• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Acknowledgement
 Introduction
 Historic overview
 Case studies
 Remarks and conclusions






Group Title: overview : the history of preservation activity in Albuquerque, New Mexico
Title: An Overview : the history of preservation activity in Albuquerque, New Mexico
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 Material Information
Title: An Overview : the history of preservation activity in Albuquerque, New Mexico
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Ferro, David E.
Publisher: College of Architecture, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1976
Copyright Date: 1976
 Subjects
Subject: Architecture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Architecture -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
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Bibliographic ID: UF00102020
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
    List of Illustrations
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
    Acknowledgement
        Page viii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Historic overview
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Case studies
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 35a
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Remarks and conclusions
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
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        Page 123
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        Page 125
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        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
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        Page 149
Full Text








An Overview: r R tU uch









Departmen of Architecture




Iniesitrutr Pofessor Ca l es





CONTENTS


Page












. . 32

. . 33

. . 39

. . 47

. . 65

. . 72



. . 75

. . .77

. . 78



. . 85

. . 87

. . 98

. 102

. 105


LIST OF ILLUSTRATION ... ... ..

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...............

INTRODUCTION . .. .. .. .. . .. .

HISTORIC OVERVIEW ..............

PRESERVATION CASE STUDIES ..........


Maps . . . . . . . . .

Old Town . . . . . . . .


Progress: 1953-1976 ..........

The Alvarado Hotel ..........


The Downtown Neighborhood Association .

The Huning Highlands Neighborhood
Association ............


1975 Housing Market and Policy Survey .

The Charles Ilfeld Building ......

The Historic Landmarks Survey of Albu-
querque . . . . . . .

REM~ARKS AND CONCLUSIONS ...........

REFERENCES . . . , . . . .

BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . ..

APPENDICES . . . . . . . . .


Appendix A: Local Chronology, 1540-1961

Appendix B: Existing State and Local
Legislation


Appendix C: City Urban Areas Policies
Plan





Appendix D: Revised Zoning Plan--
Downtown Neighborhood Area

Appendix E: 1975 Housing Market and
Policy Analysis

Appendix F: Albuquerque Historic Landmarks
Survey Grant Proposals

Ap~pendix G: Tentative List of Sites--
Historic Landmarks Survey of Albuquerque





LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


1. Map: State of New MFexico, 1970 ....

2. Photograph: Albuquerque's Main
Street, 1870s ... .. ... ...

3. Drawing: San Felipe de Neri
Church, 1880s ...........

4. Drawings: Early Views of Albu-
querqjue, 1857-1885 ........

5. Map: Bird's Eye View of Albuquerque, 188

6. Photograph: Albuquerque Townscape, 1883

7. Drawings: Views in Albuquerque, 1880s .

8. Drawings: Views in Albucjuerqrue, 1880s .

9. M'ap: Historic Growth of Central
Albuquerque, 1706-1960 ......

10. Map: City Limits of 1898 and Points
of Interests ...........

11. Photograph: Metropolitan Buildings, 1880

12. Photographs: Albuquerque Churches, 1890

13. Photographs: Albuquerque Street Scenes,
1890 . . . . . . . .

14. Map: Form and Development Pattern of
Central Albuquerque ........

15. Photograph: Aerial View of Albu-
querque, 1930s ..........

16. Photograph: Aerial View of the
Albuquerque Heights Area, 1929 ..

17. Photograph: Typical Subdivision
Housing, 1940s ..........


6 .. .. 9

. 10

. 11

. 12



. 14



. 15

s .. .. 16

. 17



. 18


. .


. . 21



. . 22



. . 24





Page


18. Photograph: Aerial View of Albuguer-
que, late 1950s ... .... .....

19. Photograph: Aerial View of Winrock
Center, 1961 . . . . . . .

20. Photograph: Albuquerque Cityscape,
early 1960s . . . . . . .

21. Photograph: Grand Plaza, 1975.... ..

22. H~ap: Albuquerque Public Renewal
Areas, 1970 . . . . . . .

23. Map: Orientational Sketch of Albu-
querque, 1976 . .. . ... .. .

24. Map: Location of Study Areas.......

25. Map: Old Town and Downtown
Neighborhood Areas, 1976 .......

26. Map: Huning Highlands Neiborhood
and Proposed Railroad Era Historic Zone

27. Photograph: Old Town Plaza, 1908 .....

28. Photograph: Old Town Street Scene, 1940s .

29. Map: Old Town Historic Zone, 1958 .....

30. News Article: San Felipe Hotel
Razed, 1960 . . . . . . .

31. News Article: Changes in Old
Town Plaza, 1971 ...........

32. Photograph: Huning Castle, 1881-1955 ...

33. Photo News Articles: Albuquerque
National Bank Building Demolition, 1956

34. News Article: Noa Ilfeld House to
be Demolished, 1957 ..........

35. Photo News Articles: Old Bernalillo
County Courthouse Demolished, 1959 ..

36. News Article: Whiting Building
to be Demolished, 1962 .....,,.


,


.. 37



. 38

. 40

. 41

. 43



. 44


. .

. .


. 50



. 51



. 52



. 53





Page


37. Drawing: Elevation of the
Alvarado Hotel, 1901-1970 .....

38. News Article: Huning Highlands
Neighborhood Needs Help, 1969 ...

39. News Article: Franciscan Hotel to
be Demolished, 1970 ........

40. Photo News Article: Demolition
of the Franciscan Hotel, 1972 ...

41. Photo News Article: Demolition of
the Downtown YMCA.Building, 1974 .

42. Photo News Article: Partial Demolition
of the Charles Ilfeld Building, 1974

43. News Article: "Korber Building Doomed,"

44. Photographs: Alvarado Hotel, circa 1903

45. Photographs: Demolition of the
Alvarado H~otel, 1970.......

46. Drawing: Elevation of the Alvarado
Hotel, 1901-1970 .........

47. Photograph: Entrance of the Charles
Ilfeld Building ..........

48. Photographs: Charles Ilfeld Building,
Exterior and Interior, 1974 ....

49. Photo News Article: Southwest Brewery
and Ice Company, 1969 .......

50. Photograph: Occidental Insurance
Company Building, 1971 ......

51. Drawings: Representative Significant
Extant Structures, 1976 ......

52. Photo News Article: Kimo Theater
Ornamentation, 1976 ........

53. Photograph: University of New Mexico
Administration Building, 1909 ...


. 56


. .57



. .58



. 59



. .61


. .62

975 .. 63

. . 66


.


. . 79



. . 84



. . 88



. . 89



. . 90


. . 91



. . 92





Pae

54. Photo News Article: WPA Fire Station
No. 3, 1975 ... .. ... .. .. .. 93

55. Photo News Article: WJPA Architecture in
Albuquerque, 1966 . ... .. .. .. .. 94

56. Map: Neighborhoods in Central Albu-
querque, 1965 .. .. ... ... .. 96




AC KNOWL;EDGMENT S



Special thanks to Sue Dewitt, executive director of the

Historic Landmarks Survey of Albuquerque; Deryl Dick, archi-

tect; Jacqueline Francish, executive director of the Neigh-

borhood Housing Service, and Ted Pocter of the Albuquerque/

Bernalillo County Planning.Department for their interest and

assistance in this study.




INTRODUCTION


This study marks the beginning of a new personal awareness

for me concerning the history and future of preservation

activity in Albuquerque. Having lived in Albuquerque, New

Mexico for twenty-four years, I was embarrassed at how

little I knew about the city when I began this study. After

a period of five years away from the city, my initial re-

collections of preservation activity in Albuquerque, aside

from the development of the Old Town historic area, were of

one frustrating defeat after another for a courageous few

preservationists as the urban renewal machine rolled on to

the tune of an apathetic majority. On my return to the city

in September of this year, my initial impressions coincided

with those recollections.


It was not until discussions with Ted Pocter, of the Albu-

querque/Bernalillo County Planning Department, and Sue Dewitt,

of the Historic Landmarks Survey of Albuquerque, that I

realized that things have changed. Although much of the

city's cultural heritage has been lost, the opportunity for

a dynamic preservation program exists if the trend toward

cooperation between the preservationist and the city govern-

ment, and the growing awareness and support of the general

public, as revealed by this study, continue.




The information gathered will be presented in a chronologi-

cal series of case studies, beginning with the first organized

preservation effort in Albuquerque and the creation of the

Historic Old Town Zone. Before investigating individual

cases, a brief look at the city's history will help to place

in perspective the influences which have shaped the develop-

ment of Albuquerque (see Appendix A).




HISTORIC OVERVIEW


Albuquerque, located near the geographic center of the

state of New Mexico, lies on the inner river valley and

adjacent bluffs of the Rio Grande River, halfway between

Isleta and Sandia Pueblos (see map, p. 4 ). The original

settlement, Villa de Albuquerque, was founded in 1706 by

Spanish settlers who had moved south from Bernalillo.1


Early Albuquerque was characterized by low squat adobe build-

ings of Spanish Colonial and Pueblo design, grouped around

a rectangular defensible plaza. San Felipe de Neri Church

(on the National Register of Historic Places), constructed

on the north side of the plaza by Franciscan priests in

1706,2 has served as the nucleus of tevlafroe w

hundred years (see plan, p. 43 )


For much of its early history the villa was merely a stopping

place on the El Camino Real. By the 1870s Albuquerque had

developed into a freighting center of local importance, due

to its location at the intersection of the El Camino Real

and the east-west trail through the Sandia and Manzano moun-

taisto the east.


The coming of the railroad was the single most important

development in Albuquerque's late nineteenth and twentieth







* --r ~ I .~ .1. ,n,
sp at----r-.-~. -n -s..


~llon Lr nLIrI r ), .
17~~n 4 + .






..nput I


,, ,,,, un~~~~~*U Swns ler Lq b e

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ord~n rgI UN, .. ~



too~
Y~~~ ~ M, (0 (uded n 1 ~~u n~fr
uurro 'MAP

.1w ./co

,, '1971

Figure~c 1 A ofNw eic.MwMxc SaePln ngOfcHsoic'~'
Prsrvatins Pan fo e eio .3







II !.k~AC~..~.~trYk~i; ~5.::;;1~:~,1:
r.fr~
~tL~- ~


'This photograph, one of a series of stereoptican view~s, w~as labeled as thie main
street of Albuquerque by the photograp~hers, Centennial Photographic Co., of
Philaldelphia, who made it in the 1870's. They noted that "Mlain Street has several
quaint old adobes which have probably stood a century. Many oxicams are
constantly on this street." The picture w~as made for the 1876 Centennial.

Figure 2 Fitspatrick, Albuq uerq ue a 100 Years in Pictures,
p. LC.

















































ico State Planning Department,
SPreservationl a Plan for New
p. 110.


