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Title: Caribbean farming
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101460/00021
 Material Information
Title: Caribbean farming
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Mona, Jamaica
Publication Date: August 1987
Copyright Date: 1969
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101460
Volume ID: VID00021
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 3116219

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Advertising
        Page 4
        Page 4a
        Page 4b
    Editorial
        Page 5
    Main
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Back Cover
        Page 31
        Page 32
Full Text



































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Caribbean AUGUST 1987


FARMING














COVER: Old-time sugar mill.
Courtesy of National Library of Jamaica.


EDITORIAL
Technology and the farmer .......................................... 5

FOCUS
Insect and mite pests of cassava ........................................ 6
Caribbean research on yams ............................................ 9
Biological pest control course. ......................... ............... 12
Cooling and storage of fruits and vegetables ......................... .. .14
Management notes for goat farmers .................................... 18
Tropical pastures network............................................. .26

OTHER FEATURES
Notes on garlic production .............................................10
OLD-TIME CARIBBEAN FARMING..................................... 17
"Tapak-tapak" pump for small farmers........................... ...... 20
Crotalaria more effective than pesticides................................. 25
Mycorrhiza root fungus shows promise ..................................28
Notes for pig farmers ................................................. 28
Publications ..... ................................................... 29

CARIBBEAN FARMING is published with financial assistance from The Jamaica Agricultural Development
Foundation, four times a year, by Creative Communications Inc. Ltd., P.O. Box 105, Kingston 10, Jamaica.
Telephone: 92-74271. Telex: 2431 CARISHIP JA. Cable: CAROGAM JA.
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EDITORIAL an



Every so often someone announces(with more hope than
certainty, it seems) that this or that Caribbean country is be-
coming self-sufficient in this or that farm product. Generally
the product concerned is poultry meat or pork; invariably the
sef-sufficiency is achieved with the help of large imports of
sorghum, corn, soyabean meal and fish meal from the tradi-
tional North American sources of these staples. Also, the claim
to self-sufficiency rarely takes into account the quantities of
chicken necks and backs and pork tails, ears and snouts brought
into these countries.
Probably, then, most of the "nearing self-sufficiency"
Siaims can be regarded as harmless exercises in morale-build-
i ;g. But there are developments which are helping to reduce
1 e dependence of the Caribbean on imported food. The work
Sne in a number of Caribbean countries in testing and promo-
i ig grass and legume forage varieties has already helped to
ake cattle, goats and sheep a more profitable business.
,RDI's forage bank work in Dominica is a good example of
chnology which can be applied by the owner of a few cows
< goats. Larger-scale operations are using cattle rations which
i lude poultry-house litter, brewer's grains, wheat middlings,
r )lasses and citrus pulp all by-products which are not used
Food for humans.
Equally valuable to farmers in the region is the technology
t it is reducing dependence on imported chemicals for pest
c patrol and fertilizer. Two articles in this issue are from the
a nual report of the Centro Internacional de Agriculture
T 3pical (CIAT). One tells the story of insect control of one
c ;sava root pest by planting the legume, Crotalaria, in cass-
a i fields. This is similar to the control of certain nematodes
L inter planting with marigold and seems to be a new study
v iich should be of interest to many farmers in these days of
e pensive chemicals. It would be useful for someone to try the
e ect of Crotalaria in sweet potato fields infested with root
L rer beetles.

Another CIAT story tells of the improvement of food
p int yields brought about when certain fungi called mycorr-
h :ae are present in the root zone of these plants. The CIAT
v, rk was done with cassava a crop often grown in poor,
rr neral soils. Many years ago, tomato growers on such soils


technology


I the farmer


in Jamaica's south central plains in St. Elizabeth parish dev-
eloped the habit of using small quantities of bat manure in the
transplanting of tomato plants. It may well be that the manure
brought some such element as the mycorrhizal fungus into the
soil justifying the great trouble and expense which these
tomato farmers found necessary. In more recent times chicken
manure has been used with much the same effect. The ques-
tion of whether cassava can pay for this sort of management
is one which farmers may want to answer by their own trials.
In most parts of the world, materials technology has been
making farmers' lives and work a great deal easier. The host of
plastics of all types has produced ropes that can resist water
unlike the natural fibres of the old days. Plastic sheeting is
used for tarpaulins, rain-coats, potting bags, fertilizer bags.
However, very few farmers seem to realise that a large sheet
of plastic film makes an excellent catchment when laid on a
gentle slope and that butyl rubber sheeting will line a pond
on the most porous soils. Used together, a farmer can collect
water from the lightest shower of rain and use the water for
watering farm animals on land that is far from home.
Recent generations of researchers and horticulturists
have developed ways of propagating fruit-bearing plants, orna-
mentals and root-crops that can help our farmers reduce both
cost of plants and the uncertainty in regard to disease carry-
over. CARDI's work with yams has been repeated in other
parts of the Caribbean and farmers can now get virus-
tested planting material of some yam varieties. With fruit
trees, of course, techniques such as circumposing ensure stock
that breed true to the maternal source.
In Jamaica the new plant production techniques have led
to problems of mutant incidence in banana fields but
it is expected that meristem culture will be a part of tech-
nology for the future.
While overseas markets for Caribbean farm products will be
a problem for a long time to come, farmers in these coun-
tries should have come to realise that the low buying power of
the Caribbean population is probably the most serious of the
farmers' problems. For this reason, if for no other, farmers
have to keep abreast of the technology that will help them con
tinue to produce crops that are within the buying reach of the
householders in the region. *


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Caribbean Farming August 1987













Insect and mite pests of cassava


David W. Ellis,
Acting Director, Plant Protection
Ministry of Agriculture, Jamaica.

Introduction
Cassava can suffer serious insect and
mite attacks particularly in the dry season,
leading to defoliation and damage to
shoots, but the plant may recover with-
out the application of pesticides. The use
of pest free planting materials and resist-
ant varieties can reduce pest attack and the
resultant loss of yield from some pests
and diseases. Rain will mechanically
damage some pests and humid con-
ditions may foster biological control
agents. A supply of moisture whether by
rainfall or irrigation will promote regrowth
and recovery. Insecticides or acaricides
should only be applied when it is apparent
that the plants will not recover without
such applications.
Infested plant material can be disinfes-
ted by dipping in appropriate pesticide
solutions for specified time.
In Jamaica the following insects and
mites are recorded on cassava.
Cassava budworm Lonchea
clybea
Red Spidermite Tetranychus
telarius
Green Spidermite Mononychellus sp.
But other arthropods such as leaf
hoppers, mealy bugs, cut worms, leaf
miners, scale insects and lace wing bugs
and non arthropods viz. slugs and rats
also attack cassava in Jamaica. Of these
the following will be discussed here;
Leaf hoppers (Order: Homoptera)
Peregrinus sp.
Empoasca spp.
Many species of leaf hoppers may be
found feeding on the foliage of cassava
usually the undersides. These are tiny to
small spiny wedge shaped insects.
Benisia sp. has been seen feeding on
cassava here. The adults are wedge shaped
and of a general green colour. They are
about 31.75 mm in length and much
narrower with broadest width at thehead
which is rounded in outline and tapering
uniformly to the tip of the wings. A num-
ber of faint white spots occur on the head
and thorax. The prothorax bears a row of
six white spots visible under a hand lens.
The hind legs are long and enable the
insect to jump a long distance. Large num-


bers of the adults usually appear together.
The eggs are very small, whitish, elon-
gated and about 10.6 mm. long. Incuba-
tion period is about 10 days. The nymphs
resemble the adult but are smaller, paler,
and wingless. Generations overlap. Nym-
phs moult into adults in about 14 days.

Damage
Leafhoppers suck sap from the veins at
the undersides of leaves causing the leaf
tips to become brown, a condition called
hopperburn. Leaves below the tip are
affected first and in severe infestation all
leaves are affected. Hopperburn causes
defoliation.

Control
Where leaf hopper population is large
enough, about 100 hoppers per plant,
spraying with malathion at one two
pints in 100 gallons water high volume or
in 25 gallons low volume per acre or
dimethoate /2 1 pint per acre as for
malathion or metasystox R. at manu-
facturers' rate should give good control.
The addition of mineral white oil will
improve the control but white oil must
be used cautiously to avoid phytoxicity.
These insecticides should also control
other coccids, Hemiptera and mites
present.
Lacewing bugs
Corythurca sp.

Appearance and Habit
Lace bugs are reticulate and look as
though they were cut out of gauze and
present beautiful colourations when view-
ed under the microscope.
The adult is about 31 mm. in length
and is broader than it is long and is flat
dorsally. The head and thorax bear broad
winglike projections; the head is short
and the wings are wider than the ab-
domen. The eggs are laid on middle story
and downwards. Incubation period is
about eight days and there are about five
nymphal instars. The spiny nymphs are
smaller and paler than the adults. The
adults lives about 60 days. Both nymphs
and adults congregate at the underside
of leaves where they suck sap.


Damage
Feeding results in the development of
yellow spots which later turn brown and


heavy attack leads to defoliation. They
are usually abundant in dry spells.

Control
When indicated applications of feni-
trothion, malathion, dimethoate or other
systemic insecticide will effect control.

Cassava hornworm
Erinnyis ello

Appearance and Habit
The adults are large heavy bodied
grey cigar shaped moths that are active
nocturnally and are attracted to light.
They are atrong fliers and the wing beat
makes a buzzing sound. The adult has
grey/black banding on the abdomen;
grey (female) and grey-brown with a
black stripe (male) forewings and grey
hindwings. The wingspan is about 10 crn.
Eggs are green, spherical and about '.5
mm. in diameter and laid singly or in
groups on either surface of the leaf and
on the periole. Inculbation period is wi:h-
in seven days. The young larvae feed on
the young leaves and shoots initially but
as they grow older the older leaves are
attacked but not the basal ones. Thore
are five larval stages. The fully grown
larvae is 80-90 mm. long and may be
green to brownish-black in colour. The
pupa is dark brown and about 45 mi.
long. The adults do not damage plants
and the host range appears to be in the
latex-producing plants. The feeding of the
larvae can be devastating in a short tim:.

