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Title: Caribbean farming
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101460/00019
 Material Information
Title: Caribbean farming
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Mona, Jamaica
Publication Date: February 1987
Copyright Date: 1969
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101460
Volume ID: VID00019
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 3116219

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Advertising
        Page 4
        Page 4a
        Page 4b
    Editorial
        Page 5
    Main
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Back Cover
        Page 31
        Page 32
Full Text

A


0' "


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11


/-.


C 3-


























ROYAL JUBILEE


THE HYBRIDS FROM


PETOSEED ARE HERE!


Growers in the West, in Texas and in Florida
are finding a way to make money on their
watermelon crops. Even dry-land growers. The
way? Hybrid watermelons from Petoseed.
Three of these exciting hybrids are featured
here. Their genetic tolerance to fusarium wilt
means you get a quality crop under conditions
that could wipe out less tolerant melon varieties.
All three are vigorous, early (up to two weeks
earlier than comparable open-pollinated varieties),
ship well and arrive well, they're uniform and


very, very productive. A lot of quality tons per
acre. Smart growers switched to the Petoseed
hybrids this past season. You can, too.
Your Petoseed dealer has seed on hand.
Call him.


PjES
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(805) 647-1188
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J z .P .~ COVER PHOTO: Goat dairy farm
r -- - ...a. Photo by: lan Edwards
fs wsf yfW Bi, *j.- __


CONTENTS


Editorial: Changing with the times ........................ 5


FOCUS

New Cropping strategy for Barbados ....................... 6
Commercial goat dairying............................... 9
Dairy goats in Trinidad............................... 18
Diseases of goats in Jamaica ........................... 23


OTHER FEATURES

Fish farming in Guyana ............................. 14
Cutting costs in rice production ......................... 19
Technical co-operation for cassava ........................ 24
Black pepper how to grow it (Part 2) ................... 26







CARIBBEAN FARMING is published with financial assistance from The
Jamaica Agricultural Development Foundation, four times a year, by
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SCaribbean

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Telephone: (809) 92-74271, 92-76184
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I












Changing with


the times


Two or three years ago there were farmers in the Caribbean
who hoped that this year 1987 would find them enjoying the
fruits promised by the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI). The
hope was that many of the acres taken out of sugar-cane would
by now be flourishing with winter vegetables and ornamentals
for the United States market. As it turns out, the United States
economy is having its own problems including a trade
deficit that is disturbing the nation's planners. While there
have been sales of non-traditional crops by some Caribbean
countries to the US, the volume and variety have been no-
where what was anticipated. At the same time, quotas for
:ane sugar have been cut as the US reduces its importation
.nd use of sugar.
The non-performance of the CBI also affected the pros-
;ects of those Caribbean farmers who hoped for a growing
local market with industrial workers earning high wages and a
rosperous tourist industry. While the tourist industry seems
Sbe holding its own, the closure of the Intel computer chip
]ant in Barbados was a bad sign for Caribbean industry. The
.ory of the Intel closing was one of high-cost production com-
Jred with the low-wage situation in the Far East. Also, there
as been reduction in the USA demand for this sort of pro-
uct.
Many of our farmers have to fall back on the modest market
which supplies ground provisions, fruit and vegetables, milk
id meat to the local population. Already at least two Carib-
ean governments have moved to protect their dairy farmers'
,come from competing overseas supplies. Caricom govern-
ents have agreed to tax imported beef again to protect
cal farmers.
Our lead story in this issue is by Keith Laurie, who tells the
ory as the Barbadian farmer sees it. His information should
Sof interest and use to farmers in all the island states of
ie Caribbean. With industrial incomes at a standstill (or de-
ining) it is hard to see where the Caribbean countries are
)ing to get foreign exchange to buy. increasing quantities of
real grains, milk, meat, livestock feed, fertilizer and farm
lemicals.
In most countries of the region farmers have the will to
irow more of the food their fellow citizens consume. Planning,


however must be much better than it has been up to now. For
example, it must be sheer high spirits that made somebody
come up with an estimate of annual fresh milk needs of Jamaica
as 300 million quarts more than 26 pints per week for a
family of five. Even if this were nutritionally effective (which
is doubtful) it would not seem to be a very practical way for a
family of modest means to spend its food money.
It is no pleasant thing to dwell on the fact that these Cari-
com countries are getting poorer what with decline in soil
fertility and mineral wealth, depletion of fish stocks, reduction
in regular savings and increase in population. We share this
condition with many countries of the world. This reminder is
by way of suggesting to farmers that they (and those to come)
need to take a fresh look at some practices (and even some
crops) that have been part of their picture for may years.
Especially needing a fresh look are management methods and
investment in livestock on our nations' farms. The reasons for
the suggestion have to do with better use of marginal land,
better return from capital invested and more security for the
farmers' investment. A number of the features in this issue
deal with small livestock and letters from readers will be
most welcome, especially if they reflect experience that can
help other farmer/readers.
Livestock and poultry management in the Caribbean has
'grown up' in the past twenty or thirty years using methods
lifted straight off North American farms. The broiler indus-
try, which takes great pride in its efficiency, produces a
chicken with quantities of fat that is (or should be) thrown
away rather than eaten by people. That is, of course, if what
the nutritionists say is true. Too many of the pigs in the
Region have been produced in large farm units, fed on rations
that have not included enough locally-produced stuff and
finally processed and marketed in systems that relate to tem-
perate countries with large urban populations. By looking
again at the way we raise our chickens and pigs we may
eventually find out why so much of the pork consumed in the
Caribbean consists of the snouts and tails of pigs grown and
slaughtered away from the Caribbean. Again we ask readers to
write and tell what they are doing or planning to keep tarm-
ing methods in the Caribbean moving in the direction that our
circumstances suggest. A


ARNOLD OTTO MEYER

DIA Agricultural and Gordwo
iOR'Il Spraying Equipment

Agricultural Chericals-
Garden and Household insecticides,
Pesticides and Rodenticides-
Veterinary Products


gston 11 Telephone: 92-3605 6 -


Caribbean Farming February 1987













ew cropping strategy for



Barbados?

A.." rh i 0 i ,'y g By Keith Laurie Agricultural Consultant
fIro Bridgetown, Barbados.


The major constraints to diversification
are:

1. Lack of an organised market for the
products;
2. Shallow soils of medium fertility sub-
ject to erosion; and
3. High wages

MARKETING
The traditional farmer in Barbados
has never had to worry about market-
ing his crops. The sugar cane market was
always highly organised and prices virtual-
ly guaranteed in advance. The small
amount of vegetables grown on the farms
were marketed through the "Hawker"
system or through the Barbados Market-
ing Corporation (BMC) or the Barbados
Agricultural Society (BAS). The main
point being that these were local markets
and systems were relatively unsophisti-
cated.
In the production of the recommend-
ed diversified crops, such as sweet pep-
pers, yams, egg plant, cut flowers and
foliage plants, etc for export to the Euro-
pean and US markets we now have to
move into a sophisticated marketing ex-
ercise involving strict quality control,
sorting, packaging, etc. Even with the ex-
pertise available from the Caribbean Agri-
cultural Trading Co. (CATCO) this has
been difficult to organise as these opera-
tions are outside of the experience of the
average Barbadian farmer.
The easiest market to penetrate is
one based on import substitution and a
quick look at the major food imports
show that livestock products constitute a
substantial drain on foreign exchange.
The decision taken by CARICOM
members in Nassau to place a 30% duty
on beef from extra regional sources has
illustrated how simple it is for Govern-
ments to make a local industry viable,
that is, to allow it to compete with sub-
sidised products from the developed
countries.
There is a growing demand in Bar-
bados for high quality fresh meat, aged in
chill and sold 'unfrozen. Most of the
6


major supermarkets have installed chill
counters for meat, chicken and eggs and
are contracting with selected farmers for
regular supplies. This market is expect-
ed to grow as local consumers and the
Hotel and Restaurant trade come to ap-
preciate the convenience and superior fla-
vour of local chilled meats and chickens.
Soil Erosion
The soils of Barbados are, for the most
part, a very shallow layer sitting on top
of coral bedrock. That these soils have
been farmed continually for over 300
years and are still producing crops annual-
ly is a reflection on the great importance
that our forefathers placed on soil con-
servation and to the fact that sugar cane
is one of the crops that offers excellent
soil protection and soil enhancement due


production of other crops in the plant
cane cycle.
Other methods used to control erosion
were mulching with bagasse or sour
grass and the planting of vert-y-vert or
Khus Khus grass on the edges of all the
fields.
From a soil point of view the most
desirable means of diversification lies ir,
the use of a crop rotation system based
on sugar cane or other grasses.
Wage Levels
Wage levels in Barbadian Agricultur
reflect the historical facts of our Colonic
past. Under the system of Negotiate
Price Quotas the British Governmer:
agreed to purchase a substantial portion
of the sugar produced at a price that we
determined annually based on cost
4 N'


