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Title: Caribbean farming
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101460/00022
 Material Information
Title: Caribbean farming
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Mona, Jamaica
Publication Date: November 1987
Copyright Date: 1969
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101460
Volume ID: VID00022
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 3116219

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Advertising
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 4a
        Page 4b
    Editorial
        Page 7
    Main
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Back Cover
        Page 35
        Page 36
Full Text

Caribbea


JI r


SJOHN DEERE Agricultural
RUBBER WHEELED TRACTORS Chemicals
Yamada Supplies SUBSIDIARY OF
BRUSH CUTTERS
Versatile Toft and
CANE REAPERS AND LOADERS Sprayers. V
FREDERICK PARKER CRUSHERS & CEMENT 379 Spanish Town Road Kingston 11
a MIXERS Telephone:- 92-39251.
Caribbean Chemicals & Services (Jamaica) Limited










Caribbean NOVEMBER 1987


FARMING














COVER; Courtesy of Banana Export Company



EDITORIAL
Technology for the Third World? .............................................7


FOCUS
Jamaica's new banana industry ...............................................8
T & T's Sugar Cane Feeds Centre:
Supplement for ruminant feeding ............................................ 11
Dairy Workshop in Jamaica............................................... 16
Multiple cropping in Taiwan ...............................................21
Field-packing bananas .................................................... 23

OTHER FEATURES
Cost of production charts .................................................. 18
Extension and agricultural diversification ...................................... 26
IICA News ............................................................ 29
IICA Notes ............................................................ 30
Quality control in cucumber ............................................... 31
Letter to the Editor ......................................................32
Publication notices ...................................................34
JADF and agricultural research. ............................................. 34


CARIBBEAN FARMING is published with financial assistance from The Jamaica Agricultural Development
Foundation, four times a year, by Creative Communications Inc. Ltd., P.O. Box 105, Kingston 10, Jamaica.
Telephone: 92-74271. Telex: 2431 CARISHIP JA. Cable: CAROGAM JA.
MANAGING DIRECTOR: Tony Gambrill, EDITOR: Carol Record,
EDITORIAL BOARD: Tony Gambrill, Carol Reckord, Lloyd Barnett, Dr. Richard Jones, Joe Suah, Prof.
Lawrence Wilson.
ART DIRECTOR: Deryck Leslie, ADVERTISING SALES: Eleanor Sutherland, P.O. Box 105, Kingston 10, Jamaica.
Tel: 92-74271, 92-76184.
SUBSCRIPTION: US$11 USA, Caribbean & Latin America; US$15 All other countries, air mail for four issues.


C4ban Farm


November 1987










REAP HEALTHY BANANAS!


WITH TALENT SIGMA MOCAP
* Control Grass and other Weeds with effective, economical and long-lasting M M
Talent kills many difficult weeds such as para grass, sourgrass, and even paraquat-resistant Commelina strains.
Talent is safe to use, gives complete kill and not just top burn, because it's translocated throughout stolons and
rhizomes, saving labour and time.
* Kill Fungi and eliminate Sigatoka disease (leaf spot), with SI( UiLL
Supplied in an oil base, Sigma is easy to mix into spray oils, effectively prevents and eradicates Sigatoka disease (leaf spot) i
bananas, resulting in improved yield and at lower overall cost. Recommended by Research Departments in all banana-growi! 1
islands.
* Get to the root of the problem and control Nematodes and the Banana Weevil Borer with llOCap;
a versatile Nematicide-lnsecticide which effectively controls these pests*, the cause of extensive root damage which reduces
yields and causing toppling.
* In some territories supplemental insecticidal treatments are recommended for borer control. Consult your local extension services.


For further Information on supplies and use of these products contact:


May & Baker Limited
19 Trinidad Terrace
Kingston 5
Jamaica, W.I.
Tel: 929-8532-4


WINDWARDS
Ted Theobalds
16 Micoud St.
Castries
St. Lucia
Tel: 45-22229


BELIZE
James Brodie & Co.
Regent Street
P.O. Box 365
Belize City
Tel: 7070-2858


SUPPLIES AVAILABLE

(f MAY& BAKER


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Ford, New Holland


and now Versatile...





Here's what it means


to you


It means that the same
strong company man-
ufactures and backs three
of the most respected
tractor and equipment
lines in the industry. This
means good things to you.
Financial strength
Ford New Holland is a
company with the special
kind of vision it takes to
invest in agriculture today.
The addition of the
Versatile line makes the
Company even stronger,
with tractors in all sizes
from 8 to 390 horsepower,
plus a wide range of
harvesting and materials
handling equipment.
Dealership stability
That strength extends
right down to your local


Ford New Holland
dealer. You can depend on
him to be there when you
need him. His product
range is now broad enough
to serve as your single
source for tractors and
equipment. Many of those
products are industry
sales leaders. They are all
backed by the after-the-
sale support of a well-
stocked parts department
and factory-trained service
technicians.
Product innovation
Ford, New Holland and
Versatile share a tradition
of innovation. It includes
the first mass-produced,
affordable farm tractors,
the first automated hay
baler and the world's first


commercially successful
application of rotary
threshing. Versatile is one
of the world's leading
manufacturers of large
four-wheel drive articu-
lated tractors. Versatile
also makes a unique
Bidirectional"T tractor
that functions equally
well with attachments at
either end.
With our research and
development efforts com-
bined, you can expect a
continuing stream of new
and better products from
Ford New Holland.
Quality products and
services
Our philosophy empha-
sizes the importance of
quality in everything we
do-each step, every pro-


cess and every procedure
that goes into our prod-
ucts and services is
customer driven. It
embodies teamwork
among our employees,
our dealers and our sup-
pliers-all directed toward
our common goal of
offering the highest qual-
ity products which meet
your work needs.

A new force emerges









( SPECIALLY FOR FISH FARMING...


An adequate, reliable water supply is a key component
to success in fish farming. Caribbean Industrial
Equipment has a wide range of Pumps to help make
your venture successful... from small capacity Pumps
to large Diesel driven units capable of delivering
2,000 gallons per minute.


And there are CIE Pumps equal to the demands of
Water Supply Schemes, Irrigation Projects and
Fire Protection.
If a reliable water supply is important to your
business, check Caribbean Industrial Equipment Limited.


.4 'CARIBBEAN INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT LTD.
7 h The Irrigation People
7 South Avenue, Kingston 10. Phone: 92-60599, 92-61240.'


The Jamaica Agricultural Development Foundation

SThe Jamaica Agricultural Development Foundation promotes ar I
develops agriculture and agri-business to assist in improving the ec -
nomic and social well-being of the people of Jamaica.
The JADF provides:
Venture Capital, Loans and Equity
Grants for Research and Training.
Technical Assistance.
SIf you have a project In agriculture or
agri-business which you
Believe Is viable contact:


Jamaica
Agricultural Development
Foundation
'Working for the Future'
13 Barbados Ave., Kingston 5. Tel: 92-98090-2


~cr~a9s~s























bribbean
Il aL 1I,


Creative Communications Inc. Ltd.
P.O. Box 105, Kingston 10, Jamaica
Telephone: (809) 92-74271, 92-76184
Telex: 2431 CAR ISHIP JA.
Cable: CAROGAM JA.































Caribbean


a quarterly publication
. a quarterly publication


The only publication of its kind in
the English-speaking Caribbean
that's devoted exclusively to
tropical agriculture!


Subsription rates per year:- postpaid JA$20 Jamaica
US$11 USA, Latin America, Carib. Islands
US$15 All other countries
Name ... ................................ .............
Company ............................................
Address ...............................................


Payment enclosed Li Bill me l] Bill Company ED Expiry Date

Also send me the 1987/88 CAR IBBEAN PORTS HANDBOOK postpaid US$400I
and/or the next four issues of CARIBBEAN SHIPPING postpaid US$16 D



















Technology for the Third World?


At the August meeting of the Caribbean Food Crops So-
ciety held jointly with the Caribbean Agricultural Economics
Society, a number of the papers presented dealth with prob-
lens and possibilities related to crop diversification in the
Caribbean. One paper by Dr. Lawrence Lewis of Agricul-
tur I Missions in New York gave a summary of the Cari-
bbt 3n's main farm crops in their present situation and with
the prospects for the future. Dr. Lewis (like many other
sci itific people) held out no great hope for the future of the
reg in's traditional exports and his paper pointed out the
we nesses of some of the industrial alternatives that the
Re on's leaders are embracing.

number of pages of Dr. Lewis' text were devoted to the
grc and growing success of chemists, physicists and biologists
in fluencing the agriculture industry, its products, prices and
yie s. He gave the example of research being done which may
pro uce a vanilla variety resistant to disease and able to grow
an( produce in places outside of traditional vanilla-growing
are ;. On this point Dr. Lewis observed that "the possible
im; ict is up to $67 million in the annual export earnings of
Ma agascar, Reunion, Indonesia and the Comoros Islands."

s might be expected the discussion on technology came
arc nd to the part played by big business in trying to keep to
the selves the rewards of their research and development in-
ves nents. The Lewis paper quoted from a story in the August,
19, issue of SOUTH newsmagazine: "In an artide on THE
US THREAT TO SHUT OFF THE FLOW (of technology to
the Third World) David Festa noted that US producers of
agt cultural products were already blaming transfer of agri-
cul Jral technology to the third world as the reason for a


reduced US market share of export agriculture. He refers to
a paper by Robert Evenson of the Yale Growth Centre at the
meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of
Science (AAAS) and he (Festa) comments:-

The most transferable technology is not a specific item
or techniques but rather the capacity to perform research -
what Evenson calls a kind of "Intellectual germ plasm". "It
is clear," he says, "that while the US played a role in
building these research institutions in developing countries,
it has very little power to influence them today."

An earlier paragraph in Festa's story in SOUTH remarked:
"Although it is true that one-third of the soyabeans grown in
Brazil are of US origin, it is alo true that two-thirds of the
wheat sown in the US contains semi-dwarf genes brought from
Asia."

It is fortunate for humanity that no race, region or nation
has a monopoly on brain power, imagination or creative ability.
The people of the Caribbean would do well, however, to learn
more about our Latin neighbours. The observations of Festa,
Lewis and many others should serve to remind us that only in
the membership of a large group is there any protection from
certain types of exploitation. Latin America and the Caribbean
comprise a natural grouping of developing countries which have
the same problems and pressures. If these countries are given
the chance to share with the Metropolitan countries the bene-
fits as well as the responsibilities of today's living, there will
certainly be fewer ghettos and favelas and less piracy of
technology. 0


ARNOLD OTTO MEYER
G IAAA itural ="W" d G"a"
GAL IA Spraying Equipmrent

Agricultural Chemicals B aye r
Garden ad Houehold lnecticeid,
Pesticides mnd Rodenticides-
Veterinary Products


33 Second Stree :


EI IAL


" F*-ananing-NovnbKle7


r


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Jamaica's new banana industry


There was a time when Jamaica ex-
ported more bananas than all the other
producing countries. Over the past sev-
eral generations thousands of farmers
and farm workers have learnt the tech-
niques of banana growing on soils of
many types and a wide range of slope
categories and climatic conditions. Un-
fortunately, down the years some farm-
ers and workers have tended to neglect
their fields and their banana industry.
It seemed that familiarity had bred con-
tempt and as a result the volume and
quality of the Island's supplies to its
traditional market (the United Kingdom)
fell steeply.
As it is in may Third World coun-
tries, Jamaica's farm commodity exports
are important not only as a source of in-
come to the growers and their workers;
these exports of sugar, citrus fruit, coffee,
cocoa and bananas are important sources
of foreign exchange for the purchase of
the whole nation's needs. It was therefore
natural that the government of Jamaica
should take bold steps to restore the ban-
ana export industry when it seemed to be
on the point of disappearing. The in-
dustry in Jamaica has a history of work-
ing toward total ownership of its various
sectors by the growers through their or-
ganisation so it is no surprise that the
revived industry is the pro-perty of the
banana growers in all its important fea-
tures. The Jamaican taxpayer is heavily
involved in the ownership of most of the
present banana production acreage.