Control
Both the eggs and larvae are attack .ed
by hymenopterous parasites and pr da-
tors. In addition the larvae are attacked by
wasp, Polistes sp. and birds. This accoL nt
for the low populations generally. H in
collection of larvae can be.done in srlal
areas. When chemical control is neces arn
and a quick reduction of the popularior
is necessary diazinon, trichlorphon (I)ip
terex), monocrotophos Lannate, usu ll'
give good results. But otherwise it is :est
to use preparations of Bacillus thLrin-
giensis such as 'Thuricidd' or 'Dipel' s) as
not to damage non-target species.
Cassava budworm
Lonchaea chalybea

Cont'd. on P.
Caribbean Farming August 198










Appearance and Habit
The adult is a metallic blue Acalypter-
ate fly. Eggs are laid in the bud amongst
the unexpended leaves. Incubation is in
about four days. The young maggots
(larvae) emerge and begin burrowing
into the growing point of the bud. The
growing point becomes brown and de-
formed resulting from the small whitish
larvae feeding inside it; a whitish-yellow
exudate flows from the would. The bud
may die and many secondary shoots may
develop which in turn are usually attacked
leading to general stunting of the plant.
Attack is normally at the beginning of the
.ainy season and plants in sheltered areas
-re most prone to attack. The larval
: age is about 20 days and pupation occurs
the soil and lasts about 25 days.

Control
Establish fields when budworm popu-
ion is low. Certain varieties are said to
resistant such as 14184AC and Ouro
SVale which are reported from Brazil
be highly resistant.
Owing to the protected situation of
a larvae to affect chemical control is
Sficult. But diazinon, monocrotophos,
Snethoate amongst other orgonophos-
ates have been recommended. Trapping
the adult may also be done in a solu-
Sn of molasses 5% and malathion 0.15%.
Green spider mite
Monoychellus sp.




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Caribbean Farming August 1987


This species has only been reported
from Jamaica in recent decades. Full
description and life history are not
available for Jamaica. (But work is pro-
gressing on this pest at Bodies). From
reports this tingy acuri deposits the eggs
singly on the lower surface of leaves.
There are larval, protonymphal and
deutonymphal stages totalling about 11
days. The adult does not construct a web
as does the red spider mite. The female is
dispersed by wind after lowering from the
plant on silken thread.

Symptom of Attack
The growing point, young leaves and
stem are attacked. Leaves develop mosaic
symptoms and yellow spots, darken, dry
up and become deformed. Shoots and
leaves die progressively from the top; the
plant becomes stunted and may branch.
Damage is most severe during the dry sea-
son.

Control
a) Biological
Predaceous mites and staphylinid
beetles are reported to attack this pest in
Central America and the West Indies.

b) Chemical
1) Diazinon, Dicofol (kelthane) may
be used according to manufacturers' re-
commendation.


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Red Spider Mite
Tetranychus telarius

This mite is a major pest of cassava
in Jamaica and one that can cause great
damage especially in the dry season. The
adults are reddish-brown with dark spots.
They produce web and attack a great
array of plants including papaya, red kid-
ney beans, callaloo (Amaranthus viridis),
cassia spp., croton, etc. Eggs are laid
singly at the undersides of leaves or on
the webbing and egg to adult is within
20 days. Adutls are visible to the naked
eye.

Symptom
Lower leaves develop yellow dots along
the veins, these dots become reddish and
if the dry season is extended the attack
spreads to higher leaves. Leaves dry up
and fall and some plants die.

Control
Populations are reduced by rain or
overhead irrigation. Mite tolerant cassava
varieties are said to be avialable. Chemical
control is similar to that for the Green
spider mite. *


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Caribbean research on yams


Generations of farmers in Caribbean
countries have been encouraged to put
their land, time and money into one ex-
port crop after another with pro-
mises of large profits from assured mar-
kets. In fact, the overseas markets have
brought rewards to many growers of
sugar cane, banana, cocoa and coffee -
and in recent years to some growers of
yam, ornamentals and a number of minor
non-traditional exports. However, in most
CARICOM states, more farmers could
p ofitably have followed the example of
E rbados, where sugar cane estates have
b en able to grow local food crops on a
p t of their land without reducing their
p Auction of cane. Indeed this diversi-
fi nation is certainly going to prove itself
a ortunate course of action, now that
si ar has gone into a serious decline for
C ibbean nations.
Although farmers nowadays give pre-
ft 'nce to crops which do not need pla-
te ns of manual workers, there are
g( d reasons for looking to the various
v eties of yam as a fairly safe and pro-
fi ble investment on a small scale. In
m iy hill areas of the Caribbean, there
ar pockets of land and well-drained
ge tie slopes which have reliably pro-
dt ed a yam crop from time to time. In
fa :, Lynda Wickham and Lawrence
W 3on of the UWI St Augustine cam-
pi report that yam is the most import-
ar tropical root crop produced and con-
SL led in the CARICOM region. Wick-
h; 1 and Wilson are two of the research-
er who have done some study on the
ya 1 crop and the September work-
sh p in St. Vincent on tropical root
cr os should produce more inform-
ati n on this crop from research people
in the Caribbean, in Africa and in the
countries of the East.
At the 1986 meeting of the Caribbean
Food Crops Society held in St. Lucia, Dr.
M.N. Rao and Calixte George of the
Caribbean Agricultural Research and
Development Institute (CARDI) pre-
sented -their PRELIMINARY STUDIES
ON YAM AND YAM-BASED CROP-
PING SYSTEMS IN ST. LUCIA. In this
aper they reported:

"Average yields (of yam in St.
Lucia) are relatively low 5.7
ton/hectare mainly due to a lack of
high-yielding, disease-tolerant culti-
vars, and traditional crop management
practices."
Caribbean Farming August 1987


In their paper, Rao and George told of
their experimental plots of five cultivars
of white yam intercropped with cowpea,
snap bean and dasheen. The lowest-
yielding plot produced yam at the rate of
9.6 ton/hectare; this was yam intercrop-
ped with cowpea. Other yields were up
to 39.8 t/ha for Oriental yam and more
than 15 t/ha for most other plots of yam
intercropped with snap bean or dasheen.
We are told that the researchers selected
their planting material for high-yield and
disease resistance. They described the
steps they took:-
"Yam pieces of about 100 g (3 oz)
were planted on June 24, 1985 on rid-
ges at a spacing of 1.0 x 1.0m and
drenched with a solution of Benlate
and Vydate L. Each plot had 55 plants.
Net plot size was 27m2. The vines
were supported on wooden stakes 2.0
2.5m long and 2.4 4.0 cm dia-
meter from six weeks onward. Each
plant was given 32 g of 16-8-24 NPK
mixed fertilizer at about eight weeks.
Weeds were controlled by hand weed-
ing and regular spraying with GRAM-
OXONE or ROUND-UP. Incidence of
anthracnose was monitored through-
out the crop cycle .... Oriental Yam,
Belep and Kinabayo were harvested on
2 January, 1986 and Yam Langie and
Local White were dug on 25 February,
1986."
The St. Lucia report does not men-
tion any treatment of planting holes with
a nematode-control chemical. However, a
CARDI Factsheet issued in November,
1985 has this to say on the subject:-
"The use of a nematicide e.g. carbo-
furan (Furadan) or ethoprop (Mocap)
at planting will assist in controlling
nematodes in the yam crop. Where


nematode populations are known to
be high, it is wise to fallow the field
for several months or to rotate with
crops like legumes, sweet potatoes and
many of the vegetables. Carry-over of
nematodes via planting material can be
controlled by immersion of the mater-
ial in hot water at 500C (1220F) for
30 minutes. Careful harvesting, dip-
ping of tubers in benomyl (Benlate)
and treating cut surfaces with white
lime should help to control post-
harvest rots during storage. A pre-
plant dip of diazinon 60E (Basudin,
Diazinon) at 11 ml/L (1/2 fl. oz/
gal) and benomyl (Benlate) at 2 ts:/
gal) is also recommended to assist in
maintaining a healthy crop."

The Proceedings of the 20th Annual
Meeting of the Caribbean Food Crops
Society held in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin
Islands in October, 1984 include a
paper by a team made up of workers of
CARDI and of the French Technical Co-
operation. The paper, INTRODUCTION
OF CLEAN DIOSCOREA ALATA
PLANTING MATERIAL INTO SMALL
FARM SYSTEMS OF DOMINICA, show-
ed that a combination of clean-seed fer-
tilizer and field sanitation techniques
brought about dramatic increases in yam
crop yields. An interesting note in this
report tells of yields of White Lisbon B
of 4.8 kg/plant and goes on:-

. .in the 1982 cultivation, a group
of 14 plants was inadvertently planted
in an area which was previously a pen
manure patch. Yields ranged from 2.7
to 15.5 kg/plant. This, coupled with
noted interveinal chlorosis symptoms,
indicative of nutritional disorders in
other areas, suggests that further yield
Cont'd. on p. 14
9












Notes on garlic production

J.R. Suah, H. Payne, M. Montague


Introduction
Garlic Allium sativum L. is a popular
condiment in Jamaica, used in many
dishes especially of meats and fish. Apart
from its unique flavour, it is credited with
many other qualities including medicinal,
nutritional and aphrodisiac. But despite
good price, high demand and easy storage,
very little of the crop is grown locally.
Varieties
Although there have been several in-
troductions of varieties, a local selection
grown mainly in south St. Elizabeth
has become dominant. Its productivity
compares very well with others. The plant
is robust, the bulb contains 12 to 28
cloves, and the colour varies from cream
to light pink.
Planting Material
Planting material is secured by farmers
saving their own or from purchase in the
local markets. Planting unproven imported
varieties should be avoided as these may
not bulb. Each garlic bulb is easily divi-
ded into cloves and each clove can grow
into a plant producing a bulb. In separa-
ting the cloves, care should be taken not
to remove the parchment covering which
offers protection against dehydration and
rotting.
Planting materials can be stored as
separated cloves, but whole bulbs are
preferred. Cool dry storage is desirable
although bulbs can withstand short
periods of hot, dry conditions. If sto-
rage is to be for longer than six months,
sunning for a day each month or treating
with powdered insecticide and fungicide
will control pests and diseases.
Planting Time
The crop is best planted in August
to September, and under moist conditions
the cloves sprout readily. Preliminary
trials have shown that although the plants
will grow well at other times, they will
not form tight bulbs but many small
loose, often misshaped, cloves. Research
will continue to determine ideal planting
time and growth conditions.