D ~~`*!~3


*Sanr Felipe de Ner-i Chulrr ch,? A~lbuqeru elrc~ l Belna~lillo
County.. Builr in 179,3 uponl the site of an erarlicr
17(,(i church anid possibly ilc~orporating somec of
the walls of that structures,, Saln Ferlipc die NerIi
Chulrh has been in ontinuous use since that timeic
but has1 b~een frequellntly alteredc to? satisfy) new~i
co ndi tionis asul( preferences.~''~ Conside~rud I epaLraLtcl,
each pha~se of` ccnstruction prlovides~ as line an11
architectural exampllell of` its period as cain be found(
in N~ew Mexsico. Th~le manssive aIdobe walls wvith
w~ood vignis andtl clubloraitely culrVedt Cu~rbe~ls datlingL
fr-om the 18th rcntulry arle I~~represetative of' tlat
Periodl as ar~e thle single nlave, pol!-gona~l apse. New M~xJ
pro~jecting transe~t anid choir loft ox er the ma~inl Hi~storic
entralnce. Th`~e mnid to Ilate 19th~ century- extrcior. MEIxico,
including two bell towevrs, shiows the decvelopmentl r
of New~ Mexsico fo~lk art. T'he chanrcel and sacristic~s
contain some of thec finest existing examples of
New Mxc~ican inlterpretations of Grecek Reviva; l
and Victorianl cabinet work andi decoiraion..
Ownership: Privaite


Figure 3 San FBlipe de Neri Church, Old Town,
Albuquerque, New Mlexico. Sources s Hrper's
reprint poster, n~d.












































as~T"-~pp~C~P~R~~...
:,


One of several old hanciendans in Alb~uquerque. (Hanrper's, April. 1885.)
Figure 4 Views of E~arly Albuquerque. Gregg, New 1%xico
in the Nineteenth Century, p.109*


::,1 ~
P:ct~~
',:j~;~.S-'~"~i2~;92i;l_ .r cr9~;3
~ur
i 7-
.I:-...a: "L~
11 r i'
r I, la
~~t
::I2~
1 111

ii:ikvl ;. r;s'Ij.L~.f~t~-;~-
,,.,


Sleepy plaza of A~lbuquerque inl the 1850s. This
plaza wans actually to the w~est of today's Old
Town Plaza. (Davis, 1857.)



ALBUQUERQUE


_~~- ----
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-I-
::~: -F
1


Except for sulr-
roundling wanll,

Churc I oks
much the same
today. (Sw~eetser,
1891.)


Wa'll around the plaza wcas
adlded later. (Sw~eetser, 1891)


12


iis building housed the St. Elmno and the
bite Elephalntl saloons. It wa-s w\here thle
nshine Buildin" ol .Secondl and Central


today. (Ritch, 1885.)


I.p
- .p...




century history. The Atlantic and Pacific Railroad, the

forerunner of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad

(ATSF), following the natural topography of the valley, laid

its tracks one-and-one-half miles east of the villa in 1880.4


Overnight a new town developed, physically separate and self-

contained. The new town's development (see map, p. 9 )

typical of that of railroad towns of the period, was in a

rigid pattern of short blocks and grid-iron streets which

were surveyed and plotted to the east and west of the rail-

yards.5 The shops constructed by the Atlantic and Pacific

at the new townsite were the largest on the line.


Commerce activity in New Albuquerque was clustered around

the passenger depot, in pitched-roof wooden structures, on

the west side of the tracks. Residences, many in the Vic-

torian manner, were built to the south and east of the depot,

around the railroad shops which became the primary employment

center of the new community.6 The main line of the railroad

became the spine along which all early industrial and ware-

housing development occurred (see map, p. 15 ).


Between 1880 and 1882 the population of Albuquerque increased

from 1,307 to over 12,000 as a real estate boom swept over the

land between Old and New Albuquerque (see map, p.14 ).7


In the 1890s, larger and more permanent buildings were con-

structed as Albuquerque became a major regional commercial







































































A "Bird's Eye View~" map, of Alb~uqulerquee in 1886,, drawn by Augustus Koch
"'aws .Albuquerque had seven churches, three sc-hools, water, gais and elctiri works,
planing mill, railroad shops, five hotels, soda and bottling works, Albuquerqlue
oundry, two flour mills, and a brewerry.


Figure 5 Fitzpatrick, Albuguersue s 100 Years in Picturess P* 39*


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-==:.'~C"j ~,~c~b~lt~
--3.._. fS. .1. .L~: -:Ti~i~j:































In 1883 Alburquerque looked like this from the sandlhills. The three-story
building wvith th~e towe.r at left was the San Felipe Hotel at the corner of Fifth and
Gold where the U.S. Courthouse is now located.

Figure 6 Fitspatrick, Albuquerqluet 100 Years in Pictures, p. 17.





















--~-'-I-


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Figure ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ --~-~ 7 iw nNw luuru, e eio
1. ilrad vene (ental Aveu) ot sie looking ast
2.Sre iw
SoreaHaprsrern osend


NEwlvkxiscco



























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~
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ly

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Figur 8 Views in New Albuguer ue, New Mexico. 1.Ha~rsch Block, 2.Ikilroad
Avenue, southside, looking east, 3.Yiew of Front Street and
Railroad Avenue. Sources a Hrper's reprint poster, n.d.




and distribution center. By 1900 Albuquerque had a number

of architecturally significant buildings, many due to

former New York architect, Edward Buxton Cristy, who designed

several churches and many of the finer residences in the

city.8


One of the most significant structures of this era was the

Alvarado Hotel, built by the ATSF for the Fred Harvey Company

in 1901. Designed in a unique blend of the early California

Mission Revival and the local Spanish-Indian Revival styles,

by Charles F. Whittlesey of Chicago, the Alvarado was con-

sidered by many to be the finest railroad hotel in the coun-

try.9 The case of the Alvarado's loss marked the saddest

chapter in Albuquerque's preservation history.


Albuquerque became a crossroads town in the mid-1920s with

the completion of intersecting U.S. Highways 85 (north-south)

and 66 (east-west) at Fourth Street and Central Avenue.1

With the increased popularity of the automobile, this inter-

section greatly influenced the development of commercial land

use as the business center gravitated toward it. The result-

ant development reached its peak at the intersection with

strip development lining the four major approaches to the

central city (see map, p. 19 ).For many years the two high-

ways provided the only crossing points on the Rio Grande in

the area.






































_ ~ _ I~_ _


Figure 9 AIp of the Historical Growth of Albuquerque
New J~lxico. Albuquerque City Planning Dept.
Albusuerque Central Area Study, p. 21.


HISTORICAL GROWTH


0 4000


g ggg - 1706

F l1706 1890

E 'ES"7~ 1893 1940

~i:1;r1~: 1940 1960





















































CITY LIMITS OF 1898 AND POINTS OF INTEREST
Albuquerque City Planning Despartment, Albuquergrue Centr~al Area Study, p. 22.


N"" "


A & P HOSPITAL
BANK OF COMMERCE
BAPTIST CHURCH
CASTLE HUNING
C. E!RC:AL CLUB
CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH
FAIRGROUNDS
ELECTRIC LIGHT STATION
EPISCOPAL CHURCH
FIRST NATIONAL BANK
FLOUR MILL
GAS WORKS
GLOR IETA HALL
GRAND CENTRAL HOTEL
GRASS BLACKWELL CO.
HARDWOOD HOME
HUNING'S EARLY RESIDENCE
JAIL & CITY HALL
MAUSARD MILLS
M. E. CHURCH
OLO GR IST MILL
OLD TOWN COURT HOUSE
AND COUNTY OFFICES
OPERA HOUSE
POST OFFICE
PRESBYTER AN CHURCH
PRESBYTERIAN M;SSiON
RUBY HOUSE
SAN FELIPE CHURCH
SAN FELIPE HOTEL
SANTA FE SHOPS
SOUTHWESTERN BREWERY & ICE CO.
SPANISH PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH
ST. MARY'S ACADEMY
ST. VINCENT ACADEMY
SUNNYSIDE INN
THE CITIZEN
THE DEMOCRAT
THE G0LD STAR
TRIMBLE LIVERY
WATER WORKS
WOOL SCOUR NG MILL


FOUNTAIN


71




~**.


SFRUIT
R0HA
NARL7UE TE
HOWARD

COPPER

RAILROAD


SSILVER


COAL
HIGHLAND


SIMONDS
WHEELOCF

CPOMWELL
GARFIELD
LENIS
BELL


TRUMBULL


SOUTHERN


Fiurce 10
















































Theli Metroplitann B~uilding on ther northwest coroner of F-ir~s ;rtl andcentral in the
80's. O)n the scoucnd floor wa;s a1 hotel aIndl a saloon on th1e first floor. Ou\ri the clears thei
buiildling hloused mny~n kinds of businesses -- in more recec~nt yerar-s a dlrug st ore aInd
thecn a7 pmv\~n shop' until it w~as demolished aIs p~art of the L'rba,;n llRenwall
lu-ogram."~
Figure 11 Fitzpatrick, Albuquerque a 100 Years in Pictures,
p. 12.


-..























































EPISCOPAL CHURCH.
CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH.


COURT HOUSE.
INDIAN SCHOOL.
ACADEMY BUILDING.


PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH.
CATHOLIC CHURCH.


Some of .-Albugrclucr lle's c~hurchels and school bulildings ass they! ;Ippearer~d in a
pamph')let issued in 1890O. Street scecnes that ;I~~apered in ther same 1890 hooklet are
slio\n on the Tfacing r,;ge.


Figure 12 Pitzpatrick, Albuquerqlue a 100 Years in Pictures,
p. 22.



























































































GOLD AVENUE.



Figure 13 Albuquerque street scenes, 1890. Fitzpatrick, Albuquerque a

100 Years in Pictures, p. 23.


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r.E'~


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RAILROAD AVENUE


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PHY818AUL OrMnr AnD

DEVELOPMENT PATTERN OF

CENTRAL ALBUQUERQUE




1. RI C RANDE

2. VALLEY BLUFFS

3. HISTORIC 010 TOWN

4. A.T.and S.F.R.R. MAlN LINE

5. OLO CROSSROAdS

8. OLD BRIDGES

7. NEW CROSSROADS

8. BUSINESS CORE
HEIGHTS ~~-
~7 9. STRIP COMMERCIAL

,' 10.MAJOR RESIDENTIAL DISTRICTS
11. TRANSITION AREA

12. INDUSTRIAL AREA

13. MAJOR OPEN SPACE




Figure 14 ABp of Aevelopment Pattern of
Central Albuquerque. Albuquerque
Planning Ikpartment, The Aw~n-
towrn Plan, p. 5*


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n,
O~ .I.r
ZZ
jri[~: j Ir,,




During the 1920s and early 1930s the downtown area business

district enjoyed boom development, with a high level of new

construction. In 1922 the horizontal character of the city

was altered dramatically with the construction of the nine-

story First National Bank Building at Third Street and Cen-

tral Avenue. The next year the eight-story Franciscan Hotel

was completed at Sixth Street and Central Avenue.11 In

these years the area northwest of downtown was fixed as a

large industrial district with the construction of the city's

first industrial spur (see map, p.19 ).12


Albuquerque's development slowed markedly as a result of the

Depression, though the city did not suffer to the extent

that eastern cities did. Full advantage was taken of Depres-

sion-born federal programs, such as the CWA, WPA and PWA, to

develop parks, a major governmental center, a new airport

complex, expanded educational facilities at the University

of New Mexico, and many other improvements.


In the years immediately following the Depression, there had

been only a tentative expansion onto the mesa to the north-

east of the city.13 Most business activity was still con-

fined to the valley and along East Central Avenue (U.S. 66).

The few scattered subdivisions which were developed beyond

the valley's bluffs, to the east of the river, became known

as the Heights.
















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In the early 1930's Albuclucrclue had madce onily a tentaitive expannsion onito thec
northeast mecsa. Business and residecnces wvere mostly confined to the V'alley and along
ast Central with a few scattered subdivisions in the H-eights. T'he farthest east
sidential street was Solano.

Figure 15 Fitclpatrick, Albusuerqlue a 100 Years in Pictures, p. 101.














































~ I

~
'


A~n aerial photograp-h of the H-eights area of Albuquerque in 1929 shows the
ca mpus of t he University i n the center of the photo. WVhere the paved road branches to
form~ a Y, upper right, is the corner of Central, Girard and M\onte Vista.