Export sales
One important change in the industry
has been the establishment of the Banana
Export Company (BECO) which now sets
the price and buys fruit in the Island.
BECO organises shipping and sells fruit
in the United Kingdom through the Jam-
aica Agricultural Marketing Company
(JAMCO). By returning to the growers
the responsibility for leaf-spot disease
control, maintenance of boxing plants,
transport of fruit to shipping points,
BECO is able to pay the grower an attrac-
tive price for fruit delivered to shipping
ports. The price for good quality fruit
has been more than JA$1/lb to a number
of growers over the past two years. BECO
affairs are in the hands of an industry-
representative board and its business is to


give the grower the best price for fruit
supplied and to maintain an economically
viable business. Maintaining in fact, rai-
sing quality standards is is very high on
BECO's priority list of its obligation to
the industry.
BECO's task is almost certainly made
lighter because in Jamaica's "new look"
industry more than 80% of fruit export-
ed comes from three large, professionally
run, high-technology estates. These three
represent very heavy capital investment
per acre of fruit. The GRAND NAIN
variety is grown over most or all of this
acreage and irrigation is laid on to re-
duce growing risks. BECO and the other
leading banana organizations are now
working to revive the industry among
farmers in traditional growing areas, where
rain-fed production is the rule and sloping
land makes spraying and handling more
difficult. It must be remembered that in
past years many skillful and devoted
growers produced excellent fruit at mo-
dest cost in these traditional areas. The
hope is that their glory will return.


Jamaican farmers whose land i in
traditional banana growing parts of the
country are being invited to take ne\ in-
terest in the production of banana for
export. For farmers whose land is bo ght
and paid for, the new BECO price m kes
banana growing an attractive proposi' on.
Banks seem to be ready and able to ,nd
money for production although in-
terest rates are high in comparison 'ith
those of old days. The critical areas em
to those of technical and economic r an-
agement; with high unit cost for fe tili-
ser, spray oil, cartons, dithane for s iev-
ing bunches, there is no room in th, in-
dustry for low labour productivity 3nd
catch-as-catch-can management.

Field practices.
Among industry initiatives that should
attract farmers in the traditional areas to
up-grade their banana production, the re-
establishment of a Research and Develop-
ment Division of the Banana Board has
received an annual grant of JA$375,000.
This R&D Division is manned by three
Caribbean Farm*in- November 17










scientists/technicians whose training and
skills will certainly be applied to study of
problems in the field and advisory work
that attacks those problems. The team
has been looking at the incidence of
nematode and borer infestation and giving
farmers advice that will make the best
use of the farmer's dollar spent on chemi-
cals. Similarly, the team has recognized
that in many growing areas, neglected
banana fields are a reservoir of leaf-spot
infection; farmers have been advised to
'clean-up' old mats and old fields. This
R&D team is, at time of writing, a very
impressive three-woman force well in
keeping with the rest of the industry's
no-nonsense new look.
Experience in the industry has shown
that it is false economy for banana grow-
er: to take short-cuts in their field sani-
ta: on and field management in order to
sa' e money. Shortage of ready cash is
ve / often the reason for these short
cu ;, so BECO, the Banana Board and
th AIBGA have sought the support of
th Jamaica Agricultural Development
Fe nation (JADF) and the Jamaica
Be ana Producers' Association (JBPA);
th e agencies have put up funding for a
sn II farmers' loan programme which will
he banana growers.
*ECO is making arrangements for
lo; ing bananas at some ports within easy
re, h of the main banana growing areas;
th Company is also granting temporary
trE sportation allowances to growers who
ca lot economically deliver their fruit
to he present shipping ports. This is a
"h ding" measure until the time when
ad tional shipping ports are commission-
ed
1 many parts of Jamaica, banana
is traditional export crop and many
grc jers are using methods which are no

I-.. M'


Wash tank makes for clean fruit without latex stain.

longer the most effective. BECO and the
other promoting agencies are anxious that
farmers should use the opportunity to
learn and discuss the methods which the
Board's R&D division is encouraging. All
parties have to recognize that resources
for extension work are very limited -
farmers are being encouraged to visit
demonstration points such as the Banana
Breeding Station at Bodies in St. Catherine,
where the Board's Research Staff plans to
meet growers as often as resources allow.

Insurance protection
While the banana grower in Jamaica
has his/her full share of risks and uncer-
tainty, there are important advantages
which contribute to this country's pros-
pects on the export market. One Banana
Board scientist pointed out that because
black sigatoka disease has not reached
Jamaican fields, local growers have less


rwneea conveyors reduce handling and bruising.
cb Fanrmng.-Novemberl967


costly spraying with fewer applications
per season than Central and South
American growers have. Jamaica's bana-
na fields have also not been attacked by
the bunchy top virus, which is a costly
nuisance in some countries.

Banana has an edge over other locally-
grown crops in that for many years there
has been an insurance scheme covering
wind-storm and water damage of banana
fields.There is a statutory cover of
$1,000/acre and also provision for con-
tractual cover up to $7,000/acre. This
contractual cover facilitates growers who
have to finance their establishment and
production costs with bank loans. The
General Manager of the Banana Board
also manages the Insurance Scheme -
and Jamaica has had a long and harmon-
ious relationship with the re-insurers over-
seas. Growers' premiums for statutory
insurance are paid by a cess of two
cents per pound of fruit accepted for
shipment by BECO.
The bottom line for today's banana
grower is the promise of a good price
for fruit that meets BECO's very high
quality standards not an easy job for
people accustomed to the leisurely and
sometimes careless ways of yesterday's
industry. The high yielding new varieties
are very demanding of fertilizer, disease
control and careful handling pre and post-
harvest. The market is now highly com-
petitive and has become accustomed to
receiving unblemished fruit of the size
and type it likes.

Future for banana
There are no very good long term pros-
pects for Third World farm crops, accord-
Cont'd. on p.15
9










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is pleased
to announce the appointment of

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as their exclusive dealer in Jamaica.





POWERTRAC


POWER AND TRACTORS LTD.
217 Spanih Town Road, P.O. Bo)f2t; Kingston 11, Jamaica, W.I.
Telephone: (809) 92-39593, 92-37186, 92-37190.











T&T's Sugar Cane Feeds Centre


Supplement for ruminant feeding

INTRODUCTION

The English speaking Caribbean Com-
munity is heavily dependent on food and
animal feed imports for its human and sT "'
animal populations. Despite the efforts
of many countries of the region at in-
creasing food production the food import
bill is close to US$1 billion. Exports from
agriculture are only half of this level
(DImas, 1987).

The Sugarcane Feeds Centre, a research
an' development institution, was esta-
bl. hed in 1976 as a Canadian Inter-
na onal Development Agency project to
de ionstrate the technical feasibility and
ec iomic viability of an alternative use of
su, rcane as a feed for cattle. After five
ye s of operation it was handed over to
th Government of the Republic of
Tr lidad and Tobago, in October 1.981.
Ti- Centre has since that time increased I
its animal population on a zero grazing
sy 3m from 500 to over 800 head. It
mi stains a calf unit that purchases and
re; s about 400 head per year, has a
sn II dairy with 45 head and a small
sh 'p and goat unit of 120-150 head.
M 3 cattle are grown to produce beef
an females for dairy replacements, to be
so to the dairy industry. In 1986 over
5C animals and 8000 kg of milk were
pr luced.
*hough a livestock facility the Centre's
op ation and philosophy is in keeping
wi i the conference theme "Crop Diver-
sif ation: New horizon for Agricultural
De elopment." In fact the restated ob-
jec ves of the Centre for the period 1985
to 987 are:
1. -:o develop the sugarcane feeding tech-
nology in Trinidad and Tobago and to
facilitate transfer of such technology
in Trinidad and Tobago.
2. To continue to work on protein, energy
and other supplementation.
3. To develop and formulate diets by
incorporating local and/or farm grown
ingredients to the fullest extent
feasible.
4. To develop feeding and management
systems for ruminants for improved
production in Trinidad and Tobago
and the Caribbean Region.
5. To take steps to maximise revenue
within the framework of the broad
objectives.
SCanbean Farming -November1987










These objectives, enunciated in 1984,
confirmed a feeding strategy started in
1982 after the Centre had been handed
over in 1981 to local direction and ma-
nagement. The use of whole sugarcane as
an animal feed is one aspect of sugarcane
diversification. The Centre's programme
is a demonstration that further diversifi-
cation of agriculture is vital to the deve-
lopment of local animal production.
Progress can be made in solving our food
importation problem if agricultural pro-
cessing and primary agricultural product-
ion were developed and integrated with
other activities in the National Economy.

The Infrastructure at the Centre

The Centre is situated on 61 hectares
mostly of an Acid Ultisol, the Piarco
Fine Sandy Loam series. The soil is con-
sidered a class IV non-agricultural soil and
its features include pH 3.5 4.5 lack of
structure, low organic matter and nutrient
status, high bulk density, small drainable
pore space, low water holding capacity
(Ahmad & Gumbs, 1978). It becomes
puddled in the wet season and rapidly
dries out in the dry season. Rainfall at
the Centre is approximately 1800 mm
with a marked dry season between Jan-
uary and May. Pre-implementation studies
for establishing the centre revealed a
public water supply deficit in the area, so
before buildings were completed or lands
cultivated a dam was constructed on an
existing ephemeral stream. The lake
formed, initially about 3.6 hectares, was
rain and run off fed and by a water bearing
gravel layer. This secured water for ani-
mal consumption and for pen washing
(about 50,000 litres per day) but also
allowed development of large scale
irrigation.

The irrigation system consists of a 150
mm PVC underground main with stra-
tegically placed risers and hydrants and
a travelling sprinkler. The sprinkler is
used on the sugarcane traces which are
about 70 metres apart. The system is
also connected into primary and secondary
manure ponds. The latter is needed for
storage of dilute manure in the wet
season. An advancing cavity pump with
rated capacity of 1200 litres per minute
and a diesel powered irrigation pump
rated at 1800 litres per minute are used
for irrigation purposes in the dry season.

In addition to planting on ridges spaced
one metre apart to effect surface drainage,
about 10,000 metres of sub-surface
drainage tubing was installed with laterals
at spacings of 10.6, 18.3, and 22.9 metres,
depending on the permeability of the lo-
12


cation. Installation was done using a
chain type trenching machine. This de-
velopment work was done between 1977
and 1979.