Site Selection
Although level areas would be ideal,
the crop is now grown commercially on
slight slopes at about 1200 to 1800 feet
above sea level. Good crops have been
produced in experimental plots at 90 and
3500 foot elevations. Garlic thrives on
well prepared organically rich, free drain-
10


ing moist soils, but cannot withstand wet
conditions. In St. Elizabeth the crop does
well in a dry-farming system using grass
mulch. It tolerates free lime in the soil
and a wide range of soil pH from pH
5.0 to pH 8.0.
Planting
At present all planting is done by hand,
the selected cloves are set about 1 inch
deep, spaced 3-4 inches in rows 12-18
inches apart. It is preferable to place the
blunt end downward, but this is not cri-
tical. The size of the cloves does not mat-
ter providing they are not too small and
are well developed.
Fertilizers
Garlic thrives on very well rotted or-
ganic manure, and best results are obtained
by incorporating the manure in the plant
row. Added fertilizer may be needed to
supply the crop requirements above what
the soil or manure can produce. Like most
other close planted crops, broadcasting
and incorporating the fertilizer before
planting is preferred. As a general rule,
about 300 lb. NPK 7-14-14 or 12-24-12
(according to soil test) per acre should
be added to the planting row. A side
application of 200 Ib. sulphate of am-
monia can be done at early bulbing or
later if irrigation is available.
Weed Control
Like onion, garlic cannot stand weed
competition. Good weed control can be
obtain in garlic be preceding it with a
clean cultivated crop such as legumes or
corn. Mulching also gives excellent results.
Weed control along the furrows can be
done with a hoe and the weeds between
the plants pulled out be hand.
For chemical control TOK E25 at
one gallon per acre should be applied as
pre-emergent spray, immediately after
planting and wetting. At six (6) weeks
when the leaves show signs of hardening,
another treatment of TOK E can be used
as post emergent.
Diseases and their Control
Garlic suffers from the same diseases
as onion and the control measures are the
same.
1. Purple blotch. Alternaria porri.
The disease first appears as small whitish
irregular-shaped spots on the leaves
halfway to maturity of the crop. Gradu-
ally small dark areas appear in the centre
of the spots, later becoming purplish,
hence the name. In severe cases entire


leaves are destroyed. The disease is most
serious in water-logged areas or shaded
places with heavy dew. Fair chemical
control can be had by regular spraying
with Daconil, Dithane or a copper fungi-
cide.
2. Bulb or neck rot Sclerotium rolf-
sii. Th first symptom appears as yellowing
and wilting of leaves, followed by a whitish
fungal growth at ground level and finally
rotting of the neck and bulb. It occurs
late in the crop, mostly on damp soils.
Best control is obtained through crop
rotation, planting in free draining soils in
well aerated sites, and not planting too
deep.
3. Bulb scale rot Botryodiplodia
theobromae. The disease first appears as
black spots on the inner cloves; these
up to form patches and finally kill :he
leaves. The damage is most evident during
storage but is not considered very serious.
Pests and their Control
1. Onion thrips Thrips tabaci. The
insect by itself is not serious but :an
combine with purple blotch to czuse
some loss. The plants are attacked al all
stages, the damage appearing as whi:ish
flecks. Both adult and nymphal fo ms
can be seen on an infested plant. Con:rol
is usually by spraying with a insect:cie
such as Cygon, Lebayced, Malathion ind
Roger 40.
2. Slugs Veronicella sp. Slugs car be
a problem in some areas especially wl ere
mulching is practiced. Best control is
obtained through the use of metaldeh de
as a poison bait.
3. Various caterpillars will attack ga lic,
especially during dry periods. Contre I is
by spraying a contact or stomach po son
pesticide.
Other Cultural Practices
Irrigation Although garlic ben fits
greatly from proper irrigation, the rop
can be successfully produced by natural
rainfall. The best form of water applica ion
is by trickle or by surface wetting. L ght
moist conditions are preferred.
Mulching Most of the garlic in Ja
maica is grown under grass mulch in a dry
farming system. The mulch conserves
moisture, controls weeds, keeps the soil
cool, reduces soil erosion and supplies
organic matter.

Harvesting, Curing and Storage
The crop takes about 4/2 months to
mature. Close to maturity, the bulbs
Cont'd. on p. 11 Caribbean Farming August 198;
















The International Society for Soil-
less Culture, ISOSC, is organizing the
Seventh International Congress on Soil-
less Culture, to be held from 13 May to
21 May 1988. The congress will be held
in the congress centre of the permanent
agricultural exhibition 'FLEVOHOF',
ituated in the recently reclaimed F LEVO-
DOLDER of the former Zuiderzee (about
0 km from Amsterdam Airport).
WHY THE NETHERLANDS
Why for the third time the Nether-
nds? Because nowhere else in the
\rld is there the possibility to see
many different aspects experiment-
and commercial of soilless culture
ydroponics).
TOTAL AREA OF SOILLESS
CULTURE
In the Netherlands vegetables and
)wers grown under soilless culture cover
i )re than 2,000 ha, most of which is
m und around the town of Naaldwijk.


CONGRESS PROGRAMME
In addition to lectures and poster ses-
sions, the congress will include excur-
sions to a research station, growers pre-
mises, and a rockwool factory, as well as
some trips to tourist attractions. During
the lectures and excursions attention will
be given to experimental and commercial
applications of various methods of soil-
less culture, such as NFT, deepwater cul-
ture and culture in rockwool and other
artificial substrates.
LANGUAGE
The official language of the congress
will be English.
LECTURES AND POSTERS
Lectures and posters are welcome on
all aspects of soilless culture, e.g. tech-
niques, substrates composition and main-
tenance of nutrient solutions, slow-release
fertilizers, ion exchange resins, plant
breeding and plant pathology.

EXHIBITS
Exhibits and posters can be shown by
ancillary industries and individual parti-
cipants.
PARTICIPANTS
The congress is aimed at anyone acti-


I -


Less for pests. More for people.

More for the farmer.




We're helping Mother Earth give you her best.


vely engaged in soilless culture. Likely
participants are research workers, exten-
sion officers and industrial representa-
tives.
FLEVOHOF
At the 40 ha permanent exhibition
FLEVOHOF, all aspects of Dutch agri-
culture and horticulture are on display,
including the important systems of culti-
vation (e.g. glasshouse culture) and per-
manent displays about cheese-making,
modern mushroom growing and the
Dutch auction system. On the grounds
there are some splendid examples of land-
scape gardening in the display 'Gardens
of the World'. All participants will have
free access to the permanent exhibition.*

Cont'd. from p. 10.
expand rapidly, as the leaves begin to
wilt.
Harvesting is done by hand, and the
plants are pulled from the soil by the lea-
ves. The leaves should not be allowed to
dry down before reaping as the cloves
will begin to separate in the soil. They are
tied into small bundles or placed on open
trays or mats and sun-dried for about two
(2) weeks. Cleaning is done by cutting off
of the dry tops and roots, and packaging
is done just prior to marketing. 0


L I


AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS
Rockfort, Kingston 2
Tel: 92-87230-9, 92-87300-9


DIVISION


These and many other internationally
proven chemicals are provided
e by Shell to Jamaican farmers. 1S


Caribbean Farming August 1987


I I


SIW1 iBiir.


11


r












Biological pest control course


Fifth International Course on
Biological Control of Pests
to be held in collaboration with the
Pakistan Agricultural Research Council
at the
National Agricultural Research Centre
and PARC-CIBC Station, Rawlpindi
13 March to 15 April 1988

Introduction

Insects and weed pests continue to con-
strain agricultural production, particu-
larly in developing countries. Continued
reliance on chemical pesticides to solve
these problems is threatened by the
spread of pesticide resistance, the iricreas-
ing cost of pesticides and pesticide deve-
lopment and the growing awareness of
the risks pesticides pose to health and the
environment. An enlightened approach to
pest control, integrated pest management
(IPM), seeks to involve chemical, biolo-
gical and cultural methods in a manage-
ment plan which minimizes cost and
reduces reliance on chemical pesticides.
As a result of the spread of IPM pro-
grammes, biological methods of pest con-
trol are gaining in popularity.
Besides its importance as a component
of IPM, biological control has a long
history of spectacular success in 'classical'
programmes where exotic insect and
weed pests have been controlled perma-
nently by introduction and establishment
of their natural enemies. Thus, today
practical biological control covers a broad
spectrum of activities, ranging from
classical control programmes, through


methods which minimize pesticide effects
on indigenous natural enemies, to the
development of commercial biological
control agents, such as mycherbicides and
bacterial and viral insecticides for appli-
cation to crops.
The CAB International Institute of Bio-
logical Control (CIBC) has been the lead-
ing world biological control organization
for 60 years. Until recently the Common-
wealth Institute of Biological Control,
it has now become fully international
and currently operates from seven
stations and bases around the world.
CIBC provides services, research and
training in biological control to 29 cur-
current member states as well as to other
countries, with an emphasis on the needs
of developing countries.
Since 1980, CIBC has organized a series
of international training courses where its
expert staff and invited specialists provide
practical training in biological control
methods to scientists involved in pest
management. These courses have been
held at CIBC stations in India (1980,-
1984), Trinidad (1982) and Kenya
(1986). The next course is to be held
at the PARC-CIBC station Rawalpindi,
Pakistan. As in previous courses, prefer-
ence will be given to participants from
countries in the same region as the venue
for the course, but participants from
other regions will also be considered.


Course objectives and content
This course provides a practical train-
ing in biological control of insect and


A wolf spider feeds on a yellow stemborer moth.
12


. . ... -. v





weed pests using insect and pathogen (ie
fungal, bacterial and viral) control agents.
It covers the identification and assess-
ment of natural enemies and their im-
pact, the various methods of biological
control (conservation, "classical" intro-
duction, augmentation, inundation) ind
the integration of biological control with
chemical and other control methods in
IPM.
The curriculum will include lectu es,
laboratory practical and field exerci es,
as well as individual and group projects
in the production, release and assess tnt
of biological control agents, designed to
give realistic practical training. Our o, er-
all aim is to produce competent biolo lic-
al training. Our overall aim is to prod ice
competent biological control practicimn-
ers who can make a valuable contribution
to pest management programmes in their
respective countries.
Specific topics covered in lectures ind
practical work include:

- sampling of natural enemy comply xes
on pests
- field assessmentof the impact of n itu-
ral enemies, including ecological and
statistical methods for mortality and
population analysis.

- biological features of natural eni my
groups, particularly those relevan to
rearing and field evaluation.
- lessons from past biological control
studies: what kind of biological con-
trol works against which pests urder
which conditions?
- economic evaluation of problems -
choice of target and method: cost-
benefit analyses
- methods for "classical" control: ad-
ministrative procedures, screening,
quarantine, release and evaluation
Caribbean Farming August 1987








- methods for augmentation: mass pro-
duction, quality control, release stra-
tegies and assessment.
- pesticides and biological control: lab
and field assays of pesticide effects on
natural enemy populations, methods
of integration
- incorporating biological control me-
thods into IPM programmes

Lectures and laboratory sessions will
be supplemented by visits to other plant
protection research institutes. Field
practical and projects will be based in a
variety of crop types in the area.
Lecturers on the course are expected
to include: Dr. D.J. Greathead (Director
CIBC), Dr. J.K. Waage, (Chief Research
Officer, CIBC), Dr. E.G. King (Labora-
:ory Chief, Delta States Research Centre
;toneville, Mississippi, USA), Dr. D.
;chroeder (CIBC Switzerland), Dr. A.I.
lohyuddin (CIBC Pakistan), Dr. C. Prior
CIBC UK), Dr. H.C. Evans (CIBC UK)
nd Dr. J.D. Mumford (Silwood Centre
or Pest Management, Imperial College,
,scot, Berks, UK) as well as guest lect-
res from scientific organizations in Paki-
:an.

course venue and duration
The course will be four and a half


weeks long (13 March 15 April), and
will be held at the National Agricultural
Research Centre narcC), Islamabad, and
the PARC-CIBC Station, Rawalpindi.
Limited possibilities exist for subsequent
placement at CIBC stations for practical
training following the course, given
appropriate funding.