Figure 16 Fitzpatrick, Albuquerque a 100 Years in Pictures,
p. 100.


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During World War II private development slowed in Albuquer-

que, but, as a result of the -recent completion of the city's

WPA municipal airport complex, Kirtland Field was established

and three thousand Army Air Corps personnel moved in to

train B-17 flight crews.14 Today a combined Kirtland Air

Force Base and Sandia (Army) Base research and testing com-

plex, with an annual payroll of over 180 million dollars,

employes sixteen thousand .personnel.15


It was the expansion of Sandia Base and its tenant research

organization, Sandia Laboratories, into peacetime nuclear,

laser and energy source research that triggered the boom which

sent Albuquerque's population doubling and redoubling in the

late 1940s and the 1950s. The resultant residential building

boom gave rise to numerous, quickly-built, leapfrog subdivisions

in the area to the north of the bases. This uncontrolled

expansion resulted in the city's first comprehensive zoning

ordinance in 1954. When all the figures were finally in,

over 385 million construction dollars were spent during the

1950s.16


The shopping center, in the years immediately following

World War II, began to emerge as a major decentralizing ele-

ment, in direct competition with the city's traditional busi-

ness center. The first of these early centers were located

in the Heights as were the regional shopping centers of the









































During the w\ar boom of the early 40's homes wecre in great demand, andt
numecrouss small, quickly built subdivisions w~ere startedl in nort~heast A\lbucquerque.

Figure 17 Fitepatricc, Albuquerqlue a 100 Years in Pictures, p. 119.















































A~ir \iew of Alb~uqurque-c~l in the late 1950's. T~he residential alreas we-re sprearding
ca;-st, but1 \ with the ecepcltion of the Simms B~ldg., fo~r of thc large dolyntow~n buildings
ha~d let beecn const ructecd. InI 1959, the Bannk Of Ne\ir Mexcico went u~p o~n the southwest
corner of Fourth and G~old. ~Then followed such others as the tw~o new~ Federal
buildings, the National Building, City Hall1 aInd others of less mangnitude.11~'ith thec in-
augural.;tionl of theC I'rba~n Dev\elopme~nt P'crogrm. the dowmnoisn areca bcgaln to aIcqcuire
a co~mplete newi look.
Figure 18 Fitspatrick, Albuquerque a 100 Years in Pictures, p.134.





1960s and 1970s.1 The development of the shopping center

left downtown to follow the nationwide trend of transition

of the last twenty years from the city's primary market

center to a metropolitan financial, business and governmental

center.


The freeway system which crisscrosses the city (north-south

Interstate 25 and east-west Interstate 40), completed in the

1960s, helped to alleviate the traffic problems brought

about by :the city's phenomenal growth (see map, p. 34 ). The

continuing influx of new residents kept the construction boom

going as the city's population increased from 97,012 to 201,189

from 1950 to 1960.1


As a result of the threatening encroachment of freeway align-

ments and related industrial development on Old Town, the

city's historical center, the legislation of a historical zone,

as part of the city's zoning ordinance, was proposed in 1956.19

The following year the H-1 Historic Old Town Zone became part

of the Albuquerque Comprehensive City Zoning Code (see map,

p. 43 and Appendix B).


In 1961 Albuquerque's first regional shopping center, Winrock

Center, was completed. Winrock Center, the creation of

Victor Gruen Associates, with its original 450,000 square feet

of retail space, was the forerunner of the multitude of cen-






























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On .\larch i, 1~G1, ~Vinrock Center Albuqucrque's first big shopIing center
~~ss opened Mith -1j0,00O squnre feet of retail space. Since this photogialh uas
matle on ol""ing da), the Center has had additional construction that doubled the
retail sl'nce. In addition, a thcnter, hotel and apartn~ents have been built and also the
I-40 f
rcc~va~ along the south side of the property. The road at bottorn left is Louisiana
Avenue.

Fi~relS Fitzpatrick, 1Ubuquerque ~.00 Years in Pictures, pr 137




ters which now line the east-west segment of the city's

freeway system.20


With the character of downtown rapidly changing as its com-

mercial stability deteriorated, the first public action move

toward physical revitalization of the area began with the

creation of the City Building Removal Team (CBRT) in 1962.

The team, made up of personnel from the city's Fire, Build-

ing, Planning and Environmental Health Departments, surveyed

over 90 of the oldest structures downtown. Many of these

buildings, lying between First and Third Streets, parallel

to the railroad line, were of the railroad era. Of the

ninety buildings surveyed, 31 were condemned and, by 1963,

24 had been removed.2 It was the CBRT that ushered in the

reign of the wrecking ball in Albuquerque.


Between 1964 and 1966 the Albuquerque Metropolitan Develop-

ment Committee (AMDC) attempted revitalization downtown with

its "sidewides" program of sidewalk development, planting

and a general face-lift of the commercial development on

Central Avenue, between First and Fourth Streets (see map,

p. 31 ).2During this same time period the AMcDC established

a plan for a monumental governmental, business, convention

and banking center for the area north of the Central Avenue

Commercial Development, between Tijeras and Lomas Avenues.

The center, Grand Plaza, is a reality today while Central






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Figure 20 TIhe S~imms B~uilding on the southwest corner of Fourth and Gold, got a high-rise
neighbor in 1959 when the B3ank of Newv M\exico was built on the southeast corner, on
the location known to old-tim-e Albucluerqueans as WVright's T'rading Post.
Albuquerque's downtown area~ was beginning to take on a high-rise metropolitan
characlrter.

Eitzpatrick, Albuquerque s 100 Years in Pictures, p. 135*


Albuquerque Civic Ploaza
left, and nearby city govern-
ment buildings form part of a
renewal project in downtown
Albuquerque. The plaza re-
placed a number of run-down
structures.


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Figure 21 Woolston, "Albuquerque, p. 317.




Avenue, only two blocks to the south, still suffers from

the blight that "sidewides" Couldn't cure.


In 1969 the area directly east of the ATSF main line was

included in Albuquerque's Model Neighborhood area. The major

accomplishment of .this program was in the upgrading of area

public utilities (see map, p. 31 )


The Albuquerque Urban Development Agency (AUDA) took over

the downtown "revitalization in the 1970s. More old, famil-

iar storefronts disappeared, with entire blocks of buildings

being razed to make room for parking lots and new construc-

tion of all kinds: a library, police complex, city hall,

banks, office buildings, convention center and a major hotel

...creating a totally new look in downtown Albuquerque, or

is it downtown Omaha, or...




















































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Figure 22


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\\


00WNTOWN \N RATION

TO PUBLIC RENEWAL

AREAS


ABp of Public Renewal Areas, 1970.
Albuquerque Planning Department,
The Dobwntown Plan, p. 17.




PRESERVATION CASE STUDIES




Map














Erlv~ ~I~~lrl~~ltjoyt-CL~ --d
7b T~ge~Ohl
tr
7'0 ls~Em
Figure 23 Albuquerque: Orientational Sketch, 1976.





Figure 24 Location Map:
A. Old Town
B. Downtown Neighborhood Area
C. Grand Plaza
D. Proposed Railroad Era Historic Zone
E. Huning Highland Neighborhood Area
F. University of New Mexico
G. Kirtland/Sandia Military Reservatio


Source of base map: Albuquerque/Bernalillo
County Planning Department.














ALAMEDA


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I

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--

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NATIONAL


FOREST


Albuquerque and Vicinity January,1976





Location Key for Figures 25 and 26:


a. Alvarado Hotel

b. Downtown YMCA

*c. Charles Ilfeld Building

*d. Kimo Theatre

*e. Occidental Insurance Company Building

f Korber Building

*g. Old Albuquerque High School

*h. San Felipe de Neri Church


*Extant structures.




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Figure 25 Map of Old Town and Downtown Neighborhood Areas, 1976.

Source of base map: Albuquerque/Bernalillo County Planning Department, Zoning Atlas
J-13-Z.







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Figure 26 Huning Highland Neighborhood Area and Proposed Railroad Era Historic Zone.
Source of base map: Albuquerque/Bernalillo County Planning Department, Zoning Atlas, K-14Z.




Old Town



It was with Old Town that Albuquerque's earliest preserva-

tion efforts began. Old Town or Villa de Albuquerque was

left as a slum after the coming of the railroad in 1880.

During the 1940s the old plaza's businessmen began to promote

the economic development of the villa as a tourist attrac-

tion. As a result of these redevelopment efforts, the Plaza

Business Association (PBA) was formed in 1947.23


Major concern over the preservation of Old Town was aroused

in 1952 as a major truck line proposed the construction of

a freight terminal on the east edge of the villa's perimeter.24

In acting to prevent the terminal's construction, the PBA's

stated goal was "not just to protect the plaza for local

businesses, but for its historic value to the whole city

.. "25 The PBA's efforts only delayed the terminal's

construction until the city's east-west freeway alignment

was set just blocks north of the plaza (see map, p. 35 ). With

the rush of industrial and warehousing development along the

freeway, many others became concerned about the future of Old

Town.


Finally, as the culmination of many years of work by the PBA,

the Albuquerque Historical Society and concerned citizens,





1:;
~\t 4


g~

;ic! Fa



``


..
''


`* 't


A~ view~ of the O)ld 'Town p~laza, w\ith San Felipe c~hurch in the blc-kground,
p'hotograp'hed in 19)08.


Figure 27 Fitzpattrick, Albuquerque 100 Years in Pictures,
p. 52.


"
ic)
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3~"1~ ~ s
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-- .c-

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A\s late as the 1940's, Old TIow\n still lookedl like a quiet rurral village.


Figure 28 Fitepatrick, Albuquerque a 100 Years in Pictures,
p. 113.




the City Commission created the H-1 Historic Old Town Zone

as an addition to the city's three-year old comprehensive

zoning ordinance (see Appendix B) in September, 1957.26

The historic zone was established to preserve the general

character and appearance of Old Town and the city's Board

of Adjustment was charged with insuring that new development

in the area was of "the same unique historical and archi-

tectural character as the present establishments."2 In 1968

the Old Town Architectural Review Board was created to ad-

minister the H-1 ordinance.28


In the early years of the Historic Old Town Zone, sign con-

trol, demolition and public education proved to be the most

difficult problems. Trashy signs continually threatened to

destroy the architectural features which created the unique

atmosphere of Old Town. The destruction of the 100-year-old

San Felipe Hotel, in June 1960 (see p. 44 ), demonstrated

another of the ordinance's shortcomings as it failed to ad-

dress the problem of demolition control.29 Through experience

and influenced by the Santa Fe Historic District Regulations,

these difficulties have been dealt with.


The most difficult problem, in the early days as well as today,

is the lack of awareness and support of preservation activity

by the general public.30 The meaningful preservation of any

cultural property, without the support of the people, is al-





'A/b~uquerque,~ /ew Mnex~co
Figure 29 ABp of Old Town Historic, Zone. Albuquerque
I Planning Depa~itment, "Old Albuquerque Historic
Zone"(Arch 1958). (Pamphlet.)