Evaluation of both systems showed
that in sub-surface drained areas the water
table was lowered by about 30 cm
during the first 24 hours after heavy
rainfall compared to 5 cm in adjacent non
sub-surface drained areas. Also millable
cane stalk was 52 percent greater in the
drained compared to the undrained areas
(Cambridge, 1980). Gumbs (1981) re-
ported improvement in the soils after
four years of cultivation and application
of liquid manure, and Livan (1984)
reported yield increases through liquid
manure application. In fact with limited
use of fertilizer, at about half the recom-
mended rates average yields in the order
of 60-80 tonnes per hectare (stalk and
tops) are achieved. In addition up to five
and six ratoons have been obtained.

The Cultivations

Sugarcane cultivation is well known so
will not be discussed in this presentation.
The sugarcane variety first used was
B41227 and later a small area of B64134
was planted in 1984. Sugarcane as a feed
for ruminants is low in protein and sup-
plies only energy and fibre. To achieve
more than maintenance, the chopped
sugarcane must be supplemented with
protein and starch to form a balanced
diet. Leucaena, CF 95, has been grown at
the Centre since 1978 for use as a protein-
aceous forage. Average annual total dry
matter yields on two hectares have been
estimated at 8 tonnes per hectare between
1984 to 1986. These yields are less than
half that projected by Garcia (1987) from
work with small plot short-term trials. By
institution of more rigid cutting regimes


at 6 or 8 week intervals it is anticipated
that both the total yield and the quality
of the forage as judged by animal perform-
ance will be improved.

Leucaena establishment on acid soils is
not well known and our experiences and
a system of cultivation are outlined. Plant-
ing of seeds (after 24-48 hours soaking)
was formerly done in styrofoam cups or
using peat pellets with transplanting into
the fields at 6-8 weeks on ridges. This has
been discarded in preference to direct
seeding (after seed soaking) in a con-
tinuous row on ridges. Planting is done
by hand. Use of pen manure is beneficial
and the young seedlings must be sprayed
weekly for mole crickets and leaf eating
ants must be controlled. Direct seeding
avoids the set back of transplanting and
initial establishment is more rapid.

Weed control is essential though the
Leucaena tends to remain established un-
der weed cover. Glyphosate used at one
quarter the recommended rate and with
a spray shield was found suitable except
that leaves are very sensitive and tend to
be affected. Since prices of all imporiad
materials have risen steeply with deval ;a-
tion and the unification of the exchar ge
rate at US$1 to $3.60 TT a combinat )n
of Gramoxone with hand weeding wh re
necessary is now used. Joint planting of
maize with leucaena has been done )n
half hectare in July 1987. The cost of
weed control and establishment could be
defrayed by the return from the maize

Harvesting of Leucaena is done oy
hand with machete (cutlass) after ab ut
six months of growth. The stumps ire
generally cut at a height of about 15 :m
but cutting at one metre allows for rr )re
efficient weed control.


Caribbean Farming-November 1987











Animal Feeding Results


For sugarcane feeding the inverse re-
lationship between percent sugarcane in
the diet DM and animal performance has
been described in the Centre's reports.
The relationship is in keeping with the es-
tablished forage (or fibre) to concentrate
relationship. Ruminants' diets need to be
properly balanced for protein, energy,
minerals, vitamins, and fibre. The Centre
has developed feeding strategies based on
the physiological ability and condition
of the animal, its liveweight, nutrient
needs and potential for growth. This aims
at making the best possible use of sugar-
cne in the diet. A young growing animal
is fed 10-15 percent sugarcane in the diet;
this increases as the animal matures to
al out 50 percent, depending on the other
d t ingredients and their nutrient content
ir -luding the fibre levels.

Leucaena has been in use at the Centre
si ice 1980 and is proving to be of in-
c easing benefit to animal production.
I e dehydrated forage is used in rations
a levels varying from 6 to 20 percent.
F d to cows in milk Leucaena has been
f( ind capable of replacing 50 to 100 per-
c it of Soyabean meal in the diet with-no
h 'mful effect on milk yield. (Brown, per-
s> ial communication). Milk yields aver-
a id 10.5 kg per day over 300 days when
ft J at 12 to 18 percent of the total diet
d / matter. Feeding levels at the centre's
d iry is currently about 6 percent and is


dependent on the quantity of dehydrated
leucaena forage available.

In calf feeding after weaning at 35
days age and using 12 weeks dried leu-
caena forage regrowth, average daily live-
weight gained was in the order of 0.45 kg.
When six weeks regrowth was used average
daily gain increased by 50 percent Pre-
liminary results with calves fed from ar-
rival at the centre (7 days age average)
to weaning (at 35 days of age) is indi-
cating that early growth rates can be at
least doubled with leucaena feeding.


APPENDIX TABLE 1

>iet formulations on a percent dry matter (% DM) basis with local and imported ingredients fed to
nail ruminants (Cost in TT cents/kg DM).


ingredients


RM1
lice End Bits
Molasses
Leucaena
Rice Bran
Citrus Pulp
Sugarcane

SBM2
Corn
Minerals I
Vitamins
Commercial
Concentrate

Total

TT cents
/kg DM


Local Ingredients.


Lactation/
Creep Feed

08
10
17
20
43
00
00


Gestation


Growing


00 00
00 00

02 02

00 00

100 100


29 41


LPRM -Poultry Rendering Meal SBM -Soybean Meal
Ctbs Farming November 1967


Imported
Corn/Soya Based
Growing


Growing


24 00
24 00

02 00

00 60

100 100


58 70
3
e.g. Dairy Ration or Calf Starter


Garcia (1987( in a growth study using
Holstein bulls (150 to 200 Kg liveweight)
reported growth rates of over 1.0 Kg per
day when dehydrated leucaena forage
was included in the diet DM at about 20
percent. Work at the centre with weaned
crossbred male sheep consistently shows
growth rates of 0.18 to 0.25 Kg per day
at this same level of dried leucaena forage
inclusion (Lallo personal communication).

Much of this can be related to stage of
regrowth. For while total crude protein
yield increased with a longer cut, the
crude protein percentage falls and the
forage becomes more fibrous. The Centre
plans to extend cultivation of this crop
and an evaluation will be undertaken on
the acid soil at the Centre, of the leucaena
cultivars of the OAS Caribbean collection
to see if higher yields of forage can be
obtained.
Other Crops

Up to 1981 dependence was on im-
ported maize, soyabean meal and rapeseed
meal in the formulation of balanced sugar-
cane based diets. Since that time the more
common traditional by-products of agro-
processing e.g. rice endbits, rice bran,
brewers grain (wet and dried), wheat
middlings, dried citrus pulp have been
used in feed formulations. Poultry ren-
dered meal (combining feathers and en-
trails from poultry processing) was
successfully evaluated as a substitute
for soyabean meal as a protein source
in all diets but to young calves. Diets and
their comparative cost are shown in Ap-
pendix 1 and 2.

The newly-developing phase of the
Centre's work is in the use of crop by-






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APPENDIX TABLE 2
Formulation and Costs of Diets to Lactating
Dairy Cows on a Dry Matter Basis.

INGREDIENT BY- COMMERCIAL
PRODUCT FEED

Sugarcane 23 20
Molasses 17 20
Wheat
Middlings 25 00
Coconut Meal 22 00
Maize/Soyabean/
Minerals 13 00
Commercial
Feed 00 60

Total 100 100

TT cents/
kg DM 35 56


p ducts as local agriculture receives new
ir petus. Thus sweet potatoes and cassava
ti ers unfit for human use have become
a 3ilable in some quantity. Additionally
c ;sava skins are rejected tubers have
b 3n extensively utilized at 20-25 percent
o the diet DM as an energy source to
g )wing animals as the processing of
c sava, breadfruit and similar crops is
d jeloping.

Two companies produce a passion
f lit cordial and the waste material is
c Ilected and used as feed. Sorrel waste
f >m sorrel processing is also available in
s ison. In fact, it is true that most crops
SId 30 to 60 percent in by-product
e her through inefficient processing or
t the nature of the fruit or product
i elf. It is in these ruminant production
s stems can be based and the more food
r oduced and processed for human
c nsumption locally the more the avail-
a ility of waste or by-product for feeding.
I other waste crop of increasing avail-
a .ility is maize stover. Braithwaite
personala l communication) has expressed
t:e view that increasingly farmers are
achieving planting densities of up to
45,000 plants per hectare with this crop.
Maize in Trinidad and Tobago is hand-
picked for the fresh market i.e. roasting
and boiling. Ears that are of inadequate
size or maturity are left on the green
stalk and later ploughed in. The Centre
has used its harvesting capabilities to col-
lect and ensile this product with molasses.
The idea is catching on as more crop
farmers are offering the product to the
Centre. Silage making is not common in
Trinidad and Tobago despite the severity
of the dry season.
Currently the Centre is test growing
maize and forage sorghum in conjunction
with the Department of Crop Science,
Crbbean Fanrmng-November 1987


UWI, St. Augustine; and attempting to
grow the former has been an instruct-
ive experience on the acid soil at the
Centre. Eventually it is hoped to pro-
duce three crops per year with harvesting
before ear matures as a measure against
praedial larceny, and the entire plant will
be ensiled.
Summary
The Sugarcane Feeds Centre is a part
of the diversification effort that is neces-
sary in the Caribbean. By its work it de-
monstrates the benefits of crop-animal
integration on a farm scale. The use of
poor soils becomes possible when re-
sources are properly harnessed for the
purpose. Integration of crop-animal agri-
culture on a wider national scale is
useful especially for ruminant production.
It is suggested that all the specialists who
are interested in agricultural development
keep in mind the need to explore the
possibilities and potentials that exist. In
many territories that depend heavily on
imported feeds. Adapted crops such as
sugarcane and leucaena could be used
instead. Many locally available products
and by-products are not fully utilised but
have potential for feeding. If this is done
the Region could more rapidly make an
impression on it's food situation. Inte-
grated efforts would see a start to better
utilization of such resources. *

REFERENCES
AHAMAD, N. and GUMBS, F.A. (1978): "The
Soils of the Sugarcane Feeds Centre,
Longdenville. "Unpublished Report; De-
partment of Soil Science, The University
of the West Indies.
BRAITHWAITE, R.A.I. (1987): Personal Com-
munication.
BROWN, J.A. (1987): Personal Communication.
CAMBRIDGE, P. (1980): "An evaluation of
the first production-scale subsurface
drainage system in Trinidad and Tobago"
MSc. Thesis submitted to the Department


of Agricultural Engineering, Mac Donald
College, Mc Gill University, Montreal,
Quebec, Canada, October 1980
DEMAS, W.G. (1987): "Agricultural Diver-
sification in the Caribbean Development
Bank at the Seventeenth Annual Meeting
of the Board of Governors, held at the
RAMADA REN ISSANCE HOTEL, Grand
Anse, Grenada, May 13 and 14, 1987.
GARCIA, G.W. (1987): "Production of Leu-
caena (Leucaena leucocephala) and Cas-
sava (Manihot esculenta) forages and their
nitrogen utilisation by growing dairy
cattle fed sugarcane based diets." PhD.
Thesis Submitted to the Department of
Livestock Science, Faculty of Agricul-
ture, UWI. July 1987.
GUMBS, F.A. (1981): "A further study of the
soils of the Sugarcane Feeds Centre,
Longdenville." Unpublished Report, De-
partment of Soil Science, The University
of the West-Indies.
LALLO, C.H.O. (1987): Personal Communica-
tion
LIVAN, M.A. (1984): "Ameliorating the Soil
Physical Properties of Piaco Fine Sandy
Loam and the Effect on Sugarcane
Growth and Yield." MSc Thesis, Depart-
ment of Soil Science, The University of
the West Indies.