Course participation and fees
The course is designed for 20-25 parti-
cipants, and aimed at personnel from agri-
cultural and public health departments
who have a first degree or equivalent in a
biological subject including a basic know-
ledge of entomology. Candidates will
normally be expected to be already em-
ployed in crop protection or field-orient-
ed research departments. Participants
should also have had prior practical ex-
perience of dealing with pest problems in
their countries. The course will be taught
in English, and therefore a good com-
mand of written and spoken English is re-
quired.
A fee of 600 per participant will be
charged to meet part of the cost of run-
ning the training course. This will not
cover travel, board and lodging. Each can-
didate should allow at least 75 for the
purchase of books. Candidates will be
responsible for making their own travel


arrangements. CIBC will arrange accom-
modation and meals on payment and free
transport from residence to NARC and
PARC -CIBC.

It is hoped that the following agencies
will support the course: Pakistan Agricul-
tural Research Council (PARC), US
Agency for International Development
(USAID), Food and Agricultural Organi-
zation of the United Nations (FAO) and
Gesellschaft fur technische Zusammenar-
beit (GTZ). Personnel associated with
FAO or GTZ pest control projects may
apply to the agency for fellowships
through the project manager. Candidates
nominated by their employers and ex-
pecting their financial support will also be
considered.

Applications
Applications should be made to:

Dr. Jeff Waage, Chief Research Officer
CAB International Institute of Biolo-
gical Control
Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire, UK,
SL57PY


Cont'd. on p. 22.


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to success in fish farming. Caribbean Industrial
Equipment has a wide range of Pumps to help make
your venture successful... from small capacity Pumps
to largeDiesel driven units capable of delivering
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Caribbean Farming August 1987


4P


1VI/










Cooling and storage


of fruits and vegetables


By Ena C. Harvey, M.Sc.
Food Technologist.


One area of interest of the Caribbean
Industrial Research Institute, CARIRI, is
post-harvest care and processing of farm
produce. In March, 1986, the Institute
held a seminar with the theme THE KEY
TO PROFITS AFTER HARVEST. As
farmers in the Caribbean increase the
range and quantity of perishable produce
from their fields, the Seminar subjects -
handling, transport and storage of harvest-
ed crops are becoming of greater ur-
gency to growers and marketers of pro-
duce. One seminar paper on COOLING
AND STORAGE OF FRUITS AND
VEGETABLES was presented by Mrs Ena
Harvey, a food technologist who works
with CARIRI. The paper goes into some
detail as to principles and devices of the
business. These notes are for the use of
farmers who have not yet thought of ap-
plying these techniques to their opera-
tions.
Temperature management is the most
important tool available for maintaining
product quality and extending shelf life.
For example, at 250C and 30% relative
humidity, a product will lose water 36
times faster than it will at 0C and
90% relative humidity. Maintaining low
product temperature is therefore essen-
tial in reducing moisture loss, economic
loss and consumer appeal.
Freshly-harvested fruit and vegetables
are living systems which are respiring -
absorbing oxygen from the air and giving
off carbon dioxide and energy in the
form of heat. The rate of respiration


CARIBBEAN YAM RESEARCH
Cont'd. from p. 9.


improvements can be achieved by aug-
menting plant nutrition ...

Ninety-five percent emergence was
recorded in all cultivars except V 1712
which gave only 10%. Since this culti-
var is D. cayenensis, only a larger sett
size from head and tail portions of the
tuber should be used as planting mate-
rial."
Note: D. cayenensis is known as Yellow
Yam in Jamaica.

The CARDI Factsheet, which is well-
illustrated in colour, ends with a sum-
mary of measures which farmers should
14


doubles or triples with each 100C rise in
temperature. Also, the storage life of pro-
ducts is shortened as the rate of heat
generation rises.
* Bruises and other forms of physical
injury often lead to increased respiration
and to the production of ethylene which
hastens ripening in fruits and breakdown
of other plant tissues. Bruising also in-
creases the rate of moisture loss, wilting
and infection by disease organisms.

* Produce should be cooled as soon as
possible after it is reaped. Pre-cooling
with cold water by immersion or by spray
is used for many fruit and vegetable vari-
ties.
* Evaporative cooling involves passing air
through an evaporative surface (such as
a wet pad) and circulating it over the pro-
duce to be cooled. The method is parti-
cularly suited to drier Caribbean coun-
tries such as Barbados and Antigua, where
differences between wet-bulb and dry-
bulb temperatures can be as much as
10-150C.

* Other methods of reducing field heat
include:-

Harvesting in the cool hours of the
morning, evening or night.
This also cuts down on subsequent
cooling costs.

Protecting harvested produce with
natural shade (trees) or with tar-
paulins or under sheds ..


use to control the major diseases of
yams:-

VIRUSES
(1) Use virus-tested material and sel-
ect for planting clean tubers, free of
Internal Brown Spotting (a virus disease
which affects yam cultivars of the Dio-
scorea alata group including Lisbon and
other white yams.)
(2) Rogue fields to remove plants
showing virus symptoms on foliage.
(3) Dip cutting knives in bleach as a
precautionary measure.

FUNGI & BACTERIA
(1) Practise crop rotation.
(2) Dip planting material in beno-
myl (Benlate) and diazinin (Basudin, Dia-
zinon) as a protective measure. This dip


Use vented containers for transport
and storage. Avoid overfilling or
loose-packing of produce.
Cover transported loads with white
or silver-coloured trapaulins. Wet-
ting tarpaulins also creates an eva-
porative surface which gives added
cooling effect.

* Stored tropical fruit and vegetables are
injured at chilling temperatures in the
range of 8 100C. Symptoms of chilling
include surface pitting and other skin
blemishes, internal discolouration, failure
to ripen properly and increased suscepti-
bility to decay.
* For some crops, alternatives to mech-
anical refrigeration include evaporative
cooling and storage in earth clamps, pits
or trenches. The latter method is often
restricted to the storage of starchy rcot
crops such as cassava and the aroids. \n
alternative sometimes adopted by lie
farmer is to harvest only as needed, le iv-
ing the rest of the crop in the groui d.
This practice tends to be uneconon i-
cal, however, since the unharvested roits
make the land unavailable for any otl er
activity and they eventually become
old and woody and infested with pests.
The management of CAR I R I welcon ies
enquiries about its publications end
services. Write to CARIRI, Tunapu a,
Trinidad & Tobago . . . . . ..


will also protect the young shoots fr m
attack by scale insects.
(3) Apply fungicides for the cont ol
of Anthracnose and Cercospora leaf sp( ts.
(4) Control nematodes.
(5) Avoid mechanical damage to
tubers during harvest.
(6) Treat cut surfaces of tubers w th
white lime before storage.

NEMATODES
(1) Give planting material hot-water
treatment if nematode damage is severe
(2) Apply a nematicide (e.g. carbo-
fural or ethoprop) to fields at planting.
(3) Fallow fields where nematode
populations are high.
(4) Practise crop rotation. *
Caribbean Fanning August 1987










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Technology for production


TASTY SNACKS
JUICES
F THIS WAGON
RWAJNL BES S
SENIC*
Os . .
, TT -996


The two-row cono-weeders developed by the engineers at
the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Los Banos,
Philippines is three to four times more efficient than rotary
weeders. It uses the novel concept of uprooting and burying
weeds with conical rotors.


Labour-saving peanut sheller built by CARDI
16


Mobile lunch waggons are a good market channel for local farm produce.


Plastics of all sorts are now important materials in agriculture.
Caribbean Farming August 1987










Old-time Caribbean Farming


Rat control a century ago


by Chris Henry

A West Indian farmer of 100 years ago
would be befuddled were he present at a
pest management seminar today. War-
farin and Klerat would be Greek to him;
spray masks and protective clothingwould
make him suspicious but, the first
mention of the rat's role in field and post
harvest losses would ring a bell .....
tven probably send him into fits of
li ughter.
From the earliest days of West Indian
f rming, rats were the most dreaded pests.
1 iey were a menace to just about every
t )e of cultivation, but particularly so to
t 3 sugar cane. They gnawed the standing
c ies causing air to get into the plant
ii erior, resulting in fermentation and
c ler destructive changes in the juice.
E eating away at the inter-nodes they also
p ysically weakened the plant to the
e lent that when the rains came the stems
st ipped and fell.
The commonest rats were the little
b ck and brown European rats (which
v uld have come by way of sailing
sl ps) but by far the most destructive
o 3s were the much larger "cane-piece
r; ".
A popular, but largely unsupported,
v w was that the canepiece rats with
n asurements of twenty inches from
n ;e-tip to tail-tip, were introduced to
p !y on the smaller black and brown
ru s. Whether true or not, in time the
c. le-piece rat was the worst enemy of the
ci ie farmer.
In Jamaica, rat depredations were so
w despread that large portions of estates
artd cane pieces bordering on woods and
near rocks had very often to be aban-
doned. One farmer in Trelawny reported
that every year over 20,000 rats were
killed on his estate at a cost of 1d. per
head and not counting those destroyed
by poison and dogs.
Rat catching methods included men
with troops of dogs, simple traps of the
type used to catch rabbits with a basket
tied to one end of a bent twig and poison
prepared from phosphorous.
So desperate was the need of farmers
for effective control of rats that they
were prepared to try any and every new
suggestion.
In 1762 Thomas Raffles brought to
Caribbean Farming August 1987


Jamaica, from Cuba the native ant (For-
mica omnivora) to prey on young rats.
The Raffles Ant, it seems, was useful
for a number of years but either lost its
vigour or was reduced in numbers. In
any case, it became a pest itself, attacking
and injuring young cats, dogs and calves.

With the ant out of circulation, another
rat enemy was sought. The farmers in
Barbados and Martinique, to deal with
their rat problem, and introduced a South
American reptile called the Agua Toad.
The Jamaican farmers thought they
would do like-wise.