I is


Riob Grgand BouLcenrel


& &u


a


L '


"1





oning LayJ~ Fakils to Save Londowrk
2 960._ lbrac- ce
The century-old San Felipe A
Hotel nerOdTw sa pile
of broken adobes and crumb-.l .
ling boards, probably because '',1
of legislative oversight by~the ;
City Commission. :r
The landmark, on Central .I ?~
between San Pasquale and Rio ,7
Grande NW, which was a social "
center in Albuquerque during G
the Civil WTar, is being. razed. c..rx j~.-4--- ~--J- T pr ~~e~
The city's historic zoning ord- r:;
finance doesn't forbid the de- c,,Lr CfJ~ l1IVn P'.;-LFf
molition. :
SThe building is owned by the .
Mildred M~ichelson Estate. Sat- ; - I
urday afternoon the adminis- ;.j :P I
trator, Leonard Bell, said the
building is being torn down r~-
because the city has~ classified .r .
it as a building hazard. ir a '1
The city's historic zoning law
requires all alterations and ad- ..U,~
editions to buildings in the his-
taric zone be approved by the
zoning board. But it doesn't I
mention destruction or de- r
molition.
Historians and some Old
Town~ Plaza business men re-
gard the demolition as "a i
tragic loss to the city." i
The building was first erect- AW~TER 100 YIEARS: This is how the San months ago, showing that the building, al-
ed in about 1858 or 1860 on the Felipe Hotel near Old Town looked after just though damaged, was still standing. It is
site of another inn. Its early about 100 years. This photo was taken a few being razed because it is a hazard.
history is a bit clouded, but
according to a report by Alan
M~inge, an Albuquerque hiss-'
torian the building may have.
served as a military post prior
to the Civil War. It w~as a .~. .r
hotel in the early 1860's, and '"
also served as a stage coach -
station. .- ."
"It is believed to heav been .' 3 `
visited by such notables as Kit -c h iL ~i..5~~e.~
Carson, Gen. Phil Sheridan I r; r
and Gov. Lew Wallace, author .. ,
of "Ben Hur," and many oth-
ers,'' a recent report by Minge ;*.


+I
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Figure 30 San Fblipe
Hotel .
Albuq nerg ue Journal,
12 June 1960.--


SAN FELIPE TODAY: This pile of bubble is
all that remains today of the century-old
San Felipe Hotel The landmark is being
razed because it is a hazard.-The structure
44


once served as an Inn, a meeting place for
Civil War soldiers and a theater.
(. (Journal photo)
1 4 .


'I 001Year-Old SanMlipe







A se 0 cangesurr~ounds~ -


is e of y~~ tesheday in Plazias

v TIIOWARDP BRYAN~~


Tribune Staff Writer
A2lbuquerqlue, largest city in
New Mlexico, began life more
than twro' and one-hnalf cen-
turies ago as a small village of
Spanish settlers in a wooded'
area "to musket shots cast of-
the Rio Grande."
Time has brought many
changes in the size and ap-
pearance of Albuouerque, in
its grow-th from 30 families to
more than 200,000. inhabitants,
but the scene of the city's
founding in 1706 remains little
changed.
THTE SCENE IS the Old:
Towal Plaza, a quaint and:
charming island of historical
interest surrounded on -all
sides by the hustle and bustle
of the metropolitan city of
which it was the nucleus.
Old Town, designated and
protected as a historical zone,
is situated less than a mile
wecst of the city's main
business district and only a
block north of busy Central
Ave. (Hwry. 6).

OLD TOWIN buildings and
bomes which once served as
the center of AI'ouquerque's
business and social lif'e remain
intact, retaining their old ex-
terior a~pparances to .some
extent but transformed inside -
int~o colorful restaurants, gift
and curio's op and arts' and

In the center of the district
is the. plaza isla
landscaped square with a
band stand in the center, con-
taining bronze plaques com-
memorating some of~ the
highlights: of ~Albuquerque's
history.


I BL7



.


\I


school. It now houses a sneak~.
bar. .
Facing the pl~aza rom the

oftemo t dan 60s eps amd
restaurants of Old Town1, many,
of them wvith portals-shading
brick sidewalks. ,

OTHER SHIOPIS, restaurants
and turqluoise jewelry for sale
streets, or surround sniall pa-
tios which are reached by
sidewralks or lanes. -
Pueblo Indians display silvecr
and tulrquise jew-elry for sale
on brick sidewalks east of the
plaza and usually sell Indian
bread on weekends.
Spanish and folk guitarists
entertain diners at some of the
restaurants.

SOMIE OF THE OLD .Tofn~
shops and restaurants are-
owfned and operated by
descendants of Albuiquerque's
original founding families.
As one of the bronze tablets
on the plaza notes, here is an:
"island of yesterday surround-
by a sea of .change and prsJ
gress." '


dead whEo lay buried in un-
known graves near the plaza.
The roofed bandstand is the
scene of periodic and
sometimes spontaneous enter-
tamnment features.
The plaza is illuminated at
night ~by the soft glow of gas
lamps. : 1

ALBUQUERQUE'S, oldest
Landmark,' the tw~in-steepled
San Felipe de N'eri Catholic


FOUR BRiONZE PLA~QUES. Church, faces the plaza from
flush w\ith the ground in the the north,
wfest edge of the park, provide The adobe-wralled chtirch
a brief outline of Albuouerque dates from the city's founding
history under the flags of 1880, joins the Chturch on the
Spain, M~exico, the Con- present proportions in the
federacy and the UCnited States. 1790's. The doors are usually
Tu-o Civil W'ar cannons, open. .-
buried by retreating Con-.
federate troops in 1852 and THIE SISTER~ BLAN~DINA
later unearthed a short Convent, dating from about
distance northeast of the 1880, joins the hurch on the
plaza, are mounted on un- west, while the even older
dercarriages on the east: side chdlurch rectory stands just to
,pfthe plaza._.,-. .`.:.. L .. .the east: '
Bronze plaques on the Just behind the' convent,
bandstand commemorate the -. facing Romero NW, is.a one-
cit's ouningin 706andpaystory adobe structure whlich
tribute to Confederate war ..housed .Abqeqesfrt





most impossible. The public must be made aware of the value

of its heritage to today's~world, both culturally and economi-

cally.





Progress: 1953-1976






Old Town R~Eain Faces.
hrnvY.~:iirCmwsR-BU U Q HISTO;



SThe threat of heavy industry is cannot be a piecemeal proposition.
bolting close again to A4lbuquer- Ther'efore, If the city stands on
qu' vwo an a half-century-old eaereua aNvapr
*itpac-l -o good case for stut.
Unless the City Commission Association President Dick Ben-
iescinds an action of..]ast year, nett, restaurant proprietor, said
be courts may have to decidehi rcswltyto"rgnz
wheter avao Feigt Lnescanevery group in town" to fight the
Locate a truck terminal at the east terminal locrition.
j:dge of historic- Old Town. Association representatives. said:
Wh nen, Nav-ajo announced its they want to protest the plaza,
plans last year, the commission not just for its local .businesses,
in sym:pathyd with Plaza Business but for its historic C alue to the
c Assn.voe to ~deny the firm a whole city. They said~the plaza'
building' permit for the'terminal. draws 600,000 or more visitors a
SLast week Navajo filed its plans y~ear to Albuquerque.
with the city building division. The Navajo terminal, to cost an
Clhe ,association promptly asked estimated $200,000, is to replace
and w~as granted a hearing before N~avajo's other locations here.
the commission next Tuesday City Building Supervisor WTil-
night. ' jliam T. Stevens said no action
F' Some observers, say, however, will be taken to grant a building
p phat there is no kegal grotind for permit for terminal facilities
Refusing the N'avajo permit. Zon. pending a move by ~the. commis-
e ing might preirent it, but the slo~n,: -_~
a drafting of a zoning ordinance is
six months from completion, ac-
cording to City Planner: I. Dale
IDespain. Furthermore, z on n'g





Hi PIor Ic Zone Crehld3




l'hor City Commission ap- "non-conformingi uses" :of
C~provedrt two major additions to buildings and~structures.
thel city's zoning law Tuesday Under the revi. on, excpan-
mp~ht. slnm`ocae'o extceed 25
.One creates an "H."-historic- per cent--ot" tose' building
zoms dcsignled to preserve the uses whicl' do; not presently
rgeneral character an~d appear- comply with i;oning will be
!nce of the Old Town area. permitted upon approval by
T.:he actuall boundaries of the the adljustment board. Expan-
newIo~ H-zone will b~e Mlountain sion, however, is in no way to
l td. on thle north, Lomas and delay the termination date for
SCe~ntral on the south, Rio nlon-conformingf uses, which is
~randle on the west and San based on the life of the origi-
Pasqluale on the east. I lal, building. ..
o The amendment gives the
Board of Adjustment the task(
aol seeing that new develop-
mrents inl the area~ are of the
somlie "unliaue and historic
,z rchitecturall character" as the
present establishments.
,oThe second zoning ordinance
amendments permits for tihe
first time limited expansion of









































HUNING CASTLE Albulquerque, New Mexico, 1881/3--1955. The most pretentious nineteenth-centuIry
house in New Mexico wvas buiilt for a wealthy merchant. It was constructed of adobe, but the exterior walls
were veneered with wood, framed at the corners by boards beveled to look like stone quoins. Inside, the
ground floor featured a ballroom, off which opened a7 bathroom said to be the fir-st in New Mexcico to be
supplied with running water. Demolished, although at the time th-ere were no plans to build on the site.


Figure 32 Greiff, Lost Americas P* 95.




- --


Y ~I


Y V
Albuq~a~lpue Jounza~l 5 ~Srch 1955
r~;;l r i..-_ -r Tl~-~?.j~-' I~y~C ~~ ~.liLCil- .r~
~ L
r:'C~ ~~. ..
/
~C-!C-- II Iiii Pld~Wr I 1 )'Cr~lT~l~n,,
~ !;1
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~.I.

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' ~7"h
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5~~. ~:*
~- ~
r.- ..: ..775C~~~


I r~


A ulig hc asoeh





llbuiding ,, ,

'' Thopae taigdw of the preatSou
'-' ~ : ent old re brionckfe buidng ata
I~ r Centrhall West ndScond NWwnto
makCe room for a biger bank on

1:~jthe saestean dwi llmr the pend

. . -of a structure which was in its


09

*


-;V~~;`~?42
''~r
:.,Ci. .. ."r-e


~.
.. .. .


''I UTURE, HOMIE OF1 ALBUQUERQUE NATIONAL BANK(: Second NW. This view emphasizes the 205 foot-long side view
Th~is is the architect's drawing of an $800,000 new main Albu-' along Nortb Second. The Central-Copper alleyway will run
r nlerque National Bankl building to be completed in two years. through the first floor. The front will be 75 feet wide, 25
it will be built at thle bankc's Dresent site at Central West and feet more than.at Dresent



AlbUuBqueru Tribund 20 .oJune,1- I. lF95cr


... -! '
I ,.. .