JA'S. NEW BANANA INDUSTRY
Cont'd. from p.9
ing to the prophets. The prospects for
substantial growth of demand for bananas
in our traditional markets or any other
markets are poor. However, in the
short term, banana seems to to offer as
good a proposition as any crop that Jam-
aica's farmers can grow for export. An
interesting part of the banana story is
that over the next few years the Jamaican
grower is likely to get substantial back-
ing from government and its agencies be-
cause of the importance of this crop as an
earner of foreign exchange. However far
this situation is from perfect, it seems to
be the best that can be done in a world
which is ceasing to make many allow-
ances for the small and weak nations. *
15














Dairy Workshop in Jamaica


Three leading Jamaican institutions -
Jamaica Livestock Association (JLA),
Jamaica Agricultural Development Found-
ation (JADF) and National Commercial
Bank (NCB) joined forces to sponsor a
dairy workshop on 29 September last.
The workshop was part of a campaign
to make dairy farming a more attractive
and profitable business than it has been
over the past many years .thus to in-
crease the amount of good quality cows'
milk reaching the local consumer.
Among the papers presented and dis-
cussed at the workshop was one by the
JADF managing director, Dr. Keith
Roache the subject was Economic
feasibility of expanding existing dairy
operations.
Another paper was by Dr David John-
ston, who is a consultant in the Mar-
keting and Credit Division of the Jam-
aica Ministry of Agriculture. Dr. John-
ston's paper was on Milk marketing in
Jamaica. In this issue we carry extracts
from these two addresses.
Other papers presented at the work-
shop were on Pasture management by
Sylvan McDaniel of Alcan Jamaica, Dairy
calf management by Richard Miller of
Jamaica Feeds, Parlour management and
milking practices by P.L. Webster and
O.C. Stephenson and Diseases of dairy
claves by Dr. L.G. Bryan Director of
Veterinary Services in the Ministry of
Agriculture.


Dr. Keith Roache...

Agriculture and non-agriculture com-
pete basically in Jamaica for the same
type of resources land, labour and
capital. Within the agricultural sector,
there can be competing interest in terms
of maximising the returns and from the
use of these three resources, and it is in
this context that the dairy expansion pro-
gramme has to be viewed.
Jamaica has limited availability of
good arable land. It is estimated that only


13% of the island's 2.7 million acres is in
the high potential land classes I and II
and very little of this is on hillsides.
Therefore, the decision has to be made
whether at current levels of develop-
ment and profitability, dairying can com-
pete on Class I & II lands with other
farming activities.
It is not that I am advocating that
those of you who are dairy farmers now
occupying flat good lands should move
your current activities but it certainly
projects a situation in which maximum
utilisation must be made of those facili-
ties in the sense that from a national per-
spective, there could be valid competing
claims from other agricultural activities.
On the reverse side of the coin, Jamaica
is also being faced with the challenge of
finding productive use for a considerable
portion of its meagre land resources
which is marginal for crop production.
Some of the acreage is located on hill-
sides which characterises much of Jam-
aica.
Based on analysis undertaken of var-
ious models of dairy enterprises, irri-
gated and unirrigated (rainfed), under
current factor and product price regimes,
viability of new irrigated dairy enter-
prise is in doubt. The prospect of opera-
ting under natural rainfall is a little more
favourable. In view of these consider-
ations it would be imprudent to base pro-
posals for dairy industry expansion on
irrigated operations with the utilisation
of the current moderately capital inten-
sive management system, with use of high
concentrate feed regimes. Instead, it
might be more appropriate to explore on
a pilot basis, the feasibility of smaller
lower investment input systems. Systems
designed to utilise hillsides land in ecolo-
gically favourable locations. Much of this
acreage is likely to be only marginally
suited to cultivation other than pasutre.
Additionally, the establishment of pas-
ture as the primary source of food for
the dairy herd and the continued pre-
sence of that pasture cover, would make
an important contribution to soil and
water conservation in these hillside areas.
A contribution that must not be ignored


in the mounting struggle to secure more
effective and efficient land and water
conservation in a country in which popu-
lation pressure is placing ever increasing
demands on scarce, natural resources.
For the purposes of discussions, let
us deal with a hypothetical dairy farm
which is applying 400 Ib of fertilizer
per acre per year is feeding concentrate
at the level of 1.5 Ib of concentrate to
the quart of milk and is producing 1000
quarts of milk per acre per annum. it
means that for our hypothetical dair',
the cost of two major inputs feed and
fertilizer, would run at $875 per acre for
a return of $1,800 from the sale of mil .
Add to this the current cost of ir -
gation and it would not be hard to visu; -
ise where the surplus went. You can ;i
work out for yourselves the impact t n
gross returns if you could extract 30( 0
quarts per acre using the concentra e
ratio 1.5 Ib concentrate per quart mi k
and increasing fertilizer usage by 50%.
There are all kinds of ramification s
one can get into and which I would invi e
discussion on, because obviously, the e
will be those of you who will disagr e
with the levels of 1.5 Ib of concentre e
per quart of milk. However you look it
it, at current practices and levels of pr )-
duction there is not the return to encot r-
age start up operations in dairying. / I-
though we might get some expansi' n
from existing dairies (spreading ov r-
heads) it is difficult to foresee any drar i-
tic or substantial increase in the shc t
term unless we can take measures to i n-
prove the returns whether by the prici g
route or by reducing costs in the industi /.
Let me caution however, that alreac /,
100% cow's milk is only reaching a c r-
tain section of the population who c. n
afford to buy it at $3.15 a quart. It cou d
well run into some market resistance if
this price was increased appreciably. V!e
need to look into the aspects of market-
ing to achieve greater efficiencies.
It would also appear that the avail-
ability of new field-tested technology is
vital to the long term viability of the in-
dustry and is likely to be a major driv-
ing force required for its expansion. This
Caribbean Farming- November 1987










is true whether the industry remains in its
present characteristics of relying on large
inputs of grain from milk production, or
shifts towards systems which depend
more on pasture, or alternately consists
of both systems.
In the absence of new technological
inputs the industry will continue to rely
on the skill, ingenuity and industry of its
members, especially the innovators to ac-
hieve greater efficiency but experience
has clearly indicated that a more system-
atic and focused approach is needed for
any major expansion to occur. As part of
this initiative the search for more pro-
ductive pasture forage system has to be
intensified. Results of such an initiative
can only begin to come available in the
riedium term, that is after several years.
"he exploration on a pilot basis of the
feasibility of exploiting the potential
Sf smaller, lower investment inputs sys-
t m, whilst utilising rain-fed land, could
i fact be a complement to any program-
r e of expansion.

])r. David Johnston...
I would like to once again men-
t )n the misuse of grain feeding by many
f rmers of all sizes in Jamaica. It is not


uncommon to find farmers feeding two
pounds or more of grain per quart of milk
produced.
Many of these same farmers are simul-
taneously seriously under feeding their
grass. Milk in Jamaica comes mainly from
grass or it should so the grass needs fertili-
zer to grow and feed the cows. Fertilising
at the rate of less than 300 Ibs. per acre
per year means your grass is not being
properly fed. This is not just a small farm-
er problem, many medium and large
farmers are also guilty of this practice.
It is necessary to remember the aver-
age income level of Jamaica and the fact
that farmers can easily price their milk
out of the reach of most Jamaicans.
Farmers must do everything in their
power to increase their production effi-
ciency and hold down price increases. It
is very herd to justify a price increase to
keep all dairy farmers profitable when
some are only producing 400 to 800 quarts
per acre per year, feeding closeto 2 pounds
of grain per quart of milk produced, get-
ting only 5 quarts per cow per day (305
day milking), putting on less than 200
pounds of fertilizer per acre per year and
have a calving rate of only 50 to 65%. I
do not wish to name names, however, I
am not referring only to one isolated in-


stance of a small farmer but have taken
these figures from some of the large dairy
farms in Jamaica who are classed among
the top twenty dairy farms in terms of
milk production.
I hope that soon the average figures
for Jamaica will be at least 2,500 quarts
of milk per acre per year, 1 pound of
grain per quart of milk produced, 10
quarts per cow per day, 400 pounds of
fertilizer per acre per year and a calving
rate of 80%.
These levels are currently being met
and surpassed on various farms, large,
medium and small in Jamaica. At pro-
duction levels such as these, the eco-
nomic viability of dairy farming will be
greatly enhanced, as well as the credibil-
ity of calls for a price increase in farm-
gate milk. At an annual growth rate of
only 6%, from the expected 1987 pro-
duction of approximately 19 million im-
perial quarts, by the year 2000 Jamaica
could be producing 40 million imperial
quarts of milk. At 2,500 quarts of milk
per acre, this requires only 16,000 acres
of pasture and this amount is the current
level already in Grade A production or
under development. This output can be
reached if farmers wish to do it and work
to reach it, as I hope you will. *


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COST OF PROI


Cost of Production per ac. (J$)

Crop : SWEET POTATO


Unit


no. of rate per total
units unit cost($)


Labour Operations


Land clearing
Plough & harrow
Ridge
Applying pre-emergence chemicals
Prepare, treat, plant slip
Spraying
Fertilizing
Weeding & moulding


Reap, grade & bag
Transport to farmgate


tract hr
tract hr
ac.
apple
m.d.
apple
m.d.
m.d.


10000
10000


100
100
75
20
20
20
20
20


0.06
0.02


1875


Sub-total


MATERIAL INPUTS


Slips (purchase, cut & transp.)
Fertilizer


2 55


Pesticides
Weedicide


Sub-total


OTHER COSTS


Contingencies
Tools
Land charges
Supervision
Interest on work. capt.


10% of labour & material
5% of material
$40/ac./yr.
25% of labour & material
15% /yr for 3 months


Sub-total


TOTAL COST
Casual labour rate =
Marketable yield =


Cost of production per lb. =


3228


$20/dy
10000 lb.


$0.32


Cost of Production per ac. (J$)

Crop : YELLOW YAM


Items


Labour Operations


Land Clearing (manual)
Dig hills (open & mould)
Drop & plant heads
Staking & tying
Cut & clean trenches
Weed & mould
Fertilize
Twining
Reaping & Preparing
for market
Transport to farmgate
Lift, bit, & clean heads


Sub-total


MATERIAL INPUTS

Heads
(including transport)
Fertilizer
Stakes-pro rated 50%
of cost


Sub-total


OTHER COSTS

Contingencies
Tools
Land charges
Supervision
Interest on work. capt.


