Title: Alternative UF: Counterculture Through the Decades
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00102015/00001
 Material Information
Title: Alternative UF: Counterculture Through the Decades
Physical Description: Archival
Language: English
Creator: Anastasia Bower, Candice Ellis, Ian Gaffney, and Bronwyn McCarthy
Publisher: UF Libraries
Place of Publication: Gainesville, FL
Publication Date: April - May 2009
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00102015
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Alternative UF


Counterculture Through the
Decades


The Alternative Press, 1959-1972
Anastasia Bower
The Legacy of the Johns Committee
Ian Gaffney
Demonstrations Against the Vietnam War
Bronwyn McCarthy and Candice Ellis
The 1971 Sit-In and Campus Civil Rights
Bronwyn McCarthy and Candice Ellis


Selections from an exhibition on display April 20
- May 31, 2009 in the Smathers Library Exhibit
Gallery


Credits


This exhibition, created by undergraduate student
interns enrolled in HIS 4944 Preserving History,
focuses on campus activism at the University of
Florida during the Age of Protest. Covering three
decades of UF history and culture, the exhibits
feature photographs, counterculture newspapers,
yearbooks, artifacts and other items from the
holdings of the University Archives, the P.K. Yonge
Library of Florida History, and the Department of
Special and Area Studies Collections. The exhibition
covers political activism, sit-ins and other Civil
Rights demonstrations, protests against the Vietnam
War, the alternative press at UF, and the hunt for
homosexuals and other "subversives" on campus by
the Johns Committee in the 1950s and 6os.
During the 196os and early 1970s, students at the
University of Florida published a number of
underground and alternative newspapers and
magazines. At one time The Orange Peel was ranked
the number one college humor magazine in the
country. The Charlatan, a counterculture magazine
published by students at UF and Florida State
University, appeared in the 196os. The main student
newspaper was the A ligator, which had to fight an
uphill battle against UF administrators for editorial
freedom. A host of alternative newspapers, including
The Eye, The Hog town Orifice, The Hogtown Press,
The University Report, and The Crocodile, focused
on the political issues of the day.

Political activism also swept across the University of
Florida in the 196os and '70s. The Civil Rights
movement was well underway and the Vietnam War
spurred fervent, occasionally violent protest. On
campus, students staged a number of notable
demonstrations with varying degrees of success. The
Gentle Protests, held in October and November of
1969, sought to mobilize students and faculty as part
of a national-level peace demonstration against the
Vietnam War. In May 1970 when four student
demonstrators were killed at Kent State, UF students
heeded a call to strike and brought classes to a halt
for three days. A similar commemoration two years
later in 1972 ended in mass protests and rallies.
Several other protests held between 1968 and 1970
focused on the threat against racist academic policies
at the University of Florida. The most famous
demonstration was the April 15, 1971 sit-in at Tigert
Hall organized by the Black Student Union. Its aim
was to force the university to recruit and support
more African American students and faculty.

Other exhibits that are not included in this online
exhibition focus on student life at UF in the 196os
and 1970s, controversies regarding co-ed dorms,
and life for women on campus.


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The Alternative Press,


1959-1972


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Captions: Above, Front page of The Eye, Right
top, Front page of Orange Peel. Right bottom,
Front page of Hogtown Orifice.


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By Anastasia Bower


During the 1960s -A .
and early 1970s, .. i .
students at the
University of r ri
Florida produced a
number of
underground and
alternative
newspapers and_
magazines. At one
time The O range
Peel was ranked the .
number one college
humor magazine in ,
the country. Don
Addis, whose cartoons often graced the cover, went
on to a forty year career as an editorial cartoonist at
the St. Petersburg Times. The Orange Peel was
considered so racy that the university decided to
take control of it in order to produce a more
censured version. When the cleaned up version
started publication as the New Orange Peel, students
responded by releasing a magazine similar to the
original, which they called the Old Orange Peel.

Another student magazine, The Charlatan, appeared
in the 196os. It featured topless women and caused
an uproar when it ran a nude centerfold of UF co-ed
Pamme Brewer. The Dean of Women Students tried
to expel Brewer for posing in the nude.

mw ~nsut OmIncm The main student
p,i.,..2 pAUMMSVILLE. PLA. FLA newspaper at UF
r was theAlligator-
but it was subject
S' to university
o a censorship, a
constant point of
controversy
between UF
administrators and
student editors. A
host of alternative
newspapers,
....". ... "including The Eye,
il.uotsa igh PPO TRYV
Z'NOlWN*.r a4f.L.O .I 9 The Hog town
-...................... Orifice, The
Hogtow n Press, The University Report, and The
Crocodile, focused on the political issues of the day.
The Eye and The Hogtown Orifice, both members of
the Liberation News Service, covered protests,
demonstrations, and speeches by activists. The
University Report, a weekly that was openly critical
of university policies, became a rival to the Alligator
for a while and supported itself with advertising. The
Crocodile also sprang up in response to
administrative interference with the Alligator.
Ultimately, though, it was the Alligator that endured.
After a long struggle for editorial freedom, it became
an independent student newspaper in 1972.


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The Legacy of the

Johns Committee


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Captions: Above, Cartoon by Don Addis. Right
top, The Johns Committee. Right bottom, Cover
image for the Johns Committee report:
Homosexuality and Citizenship in Florida.