I- ~~ii r.,
~~~ ' ~: :--:.*~



..

.. 1 -q l'
ii~~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~ -' :r j~~o~, qs: 4
TAKE A LOO ATti eta v.lnmrk uligdrcl ot n eod oke ilsa
yo o' e eii muh10er It ite l eoihn hsstutr n h ulm ote
Albuuerue Ntioal Bnk uildng t Cntra an rigt t mak wa fo thesecnd uit f~th inti~
Secnd As soo ash akoe o-isnw, uins osrcinporm (eggt .o


glory in the 1800s~ and early
1900s.
SBut the old building still has
about a year to go before its i
razed..
To Begin July 1
Construction of the new Al.
'buquerque National Bank build
ing will begin about July 1.~ B3u
it will be built~ in two stages witt
the first section being built nort"
of the Central-Copper alleyway
After this section is completed
the old building will come down
The old building wits corn-
pleted in 1891 and opened in
1892 by Charles Zeiger as Zeig
er's Saloon and Gambling House.
Club and gambling rooms occu-
pied the second floor. The first
floor was the saloon.
The basement of the building
still bears scars made by huge
whiskey barre's once stored
there.
The new home of the bank--a
modernistic three-story building
with full basement will be
constructed of yellow brick,
Granite and aluminum,
President Fred Luthy said.
It will have a 75-foot frontage
'on Central West, 25 .feet more

xen er2 5 teet aong ior
scnd* with an alley running
thrugh the first floor of the
biding.




















SONAM M R : hseaoat 82b oaIfl.I i ob e
-resdec at S23 Cope NW wsihdb teSrn ein
consider th mos elgnthmei hi ee orepnso~o zCu
Aluqeru following~- its ercto in fclte_ Safpo








dec at 823 Coppe NW onfom BrailqCut
wil be!: bu eoy pahadd te blpse
: Te-ag rc-hmoc i 97 hc ulwdgm
cosdre h m s leatin e Meic ." ela
riv e home:: in.; A~lb urue served asapoae ug ee





hi h hasL bee vaat r De o ition of' th historic i j~:
in cuols Fanc wodcry Ttuto o Testw o



Built in; 189


189 byNoa IfeldRY for his lbrt Sib 'a Ifl. ti'ob~e
brnide rs. Heen mScutz legn 'e i ~i ~e o saso~fFzCu


Mr. Ifeldand a~ brother




the Ilfe ld brohe- center thedec
shee vitran wool b ines witli ug~s lce t h lbqe~e rbn
q Mr.ue and Mrs. Ilfeld occui-Jaed Hueo lpc-naic 1O t 97
th eie ircet82 fo ma ny yeasonlrs, BrailqCu~ n
uilln smr bi~t in Walter-. jrahae th hlnn.s,







L".' T29



i


:.; T: .~
.*
I
i: 7 ..e '''' '1 :..i
." .(.


The old Bernalillo County
courthouse building in .Old
'Iown, which now houses the
San Felipe School, may soon
become a thing of ,the past.
The Rev. Joseph Malldy S.J.
pastor of the,, San Felipe de
Neri Church' on the plaza, said
today that' the old building
may be demolished following
erection of a new elementary
school in thle vicinity..
Rev. Mlalloy said that pre-
liminary plans have been
drawn for erecting a new Sanl
Felipe elementary school build-
ing on Old Town property now,
used by La Hacienda Restau;
rant for a parking lot. It will
be about two months before
these plans' are completed, he~
said. --'
Wfhen the new school is com-
pleted, Rev. Malloy said, the
old courthouse' building prob-
ably~would be torn dowin and
the site used as a school play-
ground.
SThe historic stone building
ivas built in the early 1880O's to
replace a small adobe court-
house near the plaza, and serv-
)ed as Bernalillo County's
courthouse until 1926 when the
present courthouse was erect-
ed downtown.

Albuauersue Tribune,
1 rosy 1958


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LANDMAI~RK PASSING: Historic San Felipe thle old building. The building, erected ii
School, Lomas and Central W, is being 1886, once served as the Bernalillo Count!
demolished to make room for a play.-ground Cto rthou e --Ctf Poto)
for the new San Felipe School, just north of ..11)N~i~ 9 '90


Albuquerque Journal, 8 June 1959*





SFigure 35 Old Bernalillo County Courthouse


52


5 .( 1 T -,

May Demo l I


.






















:~FS~r.~II. ;
r. -

~ n. - -
LANDARKTO SAPEAR Th th sit clare fo posibl fuure
Whitin Buliga eon n od dvlomn.I ne osdofc
SW, an. Aluuru lanmar sic fW l a- ndC.(tf ht)
189 will be de oise ti fl ad
Figure~~~~~' 36WiigBidn.Ab:eqeTiue u.16.


I-- - II -- -
II I '"slrP~spl~sle~*li~~i~W~,;~;~u&; ~O. ~t~b~id;~"~l~,'-~;~LBtr~l~g~~sl~l~i~6;ss Y_~


!o 0 Dsappear Soon

By IIOW.1RD B3RYAN the Whiting Building when it
The- Whitiiing Building, a wvas comrple~ted and occupied
Isn.1m.lk of Downt~rr os.*.n Albu. quasrters at '0; S Secorndl
cluerouc fo~r mo:ire than 701 L.T. Delaney, local mna-I~
,,~ ,I~ ~.* I1 be- Ii.l irn don so~on. Mrr of thle teleerap~h afiiee
Thel~ rl..'o-s tonl-, builldnL' on rnalde the move vastho~:ur cl-~n-
th. outh'.*.est. c.:.arn,-r of Cold sulting his super:Jr3, and :*.asj
.~nl St..~:.:nd Sl'.' Is o -.ned b:, a'most~ fi~redl as a resultl. Hie
,-,,,uc.1sts ntl..!d r Cas~se t.:. Ical) her mnth.qsie
B~lanca Bar on the gr 011n Cl Sui-psun's Pawvn Shop was
floor, and the Selvia Hotel on located on the ground floor of
the second floor, the building at the turn of
The building will be demo-t cnuya20S.S-
lished this fall and the site I a eeta luur
clere fo pssilefutreque gamblers pawned their
development- diamonds after suffering gam-
Started in 1889 bling losses. The business la-
Construction of the building ter was sold to Hlenry Yanow,
wa~s started in 1889 by Calvin who in turn sold it to his
Whiting, a local real estate nephew, Frank Mindlin, who
m~an and Architect who served converted it into a jewelry
on a member of the Albuquer- store and moved it to Cen-
000 Town Couincil* Itral Ave.
When Mr. Whiting ran into a a fie
* financial difficulties, he wvas OfieofteEuabeLe
assisted in the financing and Assurace Soet of the Unitbl it-
Omn~ e n0f el u n bed States were located at the
pulrchased Whiting's interest. nf cnu llg
The Whiting Duilding was Wle akus a h

1herte thanhrs Conra Av.,wa
the orinc I~incal east es Soeaw ficsaoo-

Val~dnn's Dru g Store, orlb- e h a'atrhp fCl
Vann ouccupited part of the Coll h csier and ON M rron)an
groud foorof he uilin eders o aivnd Wilkebson (Ed
at~e that tie..alAv. ward;" L.:" Mele a ho
WellsSom Farg Ofices IN.o Wikeso)

years ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ue one thegrond floor ofCrctn prmnet h lu
the bufildingr adth 211 te SSeofiltnd. querque autor .h t
SThe Wey' bstner Und ion tele- etuy heeinld
graph' ofie whic originally ie a'prerhpso Cl
hadin be locatped acr oss the/CliradON rarn n
streetd fon the shen fulinjloor of ilesn E











If the AlvaradolIlotel comnplex Raskob, Frank A.4. Mapel, O car
is demolished, it will be don Love, Dr. E'ldred Halrrington,
only after Albuquerque has ex- Richard G. Worthen, George
hausted all efforts to save the Pearl and M~rs. Huth Armstr-ong,.
historic structures. They w~ill meet with city
Seven Allbuquerqucans have commissioners at 4 p m. M~on-
been appointed by the City lday to discuss procedures, and
Commission to study ways to elect a chairman,
save the Alvarado. They arel Santa Fe Railwvay officials
called the Committee for the have announced that the
Preservation of the Alvarado- Alvarado will be closed
Santa Fe Complex. Thursday, but have indicated
Memribers Listed that they are at last willing to
Appointed wecre ~Be~n~G, discuss possible ways of keeping
it in existence.
Part of Future
The City Planning Department
Albuquerqlue Tribune, 20 Dec. 196 qs been toiling for months over
plans for making the historic
hotel a part of downtown Albu-
querque's future.
M~rs. Maria Blachut, stresses
the importance of maklhing the
A4lvar-ado a "living part of the
downtown business com-
munity."
M~rs. Blachut sees the central
structure which now contains
dining facilities and some guest
rooms as the focal point
around which any plan for
preserving the Alvaradog must
be built.
Preserve Central Panrt
";It is a must to preserve this
cc-ntral part," M~rs. Alachut
said. "Then w~hatever new
stlructur~e is tied in with it will
have so~mething no other
business in this tow\n can have."
One plan she suggests is that a
now hot d also tobhe named the
Alvaraldo be built on the site
now occupied by the Young
Mo~n's Christian Association and
connected to the old Alvarado by
a covered wralkwcay over Central
Avenue.
Sentientntl Landlmark
Whether it is this or so~me other
plan that the committee finds
attractive, they w'ill confer with
Santa Fe officials, represen-
tatives of the Albuqluerque Goals
Program, the City Planning
Department, Model Cities Pro-
gram, Urban Renewal Agency
and other groups, to try to keep
the sentimental landmark a part
of AIlbuquerque.
The Commission auibhor-ized the
city manager to draft a letter to
the president of Santa Fe
Railwray announcing appoint-
ment of the committee and ask;-
ing the Santa Fe to work wfith its
members.











Us hads


bay


By LAUZTRA JAMlITAIAN
Tribune Staffl Wlriter .
Thle officials of the Santa Fe
Railway tak~e the position that
Albuquerque's Alvarardo H~otel is
not w'orth saving, that it is a
"fire trap" sind "somebody is
wasting a lot of people's time"
in trying to save it,
Th~ese comments from Santa
Fe vice president George V.
Cox drew the ire of some mem-
bPess f the prestigious Narado
including Oscar M~. Lo ve w-ho
argued w~ith Mir. Cox over the
amount of money mentioned as
a sales price for the land on
wtich the Alvarado stands.
s1.5 Mlillion Valule
Cox mentioned a figure of
$1.5 million as being aboutt
right" for the land and Mir. Love
said the price had gone up
$500,000 in the past week.
Lov~e said that Santa Fe
president John Reed had told
"one of my close friends" that
the price would be 51 mlillionn. He
identified the friend as Lobert
O. Anderson of Roswefll w-ho at-
tended last wreek's meeting of
the committee.
Cox disputed this statement>
saying, "I don't believe th:at Mlr.
Reed quoted a price." Bult he
offered to "take back an offer of
$1 million."
'Not That Crazy'
"'I don't know anyone in
Albuquerque that's that crazy,"
Love replied..
Richard Worthnen, who heads
the interior decorating depart-
rnent of American Furniture
Co., wras appointed chairman of
the A 1 arado Pre'servation
Committee and presided at
yesterday's session in City H~all.
M~r. Worthen called for a
report by committee member
George Pecarl, wiho headed an
American Institute of
Architects' (AIA) investigation
team which did a hurried
inspection and appraisal of the
Alvarado last week.
'W~ell Designed'
M~r. Pearl said the Albuquer-
que chapter of AIA, w~hichn
donated its time to the appraisal
effort, found the building to be
"w~ell designed and well con-
st~ructed."
This opinion is not shared by
Santa Fe architects who Cox
said had~ Dronounced~ thp


Alvarado unsound and not worth
rehabilitating,
"There's g oin g txo be a fire
there the likes of which has
never b-en seen in Albulquer-
que," Cox said in discussing t~e
fire hazard.
MIr. Pearl agreed that there is
a fire hazard bcuause of some
dead end halls, but offered the
opinion that the central building
is structurally sound and can be

me eaur satten a club'eorasoma
other similar use -
Stulrdy Braces
He said the.architects do not
recommend use of the Alvar~ado
as a residential structure, either
as a botel or as an apartment
type residence.
ire s~howred committee mem-
hers sketches sh~owijng sturdy
braces. w-hich the architects
discovered in ex:amining the
chming roomn portion of the hotel.
n is this "railroad trcstle
i~e" brngo uhch ans th
Pearl said.
S a Square Foot
Ile estimated that the co~st of
making the Alvarado safe for
continued use at $10 a square
foot. Pear1 said there are 46,000
sauare feet in thle central struc-
ture, built in 1?102.
Cox opposed a deilay in maki-
ing some decision on purchasing
the Alvarado land, but ap-
parentlJ: agreed to consider a


requelst for a "reasonable"
delay if Albuouerqlue fill
assume the burden of fire and
police protection, and agree to
pay a prroportiornate amount of
some lease rate which "would
probably be about 10 per cent of
thle purc~hac prices annualUy."
Top Staff People
City Commiss~Fion Chairman
Pete Domecnici a~ssurecd Cox that
the committee w~ill "have the
help of top city stlaf people" and
speed up dlecisions on the pro-
posed course of action Albu-
querque will take writh regard to
the .lvarado.


Albusuerque Tribune, 20 June 1970, p. Al.


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Sa:.~vo rt i g,.Ra ~





Thee Passing of thle gAlv/agdo

It is always sad to lose a ban k s. .. Mlary Pickford...
friend. : Gloria Swanson. ..Caesar
Romenro. .names fading swiftly
And Albuquerque will lose a now in the mists of time
friend of long standing when the
For many years the "in" thing
venerable Alvarado Hotel closes to do in Albuquerque was go