Sub-total


TOTAL COST


ASSUMPTIONS:

1. Casual labour rate = $
2. Marketable yield =
3. Interest rate not calculated tor 1
farmgate will not be incurred att0
4. Heads are marketable and thereft
computing cost of production pO


Cost of production per lb. =


Caribbean Fanng November 197


Items













ACTION CHARTS


no. of rate per total
units unit cost ($)


10
1~00
10
6
22
3
1
4

30
14, >00
10


20
0.6
20
20
20
80
20
20

20
0.02
20


2980


6( )0 0.6 3600
4 45 180
1( )0 0.5 250



4030




r& material 701
al 202
40
r & material 1402
months 1052


3397


10407






ee weeding, reaping, and transport to
of the year.
ads is deducted from total cost in


Cost of Production per ac. (J$)

Crop : IRISH POTATO


Items


no. of rate per total
units unit cost($)


Unit


Labour Operations


Land clearing -pro rated
Ploughing (pro rated)
Harrowing & Ridging
Planting

Spraying
Fertilizing
Weed & Moulding

Reaping, grading, bagging
Transport to farmgate


tract hr.
tract. hr.
ac.
m.d

appl
m.d..
m.d.

m.d.
lb.


Sub-total


MATERIAL INPUTS


Seeds


Fertilizer
Spray Materials


Sub-total





OTHER COSTS


Contingencies
Tools
Land charges
Supervision
Interest of work. capt.


Sub-total


TOTAL COST


ASSUMPTIONS:


1. Casual labour rate =
2. Marketable yield =


Cost of production per lb. =


15 200

8 55
36 25


10% of labour & material
5% of material
$40/ac./yr.
25% of labour & material
15% for 3 months


$20/dy
80001b.


$1.15


Caribban Faming -Noveber 1967


1
1
1
14

12
2
15

30
8000


120
120
240
20

15
20
20

30
0.02


120
120
240
280

180
40
300

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440
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24-26 Grenada Crescent, Kingston 5.
Tel. Nos: 92-93930-2, 92-93934,92-93017-8












Multiple cropping in Taiwan


Taiwan is a country that is often men-
tioned in the rest of the Third World be-
cause its small farms have regularly pro-
duced very high yields of a wide range of
tropical and sub-tropical crops. Although
there can be no doubt as to the energy
and technical skill of Taiwanese farmers,
they are, in fact, helped in a number of
ways by their government as well as by
friendly foreign governments. For ex-
aitple, irrigation water is available to
vwry many of these small Taiwanese farms,
tf~ increasing industrialisation of their
cc untry means that there is a well-paid
in lustrial work force to buy their farm
pi duce. It also means that revenue from
in justry is available to pay for the nation's
ac cultural infrastructure and help pay
fc development of a comprehensive mar-
k( ing system for.farm produce.
One world-famous feature of Taiwan's
at culture is the Asian Vegetable Research
ar 1 Development Centre (AVRDC),which
he been supplying information on a
nf nber of tropical vegetable crops to
fa -n agencies all over the world. Some
yE rs ago, Dr. Ruben Villareal, head of
th department of Plant Breeding at
A' RDC, reported on the successes that
Ti Nanese farmers were having growing
to latoes for processing as an inter-crop
wi 1 sugar cane. Farmers in the Carib-
be n are no strangers to the trick of grow-
in( two or three crops together especial-
ly )n small farms, where space is not al-
wa s available for separate fields of single
vat ties. Also, in the Caribbean sugar-
cara is often grown in a field some dis-
tan:;e from the farmer's home, while
vegetables such as tomatoes are grown
near home where they can get regular at-
tention. However, there are some farm-
ers who have conditions where they can
try the Taiwan method of growing toma-
toes inter-cropped with sugar-cane. In any
case, what is immediately striking about
Dr. Villareal's report is the fact that the
Taiwanese farmers have been finding it
profitable to use almost six tons of or-
ganic matter (animal manure, straw, com-
post, dried crop waste, etc.) per acre as
well as 600 Ib of lime and 500-600 Ib of
chemical fertilizer (NPK) As the tomato
crop needs about 18-20 inches of water
over 80 100 days for a good yield, the
arbbean Farming November 1987


high level of fertilising, assisted by irri-
gation, produces yields of more than 27
tons of fruit per acre. We are told that the
farmer uses additional fertilizer for the
sugar-crop and that the national aver-
age for Taiwan is 29.9 tons of sugar cane
per acre.
Growing systems
The sugar cane roaws are about four
feet apart in the Taiwan system and
tomato is grown from transplants. These
transplants are sometimes put into the
field at the same time as the seed cane


bits; this is during mid-October after the
heavy rains of August and September, At
other times, sugar cane seed pieces are
planted 25 to 30 days after the toma-
to transplants.
Taiwanese farmers also grow sweet
potatoes as an inter-crop with sugar can@
Dr. Villareal reported that most of Tai-
wan's sweet potato crop goes for feed-
ing livestock and for processing; only
6.8% is consumed by humans directly, *


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Field-packing bananas


Field Pack is a system used to re-
duce fruit damage between harvesting and
boxing.
It is based on the direct transfer of fruit
from the plant to banana cartons in the
field or only a short distance from the
field. The fruit is effectively protected
against crown rot and latex stain through
the application of specially-prepared
crown pads.
It requires that the fruit be produced
in sanitary fields and deflowered and
sleeved at an early stage to ensure that a
clean and unmarked fruit is produced;
this can be packed for export without
v'ashing after harvest.
These field disciplines and the reduc-
t:on in handling have been shown to pro-
vide three major benefits:-

(a) Cleaner fruit which is more ac-
ceptable to the market and
which should therefore com-
mand a higher price.

(b) Increase quantities of saleable
fruit through reduction of re-
jects and therefore a higher re-
turn per acre.
(c) Time saved for the grower on
boxing days.

.MANAGEMENT BEFORE HARVEST
.1. Field sanitation must be kept at a
high level through proper -
(i) weed control
(ii) pruning of suckers
(iii) removal of hanging or diseased
leaves
(iv) practices which seek to control
insects, birds, snails, slugs etc.
which damage or contaminate
the fruit making it unaccept-
able to the market.
1.2 Fruit is to be deflowered not later
than the stage at which the fingers
are to become horizontal, as they
turn upwards at this stage the
latex will not contaminate the
lower hands. The flowers at the tip
of the fingers are easily detached
at this stage by brushing off by
hand. Finger nails of operator should
be closely clipped to prevent dam-
age to the fruit.

1.3 If the bract is still present,
it should be removed and the spade
Caribbean Farming- November 1987


Special attention should begin early after
'shooting'.

leaf bent back away from contact
with the bunch. Any other leaves in
close proximity to the bunch should
be removed.
1.4 Sleeves should be applied 2-3 days
after deflowering. This gives the la-
tex sufficient time to drain and seal
the tips of the banana fingers -
and prevents the sleeves when being
applied from contaminating the
fingers.

2. HARVESTING
Dehanding and boxing should normal-
ly be carried out at the point of bunch
production or at central collection
points in the vicinity.

2.1 Where operations are carried out at
the point of bunch production, the
methods should incorporate the
following principles:-

(i) The bunch should be left at-
tached to the plant while it is
lowered by making a partial
cut of the pseudostem of the
plant and gently pulling down
the bunch to suitable height
(ii) Two or more clean green leaves
are placed flat on the ground
or suitable rest with the mid
ribs uppermost.
(iii) Individual hands are cut from
the bottom hand upward on
the bunch with a short but
very sharp knife.
The hands are severed by cut-
ting across the bunch stalk
which leaves a piece of stalk at-
tached to the hand in the fruit
stage of demanding.


(iv) Latex must never be allowed to
drip from the cut hand or stalk
onto the fruit, at any stage of
operation. To this end the
severed hand must be immedia-
tely removed from below the
bunch and held away from it.
For the same reason demanded
fruit must always be held crown
down to allow any dripping la-
tex to fall freely to the ground.
(v) At this point the piece of stalk
is cut off taking care against
latex contamination. Any re-
sulting sharp edges on the crown
are trimmed off to leave a
smooth surface. All this must
be done with the crown down-
wards and latex dripping freely
to the ground.

(vi) After crown trimming the latex
is allowed to drain from the
hand by placing it on the green
banana leaves with crown end
supported by the prominent
mid-rib. The mid-rib forms an
effective barrier between the
draining latex and the fruit.


For field dry-pack, hands are laid out for latex
to drain.









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2.2 Where demanding is to be carried
out at a central demanding point the
following procedures are applicable:
(i) The bunch is lowered through
the procedure described (2.1)
(i). As the bunch is being low-
ered a header gently places a
well padded tray against it and
gets into position to receive the
bunch as it is cut. A sufficient-
ly long stalk should remain at-
tached to the bunch to allow
latex to drip free from con-
tact with the fruit or the under-
lying tray.
(ii) The bunch which should still
be sleeved is headed a short
distance to the central dehand-
ing point where it is hung in
the shade in preparation for
demanding. Bunches should
never be placed on the ground.
As the bunch should be hung
with the cut stalk end up-
wards a piece of absorbent
paper should be placed over
the cut surface to absorb latex
and prevent the latter from
flowing down on fruit beneath.

(iii) Dehanding and crown trim-
ming should be carried out as
described above (2.1 (iii) (Iv)
(v)).
(iv) Provision must be made for
systematic delatexing prior to
pad application.

;. SELECTION OF FRUIT
This is an important aspect of Field
Packing as the grower is charged with
the responsibility of doing this direct-
ly in the field and there is no other
intermediate stage for carrying out
this function, as in the boxing plants
with conventional washed fruit.

The grower in effect, determines the
quality of the fruit which is placed on
the market. The Indsutry's Reputa-
tion rests upon the grower, therefore
there should be: -
(i) No overgrade or undergrade fruit
(ii) No leafspot affected fruit
(iii) No stale, snapped or toppled fruit
(iv) No blemished or damaged hands.

These and other deviations from the
regulatory standards will make the
carton rejectable.

4. CROWN PAD APPLICATION
Allow an initial free flow of latex,
then place the approved crown pad
Caribbean Farming November 1987


At this stage flowers are removed from develop-
ing fruit.
over the crown to ensure complete
coverage of the entire cut surface. The
pad must always be pressed firmly on
the cut surface to ensure that the latex
flow acts as a binder of pad tissue.
Crown pads should never be torn into
smaller pieces even when used for clus-
ters. In the latter case, it is necessary
to ensure that the pad is pressed on
the entire surface.

5. PACKING OF FRUIT
5.1 For the purpose of efficiency
and reduction of handling, pad
application and packing should
be carried out by the same in-
dividual. The hands should nor-
mally be placed in the cartons
immediately after the crown pad
is applied.
5.2 Hands with short to medium
length fingers should be placed
at the bottom and in the middle
of the compartments. To this
end it is best to pack the two
compartments of a carton at the
same timeto ensure that the avail-
able hands are positioned in the
carton to best effect. Other than
this, the packaging of the box
should be carried out with stan-
dard procedure.

5.3 Cartons whether empty or full
should never be placed in con-
tact with the ground, even when
the ground is dry. Cartons should
rest on a flat and preferably
raised surface and must always
be protected from rain and
direct sunlight. The proper shel-
ter should always allow ade-
quate ventilation of the stacked
cartons of fruit.

6. MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT
(a) Cartons and diothene
(b) Crown pads must be brought to
the field in a container which


provides protection against wind
and rain. The crown pads should
never be damp at the time of ap-
plication.

(c) A short demanding knife is more
suitable than a long one for the
demanding and crown trimming.