A5-
--<- ^<-


-Am








Black belly sheep from Barbados are famous for large litters and the ability to survive under dry
and difficult conditions.


to the return of organic matter to the
soil.
The traditional method of vegetable
production in Barbados has been on a
crop rotation system whereby sugar cane
was grown in the field for five years and
after the final harvest the field was plough-
ed and planted in vegetables for the six
month period before being prepared and
replanted in sugar cane the following
October. In addition there was inter-row


production and a small profit. The Lab jir
Unions in the Islands quite rightly arguL.d
that any increase in labour costs wot d
automatically be followed by an increa-e
in the price of sugar and hence annU:al
wage negotiations and increases became a
familiar pattern in the Caribbean Sugar
industries.
Funds had been created by a Cess on
sugar which were to be used for Price
Stabilisation and Labour Welfare. In the
Caribbean Farming February. 1987


4F
"Y p, TP1+ C
-/-^





































Pro s begin with a strong litter of active piglets.

per d following Independence these
fun ; were in the hands of the Govern-
me s and, in most cases in the Carib-
bec were used for providing money
for irther wage increases besides projects
noi ven connected with Agriculture far
les: ugar.
th the improved standard of living
in I rbados following Independence and
the igh prices obtained for sugar in 1974
and again in 1980, Agricultural wages
Scorn ued their upward spiral. Barbados
Iwa, ess affected by the "Oil Crisis" of
the '0's due to the fact that local oil
rest rces were rapidly developed and the
oil room in Trinidad opened markets
the for the expanding manufacturing
d'4 try. Tourism was also developing
i:d the construction industry went
thr( igh a boom period, resulting in wage
inci ases in all sectors of the economy.
1 however there has been a turnabout
dur ig the last three years with world
prices of sugar falling well below cost of
production, oil prices slumped drying
up the lucrative Trinidad market. This
has left the sugar industry in deep finan-
cial trouble and having to be supported
by loans and eventually by grants by th
the Barbados Government.
With this picture in mind the Barbados
Government has redoubled its efforts to
diversify Agriculture away from sugar
cane, pushing such crops as onions, pea-
nuts, grain sorghum and fruit for the local
market and cotton, sweet peppers cut
lowers and ornamentals for export. The
ministry of Agriculture has also identi-
ribbean Farming February 1987


fled Livestock production as a major goal
in order to reduce the millions of dollars
of foreign exchange spent to import
meats and dairy products. See Table I
below.



i: .


.& -- -~-


"^
Bef A
RLai -b.
Pb*T


4cgs ;. Ta;s1 ,$ .gu

*2,280,042.'- 12,788,907, l
2~89"2 4.* A.. .~q7 *i
I,01,9 V-.I3.290 04W8
7V e
,6~ia ~f


Most of the crops mentioned above
however are going to be affected by the
major constraints identified, i.e. market-
ing, soil erosion and high wage levels,
which will make us high cost producers
and it will be very difficult to compete
with other Caribbean Islands or in the ex-
tra regional markets.
The Future of Livestock in the
Diversification Programme
Barbados provides an optimum en-
vironment for tropical livestock pro-
duction with its dry breezy climate and
its relative freedom from major animal
diseases.
The major constraint to develop-
ment is the high cost of imported feeds
necessary to support the industry as
chnun in tha fnllnmuinn tqhla"


However the other constraints to di
versification, i.e. the markets, soil ero-
sion and high wage levels are not as
serious with livestock as they are with
crops.
The market for livestock products
is primarily local, resulting in a sav-
ing of scarce foreign exchange resour-
ces by import substitution. The local
market can easily be controlled by the
imposition of duties on products from ex-
tra regional sources, such as the 30% duty
placed on Beef products by the CARI-
COM Governments. This duty has made
feedlot production of beef an economic
reality even when based on imported
calves and protein/mineral/vitamin sup-
plements. Furthermore the 30% duty has
resulted in revenues of about Bds$4
million per year to the Government
which can in turn be used to provide in-
centives to farmers to become involved
in livestock production on a large scale.
The planting of ex-cane lands into for-
ages, particularly on the steep sloping
lands of the Scotland District holds out
the best chance for conquering the
serious soil erosion problems that have
occurred in this area and on which the
Government has spent millions to control.
Several sugar cane farmers have profit-


ably used the so called "rab land", i.e.
land where the soil is so shallow to grow
even sugar cane or other crops, for the
production of forages such as Pangola
grass, African Star grass, etc. With the
development of a viable livestock industry
a market for hay and silage will be estab-
lished with forages being a major crop in
the diversification programme; and since
the cultivation, planting and harvesting
can all be done mechanically, costs per
tonne of forage produced can. be such
that the operation would be financially
and economically viable.
The market for other crops for live-
stock feed will also develop. Corn, sorg-
hum, soya bean, leucaena and most
promisingly cassava will most likely be
(Cont'd. on page 8)


E











Cropping strategy


in Barbado SContd. from page 7)


used to substitute for the present import-
ed ingredients.
The use of dried cassava chips to re-
place imported corn is showing great
potential. According to Dr. Gerry Pro-
verbs of CARDI, research carried out
by them in Barbados, utilising new
varieties obtained from CIAT in Cali,
Colombia has shown that high yields of
tubers per hectare are obtainable.
Research by CARDI, in association
with Dr. Colin Hudson of Carib Agro
Industries Ltd. (CAIL) a subsidiary of
Barbados .Sugar Industries Ltd (BSIL),
has developed an improved version of the
successful yam digger manufactured by
CAIL. This equipment can economically
harvest cassava on a totally mechanised
basis.
BSIL's Dr. Malcolm Biddlestone has
built a prototype cassava dryer for CARDI
which has undergone trials at Carrington
Sugar Factory during the 1986 crop.
The dryer utilises waste flue gases from
the Factory chimney thus reducing dry-
ing costs to an economically viable level.
The future for cassava as a major feed
ingredient to replace the Bds $10 million
spent annually on corn imports looks
good. The other local feed ingredient
which is being used by livestock farmers
in increasing amounts is blackstrap
molasses, consumption growing 20% to
30$ per year over the last three years.
Molasses at US$65/tonne on the world
market is equivalent to Bds $0.13/kg or
about $0.30/kg of Total sugars on a dry
matter basis. This compares with a land-
ed cost for corn of $0.37/kg on the
same basis.
Representations are being made to
BSIL to produce a liquid feed based on
molasses supplemented with urea, phos-
phoric acid and vitamins as a supplement.
to animals grazing, particularly during the
dry season. The possibilities of using "A"
or "B" molasses which contains sub-
stantially more sugar than blackstrap mol-
asses holds out some promise as this
could be fed at higher levels than black
strap since it is the high potassium level in
blackstrap that limits the level at which it
can be included in the animal diet.
Considering that Barbados in 1986
sold some 20,000 tonnes of sugar to
Russia at $0.28.6/kg dry matter basis and
imported corn at $0.37/kg, then the
8


inclusion of the low value sugar in "A"
and "B" molasses would seem to make
economic sense.
With an expanding cotton industry it
is hoped that cottonseed will become a
source of protein available to livestock
producers.
As the diversification programme ex-
pands the reject fruit, vegetables and nuts
can also provide ingredients for livestock
rations.