its doors early next year. down to the brick w~alk and see
The handsome old hotel has who got off the trains.
come to be as much a part of And meanwhile, Albuquerque
Albuquerque as Old Town or the society dined in elegance in the
Sandia Mountains, a monument Alvarado Dinling Room, and once
of aristocratic grace. a year danced the varsoviana at
From the very day it opened, the Montezuma Ball. Proof that
on May' 11, 1902, the hotel the Alvarado still is the city's
became a center of Albuquerque social center is the fact that
social life. It still is. w~hen the Montezuina Ball w5as
revived a few years ago, the
"I'll meet you at the setting. was the same the
Alvarado," has become a stan- Alvarado.
dard phrase among Albuquer-
queans over the years. And at the 1969 ball, no less a
It: Y ~personage th~an Conrad Hilton
himself did the varsoviana in its
Those gray stucco walls are ballroom.
most surely haunted by history. 4 4 4
In the early days the black- But with all of that, it appears
skirted Harvey Girls were still that the passing of the passenger
very much a part of the era on the railroad has also
Southw-estern landscape. And in ended t~he economic reason for
the Alvarado dinling room and such hotels. It is significant that
Jun~ch room-, on spotless linen, the Alvar~ado is the last H~arvey
they served up thousands of House on the Santa Fe still
delicious meals to hungry rail operating to serve train
travelers. passengers.
SThe hotel witnessed the rise It was only last year that wve
and also the fall of passenger witnesses' the death of The Chief,
trains in America. And as the one of the Alvarado's great
great black locomotives roared companions over the years.
West with crack trains like the
Chief, they brought with them Both were symbols of an ora
the great and near great of the swiftly passing, both victims of a
era. people's passion for speed in the
jet age.
A lot of them stepped off those
trains to stroll the "brick walk" We mourn the passing of the
by the hotel, or to spend an hour Alvarado.
or a day enjoying the comforts at Albuquerque will never see her
the hotel. like again. Her death will leave a
The names read like a Wh~o's yawning gap that the jet age can
~Who. Names like Douglas Fair- never fill.








































































Figure 38 Victorian home in the Huning Hlighlands area. Albuquerque Journal,
25 hriy 1969, p. Ai.


LS~i~. sABUDECKcE
Arno, WalterT, Edith -
all are streets narrged after
children of Arno Huning
and all, in th~e 1890's, were
in Albuguerque's' niost elite
section. ~ :. ' .- I.;6:I
Today these streets are part
of the Model Neighborhood, the
area wpith the city's highest
concentration of ~substandard
housing, poor public facilities;
dropouts and the unemployed.
"IN THE BEGINNING it was
the elite' part. of town," says
Walter Bambrook, who was
born at 718 Arno `SE. "Mly
grandfather built this bouse in
1890 and most of the houses
around here belonged to
railroad workers.and
businessmen."; :
M~rs. Ruth Armstrong, a
member of the Albuquerque
Historical Society, said Huning,
who owned much of the land
east of the railroad tracks,
began to subdivide it, but was
told "The town'll never grow
east of the tracks.- it will grow
toward Old Town." -

The advice proved \roong and
the section east of the tracks
became the'hoine of such peo-
ple as Tom Hugbes, a
newspaperman and onetime
owner .of the Journal, former
Gov. Tom Mabry, former Con-
gressman E.S. (Johnny) Walker
and the Schifani family.'
HOUSES IN*- THE area
represent various styi~es -of
Victorian architecture, ac-
~cording to Joe McI~inney, a
member of the University of
New Mlexico architect's staff.
"The Victorian' era lastedd
from the Civil War to 1893,"

blcseinneatureed turts, gable
and gingerbread. We know of
one architect, a man named
Wheelockr, who designed many
'Continued on A-12


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VICTORIAN ERA: Home~s like thisl.;i vias 01i~e most elite in' the city then
in the Albuquerque Model Cities area :and featured hornes with turret-s like
were built in the Victorian era of this one, gables and ginger~bread
the late 19th "century. The section .. 'tirir. (Journal photo by Ray Cary) .






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The Franciscan H-otel, (I
Albuqluerque's plush hokc
a bygone era, will closed
business Oct. 5.
Demolition of the buildhl
Sixth and Central NWm w0i
gin after the first of the ye
.Once the home awray
home for many of the w.
celebrities, the Frane
was once considered "thle
w:tlcring hole" bcet
Ok~lahoma City, and
Angeles.
'Place to Go'
It vied with the Al~v
Hotel, demolished earlier
year, as "the place to
w-hen passing through
querque. .
Built in 1925, the Fran!
Hotel reserved a sui
rooms for the Duke of
querque, Spaiin, for a noi
of years.
Mlany of the greatest
bands of the "big band'
played music for Albi
que's social set id' the
ballroom, said H. B. (W!
od forme'" r managr Ioe
Big Bands
M~r. Wood said many
querqucans will rem
dcng gto ehe musi j1
Dorsey brothers, Guy
bardo and Glenn Gray's
Loma Orchestra:
"It's quite sad to so
passing of the Francis-
Wood said.
"alany Albuquerquear
day still remember
their w-edding receptior
their parents
gra ndparents' annive
parties at the botel," be i
` Saloon Opens


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SYMBPOL OF ~IUBYPGON DAYS: The lFrnciscan
Hotel, once a. home awray from hlome for the
famous s and not so famous, has weathered the.
!cst of time. But now the hotel at Sixcth and
Central NW, a plush hostelry in it~s heyday, is
coming'down. .H-otel offiCials say the hotel will
close for business Oct. 5 andl the Indian pueb~lo-
, style edifice will be torn down after t~he first
of t~he year.

Figure 39 The Franciscan Hotel. Albuquerque Journal,
5 Sept. 1970, P* Ai*


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By RAP H OIT
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e~'r's heavyi "headache~ ball" a shattering .of con-'; which has stood for many years at' Central and ('-Wreckers' are nearing 'th~e :end of: their job
ofoptp and naster aRnd another section of the?- Sixth NW~T iC: binrr demolishedl after beinor declared~' des-tnrution.































13~sr~i-~8~


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The Y.MI.C.A. at First and Central was a popular domicile for young
Albuquerque newcomer-s for many years. T`he photo was made in 1943. This building
has been razed and is being replaced by a newv one at Broadwvay and Tijeras.


Fitepatrick, Albuquerqlue a 100 Years in Pictures, p. 111.


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8.4 ALBUQUERQUE~ JOURnNAL Thu sday, October 3, 1974 '


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: Demolition crews, over the weekend, leveled the old downtown YMCA\
building at First and Central N'E a building that served Albuquerque
more than 60 years. Built as a result of a $75,000 fund drive in 1914, the
r .32,000-square-foot structure was first known as the A~tchinson, .Topeka
and Santa Fe YMCAZ because of its wide use by railroad crews. The first

~H~n~ ~ng-cornerstone was laid in 1915 resulting in a gym, swimming pool, bowling
11alley and 65 residence rooms. On Sept. 13, the YMCA moved from the
building to the old Albuquerque High School so as to allow Urban Renew-
p al.to demolish the structure. A~lbuquerque H-igh School's old gym and
-Le e~el* 'locker rooms and a new 10,000-square-foot building under construction
at Broadway and Tijeras.NEI will serve as the new quarters for the
YMCA. (Journal Photo by Ray C~ary)
Figure 41 Downtown YMCA Building. Albuquerque Journal, 3 Oct.1974C, Bll.



































































Figure 42 Charles Ilfeld Building. Albuquerque Journal, 15 my 1974, p. A2.


SALBUQUERQUE JOURNAL ::Wednesday, May; 15, 1974 : : ;


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1 5-1 The ol IledwrhueinAbqeqe hchwsdmgdb
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Figure 43 The Korber Building. Albuquerque Tribune, 31 Jan. 1975, p. At6.


.C ~ The Albuluerq~u TLr~ibune, Frida~iy, Januaiy 31, 1975


Korber5~ Bulig oma


S By SANDY GRAHAM
Tribune Staff W~riter .-
An Albuquerque landmark since the
turn of the century, the Korber Build-
ing, Second and Copper NWY, will be
torn down Saturday, a First National
Bank official announced Thursday.
David G. Livingston, chairman of
the First National Bank board of direc-
tors, announced here that although
the bank hoped to save the historic
structure renovation would cost more
than 51.3 million. -.:,-

"THE ONLY REASON the 'Kor~ber ~
Building wasn't torn down long ago -
along with other buildings on First and ,
Second Streets as part of the Urban
Reneival project -was because we
made the effort to save it,"~ Mr. Liv-
ingston said.
"Hiowrever, every repdrt to us and
the Urban Dev~elopment Agency says
the building is structurally unsound,"
he continued.
Livingston cited a study made by
Dale I. Crawf~ord, an ,Albuquerque
architectural,' planning ~and design
consultant, which said the building "is
in such poor state of repair, is struc-
turally unsound in many areas, and
would require such extensive renova-
tion. . that the building is not worth
the high cost of saving and rendovat-
ing.'.'. .- . 1 E

THE BOARD PRESIDENT said the
Crawfiord report w~as received by the
bank about a year ago and still wrays to
save the building wiere sought.
"W5e have probably the nation's out-
standing restoration architectural
firm in Harry Wieese and Associates
.but we still had to face the hard
facts of reality that because of its sad
condition and poor structural sound-
ness, the cost would be prohibitive to
just bring the building back to mini-
mal standards, let alone try to develop
it as originally planned," Livingston
said. ...

SKYROCK;ETING construction costs .
have pushed the estimated costs of
renovating the building to minimal
'standards to more than $1.3 million,
and costs are still rising, Livingston
said. ; .
For example, it would cost at least
S300,000 to strengthen the foundation


just to keep the building from collaps-
ing.
Culby Keene, vice president of J.
Korber and Company, said he "felt
rather bad"' from a nostalgic point of
views about the K~orber Building's
pending destr-uction.
BUT, HIE ADDED,, "I realize it's an
older building and i~t's probably more
expensive tosave itthan totear it
down and build something new."
Mh~r. Keetne said the origins of the
building are difficult to trace. Hle at-
tempted to do so w~hen asked for infor-
mation several years ago, "but records
just weren't too good back thien."
He estimated the first part of the
Korber Building the part still stand-
in g was built be tween 1900 a nd

A912BOUT 10 YEARS later, tw~o other
additions were built, connected to the
Original structure by hallw~ays in the
upper floors.
A real estate mann in Albuquerque
estimated that the building wvas con-
structed around 1904 by a sheep
rancher from Los Lunas and an Albu-
querque banker.
SIt wr~as called the Luna-Strickler
Building, he said, and its earliest ten-
ants were a skating rink, a life insur-
ance office and the Internal Revenue
Service.
After that, the real estate agent said,
Korber's business mov~ed in.
The Crawford report, also hampered
by incomplete or nonexistent records,
estimated the first part of the building
was constructed between 1890 and
1900, with additions coming in 1920.
K~eene said Jacob K~orber, great-
grandfather of the coinpany's cur-rent
president, "w~as involved from the be-
ginning"? with the Korber B~uildinji.
JACOB'S GRANDSON, Jack, told'
The Tribune his father did not build
the structure, but bought it from
someone else. At one time, he recalled,
the Veterans Administration wraS
housed there. '
Through the years, the first floor of
the building housed the Korber fami-
ly's furniture, hardware and house-
wvare and sporting goods businesses as
wvell as its Dodge car dealership,
Iene 1956, lgS~the~ family closed out all but
its hardwFare and electrical supply
business..


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For over twenty years articles like those on the preceding

pages have been common in Albuquerque's newspapers as one

downtown revitalization plan after another demonstrated its

prowess at progress by pulverization, and landmark after

landmark has been eliminated.




The Alvarado Hotel


One of Albuquerque's finest architectural treasures of the

past was the Alvarado Hotel, built by the ATSF in 1901. The

Alvarado complex possessed many of the characteristic fea-