(d) A shed for the storage of empty
and full cartons must be estab-
lished in the holding. The shed
allows for shelter of the cartons
from rain and sunlight and should
also allow adequate ventilation.
Pallets or a raised floor must be
included in the structure.

REGULATIONS FOR FIELD PACK
OPERATION
1. A grower doing Field Pack must be
certified and registered with the local
Banana Growers Association (Society).

2. Certification will be on the basis that
the grower achieve the standards for
Field Packing outlined in the Banana
Standards Manual.

3. The basic standards for certification
are as follows:-

(i) Field sanitation must be of a
high standard.

(ii) All fruit must be deflowered at
the correct stage.

(iii) All bunches must be sleeved at
the correct stage.

(iv) Dehanding and packaging of fruit
must be carried out in the appro-
priate and approved manner.

(v) Fruit must be harvested, hand-
led and boxed in the methods
prescribed in order to minimise
latex stain. This must embody a
short period of delatexing of
hand (cluster) prior to appli-
cation of crown pads.
(vi) The crown pad must be of the
type approved by the appropriate
authorities of the industry.

(vii) The carton, empty or full, must
be protected from water and sun

(viii) The provision of an approved
shed for the storage of empty
and full cartons. o

Banana Board of Jamaica












Extension and agricultural diversification


By Dunstan A.C. Campbell, Ph.D.
(Developmental Sociologist

Paper presented at the
Joint Meeting of the Caribbean Food
Crop Society (CFCS) and the
Caribbean Agricultural Economies
Society (CAES)
August 23-28, 1987,
St. John's, Antigua

The economies of the Organisatipn of
Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) are
based on agriculture which not only pro-
vides the greatest share of GDP but also
employs the highest percentage of the
labour force. Agriculture to these states
must also be seen as an important contri-
butor to the socio-cultural life for the
majority of people engaged in agriculture
regard it not only as a business but also as
a way of life.

All OECS states are now developing
and implementing agricultural diversifica-
tion projects because they see a threat to
their economies which for the most part
are based on a few commodities that have
unpredictable markets. This new project
direction is especially true in states that
practice a monoculture which is suscept-
ible not only to market fluctuations but
also to vagaries of weather. If the threats
to these economies were to materialize
the consequences would be economic
as well as social destroying the very
social fabric of the societies. Hence the
importance of agricultural diversification
cannot be over-emphasized.

Participation of two groups of people
is critical to the success of any imple-
mentation and diversification projects.
This paper presents a sampling of such
projects, highlighting the participation of
the two groups in terms of their abilities
to understand project goals, to be con-
vinced, to deliver and to implement the
recommendations.

Agricultural Diversification Projects

There is a clear difference between
diversification projects in the Windward
and Leeward islands. The Windward
Islands are mainly tree crop oriented -
growing coconut, coffee and non-tra-
ditional fruits such as soursop, pawpaw,
mangoes, avocado, and passion fruit.
The Leeward Islands are livestock orient-
ed. One reason for this difference is
climate. The climate in the Leewards is
26


For the past four years Dr Campbell has been head of operations in the Windward Islands Domi-
nice, Grenada, St Lucia and St Vincent for the Caribbean Agricultural Extension Project.
Following is the text of his paper presented at the joint meeting of the Caribbean Food Crops
Society (CFCS) and the Caribbean Agricultural Economics Society (CAES) held in St John's,
Antigua in August 1987.
Dr. Campbell's report deals with important features of CAEP's experience in the field. His
statement should be welcome and useful advice to planners of rural development programmes in
the Caribbean and elsewhere.
Papers presented at the Antigua meeting will be included in the Proceedings of the Joint CFCS/
CAES Meeting to be published shortly.


much drier than that in the Windwards
and readily supports a livestock produ-
ction system.

Agricultural diversification program-
mes are also either export-oriented or
import-substitution-oriented. In the Wind-
wards for instance, vegetable and live-
stock are primarily import-substitution
projects while tree crops are for the
export market. In the Leewards however,
vegetable and livestock production are for
both export and home consumption (im-
port substitution). The projects with
export-orientation as their major goal
are funded mainly by foreign sources
(see Appendix 1). The main funding
agencies are the British Development
Division (BDD), European Development
Fund (EDF), United States Agency for
International Development (USAID), Or-
ganisation of American States (OAS), Ca-
nadian International Development Agen-
cy (CIDA), International Bank for Re-
construction and Development (IDBRD)
and Caribbean Development Bank (CDB).

Each of the above funding agencies has
its own agenda and vision of development
and (as this paper will point out later) the
agenda and/or vision does not always fit
in with farmers' goals and visions. Thus
there is often a dilemna of these well-
intentioned programmes. Following are
some examples of diversification projects
in the Windwards and the Leewards.

Grenada:
A. Agricultural Rehabilitation and
Crop Diversification Project

This project is aimed at revitalizing
the agricultural sector through (1) rehab-
ilitation of the existing major export
crops nutmeg, bananas, sugar cane; and
(2) introduction of new crops for export
- mainly non-traditional fruits such as
mango, avocado, soursop.

The project was developed without


SAPPENDIX1,

Listof Some Agricultural Diversification
Projects in the OECS'
(Source: Review of Agricultural Diversificatio.
in the OECS" Volume 2, CIDA, 1987)

Antigua
Livestock Improvement Project: USAID gran
Started 1984, completion June 1987;
Income Generation Project: OAS. Productio
of sheep, goats and rabbits.
Bethesch Vegetable Production Project: BD!
funding.
Vegetable Production Project: Donor country
Taiwan.

St. Kitts/Nevis
Yam Multiplication Project: BDDgrant. Ope,
atedby CARDI.
Livestock Improvement: BDD.

Montserrat
Most of theagricultural diversification initiative
are centered on irrigation, e.g., Lees Dam
CIDA; Trans Farms Irrigation Project ED
Rodericks Small Farms Irrigation Scheme
SAID.

Dominica
Tree Crop Diversification Programme, Phases
11,& 111: BDD grant.
Coffee Development, Phase 1: BDD grant.
Coconut Rehabilitation and Expansion Projec
CIDA grant.
Lime Rehabilitation Project: EC grant.

St. Lucia
Tree Crop Diversification Programme Phases
& 11: BDD grant.
Cocoa Rehabilitation Programme: USAID fun
ing.
CARDATS Black Bay Vegetable project.

St. Vincent
Top Working Mango Project Phase 1 & 11
BDD grant.
Livestock Development (Diamont Estate): EC.
grant.

Grenada
Agricultural Rehabilitation and Crop Diver-
sification Project: Funded by IDRD and CDB.
Cocoa Rehabilitation: CIDA grant.

Caribbean Farming-November 1987










consultation with the farming community
and as a result the implementation is
proving to be more difficult than expect-
ed. Although there is island-wide increase
in activity in the production of the crops
targeted for rehabilitation and revitaliza-
tion under this project, this increase can-
not be said to be as a result of the project.
The price of nutmeg went up making it
more profitable to harvest and maintain
nutmeg trees. Also the price of bananas is
now regarded by farmers as attractive,
thus farmers are going into banana pro-
duction regardless of the threat of moko
disease on the island.

Sugar cane, however, has been ex-
periencing problems. The farmers are
being asked to grow sugar cane but the
infra-structure for production is not in
place for example, roads, land and trac-
tcr service. The extension officer is placed
in the predicament of convincing the far-
mer to go (once again) into the product-
ion of a crop although the necessary
support is lacking. In some cases the ex-
tension officer is asked to explain the
laid tenure situation answering the
question, "why is the Government en-
couraging us to go into sugar cane produ-
c'ion when it is not willing to regularize
o ir land situation?" In most cases the ex-
tension officer is unable to provide
ailswers because these decisions are not
taken at his level or, as is so often the
a se, the decisions are not communicated
t( him.

On the other hand, the introduction of
tl a non-traditional fruits for export -
IV ingo, avocado, soursop is being imple-
m nted without much setback. This is so
x cause of the lucrative Trinidad market
(a though this market is now dwindling).
In fact, despite any campaign from the
M nistry of Agriculture the hucksters
ge berated such a thriving trade for these
fruits that in 1985 the export of non-
triditional fruits contributed the highest
to agricultural export earnings of EC$17
million. This was a dramatic increase over
the EC$3.8 million earned in 1982.

The extension worker's task was made
easy because of the available market for
fruit crops. There is however, the problem
of farmers planting these fruit trees on
lands which are better suited for another
crop. This problem goes beyond the exten-
sion worker's control because he has no
jurisdiction over the farmer's private pro-
perty. The situation is more controllable
when a subsidy is involved. (This was not
the case in Grenada.) For instance, if the
farmer does not follow the recommenda-
tion, then the subsidy would not be given.
bean Farming November 1987


It is important to stress here that subsidy
is not a panacea. It is known that farmers
on receiving subsidy either neglect the
plants or remove them to other areas.

B. The Cocoa Rehabilitation Project

Grenada's cocoa rehabilitation is aimed
at reintroducting new vigour into the
cocoa industry. The project is island wide
and is run separately from activities of the
other cocoa organisation the Cocoa
Growers Association.

To qualify as a participant in this pro-
ject, the farmer hasto destroyall his cocoa
plants in the specified area to be rehabi-
litated. Clonal plants along with fertilizer
and other inputs are then supplied to him.
The rehabilitation project has its own
extension officers. These officers perform
both regulatory and educational functions.

So far, the project has had its setbacks.
Farmers are resisting the total destruction
of all plants in the project area. These far-
mers do not get their supply of plants. In
fact, the situation got out of control be-
cause while the farmers were asking for
plants and were finding them difficult to
obtain, the project propagation station
was dumping overgrown plants because
extension workers claimed that farmers
were not ready to receive them. This can
clearly be seen as a conflict between goals
and agenda of project administrators and
farmers. The situation also created conflict
between farmer and extension worker.

Dominica
Tree Crop Diversification Programme

Dominica's Tree Crop Diversification
Programme, like Grenada's Agricultural
Rehabilitation and Crop Diversification
project has national implications. The
programme is aimed at the introduction
of non-traditional fruit trees to farmers'
holdings. The project has a target acreage
and as such the number of plants in the
ground or distributed becomes an import-
ant consideration for project success. Al-
though other factors such as proper site
selection, correct spacing and mainten-
ance are part of the project staff respon-
sibility, these factors become difficult to
control once the plants are issued to the
farmers. In fact, preliminary results from
this project indicate that farmers are doing
the minimum needed to qualify for what-
ever subsidy is provided. At the end of
the subsidy, most of the recommended
practices are discontinued. The project
extension staff is finding it difficult to
convince farmers to continue maintain-
ing their orchards. The problem here is


a question of conviction on the part of
the farmers. From indications, farmers
entered the programme for the subsidy
provided, especially the cash subsidy.
This cash subsidy provides an important
source of working capital for the farm.

Antigua

Bethesda Vegetable Production Project

This project is aimed at using irrigation
techniques in the production of vegetables
for the export and local markets. The
project has important diversification
implications for Antigua because of the
strong dependence on the livestock sector.
The success of this project, like any other
diversification project, depends heavily
on the market. Extension workers' in-
volvement as a catalyst to the production
of these crops is therefore critical because
of the uncertainties of markets.

