 240-294, October, 1920.
li, "Residence of Warren Bicknell, Esquire; Cleveland";
Meade and Hamilton, Architects.
The Architectural Record, vol. 53, page 202, 213-214,
16, "Residence of wailliam chisolm, cleveland";
Chables F. Schweinfurth, Architect.
American Buildings Selections, vol. 1, plate 110.
17. "Several Houses in Cleveland, Ohio, by Meade and Hamilton,
American Architect, vol. 123, plate 2417, April 11, 1923.
18. Frary, I.T.
"Euclid Avenue The Passing of a Famous Avenue";
The Architectural Record, vol.43, page 391-392, April 1918.
19. Kohn, Robert D.
"Architecture and Factories, Cleveland";
The Architectural Record, vol. 25, page 130-136, February, 1909.
20. "The United States Federb1 Building, Cleveland";
The Architectural Record, vol. 29, page 193-213, 1911.
21. "Office Building for the New Ennland Building Company, Cleveland~
Shepley, Rutan, and Coolidge, Architects,
American Architect and Building News, vol. 44, page 152,
plate 966, June 30, 1894.
22. "The Leader News Buildling, Cleveland";
Chairles A. Platt, Architect.
The Architectural Record, vol. 33, page 501-517, June, 1913.
23, "LThe United States Post Office Building, Cleveland";
The Architectural Record, vol. 29, page 193-213, M'arch, 1911
24. "Richman Brothers Factory" Dana Clarck, Architect.
American Architec, vol. 11 plate 2236, page 525-532,
25. "city Hall of cleveland";
J. Milton Dyer, Architect.
American Architect, vol, 112, plate 2170, page 61-63, July, 1917.
26. "The Scofield Building";
L.T. Scofield, Architect.
American Architecture and Building News, vol. 87, page 16,
plate 15j16, January, 1905.
27, "Building for the Society for Savings, Cleveland"
Burnham and Root, Architects.
American Architect and Building News, vol. 24, page 159,
plate 667, October, 1888.
28. WWooltex Plant, Cleveland";
Robert D. Kohn, Architect
American Architect and Building News, vol. 94, plate 1851,
page 222, June, 1911.
29. "Calvary Presbyterian Church"
Charles F. Schweinfurth, Architect
American Building Selections, vol. 3, plate 35-36
30. nEuclid Avenue Presbyterian Church"
Cram, Goodhue, and Ferguson, Architects
The Architectural Review, vol. 2, plate 7-9, 1913
31. "The Mehtodist Episcopal Church, Cleveland",
Jr. Milton Dyer, Architect
American Architect, vol. 112, plate 2170, page 61-63, July, 1917.
32. "Trinity Cathedral#
Charles F. Schweinfurth, Architect
American Architect, vol.92, page 140-141, November, 1907.
,33, nThe Work of J. Milton Dyer"
The Architectural Record, vol. 20, page 385-403, November, 1906
34. Rose, William Ganson
Cleveland the Making of a City
The World Publishing Compnay, 1950
33. nThe Preservation News", vol, XIII, no, 8, August, 1973,
Positive Replies and sources obtained after May 5, 1975:
36. The Cleveland Museum of Art
37. The following issues of nThe Inland Architect and News Record":
vol, 2, December, 1877
vol. 13, July, 1889
vol. 14, October,' 1889
vol, 15, February 1890
vol, 17. March, 18 91
vol, 18, October, 1891
.vol. 20, September, 1892
vol. 21, June, 1893
vol. 75, March, 1902
38. Talk with Mr. Carl Feiss
The Western Reserve Historical Society
The Ohio Historic Preservation Office
Doctoral Dissertation on Charles P. Schweinfurth; Perry, Regina.
(inter-library-loan Cleveland Public Library)
Wilson, E11a Grant
Famous Old Euclid Avenue (2 vol's.)
The Evangelic Press, 1932
(inter-library loan Columbia University)
Correspondence with Mr. Edward A. Reich
Secretary to the Fine Arts
Committee of the City Planning Commission
Correspondence with the Cleveland Public Library for photographs
"The Work of C.F. Schweinfurtha
The Architectural Review, vol. 1, page 81-115, 1897.