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By Ian Gaffney


From 1956 to 1965,
the Florida
Legislative
Investigation
Committee
threatened civil
liberties in the
Sunshine State. Led
by Senator Charley
E. Johns, the
committee operated
in a McCarthyite
manner, seeking to
discover communist
connections among integrate
purge academic liberals and s
from educational institutions





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though the committee's tactic
administrators did not attempt

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private bedrooms rather thaofesso
University of Florida was the
chosen in the search for horn
least 15 UF professors and rm,
left after being interrogated b
though the committee's tacty of
administrators did not attem]
investigations and went so far
police officers to serve as inv
interrogations with professor

"Charley Johns didn't have a
University of Florida as such
hurt the University. He was c
that he heard there were hor
and he was going to get rid o
Reitz, Former University of F


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onist organizations and
o-called "subversives"


When the
committee had
failed to
demonstrate
communist
involvement
within the NAACP
or the academic
community, a
3' desperate Charley
Johns sought to
Extend his
Committee's life by
searching for a
weaker enemy and
"committee agents
Soon monitored
lavatory stalls and
i city buses." The
first academic target
osexuals in 1958. At
ore than 50 students
y investigators. Even
:s violated state law, UF
pt to halt the
r as to allow university
estigators and tape
's and students.

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, he wasn't trying to
n a mission by gosh
mosexuals on the faculty
fthemr." J. Wayne
lorida President.




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Demonstrations

Against the Vietnam

War


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Captions: Top Center, Anti-war protest at UF
(date unknown). Right top, Poster advertising
anti-war demonstration following Kent State.
Right bottom, Fr, Michael Gannon monitors a
police line during the 1970 student strike in
memory of Kent State.


By Bronwyn McCarthy and Candice Ellis
Protests against the war in Vietnam and Cambodia
took place throughout the late '6os and early '7os at
UF. On October 15, 1969, in conjunction with
national protests held by the Vietnam Moratorium,
the University of Florida Student Mobilization
Committee (SMC) organized "Gentle Wednesday."
Approximately 18o00o UF students and faculty
gathered at the Plaza of the Americas to rally against
the Vietnam War. The SMC sold red and black
armbands with '644,000' on them representing the
estimated number of US casualties in the war.

After the shooting
of college K
demonstrators at nSt memorial
Kent State in May -j
1970, students at ack
UF called for a A day of sOn
suspension of Anti-\ar activity 8.
classes in protest. &
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President Stephen ,.A.... w*.
O'Connell declared V iM '- .... ...
a day of mourning YI jd4, 4C
to be held on May 14 .. -i11 1II ,
6, 1970, but did:- ."
not cancel classes.
It is estimated that
3000 students went on strike over this decision. The
strike ultimately forced President O'Connell to
cancel classes and close the university. UF remained
closed from May 6 to May 8. In 1972 a
demonstration against the war spilled out into the
streets as hundreds of people flooded the
intersection at University Avenue and N.W. i3th
Street.


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The 1971 Sit-In and

Campus Civil Rights


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Captions: Top Center, Students protest outside
Tigert Hall as part of the 1971 sit-in. Above and
Right, Picketing the College Inn in 1963.


Credits


By Bronwyn McCarthy and Candice Ellis

The University of Florida was desegregated in 1958,
but by 1971 there were only 343 black students in
attendance-a small proportion of the student body
in comparison to the 20,000 white students
enrolled. The Black Student Union organized a sit-in
as an expression of discontent with university
policies that did not encourage black student
enrollment or the employment of black faculty
members. On April 15, 1971, in what would later
become known as "Black Thursday," students
gathered in protest outside Tigert Hall and
attempted to meet with President Stephen O'Connell.
The first delegation of students, which numbered
about 50, marched into O'Connell's office uninvited
touting a petition of six demands. They were asked
to leave and did so without protest. The next group
to storm the office was louder and more insistent,
and even after that a third, larger group arrived.
President O'Connell refused to meet with them.
Angered by this, demonstrators refused to disperse.
The protest ended in the arrest of 66 students, 6o of
whom were put on academic probation. O'Connell
refused to grant the arrested students amnesty
because "that would be admitting that the sit-in in my
office was proper conduct now and in the future."
Outraged, 123 black students and two black faculty
members left the university.

Student activities
in support of Civil
Rights had
increased
significantly in the -
years leading up to
the 1971 sit-in.
Between the years
1968 and 1970,
students organized
a Black Student
Union. In 1963,
students picketed
against
discrimination at the University College Inn, a
popular student eatery. Mainly organized by the UF
Student Group for Equal Rights (SGER), the goal of
the picket was to encourage Gainesville businesses to
desegregate.


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Alternative UF


Counterculture Through the
Decades


Credits


<< Home


This online exhibition features selections of images
and text from an exhibition on display April 20 -
May 31, 2009 in the Smathers Library Exhibit
Gallery. The exhibition was created by Anastasia
Bower, Candice Ellis, Ian Gaffney, and Bronwyn
McCarthy, who were enrolled in the HIS 4944
Preserving History course and worked as
undergraduate student interns in Special Collections
during the Spring 2009 semester. The exhibition was
produced with guidance from Jim Cusick, Carl Van
Ness and John Nemmers.
The Alternative Press, 1959-1972
By Anastasia Bower
The Legacy of the Johns Committee
By Ian Gaffney
Demonstrations Against the Vietnam War
By Bronwyn McCarthy and Candice Ellis
The 1971 Sit-In and Campus Civil Rights
By Bronwyn McCarthy and Candice Ellis
Special thanks to Joyce Dewsbury, Barbara Hood,
Bill Hanssen, Timothy Fritz, and to staff members of
Special Collections for help with this exhibition.


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