The above examples describe diver-
sification initiatives that were developed
outside of the farming community and
the farmers' system. Diversification also
occurs within the farming community
without outside intervention. An exam-
ple of this diversification from within
can be seen in Grenada where there is
a definite shift in cropping systems
among farmers. Young farmers are
more prone to accepting short term crops
for example, vegetables and bananas.
As farmers grow older they shift their
cropping system to more permanent
crops such as cocoa and nutmeg; the
reason being greater security in their
old age.

Implications for Extension

Because of the different types of
diversification in the OECS states, the
implications are obviously different. In
general, though, initiatives from within
are more easily handled by extension
agents when the farmers have themselves
already taken the decision to diversify.
The task then is one of guiding the
farmers to make the best possible use of
the land and capital investment.

Diversification initiatives from the
outside are fraught with problems. In
the Windwards, selling diversification
today is extremely difficult if the crop
involved is not bananas. In St. Lucia
where banana is the main crop, tree crop
diversification programmes are proceed-
ing at snail's pace even though subsidies
are given out. Farmers are more inter-
ested in the immediate benefit that can
be derived for an enterprise. Many, if not
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all of the crops introduced do not satisfy
the farmer's objective of a steady cash
flow. From the farmer's point of view,
the substituted crop must provide that
steady cash flow. The longer the gestation
period of the substituted crop, the more
difficult it will be for farmers" accept-
ance.

Further, extension officers are not
adept in discounting techniques, a tool
necessary for analysing crops with long
gestation periods. The Caribbean Agri-
cultural Extension Project (CAEP) has
been emphasizing these techniques during
its annual in-service training programme
in the Windwards and more recently du-
ring its Farm and Home Management
Training. However, to date one can say
that only the surface has been touched.
The problem therefore is that extension
agents have not fully internalized the
economics of crops with long gestation
periods. In fact, the economic component
is seldom, if at all, highlighted for exten-
sion workers.

A review of most diversification
initiatives in the OECS states would indi-
cate that the economic benefits to the
farmer are left out. None of the project
promoters are giving extension workers
clear indications of cost and benefits.


The projects are being sold as "something
good for the nation". Such a project-
marketing pitch is not enough and is
creating serious implementing problems.

In some instances, not even the mar-
kets for the introduced crops are clearly
worked out:

Q: Where would the Windward
Islands sell their mangoes and avocadoes?
or, the Leeward Islands their vegetables?
Q: Who will be responsible for the
organisation of the market?

These are some questions that farmers
are asking in response to tree crop diver-
sification initiatives.

Finally one observes that most tree
crop diversification projects are creating
land use problems which go beyond
extension. The fact is that number of
plants and number of acres are the main
objectives of the project. Extension of-
ficers are therefore motivated to distribute
as many plants as possible, thus giving an
indication of acreage planted. It is not un-
common to find that these plants either
end up in a storage place or are planted
at incorrect spacing and incorrect loca-
tion. At the same time, the project can
be seen as successful in terms of desired


project output acreage to be planted
was attained. Yet, serious long term
effect to national development is likely
as most of the more arable flat land will
be taken up by tree crops and the slopes
will be left to be farmed.

To conclude, agricultural diversification
initiatives should continue to be an im-
portant agenda item in agricultural deve-
lopment in the OECS states. The aim of
these initiatives is to establish economic
stability within the region. However, de-
velopment and implementation of projects
should take into consideration the local
socio-economic and cultural dynamics
within th various states. The differences
are sufficient to justify separate con-
siderations.

There should be dialogue among
farmers, extension workers and policy
makers before and during project deve-
lopment and implementation. A training
programme should be mounted to allow
for sensitization and internalization of
the technical and economic ramification
of these programmes. Finally, diversifica-
tion projects should be designed so as not
to create a burden for the existing exten-
sion organisation at the completion of the
project staff should be. easily absorbed
into existing extension organizations. *


The Director General of the Inter-
american Institute for Co-operation on
Agriculture (IICA), Dr. Martin E. Pineiro,
stated on August 28, 1987 in Ottawa,
:hat an improvement in international con-
litions for trade in agricultural products
'vill contribute to the development and
strengtheningg of democratic systems in
_atin America and the Caribbean.

"The fact that the region is transferring
resources abroad for an amount equi-
\alent to one percent of its gross national
product, to service the external debt
every year, together with the reduction in
revenue due to the drastic drop in the
prices of its agricultural products, creates
a difficult situation which would mean
problems even for the oldest democra-
cies", said Dr. Pineiro during a press
conference held jointly with the Cana-
dian Minister of Agriculture, John Wise.

Both dignitaries expressed optimism
that the upcoming Inter-American Con-
ference of Agriculture (ICMA) would
assist in the search for common solutions
to the problems affecting agricultural
development in the hemisphere.

Minister Wise stated that "It is essen-
Caribbean Farning November 1987


IICA News

tial that as soon as possible some common
sense be brought to bear on the inter-
national market, so that we can set new
rules of the game which are fair to every-
one."

"This conference offers a valuable
opportunity to reiterate and reaffirm this
position, and to bring ourselves upto date
on what has happened, vis a vis the next
round of multilateral negotiations within
the General Agreement on Trade ABD
Tariffs (GATT), to be held in Geneva
this fall", he added.

Trade in agricultural products was in-
cluded for the first time on the agenda of
GATT during the meeting held late last
year in Uruguay.

On the subject of Canadian coopera-
tion being promoted in the region, Mini-
ster Wise made special reference to the
role of IICA.

"We firmly support the Institute and
we strongly believe that IICA is the most
effective instrument for concentrating


agricultural development efforts in the
Caribbean and Latin America", he stated.

The Minister also underline his coun-
try's desire to enhance cooperation ties
with the region, as well as to increase
trade.

"At present Canada exports agricul-
tural products to the region worth some
US$650 to US$700 million annually,
while it imports agricultural goods from
those countries for more than US$760
million", he pointed out.

For his part, Dr. Pineiro emphasized
that agriculture must be seen as the most
important sector of economic recovery
in the region.

However, in order that it may play this
role, "An international agreement must
be reached on prices, and adjustments
must be made to national policies in order
to increase productivity", he said.

He also referred to the need "for a
massive programme of technology trans-
fer to developing countries." 0


L












To some of us in the business, the
Inter-American Institute for Co-operation
on Agriculture (IICA) is best known as a
team of people working side-by-side with
the national agricultural extension services
in Latin America and the Caribbean to
demonstrate to farmers and local exten-
sion folk the benefits and the techniques
developed by research. IICA's reputation
in this area of applied research has been
maintained partly because the agency has
been careful and fortunate in attracting
technicians of high personal and profes-
sional integrity and partly because these
technicians have chosen to work on
projects that are relevant to the farmers
they serve.

Since IICA has contact with Govern-
ment Ministries of Agirculture through-
out Latin America and the Caribbean as
well as with farmers and extension work-
ers in the field, the agency is uniquely
able to collect, interpret and represent
information on the farming industry of
the region as a whole. Being a member
of the international network of public
agencies gives IICA access to world-wide
sources of recorded information. It seems
reasonable to suppose that what I ICA has


HEAD OFFICE:
Marcus Garvey Drive, P.O. Box 508,
Kingston, Jamaica. Telephone:
92-37211-4.


IICA Notes

to say should be of interest to the farmers
of Latin America and the Caribbean.

In preparation for a meeting of the
Agriculture Ministers of countries of
this region, IICA put together earlier
this year a number of documents on the
state and prospects of the region's agri-


IICA is one of the agencies collaborating in
applied research on food crop production in the
Caribbean . . . . . .


REGIONAL OFFICES:
Claremont, St. Ann. Telephone: 972-3271.
Seven Rivers, P.O. Box 12, Cambridge P.O.,
St. James
Christiana, Manchester. Telephone:
964-2318.


culture. The following notes appeared
under the heading Prospects for Agri-
cultural Trade:-

A. Medium-term projections
Although it is increasingly difficult to
make predictions in this area, given the
multitude of unforeseeable factors affect-
ing the markets, it is useful to mention
certain relevant facts for consideration. It
should be borne in mind that forecasts
for more than three or four years hence
rapidly lose their reliability.
The performance envisaged for the next
few years is merely a reflection of the
long-term trends which have characterized
these commodities in terms of supply
and demand. It is also based on the
variations that may be expected as re-
gards potential sales of those products on
the different markets.
This analysis suggests that, of those
commodities which have long made u)
the exports of Latin America (all corr
modities studied except edible oil crops
satisfactory growth of imports over tF
medium term can be expected only fo
cereals. To this picture can be added ed -
ble oil crops which, to a much great
extent, fit into the new pattern of deman,
that has been taking root in the industry;
countries. By contrast, the demand f(
traditional tropical crops (cotton, coffee
bananas, cocoa) will grow at the mode!
rate of 1.3 to two percent yearly.
Price levels should generally stay b
low those of the 1970s, although the
could be slightly better or more stable
than at present. All indications a!
that levels could not get much wor,
than they are now, but that no mir;
culous recovery is expected any tirr
soon.
Within this context, the short-ter i
prospects are quite serious for country,
such as those in the Greater Caribbea
Basin, which depend for more than 5
percent of their export income on tr(
pical climate agricultural commoditie,
one or two of which provide the bul:
of their exports (sugar, coffee, bananas.
Export diversification is unquestionably'
a top priority for these countries.
The outlook for the immediate future
is not encouraging. It depends on a larca
number of exogenous factors, such s
the agricultural policies of the developed
countries, over which the countries of
the region have no control. Hence it is
necessary to search very carefully for any
growth potential that may exist, either
within the developing world or in the
changing markets in which exports from
Latin America and the Caribbean are sold.*
Caribbean Farming November 1987


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Quality control in cucumber


Richard A. Graham

INTRODUCTION
Antigua exported approximately 78
tons of cucumber to the USA during the
period January to April 1987. The target
for the 1987-1988 export season is 187
tons; To achieve this target those con-
straints which hampered production
during the previous season must be
removed. Several problems were encoun-
tered in the production, harvest and post-
harvest procedures which affect the qual-
ity product.
Outlined subsequently are details of
the major constraints observed during the
previous season and recommendations to
prevent their recurrence. A set of pro-
cedures is suggested which, if adhered to,
should ensure procurement of a high
quality product for the market.