tures derived from the California Mission Revival style and

the Spanish-Indian Revival.style which was just becoming

popular in New Mexico.31 The adjacent depot, offices, gift

shop and restaurant were joined together in design by arched

arcades at ground level and were further unified by their

rough stucco wall surfaces, plain uncluttered decoration, and

projecting parapets and towers.


In May, 1969, only months before its demolition by the ATSF,

the Alvarado was placed on the New Mexico Register of Cultur-

al properties and recommended for inclusion on the National

Register of Historic Places.32 At that time, the State Cul-

tural Properties Review Committee (CPRC) noted the building's

importance as a "landmark in the development of New Mexico

architecture .. [and was] closely representative of the

attitudes and times in which it was built."33


The story of the loss of the Alvarado is another tale of too

little, too late.' Although the Alvarado Hotel and its adjacent

station were long considered a vital part of any revitalization













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ALVARADo HOTEL Albu-
querqueC New Mexico, 1902-19)70,
Charles F. Whittlesey. One of the
greatest of the country's railroad station-
hotels was planned in the Chicago
office of the Atchison, Topeka and
Santa Fe, with the management turned
over to the ubiquitous Fred Harvey.
In a suitable gesture to the Southwestern
setting, the style was Spanish Mission,
comnbin~ed with elements of the more
regionalized "Pueblo" or "Santa Fe"
style. The complex included not just
dining rooms and sleeping accommoda-
tions, but landscaped courtyards and
shopping arcades, including a famlous
salesroom for Indian artifacts. When
plans to destroy it were announced, the
local chapter of the AIA offered to do
Ictural evaluations without fee, as
II as studies aimed at determining
future uses permitting retention of the
building as an integral part of
Albuquerque's downtown. The site is
now a parking lot.


Figure 44 Alvarado Hotel, circa
1903. Greiff, Lost
America, p*214.




of downtown Albuquerque, no program had been instituted to

insure the building's preservation. Further, when it became

apparent, in mid-1969, that the Alvarado, still owned by

the ATSF but lying in the path of Albuquerque's latest urban

renewal proposal, faced probable demolition, the city made

no move to negotiate to save it.


As the reality of demolition loomed closer, more and more

people realized the importance of the Alvarado. Not only was

its location, at First Street and Central Avenue (see map,

p. 38 ), the heart and focus of Railroad Albuquerque, but it

was in itself an indispensable architectural source for the

unique sense of place which Albuquerque has inherited.


A group of concerned citizens and civic leaders asked ATSF

officials to postpone demolition until it was determined what

role the Alvarado might play in the redevelopment of down-

town.34 The local chapter of the American Institute of Ar-

chitects performed a structural evaluation of the structure,

finding the building to be structurally sound; prepared cost

estimates for repairs, and formulated recommendations for the

adaptive use of the facility.35


City government finally got into the picture when, in Septem-

ber of 1969, the Chairman of the City Commission reiterated

the earlier plea for the ATSF to hold off demolition plans




until it was determined if the hotel could fit into the

downtown renewal plan.36


The ATSF offered to sell the property, appraised at 600,000

dollars, to the city for 1,500,000 dollars or to delay

demolition at a cost to the city of 5,000 dollars per month.37

It became obvious that, even though the ATSF had no plans

for the site, other than a parking lot, the railroad was

not willing to cooperate in any attempt to preserve the struc-

ture.


In December of 1969, the City Commission appointed the Alvar-

ado Preservation commission (APC) in an attempt to find a way

to save the building. The APC's first suggestion was that

the railroad donate the building to the city in exchange for

a sizable 1.5-million-dollar tax write-off.3 The railroad

was not interested in such an exchange and soon the ATSF was

being accused of forcing the property and its adjacent prop-

erties into the urban renewal area so that a higher value for

the property could be appreciated.39


Next the APC proposed the establishment of a historic zone

for the area to insure the preservation of the Alvarado as

well as several contiguous blocks of railroad-era structures

in the immediate area. The zone (see map, p. 38 ), as pro-

posed, would have included land one block west of the rail-




road tracks, between Central Avenue and Lead Avenue, and

two blocks west of the railroad tracks, between Gold Avenue

and Lead Avenue.4


Opposition to the establishment of such a zone came from

many directions. The railroad's attorneys argued that the

proposed zoning would constitute the taking of property

without just compensation.41 Potential developers argued

that the restrictions of such zoning would impossibly encumber

any development of the property. The most devastating blow

to the proposal came from the city's Urban Renewal Director,

who urged against the establishment of the historic zone

because such a zoning change would delay approval of the

city's pending urban renewal project by the federal govern-

ment, as the blocks adjacent to the Alvarado were slated

for inclusion in the renewal project.42


G. W. Cox, Vice President of the ATSF, contended through the

whole Alvarado nightmare that his engineers had found the

building to be structurally unsound and that it was "a fire

trap and somebody is wasting a lot of people's time in try-

ing to save it."43


Even after demolition began, in February of 1970, the city

attempted to rent the complex's central structure but, by this

time the ATSF had withdrawn its rental offer.





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Figure 45 Demolition of the Alvalrado Hotel. p. 19
"The Alvarado Hotel, New Mexico Arichitecture (Vay-
June 1970).








Figure 46 Elevation of the Alvarado
Hotel. "The Alvarado Hotel,f
New Mexico Architecture
(Nov.-Dec. 196~9).


Ofa Y T PT




The APC, in a last-ditch attempt to save the building,

called a public meeting, appealing to the entire community

to show their support of the preservation effort. Only 200

of the city's 350,000 citizens answered the appeal.4 One

of the members of the APC remarked, "If there ever was a

building in Albuquerque worth saving, it was the Alvarado."45

To us who knew the Alvarado, its loss was like the passing

of an old friend.




The Downtown Neighborhood Association


The city's Policies Plan (see Appendix C), adopted in April

1975, states in part that "selected buildings and areas,

which explain our past and give Albuquerque identity, indi-

viduality and cultural richness, should be preserved."46 The

attitudes in city government, which gave rise to this pol-

icy, owe much to the preservation activity of the Downtown

Neighborhood Association (DNA).


Few sections of Albuquerque can compete with the DNA neighbor-

hood which lies between downtown and Old Town (see map, p.37 ),

with its older homes, quiet, tree-lined streets, wide side-

walks and generous setbacks. Over the years the mix of

people, occupations, languages and cultures of the neighbor-

hood's residents have been reflected in its architectural

variety. Victorian, bungaloid and adobe structures stand

side by side, each street having a character of its own. The

neighborhood is close enough to downtown offices and shops,

neighborhood markets, and Old Town, that pedestrian and bi-

cycle travel are convenient.


In 1974, four hundred of the neighborhood's fifteen hundred

residents joined together to form the DNA, a non-profit cor-

poration, with their goal "to preserve and enhance the quality




of urban life which seems to be rapidly disappearing in

Albuquerque."4 Many of the homes in the area, though

basically sound structures, were showing early signs of the

lack of maintenance and deterioration. The overall quality of

public services and amenities, from broken sidewalks and

paying to parks, was diminishing as well.


The first major advances made by the DNA were the establish-

ment of a rapport with the City Planning Department and the

cooperative rezoning of the neighborhood in 1975 (see Appen-

dix D). Earlier in 1975 much of the area, mostly single-family

dwellings, had been rezoned for office and commercial develop-

ment. The new area plan, developed by the DNA and the City

Planning Department, is a sensitive scheme which reflects an

effort to promote redevelopment of badly deteriorated areas,

while protecting stable single-family residential areas. In

the scheme, buffers of mixed residential and neighborhood

commercial development surround single-family areas to pro-

tect them from residential/commercial and high-density apart-

ment intrusion.


A basic handicap to the neighborhood's rehabilitation was

the difficulty residents encountered in obtaining mortgages

and home improvement loans. This obstacle was overcome by

the establishment of the Neighborhood Housing Service (NHS)

in 1975. Part of a nationwide program, instituted by the




Urban Reinvestment Task Force, the NHS is a local, non-profit

corporation, made up of representatives of the DNA and local

financial institutions.48


Conceived as a means to increase lending by financial insti-

tutions in neighborhoods in the early stages of decline and

deterioration, the NHS provides rehabilitation loans, at

flexible rates, to residents not qualifying for loans from

traditional lending institutions. The loans are made from

a High Risk Loan Fund, established through contributions and

grant money from the city of Albuquerque.49




The Huning Highlands Neighborhood Association


The Huning Highlands neighborhood recently began to organize

its own rehabilitation program. This area (see map, p. 38 ),

including the residential development on Arno, Walter and

Edith Streets, was Albuquerque's most elite neighborhood in

the 1890s, with houses belonging to railroad workers and busi-

nessmen.50 Now the area has one of the city's highest con-

centrations of substandard housing and deteriorating public

facilities. Most houses in the area were built in the 1890s

or early 1900s, in various styles reflecting the Victorian

influence of the day. Many of these residences, with turrets,

gables and gingerbread, are in sound structural condition.


In 1969, with the neighborhood included in the Albuquerque

Model Cities Program (see map, p. 31 ), the local chapter of

the American Institute of Architects sponsored a Community

Design Center (CDC) in cooperation with VISTA and the Univer-

sity of New Mexico Department of Architecture. The CDC's

goal was to help the people in the Huning Highlands and Mar-

tineztown neighborhoods to develop a successful rehabilita-

tion program. The CDC met with little success and the area

continued on its downhill slide. Today, about 80 percent of

the buildings in Huning Highlands are substandard rental

units. 51




Encouraged by the progress made in the last two years by the

DNA, the landowners and residents of Huning Highlands are in

the process of forming the Huning Highlands Neighborhood Asso-

ciation in an attempt to pull their neighborhood back together.





1975 Housing Market and Policy Survey


The Albuguerque/Bernalillo County Planning Department is

currently in the process of selecting two sites for an ini-

tial direct public action redevelopment program. One of

the site selection recommendations, made by the consultant

firm of Hammer, Siler, George Associates (HSG) in its 1975

Housing Market and Policy Survey (see Appendix X), has

attracted the interest of preservationists and developers.

The site, now occupied by the old Albuquerque High School,

is located one block east of the railroad tracks, on Central

Avenue (see map, p. 38 )


The Albuqluerque High School site is large enough to accomo-

date proposed new residential development, and the 1920s

Collegiate Gothic school buildings are being studied for

residential redevelopment, with ground-level shops and serv-

ices.




The Charles Ilfeld Building


The Charles Ilfeld Building is at the end of a long list

of Albuquerque structures slated for the wrecking ball.