The Role of Small Livestock
Barbadians are traditionally keepers of
small livestock. It is unusual to find a
house where there are not a few chickens
or rabbits and many have sheep, goats or
pigs. These are kept primarily to provide
eggs and milk for the household and as a
form of a savings account. i.e. at Christ-
mas a pig or sheep may be sold to pur-
chase special gifts, etc. In many cases the
economics of this type of farming is
questionable particularly if the animals
are fed on concentrate feeds only. But
since the backyard farmer does not cost
his labour and in the case of sheep and
goats they are probably grazed on waste
land or on the sides of roads, the finan-
cial return for this type of operation may
be attractive.
However if Barbados is to make a
serious attempt to replace the $5 million
spent on imported lamb or the $4 million
spent on pork then large scale intensive
systems of production similar to those
adopted by the Broiler and Egg Producers
will be necessary. This does not mean
that there is no place for the small farmer;
on the contrary the production of wean-
ed lambs and weaned piglets is very suit-
able to small farmer operation.
Work on the feedlot rearing of Black
Belly sheep sponsored by the Caribbean
Food Corporation at River Plantation,
Barbados in 1979 and further develop-
ed by Dr. Lynn Blaylock at the Animal
Nutrition Unit of the Ministry of Agri-
culture has shown that on full feed Black
Belly lambs are capable of gains of 225-
250 gms per day thereby attaining a
slaughter weight of 40 kgs at just over
six months of age thus producing a car-
cas of exceptional quality. There are now
some medium size farmers (30-150 sheep)
who are raising lambs under the Blay-
lock system and are obtaining premium
prices from supermarkets where the meat


is being retailed as chilled aged lamb.
There appears to be a good potential
to market this high quality meat into
the Hotel and Restaurant trade both
locally and in the nearby islands with
tourist industries. It is expected that a
similar protection to that granted to the
beef industry i.e. a 30% duty on extra
regional imports, will be granted to the
other livestock sectors at the next CARI-
COM meeting.
The production of pork has increased
in the last ten years with the introduction
of local processing of hams, bacon and
sausages. Barbados is self sufficient in
fresh pork. However, due to the specific
demands of the processing plants for legs,
shoulders and to a lesser extent loins, the
intake of whole carcasses is limited and
the processors have been licensed to im-
port the specific cuts to fill their demand.
The export market for fresh and fro-
zen pork in Trinidad and Jamaica has
been explored but according to Haynesly
Benn, General Manager of the Barbad s
Agricultural Society, B.A.S. our cost )f
production and the relative strength )f
the Barbados dollar against that of
Trinidad and Jamaica makes it higf ly
unlikely that Barbados pork will pei e-
trate those markets. According to a p o-
cessor the swine industry will or ly
take off if we can produce a pig w th
sixteen legs!
The market for weaned piglets is as-
sured and if the small farmer can raise he
number of pigs weaned per litter frorr an
average of 6-8 to the attainable targe, of
10-12 then this operation should be qi ite
profitable for him.
The poultry industry in Barbados ias
developed to the point where we are elf
sufficient in eggs and whole chicl an.
However, there are small imports of c lic-
ken backs and necks and wings thrc rgh
the Barbados Marketing Corporatior to
fill the requirements of the low inc me
segment of the population.
There has been some discussion by
the previous Government on the iro-
duction of hatching eggs as these are ire-
sently imported principally from the
U.S. and Holland. However, this does not
appear to be a viable business as the wo
previous attempts by private sector c im-
panies to produce hatching eggs lorlly
have been abandoned.
In conclusion it would appear hat
livestock production for import substi-
tution is the form of agricultural diversi-
fication most likely to succeed in Bar-
bados as it is not hampered by the con-
straints of market, soil erosion and high
wages. A
Caribbean Farming February 1981










Caribbean Farming looks at a


r Commercial goat dairy


Although goats have been a part of the
Caribbean farm scene for about two hun-
dred years, they have typically remained
a low-key business with small flocks,
no producer organisation and very little
technical information being the rule in
most of these countries. Goats are kept
in the Caribbean chiefly as meat pro-
ducers and even on small remote farms
milk comes out of a can or packet rather
ban from the family goat. This situation
as possible because surplus whole milk
ind skim milk) powder from Europe and
e United States has been available in
t1 Caribbean as food aid or at giveaway
- ces.
Down the years, there has been strong
p jlic criticism of goats and their owners.
T i charges generally related to the praq-
ti is of people with little or no land; their
g, ts often roamed (and still do) in gar-
d s, plantations and pastures reserved
ft cattle. As in many parts of the world, ..
g( ts in the Caribbean attacked hillsides '
ai led to soil erosion following destruc-
ti of growing trees and shrubs. As more
la was brought into production of fruit
tr, s, forest species and root crops, stray-
in goats have become less of a problem
- it in the eyes of many people, goats
ar i menace not to be tolerated.


low that things are changing milk
;s are certain to increase as European


Well-developed and well-hung udderisimportant in a milk doe.


shows the Alpine shape and colour pattern.
long, floppy ears and Roman nose.


"ll y












and North American farmers reduce milk
output and foreign exchange becomes
less available, Caribbean small farmers
have good reason to look at milk pro-
duction from goats as a commercial pro-
position. Certainly, the Region begins
with the advantage of having well-adapted
goats of excellent type and good produc-
tion possibilities both for milk and meat.
As farm livestock, goats have many ad-
vantages. They are active finders of food
for themselves. They are usually disease-
resistant thriving under dry conditions
on poor soil types. The market for goats
and goat flesh is always good in most com-
munities. Goats are clean, intelligent and
friendly. Kept in small numbers, they are
easily manageable generally by quite
small children. Goats are tolerant to a
wide range of conditions; they survive,
for example, in areas of heavy and con-
tinuous rainfall although management
methods become more critical.
It is when numbers go above forty or
fifty head that goat management be-
comes a challenge. If the animals are kept
on enclosed pasture, fencing is expen-
sive and hired labour often enters the pic-
ture introducing questions of cost,
training and security. Large herds intro-


duce special problems in the care of new-
ly-born and growing animals as well as
in managing replacement female stock.
Feeding the large herd generally means
using supplementary feeds and the
production economics become more
critical.
Where the farmer has decided to make
milk production an important function of
his goat flock, there is the possibility of
using new management methods. A num-
ber of dairy goat farms keep all their
milking animals in confinement, bringing
in cut fodder in the form of green chop
and hay. On one such farm two acres of
enclosed pens accommodate three hun-
dred milking goats and their young. About
one-quarter to one-third of each pen area
is roofed-over; the animals are standing
on bare earth with a good deal of Pan-
gola grass hay underfoot. In this flock
the new-born kids spend only a few days
with their dams before moving into an-
other pen where a gang of foster-mothers
takes over the job of feeding the young-
sters until they are weaned at the age of
six to eight weeks. Goats do not willing-
ly take to the role of foster-mother so
the does in this pen are held in neck-
yokes twice a day, while the young move
from teat to teat in search of a meal. It is
this phase of the goat's life between


birth and, say, fourteen months of age
(when she will be delivering her first
kid) that seems best able to benefit
from a few acres of clean browsing with
plenty of varied shrubs and grass to sup-
plement the milk ration from the foster-
mothers and the twice-a-day handful of
grain feed. Many livestock systems of
cattle, pigs and laying hens, for instance
- have found it good business to have
farms which raise young stock and pass
them over to other farms which maintain
producer flocks or herds. This intensive
goat farm we visited seems to have a
rather larger work force (more than a
dozen people) than its production can
*comfortably support especially in these
days of still-high interest rates on bor-
rowed money. It would surely be better
business to contract out the rearing of
kids if satisfactory money arrangements
can be made.
It may be that when the farm h is
built up its numbers and quality of mil <-
ers it can turn to such matters as cc i-
tract-rearing of kids. However, the prese it
death rate among kids up to weaning is
12.7%, which is quite good for an ope a-
tion of this kind. Also the average we n-
ing weight is about 20 Ib a reason le
figure for a herd that includes many Ic :al
goats which are on the small side.