From the start the Agua-Toad (Bufo
marinus) did not make many friends
among the general Jamaican public.
Maybe the inhabitants were put off by
the appearance of the strange animal or
maybe it was the noise it made. One
resident is reported to have said "the old-
est inhabitant had never heard such hoarse
bellowings from the ponds and pastures
as suddenly saluted their ears when this
"Bull" frog became common."

Three years after its introduction the
popularity of the toad, it seems, had not
improved. One planter, evidently thinking
little of it as a rat catcher complained
"they are now (1847) ineradicably estab-
lished among us, and are to be added to
the miscalculating delusions which gave
us "big rats" to devour "little rats" and
the ant of Cuba to rid us of the accumu-
lated pest of rats and vermin, and to be-
come a more intolerable scourge than all
other plagues put together".

If the Agua toad was of any use at all
it certainly was not equal to the task of
cleaning out the hundreds of thousands
of cane-piece rats which plagued the plan-
tations. They were more successful, it
seems, in destroying the predatory insects
which had kept ticks and lice in check.
Not only did these ticks and lice become
a problem but rats continued to be as
plentiful as ever.
Yet another rat enemy had to be
found. The mongoose was suggested.
The mongoose seems to have come to
Jarhaica earlier than elsewhere in the
Caribbean. The first mongoose were
brought to Jamaica from England, where
having been bred in captivity they were
said to be literally afraid of the rats. In


1782 William Espeut decided to bring
mongoose straight from India. He received
four males and five females. These ani-
mals multiplied rapidly and, in a relatively
short time Jamaica was sending numbers
of the animals to Cuba, Puerto Rico, Bar-
bados.
On sugar estates in Jamaica, there was
much joy following the introduction of
the mongoose. It was hailed as a most
powerful rat catcher and sugar planters all
over spoke in glowing terms of the good
it had done in destroying the rapacious
cane piece rat. However, by 1990 the
Governor of Jamaica was forced to set up
a Commission to enquire into and report
on the question of mongoose in the island.
The help the mongoose had rendered to
the sugar sector was more than offset by
the injury it had caused to other farm
crops in the island. Coconut farmers were
particularly affected. For with the spread
of the mongoose more small rats than
formerly took refuge in the tops of coco-
nut trees where the non-climbing mon-
goose could not reach them. Coconut
farmers were forced to take extra pre-
cautions. This they did by cleaning
out the nests of the rats then putting
strips of tin around the trees, about six
feet from the ground.
Coconuts were not the only species
affected. Very early after its introduction
the mongoose became a menace to
peasants by attacking young chickens.
By 1882, 10 years after its arrival,
scientists in Jamaica were noting the
effect the mongoose was having on the
wild life community. Quails and guinea
fowl and most ground-nesting birds had
already begun to disappear. The Yellow
Snake or Boa (Culubothies inornatus)
- itself a good rat catcher and the
ground lizard were already scarce.
From rat to ant to toad there has
been no end to the testing and the
"miscalculating delusions". And in spite
of all the experiments and all the science
ana technology, the rat as a farm pest is
still alive and doing "very well, thank
you." *













Management ..


notes for A.


goat farmer

by Dr. Doris Oliveira Agro-21 Veterinarian

1. What are some characteristics of a
goat enterprise?
A. They produce rapid returns
1) If you decide to sell weaned kids
you get return eight to ten weeks
after kidding.
2) If you decide to produce finished
goats they can be marketed 150-175
days after kidding or nine months
after the doe is bred.
Fast returns are advantageous for
expansion or paying debts.

B. Goats are Prolific
Can give birth more than one time
a year and have multiple births.
C. Goats can eat a wide variety of inex-
pensive forage.
D. There are no grading standards for goat
meat.
E. There are no periods of low prices for
goats or goat meat.
F. Goats have a relatively high dressing
percentage.
Table below:
Liveweight Weight of Percentage
Relail cuts
(Ibs)


Hog 210
Goat 100 (well
fed)


147 70%
50 50%


G. Investment in buildings can be big or
small. Animals must be protected from
rain and wind.
H. Fencing for goats is more expensive
that that needed for cattle, often good
woven wire is the only possibility.
However, bamboo or woodsticks can
often be found in abundance enough
to make a good strong fences.
I. Labour cast can be kept at a minimum.
With good fencing and housing the
greatest labour requirement is at
kidding time. For the first week
about 6 hours per liter.
J. Praedial larceny is always a possibility
and must be prepared for by closeness,
lights, dogs, rapid turnover of stock -
earlier market goals.


S










11.
A.


What resources are needed?
Capital -


Feed costs are approximately 70%
of the cost of goat rearing.
Animal costs vary, but only young
animals
Facilities remodeling is recom-
mended
B. Land For forage planting to reduce
feed costs is needed.
C. Labour varies. Family labour should
be used as much as possible to match
work routines.
D. Management is how well one uses other
resources to produce income com-
bining land, labour and capital for
goat production.
E. Marketing is always a factor in pro-
duction and will determine the type of
goat operation.
1. Kind and size of enterprise that can
be done with available resources is
best.
2. Do you have the ability to success-
fully manage goats?
3. Do you like to raise goats?
III.What returns can I expect from a
goat enterprise?
A. Presently there are no clear-cut figures
for determining the cost of goat pro-
duction in confinement in Jamaica.
1. As with other livestock initially one
should follow parameters of good
husbandry practices:
a) Confined housing should provide
25 sq. ft. per doe.
b) Pens should provide 20-30 sq. ft.
per doe, with sandy soil and good
drainage.
c) Feeders and hay racks should be
under sheds allowing 14-18 inches
per doe.


d) Three (3) gallons of water per doe
per day should be available.
e) Five (5) goat woven fence will
effectively contain goats.
2. A sample kid rearing Confinement
Goat enterprise might consider the
following assumptions:
a) Farmer has access to at least INO
acres of land to plant forage for
a year-round nutrition program e
b) Farmer has experience in conf ne-
ment rearing of goats or access to
expertise and information rela-iing
to ked rearing.
c) Bred does between one (1) year nd
two (2) years are selected. T ley
kid 5 months after purchase.
d) Kidding percentage of 135%wil be
possible
e) Animals are fed 4% of body wei Iht
in good forage daily with min, ral
supplementation.

f) Animals gain at least /2 lb. per lay
with 2 Ibs. a week a minimum.
g) Goats sell for $3.00/lb. or more for
breeding animals.
h) Only a 1% mortality is assumed.
3. A conceptual kid rearing wc ljd
require a minimum of three (3) a' res
and might resemble the following:

Year One Costs Cost Revenue


Y2 acre cash crop
(already
established) -
,2 acre legume (vita-
tree cow peas) 800.00
1 acre mixed gass/
legume pasture 2,500.00
1 acre goat housing
area 2,000.00
% acre family house
area (already
established) -
1 ton concentrate
feed 900.00


1,600.00


Caribbean Farming August 1987


-










250.00 -

5,000.00 12 kids
1,440.00

$11,450.00 $3,040.00

$1,908.00
$1,000.00


B. Under conditions of good forage
production, good nutrition, and good
husbandry practices the expected yield
from healthy does would give a pro-
jection resemblina the following table:

AP kids will be sold the first two years
vith herd replacement and growth
b ginning year 3 when pasture is well
e: tablished.

Goat Disease Surveillance -
Prevention Medicine Programme

1. Care of Kids
A. Newborn Kids should be dried and
navels dipped in 7% Tincture of
Iodine. Examine frequently for
screw worms.
1. Give Selenium/Vit. E. in deficient
areas first or second week.
2. 150 units of tetanus antitoxin in


2 bags mixed
minerals
10 bred female goats
@ $500.00


tetanus endemic areas first or se-
cond week.
3. Disbud (de-horn) within 1st week.
4. Vaccinate against clostridial diseases
at 4-8 weeks.
5. Should be fed no more than 10%
body weight goats milk and good
quality hay 6-7 weeks.
6. Four (4) weeks weaning possible if
adequate help is available otherwise
wean at 6-8 weeks.
7. Dust for lice along with adults, use
mild flea powder, kids.
B. Growing Kids
Growing kids require a large dry space
to run in, frequent manure removed
is essential.
Monitor with fecal's routinely, to pre-
vent coccidiosis or other parasitic
diseases. Keep separate from adult
stock.
II Care of Does
1. Controlled breeding seasons and eco-
nomical pregnancy detection system
are paramount if year round market-
ing stock or milk are to be considered.
2. Mastitis is to be monitored routinely
in lactating does by the California


Caribbean Farming August 1987


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And they come in five different sizes to suit
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Wisynco Bags are always available, so get yours
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Mastitis Test (CMT) or Somatic cell
count.
3. Cull animals developing abcesses or
Johne's disease.
4. Deworm routinely as required byfecal/
examination.
5. Vaccinate in late gestation annually.
6. Trim feet often and examine for
abcesses and goot rot.
7. Complete physical and washing of
vulva prior to breeding.
8. Flush one (1) month with concen-
trate feeds before breeding.
9. Wash vulva thoroughly after kidding
to avoid screw worms.
III Care of Bucks:
1. House or restrain bucks individually
to prevent fighting.
2. Vaccinate annually against clostridial
infections.
3. Keep feed trimmed, beard trimmed
and routinely remove external or inter-
nal parasites.
4. Clip and wash bucks occasionally.
5. Wash buck's penis and examine
before breeding with weak roccal
solution, or other mild antiseptic. 0


Pay 1sf year Interest
Purchase buck goat












































Los Banos, Philippines -- If a peasant
from Bangladesh finds his way to a Philip-
pine farm, he may see a familiar irrigation
pump.
It's locally called a "tapak-tapak" (foot-
operated) pump, a simple farm implement
that uses no petroleum, yet can draw two
to three liters of water per second from
the earth.
The pump is an adaptation of the twin
treadle pump developed by the Rangpur
Dinajpur Rehabilitation Service (RDRS)
in northern Bangladesh.
The idea for the "tapak-tapak" pump
came in 1981 when Filipino farmers, manu-
facturers, and technicians met for a semi-
nar in Neuva Ecija, Philippines to deter-
mine priorities for small-farm equipment
research and development. The seminar
was organized by Dr. Robert E. Stickney,
liaison engineer of the International Rice
Research Institute (IRRI) and Benito
Gonzalo, engineering cheif of the Philip-
pine Bureau of Plant Industry (BPI).
Seminar participants reviewed an IRRI
study of constraints to increasing Philip-
pine rice production and proposed low-
cost irrigation pumps as an equipment
priority.
Stickney visited Bangladesh in a search
for appropriate designs. The RDRS-
developed twin treadle pump was most
promising, so the IRRI engineer arranged
20


for an experienced RDRS engineer to
visit the Philippines to give a 7-day train-
ing course to engineers of the Ministry of
Agriculture and Food (MAF).
Thus came about the "tapak-tapak"
pump a modified version of the RDRS
twin treadle.
A farmer can operate the new pump
with the use of only his body weight and
leg muscles.The pump has been tested
and found particularly acceptable by
farmers in rainfed areas where vegetables
are grown in the dry season after harvest
of the wet-season rice crop.
The "tapak-tapak" pump costs about
F600 (US$30) for materials and labour,
excluding the cost of digging or drilling
a well. It can be fabricated from locally
available materials using common shop
tools. The "tapak-tapak" pump can be
stationary or portable, and it is suitable
for open-pit wells, tube wells, canals,
lakes, and rivers. No priming is required
for depths as great as five meters.
The "tapak-tapak" is an output of
the MAF-IRRI Industrial Program for
Small Farm Equipment. Launched 5 years
ago, the program promotes the develop-
ment and extension of agricultural equip-
ment that is appropriate for small farms
- and that can be fabricated in the Philip-
pines.
The project is funded by a US Agency
for International Development (USAID)