The 1910 Ilfeld Building is not a beautiful building. Many

more impressive buildings have been lost in Albuquerque, but

this railroad era warehouse, located one block north of

Central Avenue on First Street (see map, p. 38 ), is import-

ant for two reasons. First, it is the first major reinforced

poured concrete building in the region and is an excellent

example of early concrete construction.52 Second, the Ilfeld

Building, with its 54,000 square feet of great unobstructed

spaces and two-story galleries, stands in a pivotal position

in the downtown area, only one and one-half blocks from the

city's new convention center, and within six blocks of the

entire downtown business, banking, governmental and hotel

complex. 53


When the Charles Ilfeld Hardware Company announced it was

closing in 1970, after 105 years in business, the Albuquerque

Urban Development Agency (AUDA) acquired the building for

145,000 dollars.54 The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Rail

Road (ATSF) retained ownership of the property and, after

the building stood vacant for three years, the AUDA planned
















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Figure 47 Entrance of the Charles Ilfeld Building.
Building in Albuquerque, p.11.




to demolish the structure (a requirement for relinquishing

its lease on the building).55. The site would revert back

to the ATSF, to be used as a parking lot.56


When plans for the demolition of the warehouse were announced

by the AUDA, interest was aroused in the structure's redevelop-

ment potential as a commercial center similar to san Francis-

co's Ghirardelli S.quare. After preliminary studies of the

structure's economic potential and revitalization impact on

downtown, the city became interested in the possibility of

purchasing it.


Studies conducted by a graduate student at the University of

New Mexico revealed that the structure could be developed for

90 percent utilization as rental space with a yearly income

potential of over $250,000. With a $2.78 per square foot

purchase cost from the AUDA and an estimated $10 to $20 per

square foot renovation cost, the balance favors renovation

against a cost of over $28 for similar new construction.57


The ATSF expressed a willingness, at this point, to negotiate

a long-term lease for the property or even enter into a joint

venture if an acceptable developer could be found. A 30-day

demolition delay was obtained from the AUDA and two prospec-

tive developers were located.58


When the AUDA was asked for the agency's rehabilitation stand-

ards, to facilitate more definitive planning, the agency's




director admitted that no such standards had ever been es-

tablished because the need for them had never arisen.59 It

became obvious at this point that the blocks of buildings

already demolished by the AUDA were destroyed without any

consideration of their possible revitalization.


The most promising candidate for utilization of the Ilfeld

Building was the city-owned Museum of Albuquerque, currently

housed in cramped quarters in the 1939 Pueblo-style Mdunicipal

Airport Building, south of the city.60 The WPA airport build-

ing is itself an exceptional structure and plans are being

developed for its adaptive reuse when the museum finds a new

home.


For some unknown reason, it was at this point that the ATSF

backed out of its lease negotiations with the city. The ball

was now in the hands of the city and the City Administration

Department dropped it by recommending that the city neither

acquire nor obtain the use of the building, due to the exces-

sive cost of any such project.61


With the 30-day demolition delay nearing its end on M~ay 1,

1974, John Frisbee, director of the National Trust's western

field office, was called in. Rating his visit as "one of

the most depressing field trips I have ever been on," he ob-

served that "Albuquerque seems to be loaded with demolition

experts. Downtown is dead (and) there's not an ounce of





character left."6 Frisbee suggested the possible applica-

tion of executive order 11593in the case of the Ilfeld

Building, in that the building possibly qualified for the

National Register. If the building qualified as a National

Register Site, even if it was not yet included on the Regis-

ter, the AUDA, being federally funded, would be in violation

of federal law.


A call from the State Planning Office on May 3, 1974, noti-

fying the AUDA of its possible violation of the executive

order, proved to be four hours late. Sixty feet of the

building's south wall had been smashed.6 The extent of

demolition did not prove to be irreparable and the state's

Cultural Properties Review Committee placed the Ilfeld

Building on its Register of Cultural Properties on M~ay 17,

1974.6


In June the City Commission voted to pay rent on the building

until feasibility studies for the redevelopment of the build-

ing were completed, and committed 200,000 dollars to bring

the building up to code. The AUDA applied for an additional

90,000 dollars in federal funds for the same purpose.65


In July 1974, the State Planning Office recommended that

the Ilfeld Building be placed on the National Register.66

Although the building has been temporarily saved, its future





is uncertain as it stands with a gaping hole in its south


wall.




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Historic Landmarks Survey of Albuguerque67


Perhaps the most significant development in Albuquerque's

history was the establishment of the Historic Landmarks

Survey of Albuquerque (HLSA) as a subcommittee of the city's

Fine Arts Advisory Board in 1973 (see Appendix F). With a

20,000 dollar grant from the National Park Service, the HLSA

set out to compile and publish a survey of Albuguerque's

significant cultural properties. The primary aim of the

survey was to increase the awareness of the city's residents

as to the distinctive and unique character of their city

and the value of preserving that character.


Failing to complete the survey in its first year, because of

organizational difficulties, the HLSA received a one-year

extension of the project's funding. During its short exist-

ence the HLSA has nominated over fifty properties to the

state's Cultural Properties Register. By assuming an ad-

vocacy role, the HLSA has established a rapport with the City

Planning Department and has been actively involved in contri-

buting preservation input to the city's planning process.

In cooperation with local professionals, the HLSA has been

able to provide advisory assistance to home owners interested

in rehabilitation. In addition, the HLSA has contributed





significantly in the fight to save the Ilfeld Building and

other threatened structures.


The HLSA has applied, through the State Planning Office,

for additional grant funds for a four-part 1977 program

which will include: (.a) a feasibility study of the city's

acquisition of the 1926 Kimo Theatre, one of the few sur-

vivors in the country of the bizarre and fantastic movie

palace era, and its adaptation as a repertory theater;

(b) an inventory of the Huning Highlands neighborhood in

preparation for its nomination to the National Register;

(c) the establishment of a revolving fund, in collaboration

with the Huning Highlands Neighborhood Association, for the

purchase and development for resale of properties within the

neighborhood; (d) a thorough inventory of the entire city

in preparation for the development of a comprehensive pre-

servation program for Albuquerque.




Remarks and Conclusions


Albuquerque's heritage of early Spanish and American cul-

tures is unique among large American cities. It is regret-

table that so little has been done to preserve its tradition

and historic character during the city's development into

a complex metropolis.


In the estimation of many, the best of Albuquerque's past

built environment has been lost. Perhaps this is true...

the Alvarado Hotel, the Korber Building, the Franciscan Hotel

and many other significant structures are gone, but there are

significant structures in the city's Downtown which are still

in a position to contribute to the redevelopment of the

area. Among these are the Southwest Brewery, the Occidental

Building, the Kimo Theatre and the Ilfeld Building. There

are numerous significant non-residential structures scattered

throughout the city, including several fine examples of the

Santa Fe School's Pueblo style at the University of New

Mexico and several exceptional WPA structures which should

be integrated into any preservation program developed for the

city (see Appendix G).


The city's phenomenal rapid growth has created many problems.

Merciless speculation and leapfrog development of numerous





1948 Public Service Company of New Mexico becomes an independent operating
utility.
1949 Western Electric Comlpany, a Bell Telephone subsidiary, takes over opera-
tion of Sandia Laboratory and establishes Sandia Corporation.
Permanent construction begins at Sandia Base.
Southern Union Gas Company buys natural gas distribution systern from
Public Service Company of New Mexico.
First modern traffic survey of the city is inaugurated.
1950 Population: 97, 012 (Metropolitan Area Population: 146, 013).
City Planning Department opens with Edmund L. Engel as first director.
Mesa Village (City land) is subdivided as a "model plat" to finance the Civic
Auditorium .
Census tracts are set up for the city.
1951 St. Joseph Coll~ge on the Rio Grande opens on a 60-acre site on the West
Mesa.
1952 (April) Bataan Memorial Methodist Hospital o~pens.
Turquoise Lodge, State Rehabilitation Center for Alcoholism, opens.
1953 (November) First zoning ordinance (City Comimission Ordinance No.. 880)
compiled.
Sandia Conservancy District is made legally responsible for flood control.
1954 Bernalillo County Indian Hospi'.al opens.
City Commission Ordinance No. 880, the City's first zoning ordinance, is
public shed,
1955 Area floods cause $1 million dollars' damage.
Huning Castle is demolished.
Population increases 10%J.
1956 250th Anniversary Celebration.
Freeway alignments through the city are tentatively decided upon.
Six City departments move out of City H-all to nearby office space.
Historic Zone for Old Town is actively considered.
1957 Albuquerque wins "All America City" award.
Civic Auditorium is completed.
1958 Four Hills Village and Country Club are subdivided.
Motels, including 2 Highway Houses, Trade Winds, Ramada Inn, and Capri
are built.
New Federal Office Building under construction.
Gas lights are installed in Old Town.
Hearings are held on Sandia Conservancy District assessments, and a re-
examination is ordered by the court.
1959 County Planning Board is formed with the City Planining Department as con-
sultant.
N~ew Comnprehensive Zoning Ordinance is published.
Los Ranchos de Albuquerque becomes the first incorporated village in the
County.
Ideal Cement Plant opens in Tijeras.
Western Skies Motor H-otel opens.
*Plans for "Hoffma~n City" (now "Snow Vista") are inaugurated.





960 (March) Federal Office Building occupied.
Population: 201, 189 (262, 199 in the County).
.University of New Mexico opens a new stadium.
Fair Plaza opens.
June 30 Kaiser Gypsum plant opens.
June 3'0 Record peak daily water demand of 77.4 MMGPD.
Retail sales doubled since 1950.
"701" contract for outline comprehensive urban plan inaugurated.
Work begins on an urban rehabilitation program in the South Broadway area.
61 Winrock Shopping Center opens.
Bank of New Mexico Building is completed.
Pan-American Fre'eway~ opens as far south as Miles Road.














~


II Spanish



Albuquerque
Founded


CULTURAL

I Ancient Man



Basket Maker

Pueblo
II Spanish

Pueblo Rebellion


POITIIICAL T

IPrehistoric


ECONOMIC


I Hunting, Fishing &r
Gathering Sustentance


17, 500 B. C.


Agriculture
II Agriculture
Trade
Livestock


1540

1680
1706 -


Mexican


Trade


III Amelrican
Santa Fe Trail


1816
1851
1862

1880
1890
1912
1941
1945


IV Amlerican
A. Territorial
B. Civil War
Battle

Incorporation
Statehood
World WYar II


III Railroa'd Arrives
Mining
Lumber
Air Base
Federal Establishments
Modern Period of
Explosive 'Growth




APPENDIX B


EXISTING STATE AND LOCAL LEGISLATION










































Source: New Mexico State Planning Office, Historic
Preservation: A Plan for New Hlexico (Santa Fe: New M~exico
State Planning Office, 1971), pp. 157-166.




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