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Caribbean Farming February 1987


I











This farm is a few miles from the
south coast on dry plains country of
Jamaica's parish of St. Elizabeth. It start-
ed with an importation of dairy goats of
two breeds Nubian and Alpine. Most
animals being milked seem to be giving
at peak about six Ib a day in two milk-
ings. The animals are of all sizes and types
within the general characteristics of the
two breeds and their various crosses and
grades. At the time of our visit, manage-
ment had begun an analysis of production.
Although extension folk sing the praises
of record-keeping as a management tool,
a farm of this size (300 milkers) cannot
spend a great deal of time and effort on
records of individual daily yield of
milkers. These goats are milked by hand
twice daily. Milk is poured immediately
into bulk tanks and transferred twice
a week t9, a cheese factory many miles
away. The animals spend all day and
night in a partly-covered yard where
they are fed pangola hay and, sometimes,
cut green fodder. Supplementary "bag
feed" is fed while they are being milked.

Young does in this herd go to the
bucks at about sixty lb. weight and not
before they are nine months old. The
bucks are housed in the same range of
buildings at the far end from the milking
parlour. The bucks have individual roomy
pens but the question of exercise room
is one we would raise. On a farm such as
this in Jamaica today, the chief concerns
seem to be capital and security. As the
herd grows, selection and culling will
certainly improve its productivity. This
should make for a more profitable oper-
ation which should, in turn, provide


Hay is fed in racks designed to reduce waste.

funds for improvement in the buildings
and other facilities for production.

Pangola hay is cut and baled me-
chanically from about 25 acres of level
land immediately adjoining the goat
pens. It is stored under cover on the
farm within a stone's throw of the goat
pens. Concentrate dairy ration is bought
from a commercial feed mill and is fed at
the rate of one lb. feed per Ib. of milk
produced.
In the minds of most of us, the goat is
a free-ranging, fast-moving browser pre-
ferring to climb and crop and move on,
sleeping in the open on dry rocky groung.
It would seem that life in crowded pens,
i 'rn' M


. .' ."L' .
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'-"r .- ' ^ '.- ;-, ,




Alpine buck
Caribbean Farming February 1987


feeding on hay and grain would lead to
all sorts of health problems with worm
infestation and lice at the top of a long
list of ailments. Our farm manager assured
us that this is not the case that a sim-
ple programme of regular worm medicine
and spraying effectively keeps his flock
well and producing. Fertility is evidently
not impaired by the feeding routine
nor by the confinement housing.
Under these intensive conditions, cer-
tain precautions have to be taken by man-
agement. Firstly, there is no place for
horns on these goats. The solution here is
not to breed hornless (polled) animals -
as this has been associated with low fertil-
ity. The simple solution is to use one of
the safe and sure methods of treating the
horn buds in young animals. By having
the herd divided and occupying a number
of pens, management can avoid many of
the bullying problems that tend to crop
up when a large number of animals are
crowded together. This pen-by-pen hand-
ling is carried into the milking parlour,
also; it allows groups of animals to be fed
the quantity of ration appropriate to their
production or stage of lactation. On this
farm, goats are sometimes bred in batches
- using hormone treatment to bring a
batch of does on heat at the same time.
This helps to control the month-by-
month production of milk: it also allows
batches of young animals to be handled
together, making the workers' task easier
to plan and carry out. The technique is
also used where the farm manager wants
to arrange that no births take place dur-
ing certain seasons of the year; it is used
with sheep, pigs, dairy and beef cattle
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I


I











by Howard Powles

Around the world, particularly in de-
developing countries, cage and pen cul-
ture of fish is expanding rapidly. Al-
though cage culture began in Southeast
Asia at the end of the last century, and
pen culture originated in Japan's inland
Sea during the 1920s, it is only in the
past 15 years that these methods of "en-
closure" aquaculture have spread to over
35 countries.
Among their advantages are the low
capital inputs required for building and
maintaining enclosures and the poten-
tial for using free natural feed or inexpen-
sive feedstuffs. Cage and pen culture sys-
ems can thus provide a feasible livelihood
o people with limited economic re-
)urces. this aspect prompted IDRC to
ipport research on pen and cage cul-
!re in several countries with varying eco-
)mic and ecological conditions.
In September 1985, researchers from
Lanka, Turkey, Egypt, Niger, the
iry Coast, and the Dominican Republic
St in Cairo to exchange results from
Sse and other projects whose common
i has been to adapt efficient cage cul-
Se systems. The workshop was jointly
' ,nsored by IDRC and the Academy of
; entific Research and Technology of
E pt.

l )ATING CAGES ON THE NILE
Since 1978, researchers in Egypt have
1. n investigating the use of floating cage
( ture in the irrigation and diversion can-
i of the Nile River system.
Researchers at the Barrage Station
r ,r Cairo have focused specifically on
t problem of species nutrition of pro-
d cing a practical supplementary feed for
c ie-reared fish. They determined the
I vest level of protein required to main-
t, n good growth in caged fish under
E "yptian conditions,

The scientists also tested inexpensive
agricultural by-products which could be
used in fish feeds. Waste products such as
tomato seeds and brewery wastes were
screened, and more traditional by-products
such as rice bran and cottonseed cake
were also examined. According to Egy-
ptian researchers, even chicken manure
could be a good source of protein if add-
ed sparingly to the diet of cage-reared
fish.
Although vitamin/mineral supplements
are considered essential for high-density
culture in low-productivity waters, several
participants at the Cairo workshop sug-
Caribean Farming February 1987


Fencing off fish


---L= _- -~-
---~------- -;-i---~;
~= ---~-~---
-s
~ ~--~nL~


gested these pre-mixes were not necessary
if natural feed of good quality was avail-
able.

PROFITING FROM RESERVOIRS
Cage culture is an ideal way to take ad-
vantage of new bodies of water such as
reservoirs created by hydroelectric dams.
In theory, production of fish in cages can
cost less than stocking and managing
whole bodies of water with "wild" fish
stock. Caged fish are less susceptible to
seasonal fluctuations in water level than
"wild" fish which depend on stable shore-
lines for feeding and spawning.
In Central Turkey, 2 out of 14 fish
farming cooperatives have begun cage
culture of "mirror carp" in the Keban
Reservoir, which was created with the
damming of the Firat (Upper Euphrates)
River. This project will allow for a cost-
benefit comparison between cage cul-
ture and exploitation of whole lakes.

FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE
The development of a system that can
be easily transferred to producers is the
ultimate goal of most cage culture re-
search. Projects in Sri Lanka, the Domini-
can Republic, and Togo illustrate this ap-
proach.
In Togo, researchers studied the growth
and production of caged Nile tilapia in
the high productive Lome Lagoon and in
low-productivity lakes. Results from the
lakes indicate that supplementary feeding
would be necessary to produce fish there.
However, in Lome Lagoon, enriched by
effluent from surrounding human settle-


ments, growth of tilapias was good on
natural feed suggesting that extensive cul-
ture might be successfully practiced there.
As well, baby tilapias were produced
from eggs spawned in "hapas" which are
floating cages of small-mesh net contain-
ing mature broodfish. This is promising
as aquaculture is all too frequently ham-
pered by lack of young fish for stocking.
Hapa production of young tilapias has
now developed into a successful cottage
industry in Lagun de Bay, Philippines,
producing seed stock for pen culture and
providing revenue for small-scale hatch-
ery operators.
In the Dominican Republic. experi-
ments with Nile tilapia and Silver carp
were conducted in several reservoirs.
Silver carp grew to a weight of 1 kg in six
weeks without supplementary feed at
low-stocking densities. Despite good tech-
nical results, this fish is not traditionally
consumed in the Dominican Republic and
marketing may require an effort.
In Sri Lanka, where the abundance of
water storage reservoirs favours cage cul-
ture, scientists are trying to determine
the optimum stock density and feed
characteristics for small-scale culture.
Their results in the Udawalawe Reser-
voir suggest the best total production of
fish over a six-month growing season oc-
curs with a density of 800 fish/m3, and a
diet of 20 percent protein.
Sri Lankan researchers also shed some
light on the importance of "thinning" -
reducing the density of the fish in the
(Cont'd. on page 21)
13


---~-- ---


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--
--;-=
-
---


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e ~~''


9.


p.P~







ir~IJ Rf


Fish farming


Caribbean governments seem to be
slowly moving in the direction of ensur-
ing that their farmers' living is protected
from competition with low-priced import-
ed livestock products. However success-
ful these efforts are the low buying power
of most Caribbean people is a challenge
to our farmers to produce nourishing
food that is affordable. As it is, chicken
necks and backs continue to be import-
ed from the United States by the trailer-
load and have become the main sup-
plier of animal product in the Region.
With the growing pressures of high
interest rates, uncertain supplies of live-
stock rations and increased cost of live-
stock and poultry medication, some farm-
ers in the Region have dug ponds in old
sugar-cane land to raise fish. A few Tilapia
species are now being farmed and all
the livestock science devices such as cross-
breeding and supplementary feeding have
been brought into fish-farming.
In a paper presented to the Seventeenth
West Indies Agricultural Economics Con-
ference, Tej B. Singh of the University of
Guyana set out some of the advantages of
aquaculture as a farming method. The first
of these is the relatively low cost in
foreign exchange of capital and recurrent
14


Guyai


works with special mention
involvement of fuels such as p
Singh notes that the feed
rates for fish are about 50%
for swine or chickens and tv
as cattle and sheep. Carp are
example outproducing ca
one when given the same amc
value. Additionally, fish conta
amount of edible flesh than pi
cattle provide. Fish protein
quality that humans can utiliz
net weight. It contains the
lysine and methionine which ar
in adequate amounts in vegeta
Singh makes other points i
aquaculture. Fish can be rais
grove swamps and in ponds
supplies are saline. They ca
duced into reservoirs. On liv
poultry farms fish ponds c
wastes from the land animals.
Singh's paper went on to e
reasons for the limited inte
Caribbean during the twenty
aquaculture was introduced
ability for serious farming.The


the paper states, was that aquaculture was
not conceived as a business venture but as
-a source of supplementary protein. In the
early years, ponds were small and over-
crowded producing stunted and tainted
fish. Species selected were often those
not highly considered by the local human
population who were accustomed to
other more tasty fish species.
SFrom the above, saysSingh, it is ob-
vious that for successful aquaculture dev-
elopment attention must be focused on
(a) the choice of species based on bio-
technical criteria, (b) the development of
optimal systems and (c) post-harvest tech-
I "' nology and marketing strategies.
The paper mentions two aquaculture
'' enterprises in Guyana one intensive and
the other extensive as examples of the
S more dynamic and business-oriented trend
in the industry. The Guyana Sugar Cor-
poration has been producing Tilapia in
a monosex system with fertilization of
:., ponds and supplementary feeding using
rice bran. Production area has grown
from eight hectares in 1980 to 12.8 ha in
1983 with yields increasing from 1,329
kg/ha to 1,583 Kg/ha. The Company wa,
embarking on another aquaculture opera
i tion at the time of writing (the paper) -
1n the production of cascadura.
The extensive operation reported b
Singh may be an example to farmer
whose land includes brackish water
n a swamp. This was the empoldering of 4
ha of such swamp land, dividing it inm
six sections and putting in place mecha
of the low isms for water control. Filling and empt -
etroleum. ing are tidally effected. Fish fry are take i
in with the tides, retained in the swam
conversion and allowed to grow out. No fertilizati,
better tha nor supplemental feeding is done.T 3
vice as good ponds are drained periodically and t e
given as an fish harvested. A number of species e
title two to produced and the farmer reports that ie
iunt of feed was able to recoup his initial investmf it
ain a greater of G$36,000 in two years.
gs, sheep or
is of such Singh mentioned the constraints :o
e 83% of its commercial aquaculture development:-
amino acids Shortage of trained and motiva id
e not found workers
ble protein. .
e protein. Aquaculture is a high-risk busir ss
n favour of needing constant monitoring.


ed in man-
vhere water
n be intro-
estock and
an use the

examine the
rest in the
years since
as a possi-
nain reason,


Supplementary feeds for fish rr ist
be provided in adequate quan ty
and quality.
Praedial larceny is a serious probi m
Provision of credit is essential. 4

EDITOR'S NOTE: Dr. Singh's paper is included
in the Proceedings of the Seventeenth West
Indies Agricultural Economics Conference,
which is available from the campuses of the
University of the West Indies.
Caribbean Farming February 1987


J_..





F R
NE OLLN -


















new





force




emerges


Ford New Holland.
The name signifies
good things to come
Few companies have the
financial strength and vision
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ing together New Holland
and Ford Tractor Oper-
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as Ford New Holland.
That's good news for
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New strength
You can count on the tradi-
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Together, we're even stronger.
The Ford and New
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With the combined strengths
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designed to make your life
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New commitment
If you've relied on Ford or
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strong support from
Ford Tractor and
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Plus well-stocked parts
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NEWOLLND











SDair3


There is a general correlation between
the size of a farm animal and its produc-
tion of milk, meat and young. For this
reason and for other reasons having to
do with birth weight and vigour, one of
the management endeavours on live-
stock farms is to have a reasonably uni-
form size in the production herd with
females showing good abdominal capa-
city and producing young of fair-to-good
weight at birth and at weaning. The fol-
lowing information is a summary of a re-
port on some production parameters of
goats reared intensively on the Govern-
ment Farm, St. Joseph, Trinidad. The in-
formation was contained in a paper pre-
sented by Harricharan and Lauckner of
CARDI and Ramlal of the Trinidad Mini-
stry of Agriculture. This paper was deli-
vered at the Seventeenth West Indies
Agricultural Economics Conference held
in Trinidad.
The goats were of four breeds Angto-
Nubian, Saanen, Toggenburg and British
Alpine. They were kept indoors and were
fed cut grass and a commercial dairy
ration. Kids were weaned from their
dams within 24 hours of birth; thereafter
they were fed by bucket with colostrum


r goats in Trinidad


and whole goats' milk until they were
twelve weeks of age. Grass and a com-
mercial dairy ration were offered from
the fourth week of age. At twelve weeks
whole milk was withdrawn, concentrate
ration was increased to 454 grams a day
and animals were fed all the grass they
would eat.
Mean birth weight of Anglo-Nubian,
Saanen, Toggenburg and British Alpine
was 3.25 kg (7.16 Ib), 2.88 kg (6.35 Ib),
3.36 kg (7.40 Ib) and 3.68 kg (8.11 Ib)
respectively. Males weighed 3.37 kg and
females 3.07 kg. Mean birth weight of
singles, twins and triplets was 3.51, 3.14
and 2.90 kg respectively.
Mean weight of kids at 12 weeks of
age was 10.72 kg (23.63 Ib). 11.47 kg
(25.29 Ib), 11.89 kg (26.21 Ib) and 13.81
kg (30.44 Ib) for Anglo-Nubian, Saanen,
Toggenburg and British Alpine, respect-
ively. At this age, males weighed 12.89 kg
and females 10.21 kg. The 12-week weight
of singles, twins and triplets was 11.62,
11.32 and 10.90 kg respectively.
Average daily gain from birth toctwelve
weeks of age was 96 grams. Average
number of kids born per doe per litter
in the herd was 1.62. British Alpine fe-