"Tapak-tapak"

- pump for small farmers


grant provided to IRRI to assist national
institutions in the Philippines, Indonesia,
Thailand, and India strengthen the local
development and manufacture of appro-
priate agricultural equipment.
The Indonesia and Thailand projects
ended in 1985, but engineers there con-
tinue to cooperate with IRRI. The pro-
jects in India and the Philippines are on-
going.
Similar projects were previously under-
taken in Pakistan (with USAID support)
and Burma (with the assistance of the
Canadian International Development
Agency, or CIDA).
The target of the Philippine program
is small farmers whose income is low be-
cause of factors such as small landhold-
ings, lack of irrigation, infertile soils, poor
water control, and inadequate infrastruc-
ture. Attention is focused on farmers in
rainfed and upland areas who are poten-
tial producers of priority crops such as
rice, yellow corn, soybean, and sweet
potato.
In the Philippines, more than :00
manufacturers both in agricultural a 3as
and in principal cities have joined :he
program, report Stickney and Bei ito
Gonzalo. These manufacturers are Eip-
plied detailed manufacturing draw igs
as well as training and technical advice
A survey of 70 MAF-IRRI cooper ing
manufacturers showed that 1,600 thr sh-
ers and sellers, 350 pumps, and 50
seeders and planters all built in the
Philippines were sold in 1985.
More than 550 blueprint drawing! of
MAF-IRRI equipment had been provic ed,
on request, to manufacturers, and 30
MAF-IRRI prototypes had been loo led
short-term for testing and copying.
The project staff has also made 1, 100
assistance visits to manufacturers, \'ho
have benefitted from four workshops nd
three training courses.
Now being promoted are the thres er/
sheller, "tapak-tapak" pump, sipa pu .p,
direct seeder, paddy weeder, seed ind
fertilizer applicator, transplanter, mar jal-
operated corn seller and chipping m ch-
ine. A rotary dryer and a hydro-tiller are
being developed.
Ten manufacturers have been assi ted
in producing the MAF-IRRI thres er/
sheller modification of the popular IF RI-
type axial-flow thresher. MAF has pur-
chased 50 thresher/shellers for areas where
corn production is hampered by a short-
age of sellers. (The MAF-IRRI program
has won a Presidential Medal for the deve-
lopment of the thresher/sheller.) 0
Caribbean Farming August 1987























TAKE TWO
TODAY
DESNOES & GEDDES LIMITED
214 SPANISH TOWN ROAD, KINGSTON 11
TEL: 92-39291-9







































NEWS FROM THE IICA OFFICE IN JAMAICA


IICA Blue Tongue


disease proje


Blue Tongue is a viral disease which af-
fects ruminants, i.e. cattle, sheep and
goats. Some four serotypes are currently
recognized worldwide and these demon-
strate a wide range of virulence. It causes
inflammation, ulceration, and congestion of
the mucous membranes, cyanosis and
lameness. In the acute stages there may
be considerable mortality in the sheep in
addition to meat and wool'production.
Blue Tongue infection of the foetus may
give rise to congenital abnormalities in
both cattle and sheep.
Blue Tongue is transmitted by species
of Culicoides midges. It has also been dis-
covered that it can be transmtited in se-
men from bulls to cows. However, the
biological vector is essential for the main-
tenance of the disease in an area. While
Blue Tongue causes reduced production
in ruminants, its main economic import-
ance lies in the fact that it has become a
major block to international trade or
ruminants and their germplasm.
The incomplete knowledge of Blue
Tongue distribution in the Caribbean
22


and Central American regions has result-
ed in it being a barrier to trade and gene-
tic gain through cattle movements between
countries within the region. Exports to
the United States from Jamaica and other
Caribbean countries have also been af-
fected. The Inter-American Institute for
Co-operation on Agriculture (IICA) in
Jamaica, is co-ordinating the collection of
blood samples for the Blue Tongue Pro-
ject under the guidance of the Ministry of
Agriculture's Veterinary Division, design-
ed to identify the Blue Tongue Serotypes
distribution throughout the region.
This will be done through the monthly
collection of blood samples and insect
vectors over a period of three years, on
two (2) sentinel farms Alcan Dairies in
Manchester and Serge Island Dairies in St.
Thomas.
The ultimate outcome of this investi-
gation will be to clear the way for the ex-
port of bloodstock and semen to other
countries. It is estimated that this will
greatly enhance Jamaica's position to
earn foreign exchange from our livestock
breeds. *


Alternative

uses for

coconut oil

The coconut industry is active in many
Caribbean countries, and is particularly
important in the economies of some is-
lands of the Organization of Eastern
Caribbean States.
Basic and secondary processing of the
coconut (meat, water, shell and husk)
can yeild a wide range of products and
by-products such as oil, charcoal, soil
conditioners, activated carbon and carbon-
ated water. Even the branch of the coco-
nut tree produces raw materials for handi-
craft.
In several Caribbean countries, cc-o-
nut oil is the major product derived fr)m
processing the coconut meat. Coconut oil
is used in such food products as mar ar-
ine and confectionery and other prodi cts
like soaps, cosmetics and glycerines wl ich
are used in the manufacture of such it ms
as paints and explosives.
Within recent times it has become in-
creasingly difficult to obtain export iar-
kets for coconut oil, one of the rr ijor
by-products of this industry.
To address possible solutions to ;his
problem, the CARICOM Secretariat on-
vened a meeting in St. Lucia late last
year, at which CARIRI presented a ,ch-
nical paper on alternative uses of coc nut
oil.
Resulting from this, the Institute has
been asked by the CARICOM Secret riat
to submit a project proposal for fu her
work in this area. *


From CARIRI "Technochat"


BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL
COURSE
Cont'd. from p. 13.
qualifications, position held, emplo er,
an the nature or relevant work un ler-
taken to date. Applicants should inc! ide
a brief statement of the benefits expect ted
from the course and the use to which the
knowledge gained will be put. Appli-
cations must be endorsed by their head of
department, who should indicate the ex-
pected source of financial support
Closing date for applications: 1st Sept-
ember 1987 *
Caribbean I-arming August 1987




















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PRODUCTS, AVAILABLE FROM

LEADING AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL

DISTRIBUTORS AND RETAIL

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Diazinon 20% & 48% EC
Diazinon 50% WP
Malathion 57%
Carbaryl (Sevin) 5% &
85% WVV
Dursban 2E
Chlordane 4E & 8E
Dimethoate 40
DDVP (Vapona)
Vape Mats & Machines


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Ratgard Granules & Cake
Slugbait Granules &
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Liquid Plant Food with
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Spreader Sticker
Flee Shampoo
Silvertone for Dogs &
Horses
Safersan Wormer
Vitapol
FUNGICIDES
Topsin-M 70% WP
Topsin-M ULV Flowable


Bravo 500, Bravo S
Bravo CM
Kocide 101
Daconil
Mancozeb
HERBICIDES
2,4-D
MSMA
Paraquat 24%
2,4-D/2,4,5-T Brushkiller
Dalapon 85
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Atrazine 4F & 80 WP
Diuron 80 WP


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INRES inquiry service


A new United Nations referral service
can help organizations, individuals and
government agencies in developing coun-
tries explore the possibilities of co-
operation with institutions in other de-
veloping countries.
Known as INRES (Information Refer-
ral Service), the data bank was created by
the United Nations Development Pro-
gramme (UNDP) to facilitate techincal
co-operation among developing countries.

Why Was INRES Established?
Mandated by the Buenos Aires Plan
of Action in 1978, INRES was created to
benefit developing countries by improving
the flow of information between them,
thus enabling increased cooperation for
development.
Technical Co-operation among De-
veloping Countries (TCDC), which in-
volves the deliberate and voluntary sharing
or exchange of technical resources, skills
and capabilities between two or more
developing countries for their individual
or mutual development, can be facili-
tated by consulting the TCDC/INRES
Inquiry Service in New York. By means
of a computer search, the Service can
quickly match specific needs of developing
countries with available capacities from
other developing countries.

What Does INRES contain?
INRES stores information in English,
French and Spanish on institutions in
developing countries of Africa, the Arab
States, Asia, and the Pacific. Europe and
Latin America and the Caribbean who are
willing to share their expertise with
others in the developing world. Main-
tained on the IBM 3081 computer of
the United Nations' New York Computing
Service, it currently contains more than
60,000 entries describing the capacities
of over 2,600 institutions in developing
countries for providing Education and
Training Programmes, Research and Tech-
nological Development Services, Consult-
ancy and Expert Services, and Information
Services. In addition, the data bank
contains information on the previous
experience of these institutions in tech-
nical co-operation with other developing
countries.


The institutions registered in INRES
include universities, government mini-
stries, and research centers as well as con-
sulting firms and information services.
The types of services offered by each
institution may include one or more of
the following:
Education and Training Programmes
Research and Development Facilities
and Laboratories
Research and Development Special-
ized Fields
Consultancy and Expert Services -
Specialized Fields
Consultancy and Expert Services -
Professional Specializations
Information Services
Computer Hardware/Software
Computer Services
Previous TCDC Experience

Areas of co-operation listed in INRES
include the following broad categories:-

Development Planning
Statistics
Public Administration
Natural Resources and Energy
Industrial Development
Tourism
Transport
Postal Services
Telecommunications
Science and Technology
International Trade
Development Finance
Population
Human Settlements
Health
Educational Development
Employment
Social Sciences
Cultural Development


Within each broad area, INRES
contains many specific areas. For ex-
ample, within the broad area of "indus-
trial development," INRES lists institu-
tions working in many specialized fields
such as the plastics industry, chemical
industry, alloys, quality control, opera-
tions research, machine tools, etc.