QUALITY CRITERIA:
Groundspot. This occurs as a yellow-
3reen area where cucumbers are in con-
tact with the soil and away from exposure
to the sun. On heavy clay soils and under
heavy rainfall conditions the fruit may
become embedded in the soil thus in-
creasing the size of the groundspot.
Usually, unless the spot covers more than
three-quarters of the fruit there is no
diminuition in quality.
Yellowing. Yellowing is usually an in-
fication of senescence and cucumbers
showingg this symptom are totally un-
Jesirable. Yellowing is accelerated by too
ow or too high a storage temperature.
3elow 100C cucmbers suffer chilling in-
jury and and yellow rapidly; above 150C
similarr symptoms are exhibited. Exposure
lo ethylene also promotes yellowing.
Shrivelling. Excessive water loss after
harvest causes shrivelling at the blossom
ends of the fruit. The fruit rapidly goes
flaccid afterwards. Flaccidity of fruit was
noticeable both in the field prior to har-
vest and upon arrival at the packhouse.
Since the entire cultivated area was rain-
fed and undergoing water stress during
the period of observation, it appears that
fruit was not turgid at harvest and deter-
iorated further during processing (wash-
ing, waxing, grading and packing). Shrivel-
ling indicates poor handling or storage
practices.
Cottony Leak. A soil-borne fungal
pathogen, Pythium aphinidermatum is
Caribbean Farming -November 1987


the casual agent. Soft, water-soaked les-
ions precede the growth of a cottony-
type fungus which may cover all of the
fruit. Infection is usually evident during
prolonged storage and once established
spreads rapidly (McCombs and Winstead,
1963).
RECOMMENDATIONS.
Field Cooling. As a hot day progress-
es vines lose water by transpiration and
the fruit accumulate field heat. Cessation
of harvesting by midday on hot days is
recommended to prevent the accumula-
tion of a high level of field heat. Cooling
immediately after harvest is critical to
the maintenance of fruit quality. Fruit
should be hydrocooled by immersion in
cold water, preferably in the field. At
what temperatures?

Disinfection. The removal of soil and
other foreign material from the surface of
the cucumber is necessary to prevent in-
fection by soil fungi. Washing in chlorin-
ated water is recommended to reduce
fungal and bacterial infections (Segall
and Smoot, 1962). Cut or broken ends
are the most susceptible to being infect-
ed; cucumbers in this condition should be
discarded during grading and sorting. In-
fection is rendered even more unlikely if
the cucumber is removed from the vine
with a small portion of the stem intact.

Waxing. The application of a thin sur-
face coating of a wax slows down moisture
loss considerably thus reducing wilting
and shrivelling of fruit. Moisture loss can
be reduced by as much as 50% (Mack
andJaner, 1942).
Storage. A storage temperature of
12-130C ensures the longest shelf-life
(Apeland, 1961 Table 1). However, for
storage of one to two weeks, 10C is pre-
ferable because chilling is minimal and
yellowing is retarded. High humidity


(95%) in storage is also essential to pre-
vent cucumbers from becoming flaccid.

SUMMARY OF PROCEDURES:

1. Immediately after harvest, crates
containing cucumbers should be immer-
sed for 15 minutes in cold water (50C)
in field tanks adjacent to the area harvest-
ed. After immersion crates should be
stored in a cool, shaded area.

2. As soon as possible after harvesting
cucumbers should be removed from the
field for processing. Transportation should
be effected using a covered vehicle to
prevent re-exposure to the sun.

3. Washing should be done in water con-
taining 10% sodium hypochlorite (Chlo-
rox). Frequent changes of the chlorinated
water are necessary as accumulated soil
reduces the effectiveness of the chlorine.

4. Cucumbers should be put into cool
storage as soon as possible after process-
ing and packing. Since exposure to
ethylene causes yellowing cucumbers
should not be stored either in transit
or in a cold room with tomatoes, melons,
bananas or papaya. *


References:
APELAND, J. (1961) Factors affecting the
keeping quality of cucumbers. Intern.
Inst. Refr. Bull. Anex 1 45-48.
MACK, W.B. and JANER, J.R. (1942) Ef-
fects of waxing on certain physiological
processes of cucumber under different stor-
age conditions. Food Research 7 38-47.
McCOOMBS, C.L. andWINSTEAD, N.N. (1963)
Control of cucumber cottony leak in tran-
sit. Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 83 538-546.
SEGALL, R.H. and SMOOT, J.J. (1962) Bac-
terial black spot of radish. Phytopathology
52 970-973.


Table 1. Cucumber spoilage after 18 days storage at 200C and 120C

Storage % % % %
Temperature (C) Marketable Shrivelling Diseased Yellowing

20 38.0 24.5 27.0 8.5
12 69.6 4.7 18.5 8.2

1. The above data represent observations on 5 randomly chosen boxes (210 Ib ) in storage. The
fruit were waxed but not washed in chlorinated water.

2. Cottony Leak.











/Leftee 1& de C(ii^...


PESTICIDE IMPACT SECTION
Overseas Development Natural Resources
Institute
College House
Wrights Lane
London
WB 5SJ
England
The Environmental Impact of Pesticides
Dear Editor,
The Pesticide Impact Section has com-
piled a bibliographic computer database
of books and scientific articles about the
environmental side-effects of pesticides
(including herbicides and fungicides) in
the tropics. In the anticipation that this
may be of interest to the readers of
Caribbean Farming, I enclose a leaflet
which gives information about our work,
and give below further details about our
database.
This database, called ENVIRON, has




Are your


been designed to provide a rapid and
comprehensive information service freely
to scientists, farmers and agricultural ad-
ministrators living in developing coun-
tries and working for international
development organizations.
Gathered within ENVIRON is inform-
ation which was previously widely scat-
tered throughout the scientific liter-
ature. The wise use of such inform-
ation will ensure that inefficient and
environmentally damaging uses of pesti-
cides are minimised.
Topics covered in ENVIRON include:
pesticide toxicity to non-targets
pesticide persistence and
residues
environmental fate of pesticides
ecological impact of pesticides
on non-target organisms:
evidence of mortalities
population changes


tractors





Independent research has sh(
, that four wheel drive to four I
: equal sized wheels is the mo,
efficient method of converting(
engine power to drawbar pull


sublethal effects (eg: animal
behaviour)

ENVIRON can handle enquiries about
the effect of pesticides on non-target
organisms (including soils), after first
specifying the pesticide (or pesticides),
the target pest (s) or non-target organ-
ism(s), or a combination of these. The
output consists of a list of refer-
ences, each of which is followed by an
indication of the contents of each paper
and in some cases a relevant abstract.
Depending on the request we also at-
tempt to synthesise the information
available to aid the enquirer. There arn
no plans to provide an on-line facility fo
external users at present.
Yours sincerely,

Dr. H.Q.P. Crick

8 October 1987


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Publication notices


An Introduction to
DISEASES OF TROPICAL CROPS

The author of this book, Dr. Chelston
Brathwaite, is a national of Barbados, a
former senior lecturer at the St. Augustine
campus of the University of the West
Indies and (at the time of this note)
plant protection specialist for the Carib-
bean region with the Inter-American
Institute for Co-operation on Agricul-
ture. In his preface to this book, Dr.
Brathwaite says:-
This publication attempts to intro-
duce the subject of plant diseases
with special reference to crops grown
in the tropics. The text was written
primarily for students of the Univer-
sity of the West Indies (UWI) who
pursued courses in Tropical Agri-
culture and were required to be fa-
miliar with common diseases of tro-
pical crops but it may also prove
useful to students in other institu-
tions both in the tropics and in the
temperate regions. The diseases con-
sidered are those which either occur
in the Caribbean or are of signifi-
cance in this part of the world. The
diseases are not considered in detail
but information on their diagnosis
and control is given and references
are provided for those who desire to
do further reading.
Part I of Dr. Brathwaite's book the
first 58 pages deals with plant diseases
generally their nature, causes, symp-
toms, environment, transmission and
principles of their control. While most of
the world's farmers do their work without
knowing the difference between a fungus
and a bacterium, there seems to be good
reason for the commercial farmer in
today's Caribbean to read the books and


papers that bring him or her some know-
ledge of these scientific matters. Teacher
that he is, the author of this book has
thoughtfully included some pages of ex-
planation of the scientific terms used in
the text. Farmer-readers have to remem-
ber, however, that the book was written
for university students so they may
have to do some more reading of intro-
ductory literature for fuller knowledge of
the scientific terms used in this import-
and and interesting business of plant
diseases.
Part II of the book is a crop-by-crop
treatment of diseases of 27 crops grown
in the Caribbean region. The author is
in close touch with colleagues who work
in the field with farmers throughout
the region. For this reason his descrip-
tions and recommendations will be rele-
vant to the farmers' problems. Also his
personal familiarity with the region over
many years contributes to the value of
his publication.
AN INTRODUCTION TO DISEASES
OF TROPICAL CROPS 184 pages
8% x 11 is available from the UWI book-
shop at St. Augustine, Trinidad. The price
is US$20 plus postage.
Dr. Brathwaite's first book, AN IN-
TRODUCTION TO THE DIAGNOSIS
OF PLANT DISEASE, was published in
1981.

Sheep and Goats in Developing Countries
Their present and Potential Role
The objectives of this study are to
assess the role of small ruminants (sheep
and goats) in the food production systems
of developing countries, examine their
advantages and disadvantages, analyze the
constraints limiting their further contri-
bution to the welfare of small farm/low


income rural producers, prescribe mea-
sures for overcoming these contraints,
and make recommendations related to
potential donor involvement in support
of the development of sheep and goat
production. Small ruminants are viewed
as an integral, but not dominant com-
ponent of complex agricultural systems.
Particular emphasis is placed on sheep
and goats in mixed herds grazing dry
rangelands and in small mixed farm sys-
tems in medium to high rainfall areas.
An analysis of major constraints -
ecological, biological, policy, and socio-
economic leads to recommendations
on the need for a balanced production
system approach for research, training
and development programs, and for a
combination of support activities such
as herd health programs, and formula-
tion of favorable credit, marketing anj
pricing policies for small ruminanis
and their products.

Pest management in stored groundnut.
1987. Information Bulletin no. 22.23
pp. ISBN 92-9066-124-0. LDCs U.,.
$2.80; HDCs U.S.$8.40; India Rs 3!.
Order code IBE 022. When groundnu ;
are stored, either as pods or kernels, the ,
are susceptible to insect attack. The put -
lication describes the main pest speci ;
and briefly outlines their ecology and bi -
haviour. The use of traps to detect pe! t
populations in stores is discussed, an I
methods of estimating quantitative los -
es are described. Recommended pet
management techniques are outline ,
with emphasis on prevention of infe -
tation by improving storage practice.
The potential inputs to an-integrat I
control program are examined. Scree -
ing for host-plant resistance in stora!
pests is discussed and general guidelin s
for these experiments given.


JADF and agricultural research


The Government of Jamaica has com-
missioned the Jamaica Agricultural Deve-
lopment Foundation (JADF) to take ma-
jorresponsibiity for co-ordinating agri-
cultural research in the Country. An
autonomous Research Advisory Council
(RAC) has been set up with member-
ship drawn from public and private sec-
tor organizations. JADF announced that
RAC will determine research policy and
identify priority problems. The Council
will fund research which is directed at
resolving these problems. Funding will be
in the form of grants and/or contracts to


firms, agencies and individuals. It is ex-
pected that RAC will be particularly in-
terested in research relating to non-
traditional crops and to small-scale
farming systems.

The United States Government Agency
for International Development (USAID)
has provided funding of about US$7
million to get the research programme off
the ground. JADF has engaged the ser-
vices of Dr. George F. Wilson as Director
of the new research operation. Dr. Wil-
son is a Jamaican agronomist who has


been working for the past sixteen yea s
at the International Institute of Tropic l
Agriculture at Ibadan, Nigeria. Here t e
has worked extensively on tropical farr 1-
ing systems especially on those cor -
plex inter-cropping systems which are
common among small-scale farmers.
JADF is an autonomous, non-profit
organisation which serves the cause of
national development by providing loans
and grants for pioneering agricultural
projects as well as for information and
promotional activities in the field. *


Caribbean Fanning November 1987









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