DLG Symposium June 20-24
3rd International DLG-Symposium on Poultry Production in Hot Climates
June 20-24, 1987, Hameln, Federal Republic of Germany


A particular characteristic of this sym-
posium is that most of the work will be
done in working groups where every single
participant will have a chance to present
his own experiences and make his contri-
bution to the final recommendations.
Opening Session: General Trends in world
poultry production
Section I:
Intensive Poultry Production in Larger
Units
Working Groups
Further processing of poultry meat
Hygiene and health
Poultry feeding
Broiler breeder management
Latest problems of hen production
Handling, treatment and use of
poultry manure and waste.
Computers as management aid
Free contributors and poster session

Session II: Small-Holder Production
(parallel to Section I)


Section II: Small-Holder Production in
Developing Countries
Working groups
Production techniques
Basic feedstuffs for poultry feeding
Local material for the construction
of poultry houses
Hygiene and health
Breeding and improvement of adap-
ted strains
Poultry production and rural de-
velopment
Training and extension
The role of government and inter-
national aid organizations
The role of private industry
Free contributions

Session: Presentation of working group
results and final discussion.
Visit to the international "Huhn &
Schwein" exhibition in Hanover.
Working groups will be held mainly in
English. English-French simultaneous
translation will be offered in the plenum


males produced the smallest litters (1.42)
and Toggenburgs the largest (1.66).
At twelve weeks of age, the average
number of kids weaned per doe per lit-
ter was 1.06. Kid mortality for the herd
over a five-year period ranged from eight
to fifty-three per cent. Loss of kids in the
herd averaged 32% over the five-year
period. Losses of kids were high in the
first year covered by the study and were
greatly reduced in subsequent years, pre-
sumably due to improved management.
The conference paper referred to other
studies of mortality among goats. One
such study reported highest losses in lit-
ters with twins and triplets and found
that 55% of triplets raised out-of-doors
with their dams died before they were
three weeks old. This study also showed
that there was a higher rate of survival
when kids were housed continuously f r
the first three weeks of life and allowed
to suckle their dams in a controlled cn-
vironment. k
PROCEEDINGS OF THE SEVENTEEN H
WEST INDIES AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC S
CONFERENCE available from the Mona an
and St. Augustine campuses of the Univer ty
of the West Indies.

sessions and in the following work ig
groups of Section II: Poultry product >n
and rural development, Training id
extension and the largest session of le
working group on production technique s.


Rabbits in

Trinidad
The Department of Livestock Scie ce
of the University of the West Indies ias
reported on the production from I :al
rabbits of mixed breeding housed in v ire
-cages andfed on pig grower pelleted ra1 on
(16% protein). Growth performance >vas
found to be about half of that achieve( in
temperate countries with improved brn ds
and a properly-balanced rabbit ration.
One conclusion of the report was iat
a ration containing 16% crude protein -
not balanced for the nutrient needs of
rabbits is not adequate to supply grot ith
as well as reproduction requirements It
took 4.8 months for the rabbits in he
project to reach slaughter weight of 2 9g.
Moreover, after three months of age
growth rate began to decline. This redu-
ced the efficiency of feed conversion.
Average figures per litter were 6.18 born
live and 5.56 weaned. A
Caribbean Farming February '96'











Cutting unnecessary costs in rice


An analysis of rice production costs in
Latin America reveals that an unnecessary
amount of money is being spent on con-
trolling weeds, insects, and disease. It also
shows that many large-scale, heavily mec-
hanized farms are only marginally profit-
able, whereas small, irrigated farms (10-
25 ha) can be highly economical.
In 1985, in collaboration with national
programs, CIAT's Rice Program surveyed
rice production costs in Latin America.
K lowing actual costs to produce rice can
h ip policy makers establish planning
p orities, compare the profitability of
p duction systems, and stimulate rice
pi duction. Failure to consider pro-
di. tion costs and profitability can result
in recommending an inappropriate pro-
di tion system.
n many Latin American countries
thi price of inputs (pesticides, fertilizers,
et< and grain (paddy and milled) are
ur r government control. In some coun-
tri, the policy makers are not taking
int account the economics of production
sin the price set for paddy rice is so low
the expansion is discouraged. On the
otf hand, in some countries unnecessary
sut dies exist that stimulate the ex-
ces !e use of certain imported inputs.
.e economic analysis performed by
nai nal officials, producers, and CIAT
scii ists has identified several question-
abl production practices that require
eve ation to meet future rice production
nee ;.

Irri- ted Rice
; igated rice is the most important.
sysi n of growing rice in Latin America
acc( hinting for 55% of all rice produced.
In rgentina, Chile, Cuba, Surinam, and
Uru uay it is the only system used. Irri-
gate 1 rice account for 98% of the pro-
ducmion in the Dominican Republic,
88% in Colombia, 87% in Peru, 76% in
Paraguay, and 70% in Ecuador. Even in
Brazil, which has the largest extension of
upland rice in the word, approximately
42% of the country's 1985 rice harvest
was produced under irrigation. Because of
the importance of irrigated rice in Latin
America the collaborative study concen-
trated on this production system.
The average cost to produce one hec-
tare of irrigated rice in Latin America
n 1985 was approximately US$800. This
s less than 50% of-the cost to grow an
qual area of rice in California. In Vene-
uela, Paraguay, and Guyana production
aribbean Farming Feoruary 1987


production


Combine harvester for small rice fields.


costs are less than US$500, whereas in
Colombia it ranges between US$1000 and
US$1500/ha. The average efficiency in
Latin America, expressed as the cost to
produce one ton of paddy rice, is around
US$160. For comparison, it costs a farm-
er US$238 to produce a ton of paddy rice
in California.

Excessive Cost for Chemicals

The surprising finding coming out of
this study was the excessive expenditure
for pesticides and other agricultural
chemicals, especially in the tropical
countries. Weed control costs on an
average only US$57/ha, but in some
countries costs are in excess of US$100/
ha. The use of insecticides in Colombia is
extremely high, especially when compared
to other Latin American countries. In
the Colombian Llanos, three applications
per season are common. In Tolima,
Colombia, six applications are an average,
with some farmers spraying as many as 12
times. Other countries that use insecticides
excessively are Surinam, Ecuador, Pan-
ama, the Dominican Republic, and Vene-
zuela.
The study also found that fungicides
are being used inadvisedly and excessive-


ly. Rice scientists believe this indicates
the need to better understand the dis-
ease complex that farmers are attempt-
ing to control chemically.
On the average, Latin American rice
farmers are spending US$100/ha or
14% of total production costs on weed,
insect, and disease control. In Colombia
this reaches US$230/ha -equivalent to
18 to 20% of total production costs. In
Ecuador, Panama, the Dominican Repub-
lic, and Venezuela the percent of the
total cost for crop protection is 18%, 18%
17%, and 35% respectively.
In view of these findings, the study
concluded that it is essential that the
use of pesticides be critically examined,
especially in the tropical Latin American
countries. In many parts of Colombia, for
example, there is no scientific justifi-
cation for the current indiscriminate use
of insecticides.

Other Cost Savers

It was also found that harvesting costs
in Ecuador are two to three times higher
than those of neighboring countries.
The use of smaller combines is recom
mended to help reduce these costs. A
small combine manufactured in Brazil,
suitable for the job, can be purchased for
around US$14,000. This is considerably
less than the US$85,000 cost for the larger
ones currently being used.
It is also clear that costs can be cut
significantly by reducing the amount of
seed sown. Farmers often use more than
is necessary to produce a maximum yield.
Excessive seed use raises production costs
by up to 15% in Colombia.
By far irrigation is the most efficient
system for producing rice. The study con-
cluded that growing rice that is depen-
dent on rainfall is less profitable (on a
hectare basis) than growing irrigated rice
since yields under irrigation are at least
1 to 1.5 t/ha greater and the cost to pro-
duce one ton is not much greater.