How To Use The Inquiry Service?
Whether the requester seeks a civil


engineer to design a hydroelectric power
plant, an expert in the manufacture of
pharmaceuticals, on-site training in the
use of new agricultural machinery or
whether he seeks to network with other
institutions in developing countries similar
to his own, the INRES Inquiry Service
can provide assistance. Users of the ser-
vice supply key information about the
data they seek: fields of specialization,
geographic location desired, and lan-
guages in which the services should be
offered.


INRES sends the inquirer, free of
charge, computer printouts contain ng
information on each institution, cou ;e,
service or project that matches his s e-
cifications. Although the INRES d&ta-
base does not contain the names of
individual experts, it contains in- r-
mation on institutions where the expi rts
are available and the specific field! in
which they work.


INRES is essentially a referral sys- m,
listing only the basic data furnished by
an organization and the services for
technical co-operation it is perparei to
provide. Interested parties are hen
expected to obtain more deatiled ii for-
mation by approaching the organize :ion
directly.

Since becoming operational in Jan Jary
1985, INRES has responded to over one
thousand inquiries from developing c )un-
tries and international organizations. The
Service is both willing and able to h; ndle
a far greater volume of queries, o it
encourages requests to be made i all
fields and sectors of endeavour. *


For further information on IF RES
call (212) 906-5140 or write to:

INRES Computerized Inquiry Se vice
Special Unit for TCDC
United Nations Development
Programme
304 East 45th Street, Room 1206
New York, New York 10017.


Caribbean Farming August I









Crotalaria -
more effective than pesticides


Cassava is attacked by many insects
and mites. The great majority of these
pests feed on the cassava leaves and stems,
leaving the edible root undamaged.
There is, however, one soil-borne in-
sect, Cyrtomenus bergi, that attacks the
cassava roots causing severe yield losses in
several regions of Latin America. This
insect pest, which could potentially spread
over a larger range, is not only a threat to
cassava but has also been reported to cause
e:;ntensive damage to peanuts, onions,
potatoes, coffee, corn, and pastures.
C AT, working with national program
sc entists, is looking to botanical means
tc control the pest.
C stly Damage
Nymphs and adults of C. bergi feed on
cZ sava roots by injecting their strong
th 1 stylets through the root peel and
in ) the starchy root. This enables soil
m roorganisms to enter the root, result-
in in a localized rot that can spread
th )ugh the entire root through its tissues
TI infection, which appears 12 to 24
he rs after the insect's stylet penetrates
th skin, presents itself as pale to dark
br vn 'small pox' one-half to one centi-


meter in size.
Damaged roots are commercially un-
acceptable tor the fresh root market and
are often rejected by the processing mar-
ket as well, where the roots are processed
into flour or animal feed. Since the dam-
age cannot be detected by middlemen
(who purchase the roots by the truckload
or while they are still in the field) until
after the roots are harvested and peeled,
any evidence of a 20 to 30% root damage
by insect infestation often results in a
complete rejection of the root crop. Dam-
age can extend to more than 60% of the
roots, which is commercial terms is always
a 100% loss. A crop showing this amount
of damage would not even be harvested.
The long life cycle of the insect com-
bined with its ability to survive and re-
produce, while feeding only on cassava,
make the insect a formidable pest, neces-
sitating the development of a successful
and economical means for its control.
Means of Control
Using chemical pesticides is not only
costly, it also destroys many natural
enemies of cassava pests. In addition,
chemical control is not always effective,
especially where the concentration of


pest is high.
CIAT scientists have turned to botan-
ical control as a possible solution. Results
show that when cassava is intercropped
with a legume, crotalaria, C. bergi damage
can be significantly reduced. Intercropp-
ing with crotalaria is considerably more
effective than using pesticides. How the
process works is not fully understood, al-
though it is suspected that crotalaria roots
give off a chemical that is detrimental to
the insect's life-cycle. Due to the plant's
insecticidal characteristics, root damage
can be reduced to less than 4%. Crotalaria,
acting as a green manure, also benefits in
replenishing soil nutrients.
Intercropping with crotalaria, however,
does reduce cassava yield under disease-
free conditions, by approximately 22%
due to plant competition. While this is an
acceptable yield loss when compared to
the more than 60% damage (and com-
plete crop loss) to cassava affected by
C. bergi, scientists believe that the cassava-
crotalaria association can be manipulated
so that there is no reduction in cassava
yield. Crotalaria benefits the plant by en-
hancing soil nutrition, but CIAT scientists
are also looking at other crops that are of
higher commercial value and that will also
reduce C. bergi damage when intercrop-
ped with cassava. 0


The Jamaica Agricultural Development Foundation


Vf The Jamaica Agricultural Development Foundation promotes and
develops agriculture and agri-business to assist in improving the eco-
nomic and social well-being of the people of Jamaica.
The JADF provides:

Venture Capital, Loans and Equity
Grants for Research and Training.
e Technical Assistance.
SIf you have a project In agriculture or
Sagri-business which you


believe Is viable contact:


i Jamaica

Agricultural Development

Foundation
'Working for the Future'
13 Barbados Ave., Kingston 5. Tel: 92-98090-2

Caribbean Farming August 1987 2!











































CIAT's Tropical Pastures Program, in cooperation


with national programs, has developed a decentralized grass and legume screening netwot:.


Tropical pastures network


From CIAT Cali, Colombia

The International Tropical Pastures
Evaluation Network (RIEPT in Spanish),
is a continental effort to develop new
germplasm and pasture management tech-
nology for tropical America. As such, it is
primarily a multilocational research sys-
tem to evaluate new pasture grasses and
legumes. The network is a cooperative
program involving scientists in national
agricultural research institutions and
CIAT's Tropical Pastures Program.
The evaluations are done at more than
160 sites throughout Latin America and
the Caribbean. New and promising germ-
plasm is tested under a variety of ecolo-
gical conditions. Tests and evaluations are
done in a sequential way. Scientists look
for the forages' adaptation to soil, cli-
mate, pest & diseases. The plants are tried
for their adaption and potential product-
ion under ecologies ranging from savannas
to semi-evergreen season tropical forests
and to tropical rainforests. In the third
stage of evaluation the effects of graz-
ing on the most promising grass-legume
pastures are studied in order to test is
26


productivity and stability and persistence.
In the fourth stage trials evaluate beef or
milk production under various relevant
to farmers management systems.

New Grasses and Legumes
Over the years the scientists in the net-
work have identified several grasses and
legumes that are well adapted to their
particular ecosystems. These grasses and
legumes are now forming the foundation
of the continental strategy for expanding
milk and meat production in the vast,
under-used frontiers of the tropics. Sever-
al grasses and legumes are now being used
in various pasture combinations. Of those,
the grasses most stable in productivity
are: A. gayanus 621 B. decumbens 606,
B. humidicola 679, and B. dictyoneura
6133; while the most stable legumes are
S.
S. capitate Cv Capica), S. guianensis 136
and 184 (cv. Pucallpa), C. marcrocarpum
5065, Centrosema sp. 5277 and 5568
as well as D. ovalifolium 350.

Advisory Committee
As a result of the growth of the Net-


work and the advancement of the ev lu-
ation of promising pasture technolk y,
the Advisory Committee during its ( ct-
ober 1985 meeting recommended l at
the network participant institute )ns
should increase production of seed f )m
promising materials. National prog am
leaders are suggesting, too, that a pas ire
evaluation status diagnostic study, as 'ell
as a natural resources analysis, be m Je.
These items will be discussed during :he
IV RIEPT Advisory Committee meetii g.
The RIEPT Advisory Committee i te-
grated by 14 leaders of pastures rese; ch
from 13 countries of tropical Amei ca,
plays a key role in catalyzing research en-
deavours on problems common to grc ps
of network participants as well as ir as-
suring that there is a permanent feed 3ck
between national programs and Cl/ T's
Pastures Program scientists. The network
complementarity and cost-effectiveness
of pasture research of the overall system
is thereby maximized thus providing for
the capturing of measurable economies of
scale in research.


Caribbean Farming August 19B7
















Agro 21 Salutes Independence 25


INCREASED ACREAGE


FOR SPICE EXPORT


IN ST. JAMES


I am Dr. S.A. Nallathambi. I was born in India but I now live in Pennsylvania
in the United States where I own one of the largest spices trading groups,
H. & S. International and Alameda Products Inc.
Some of the biggest American institutions, such as the army, are my customers.
:t means that I always have to be seeking the best products and that is how I
found out about Jamaica.
I learned about your beautiful country and its farming opportunities from
Calvin Williams who owns Paradise Farm in Hanover. He told me about JNIP
and Agro 21 and I am glad he did. Through Agro 21,1 tried to get some


Government lands to lease but none was suitable for my operation. So Agro 21
sought out private lands for me.
We have got Sweetwater property in St James and registered a local company
in Montego Bay, Spices International. We are putting in-for export markets
ginger and other spices plus 100 acres of leather leaf fern and other crops which
will be the largest single such farm in the Caribbean.
I am looking forward to a fruitful association with my Jamaican employees and
Agro 21 Corporation.


MAKING AGRICULTURE JAMAICA'S BUSINESS
Jamaica Conerence Centre Building 3rd Floor, 14-20 Port Royal Street. Kingston











Mycorrhiza A root fungus shows promise


Scientists have found that certain fun-
gi that attach themselves to plant roots
effectively increase the root's nutrient-
absorbing capacity, thereby improving
the yield of food plants. Called mycorrhi-
zae, they form a symbiotic association
with the root cells of vascular plants, with
their threadlike hyphae functioning simi-
lar to roots hairs to take up minerals.