Small Farms More Efficient

Small rice farms such as those found
in Santa Catarina, Brazil, and Peru are
more efficient. Compared to larger farms
in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, where costs
per hectare run around US$1000, Santa
Catarina farms, of around 10 ha, grow
rice for only US$550/ha. In Peru, the
third largest producer of irrigated rice in
(Cont'd. on page 23)
19













I---l-~


MANUAL FOR THE SLAUGHTER OF Dried salted meats: charque and carne-
SMALL RUMINANTS IN DEVELOPING de-sol
nfl. ..rn a en


vu IV I fIEC


ST. JOHN J.A. CLOTTEY, 1985,
Rome, FAO, 45 pp. Animal Production and
Health Paper No. 49.

Sheep and goats are widely distributed
throughout most countries of Africa and
Asia, where they are slaughtered both for
food and for sacrificial offerings. The
popularity of small ruminants in these
countries is not matched by suitable
methods and procedures for slaughter-
ing and handling of meat and by-pro-
ducts, especially in backyard slaughter-
ing.
This book outlines a few procedures
for slaughtering, with special emphasis on
humane practices, and for handling of
meat and by-products, with the goal of
obtaining good-quality products that are
safe and wholesome for human use.
Special chapters are devoted to the con-
struction, equipping and rehabilitation of
slaughter premises and to slaughterhouse
sanitation.


Better utilization of crop residues and by-
products in animal feeding: research
guidelines. 1. State of Knowledge
1985. Rome, FAO. 213 pp. Animal Production
and Health Paper No. 50.

Here are collected the papers presented
at the FAO/ILCA Expert Consultation on
Guidelines for Research on the Better Use
of By-products and Crop Residues, held
from 5 to 9 March 1984 in Addis Ababa,
Ethiopia. The book is divided into two
sections: the first gives a review of the
possibilities for better utilization of crop
residues and agro-industrial by-products
in different developing countries, and the
second describes different research me-
thods for estimating the nutritive value
of crop residues and agro-industrial by-
products for livestock feeding.
A second publication, as recom-
mended by the expert consultation, is in
preparation. This will be a practical manu-
al to be used by researchers in the field
of animal nutrition as well as crop resi-
due and agro-industrial by-product utili-
zatio' in livestock feeding.
R.S.


G.A. NORMAN & 0.0. CORTE. 1985. Rome,
FAO. 32 pp. Animal Production and Health
Paper No. 51.
Drying, with or without salt, is the
main process for the preservation of meat
in developing countries. A number of
traditional local processes have existed
for centuries but there is no consistent
technique which ensures that the pro-
duct will always be of an acceptable
quality.
This book sets out guidelines for the
preparation of two dried meat products
from Latin America. It includes infor-
mation on the construction ofsimple facili-
ties, selection of raw material, techno-
logies processes, packaging and trans-
port of the final product, and hygienic
considerations.

A.P.

Small-scale sausage production

I.V. SAVIC. 1985. Rome, FAO. 123 pp.
Animal Production and Health Paper No. 52.

Although the size and scope of sau-
sage manufacture has grown tremen-
dously in recent years, the rationale
behind today's small-scale sausage pro-
duction and traditional practices remain
the same, namely, obtaining a product
of high organoleptic value and longer
shelf-life. There is every reason to believe
that still greater rewards can be expected
if further development is based on the
sound experience of traditional sausage-
making procedures.
The book describes the processing of
different kinds of sausages. A special part
is devoted to the layout and equipment
of sausage plants. The formulations of


conventional and novel sausages are given
as examples on which to base the develop-
ment of products best suited to local
conditions and consumer requirements.
Factors affecting the quality and stor-
age of sausages are described for each
individual group.

A.P.

Slaughterhouse cleaning and sanitation
T. SKAARUP, 1985. ROME, FAO. 45 pp.
Animal Production and Health Paper No. 53.
This manual gives guidelines for slaugh-
terhouse cleaning and sanitation appli-
cable to diverse types of slaughterhouses
operating under a variety of conditions in
developing countries.
Sanitation, defined as "the act or ro-
cess of providing adequately hygi nic
conditions to ensure a safe, sound, wl ole-
some product fit forhuman consumpti ,n,"
is described, and hygienic precaution are
given regarding personal hygiene, prc ess
hygiene and cleaning, and disinfectior.
Problems of all aspects of hyg ane
materials and equipment used in sleJgh
terhouses and meat processing pl nts,
principles of cleaning and disinfec ion,
the cleaning programme, practical pro
cedures in cleaning processes, and td
control of cleaning and disinfection an
covered concisely. The necessity c
these factors in slaughterhouse o era
tions is emphasized.
Training of personnel in hyierv
remains one of the major obst cle
to good slaughterhouse manager ent
especially in developing countries v her
no permanent staff exists. A


Antigua meet for Caribbean

Food Crops Society


The twenty-third annual meeting of the
Caribbean Food Crops Society will be
held in Antigua from 23rd to 28th
August, 1987. The Society invites its
members and others concerned with the
production of food and forage crops to
prepare and present papers on the sub-


ject at this meeting.
Secretary of the CFCS is Dr. Carle
Cruz, P.O. Box 506, Isabela, Puerto Ric
00662. Contacts in Antigua are Franoc
Henry, c/o Ministry of Agriculture, St
John's and Brian Cooper, c/o CARDI
St. John's, Antigua. A
Caribbean Farming February 10












Fencing off fish
(Cont'd. from page 13)


cage to obtain the best growth rate.
Regular sorting and thinning may prove
to be a valuable management practice in
artisanal cage culture since it ensures opti-
mum use of the cage space.
All of these projects are rapidly ap-
proaching the stage where economic ana-
lyses and "real-life" trials are needed to
turn these experiments into practical
techniques that can be followed by small-
sc ale producers.
A IODEL TO FOLLOW
The Pokhara Lakes in Nepal offer a
gc d model for the development and
tri .sfer of, cage culture systems to artisa-
na users. Since the early 1970s, the
GL ernment of Nepal with the assistance
of he UN Development Programme and
thi Food and Agriculture Organization,
ha. succeeded in spreading cage culture
tec lology to some 200 fishing families
wh h formerly depended on the meagre
ret is from heavily exploited wild fish
sto s.
the Fishery Development Section's
stat n at Pokhara, photos and models


illustrate the long series of trials that
resulted in the economically efficient
system now being used. Cage designs
evolved through at least four stages -
from an early, bulky box built of bam-
boo slats, to the present light model of
bamboo and synthetic fibre. The netting
for this latest cage design is woven by the
fishermen themselves and has proven to
be the strongest and least expensive
design. The fishermen have organized into
cooperatives which determine when sales
should be made, thus regulating what
could otherwise be a chaotic, unprofit-
able market. Government aid to the fisher-
men has been reduced to the simple pro-
vision of young fish below cost and ad-
vice by extension workers.
ECOLOGY FIRST
If the prospects for cage culture so far
look promising, the Nepal Lakes also
demonstrate one of the problems of ex-
tensive. cage culture development. For
cage culture to be successful, the natural
capacity of a lake to support a certain
number of fish has to be taken into ac-
count. Growth rates and production


rates will decline each time a lake or
reservoir is overloaded with too many
cages or pens. In an attempt to solve this
problem, the Fisheries Development Sec-
tion at Lake Begnas is now controlling
the total number of cages through a per-
mit system.
Other problems of enclosure culture
development include declines in water
quality because of high fish density, re-
striction of flow in running bodies of
water such as irrigation canals, and the ex-
clusion of the traditional users from com-
munal resources (water and fish) by those
appropriating the space for culture. This
is what happened in Lagun de Bay where
traditional fishermen were displaced by
the richer owners of large fish pens.
The fishermen's individual annual in-
come dropped from 10,000 pesos in 1977
to 4000 pesos in 1983.
Learning from the experiences of
others, such as those in Nepal and in the
Philippines, is essential if the full poten-
tial of cage and pen culture and their
eventual spread around the world are to
be realized.