Technology for the Farmer
Mycorrhizal associations can be espe-
cially beneficial in tropical America
where the major, soil-related, chemical
constraints are deficiencies of phospho-
rus nitrogen, and postassium-the chief
elements in fertilizer. Such acid, infer-
tile soils commonly are found in areas
that have very poor infrastructure such as
roads and railways, as is the case in
the vast savanna and rain forest areas of
tropical America. This inherently limits
inputs. In the Andean mountain regions,
most of the areas with marginal soils used
for crop production are cultivated by
small-scale farmers who cannot afford to
purchase lime and fertilizers.
Mycorrhizal management, therefore, is
a biological technology well-suited to the
small-scale farmer cultivating marginal
land. CIAT research is discovering that


naturally occurring mycorrhizal fungi
benefit many crops. In fact, without
mycorrhizal associations, cassava and
pasture plants would not yield in acid,
infertile soil, and beans would yield very
little.
Fertilizer Helps
Mycorrhizae can be stimulated by
agricultural practices. Although naturally
occurring, the native, symbiotic activity
can be enhanced in a number of ways.
Fertilizer, properly used pesticides, mul-
ching, and certain cropping system all
help. Fertilizer has been found to be
especially beneficial. Nitrogen, potassium,
and phosphorus make mycorrhizal popu-
lations more efficient. When adequate
fertilizer is applied to cassava, for inst-
ance, yields increase year after year.
Annual fertilizer applications significantly
improve soil fertility, mycorrhizal growth
and, therefore, the yields. By intensifying
land management, increasing the popula-
tion of efficient mycorrhizae, and using
organic or inorganic fertilizers, crops can
be repeatedly grown on the same Jand.
The evidence is strong for mycorrhizal
management by field ioculation with a
selected, superior, fungal species. Field
inoculation is, in reality, an induced
change in the soil mycorrhizal population


One or more tested species of mycorrhi-
zal fungi can be multiplied by the farmer
in special plots to produce infected
host plant roots or infected soil, which
can be used as inoculum. This mate-
rial can be placed under a cassava stake
in the field, for example, or applied
directly to the soil around plants. The
manner in which the inoculum is applied
is very important for the competitive
growth of the introduced fungi. CIAT's
research indicates that applying infected
soil is the most practicable inoculation
method. Since the production of inocu-
lum and its application are done by hand,
the method would be suited to small
farms after further development.
Yields Increase
Field inoculation increases cassava
yields on acid, infertile soils. In 34
experiments, most of them conducted
on farmers' fields and using all rec,-m-
mended agronomic practices, cas: iva
yields increased an average of 20%, f' m
19.3 to 23.1 t/ha. Mycorrhizal man ge-
ment adds an additional step to cas ava
cultivation. It helps the plants to use
more efficiently applied inputs. In the
long run the added costs are more lan
compensated by significantly incre :sed
yields. *


Notes for pig farmers


For more than a generation, farmers in
many countries have been drilled in man-
agement methods that few people dared
to challenge. The business of swine hus-
bandry has been second only to poultry
management, it seems, in establishing and
observing certain rituals. For example,
providing exercise to pregnant filts and
sows used to be regarded as most import-
ant. Farmers were told that good pas-
ture had all sorts of special values for
the sow and for her litter. Another
rule was that the needle teeth of newly-
born piglets needed to be clipped; this
would prevent damage to the sow's ud-
der by the sharp teeth of greedy piglets.
Yet a third rule concerned the provi-
sion of iron for the nutrition of pig-
lets. Many farmers have used injection
of iron compounds as routine and neces-
sary treatment for piglets reared on con-
crete.
In a recent report on the large and
growing Mexican pig industry, Dr. Ramiro
Ramirez Necoechea describes a situation
in which numbers of farmers have aban-


doned dry-sow pasture in favour of total
confinement and have also given up
clipping needle teeth and injecting iron
into piglets. It seems from Dr. Ramirez
Nechoechea's story that many of the
changes came about on larger commer-
cial farms which employed labour and
it is clear that the risk of using unskill-
ed workers for delicate tasks is a chief


reason for abandoning some prac ces.
What is particularly interesting is that
20 million Mexican pigs have been i ised
without having their teeth clipped. imi-
larly piglets on many Mexican farms lave
come to no harm by taking their iror dos-
age with their feed avoiding de iage
due to abcesses and staining of thE ham
tissue from iron injection.
Research workers in many places iave
carried out trials with purpose of r duc-
ing the feed and labour cost of man going
pigs on the farm. More than ten ears
ago, Ohio researchers Mahan and M rray
reported on three experiments that s ow-
ed:-

pregnant gilts and sows prodi. ing
satisfactory litters when fed no r lore
than four pounds/day of grain rnFion.

good birth weight, weaning wt.ight
and litter size from the litters of gilts
and sows fed twice/week provide
ing 28 Ib/week of grain and plenty
of water for the animals.
Caribbean Farming August 1'













PUBLICATIONS


A GUIDE TO IMPROVED PASTURES
FOR THE DRIER AREAS OF THE
EASTERN CARIBBEAN

by R.T. Paterson, P. Philip and
P. Maynard.

In their introduction to this 50-page book,
th, authors tell us:-

"The purpose of this guide is to show
hc v improved pasture species, both grass-
es and legumes, can be used to increase
th. productivity and the profitability of
liv stock farms situated on the neutral
to alcareous soils in the drier areas of the
Es tern Caribbean. It cannot be consider-
ed o be a recipe book, because each farm
is different. Generalization are only use-
fu jp to a certain point, but in attempt-
in! to produce a guide which can be used
in several different territories of the
re! in, it has been necessary to make
so e fairly sweeping statements."

Su :eeding chapters of the book discuss:-

Alternatives for the feeding of live-
stock
Pasture establishment and main-
tenance
Grazing management
Strategies for greater farm profit
The prospects for pasture-fed cattle

-his guide does credit to its authors. It
is written in simple English and its ap-
pr(o ch is practical. In these days of high-
co; inputs, livestock farmers in dry areas
need to extract every dollar that an acre
of iand and an inch of rainfall can be
made to yield.
The last section of text makes a com-
ment that seems to need re-stating and
serious discussion in all the countries of
the Third World. It relates to national
policy for the use of imported resources
such as livestock feed (and eventually,
fertilizer and other chemicals.)
Because the comment is valuable, con-
cise and well-stated, we are repeating it
here in the hope of extending its mes-
sage:-

"In those areas which rely upon
tourism to support their economies,
there is a certain amount of resistance
Caribbean Farming August 1987


on the part of the hotels to offer pas-
ture-fed beef to tourists. Clearly, the
tourists demand a high quality product,
but it is unlikely that more than a small
proportion will actually insist on grain-
fed beef. At present, the level of grain
production in the region is insufficient to
meet human demands. Even if local pro-
duction were to increase to the level of
self-sufficiency, pigs and poultry are more
efficient utilizers of grain than cattle and
should therefore be given priority. In the
foreseeable future, the feeding of grain to
ruminants cannot be justified. The limited
demand for this class of beef should con-
tinue to be met by importation.
Tasty, tender, high quality beef can
be produced from pastures, using the
methods outlined above. The hotel trade
requires a reliable supply of a consistent
product and, until this is locally available,
importation will continue to dominate
the market. As more farmers use impro-
ved pastures to produce quality carcas-
ses from young, well-grown animals, hotel
resistance to local beef should decrease.
The resident sector shows a marked pre-
ference for fresh, rather than frozen
meat. These observations point to the
existence of a large and growing demand
for good, pasture-fed beef throughout the
region. This demand could and should be
satisfied by the local production of
young, well finished cattle."

A GUIDE TO IMPROVED PASTURES
FOR THE DRIER AREAS OF THE
EASTERN CARIBBEAN is published by
the Caribbean Agricultural Research
and Development Institute. For further
information, contact your nearest CARDI
office. *






Growing Passion Fruit in the West Indies
The Caribbean Agricultural Extension
Project (CAEP) is a joint effort of the
University of the West Indies (UWI) and
the (US) Midwest Universities Consor-
tium for International Activities with
funding from the United States Agency
for International Activities with funding
from the United States Agency for Inter-
national Development (USAID). CAEP is


the producer and distributor of this book-
let by Dr. Dyanand Rajkumar, who is a
Lecturer in Crop Production at the UWI
Department of Crop Science at Saint
Augustine, Trinidad. A section of the
booklet deals with diseases of passion
fruit and their control. This section was
written by Dr. F. Elango also of the
UWI and Mrs. C. Persad of the Trinidad
& Tobago Ministry of Food Production.
Passion fruit has become one of the
growing minor crops for Caribbean
exporters. Dr. Rajkumar says he was told
that Europe consumes 23 million kilo-
grams of passion fruit concentrate per
year. Smaller but still significant amounts
are used in the United States and Canada.
As might be expected, Brazil is a world
class exporter. In any case this fruit seems
to be a possible contributor to revenue on
many small-scale Caribbean farms where
its place will involve no great cash invest-
ment.
For farmers on whatever scale, Dr.
Rajkumar's guide is a step-by-step com-
panion for the beginner with useful
illustrations and clear, simple language.
Teachers of agriculture in primary
and secondary schools in the region
should find this booklet useful in their
work.
In the Eastern Caribbean contact your
agricultural extension service.


-AGRINDEX 1987-

Starting with Volume 13, No. 1, Janu-
ary 1987, Agrindex will be published in
three separate language versions Eng-
lish, French, and Spanish. While the
bibliographic descriptions of items index-
ed in the body of the publication will be
identical, all headings, indexing terms,
subject indexes, and introductory text
will be presented in either English, French
or Spanish.
The subscription price for 1987, which
will remain at US$400, now includes air-
mail postage. Information on special con-
ditions for developing countries may be
obtained from Distribution and Sales
Section, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Cara-
calla, 00100 Rome, Italy. *

- from the Food & Agriculture
Organisation of the United Nations.


















new





force




emerges


Ford New Holland.
The name signifies
good things to come
Few companies have the
financial strength and vision
to expand and reshape their
operations in turbulent times.
Ford Motor Company has
done exactly that. By bring-
ing together New Holland
and Ford Tractor Oper-
ations, Ford has created a
new organization that will
be known around the world
as Ford New Holland.
That's good news for
farmers everywhere.
New strength
You can count on the tradi-
tional strengths that have
characterized both Ford and
New Holland for generations.
Together, we're even stronger.
The Ford and New
Holland product lines com-
plement each other perfectly
with exceptionally broad
ranges of tractors, combines,
haymaking and other
specialized equipment.
New solutions
With the combined strengths
of two excellent research and
development programmes,
you can expect many inno-
vations in the future. New
features. New products. New
methods of farming. All
designed to make your life
a little easier and a lot
more productive.
New commitment
If you've relied on Ford or
New Holland in the past,
you can be confident that
we'll be there to support
you in the future. Count on
strong support from
Ford Tractor and
New Holland dealers to
service your equipment.
Plus well-stocked parts
departments that can quickly
supply needed parts. And
massive, computerized parts
depots to expedite any part
not in your dealer's stock.
Farmers the world over
have trusted Ford and
New Holland for quality
equipment and dependable
support from their dealers.
Now you have a new name
to trust. Ford New Holland.
A new force emerges.













:~. ,~~c~
'"'r' ~'~'':~'.,
u I


3r.








FORD








Some
Farm &
brought to


of the world famous
Garden brand name
you by GEDDES GR


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ANT..


T. GEDDES GRANT [DISTRBS.] LTD.
AGRICULTURAL DIVISION, 109 MARCUS GARVEY DRIVE, KINGSTON, JAMAICA.
TELEPHONE: 923-7311


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