Reprinted from IDRC Reports

Howard Powles is an IDRC fisheries
programme officer based in Dakar.


inbbean Farming February 1987


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Diseases of goats in Jamaica


The Government of Jamaica and the
Inter-American Development Bank have
collaborated to carry out a study of dis-
eases of goats inJamaica. The programme
was directed by, a veterinarian, Dr. Doris
Oliveira and included examination and
testing of 600 goats from all parts of the
Island. The study showed up no cases of
Brucellosis (Contagious Abortion) but
i' did reveal evidence of Leptospirosis,
E'ue Tongue and Toxoplasmosis. Indi-
c tors of Leptospirosis infection were
f( und in 31% of animals tested. Dr.
C iveira points out that losses from
d ;ease in goats are more often caused by
p or condition and lowered production
tl in by death. Her report says: "Success-
fi goat enterprises in the tropics (or
at /where) depend upon a reasonable
le a1 of affordable disease control and
ar mal adaptation to the environment".
The report continues: "The syndrome
ol weak, thin anaemic animals was com-
m n to all farmers. A serious drain on
pr duction was represented by the 33%
he ninth infestation and 76% coccidial
in' action . Diarrhoea was often found
ac ampanying the stress of weaning,
wt ch was generally at three to four


months of age and many kids were said
to die at this time. At two to three weeks
helminths and E. coli have been isolated
from the gastro-enteritis of neonatal kids
in all parishes."
Farmers, especially those who have a
substantial investment in goats, should.
discuss with a veterinarian Dr Oliveira's
suggestion that their disease-control pro-
gramme might include:-

1. Multivalent Clostridial Vaccine (in-
cluding tetanus)


Mutivalent Leptospira vaccine
Long-acting tetracycline
Vitamin E and Selenium.


Leptospirosis is a disease which can
infect domestic and farm animals as
well as humans chiefly through con-
tact with urine from infected animals
such as rats. It is water-borne and can
therefore be picked up when animals
drink contaminated water. Leptospirosis
causes any of a wide variety of disease
conditions including fever, abortion
and death. Very often animals survive
a chronic attack of the disease and con
tinue to pass infective organisms for


months and years after they recover.
Helminth is the name given to a group of
worm species that do serious damage
when they are present in large num-
bers in the stomach and intestines of
animals. They are easily controlled by a
number of drugs. Where many animals are
kept in a small space there is a greater
need to de-worm regularly.
Coccidia also invade the intestines of
animals and do severe damage. They are
too small for the naked eye to detect -
and in young animals (such as goat kids
under four months of age) a severe at-
tack of coccidiosis causes diarrhoea with
tar-like or bloody stool followed by
drying-out of the body fluids and often
by the death of the animal within a very
short time. Even when animals recover,
they may be unthrifty and late in develop-
ing. A persistent cough is one common
symptom of coccidiosis in young goats.
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is another tiny
organism that is a threat to young ani-
mals. New-born animals which do not
suckle the first milk or colostrum are in
particular danger if they swallow E. coli
bacteria. There is generally severe diarr-
hoea followed quickly by drying-out and
death of the young animal. A


CL rTING COSTS IN
RI :E PRODUCTION
(Cc it'd. from page 19)
Lat n America, costs per hectare are
US 700-US$800 but yields are high
rest Iting in costs per ton of US$110-
US: 140 (Table 1).

Small farms are highly economical
wht i compared to larger farms because
loar payments on machinery and opera-
ting expenditures on larger farms de-
crease profits. By turning to smaller opera-
tions growers could reduce production
costs and through the use of high-yeilding
varieties and application of the latest, ap-
propriate technologies, profit margins
would increase.
It is hoped that the information ob-
tained in this study will play an im-
portant role in the development of nation-
al plans for rice production and provide
information that will help policy makers
when considering future directions of re-
search and production. A

Reprinted from CIAT International
Caribbean Farming Februay 1987


Table 1. Summary of production costs and profitability of irrigated rice in various
Latin American countries.
Country Year of Total Cost Yield Production Cost Price of Paddy
Data USSha t/ha USS/t Rice USS/t

Argentina 84/85 691 3.5 198 112
Brazil
fiioGrande 84/85 925 4.7 196 175
Santa Catarina 83/84 567 .4.5 126 175
Chile 84/85 586 6.5 90 135
Colombia
Meta 83 1126 5.2 217 315
Meta 84 1137 5.9 192 255
Tolima 84 1456 6.7 217 255

Ecuador
Transplanted 83/84 747. -, 3.5 214 133
Direct seeded 84/85, 715. ;_4.0. 179 264

Mexico 84, 676 4.5. 150 208; .'

Panama 83.. 932. 5.5 169 242
Paraguay ...3/8 .469 .0 94' 156 .
Peru .. 83/4 702V.h ..0 1170 202
Domican Rebi 34 80 4.7. 140 .. 173
.U" .....5 .. 1.69 .. '-. :,-.
Venezuela 83/84 110. ,- ,32...
'Average .-',. ... 161 ,











Technical co-operation for


cassava development


Background
During the period 1980-1984, total
production of cassava declined from
25,500 tons in 1980 to 18,900 tons in
1983, rising slightly to 21,700 tons in
1984.
Average annual production of bitter
and sweet cassava over this 5-year period
was 12,800 tons and 8,900 tons respect-
ively. On the other hand, the average an-
nual import of corn during this period
was 191,300 tons with 202,500 tons being
imported in 1984 at a current cost of
US$17.07n'il!ion.
The Food Sufficiency Programme
introduced by the Prime Minister in Oct-
ober 1984 as the second phase of the
Agro-21 Programme (which was launch-
ed in 1983) is designed to reduce the
total national import bill by 10% through
the import substitution of six basic food
commodities: rice, milk, meat, fish, soya
beans and corn.
Cassava has been identified by the
Government of Jamaica as the crop
which, over a short time span of a few
years, can be developed to substitute for
most of the imported corn.
Two problems have been identified
that prevent such a development from oc-
curring. These are:

(a) The extreme shortage of planting
material of improved cultivars
identified by the IICA Cassava-
Peanut Project (1981-1984). This



i ? $ t .


shortage of planting material has a
direct negative effect on any pos-
sible extension of these improved
cultivars on farms.
(b) Because of littleorno extension
of improved cultivars on farms,
the majority of farmers still view
cassava as a crop of low producti-
vity (4-5 tons/acre). This has de-
terred farmers from cultivating
cassava. This concept needs to be
reversed in order that the cassava
needs to be reversed in order that
the cassava industry can develop
and achieve its potential.
Studies on the use of cassava as an
energy source for poultry showed that
85% of cassava meal plus 15% soyabean
meal in the feed ration approximates the
feed value of corn; if pellet feeds are
used, cassava can totally replace corn.
For broiler rations, up to 30% cassava
can be used. More recent studies have
shown that cassava can replace up to
80 100% of the corn in layer rations.
Research being conducted in pig feeds
has revealed that cassava can com-
pletely replace corn in the diet of finish-
ing pigs. Carcass quality of pigs fed with
cassava is as good as that of corn-fed
pigs. For younger pigs, a maximum re-
placement of 70% corn is recommend-
ed (Cassava Newsletter, Vol. 8, No. 2,
CIAT, 1984). Studies conducted in Jam-
aica by the Ministry of Agriculture have
revealed similar results.
Agriculture has been assigned a pri-
1 .w f ,


Cassava dryer using flue gases.


mary role in assisting to reduce the
foreign exchange required for the import-
ation of animal feeds, through a strategy
of substitution of cassava for imported
corn to farms.
However, where local production of
cassava is concerned, there is scope for
much improvement of the technology
applied on farms. Average national pro-
ductivity is of the order of 4-5 tons/
acre, and national production is insigni-
ficant vis-a-vis the volume of corn that is
imported. Not enough cassava is culti-
vated and what is cultivated is generally
very low yielding.
The Ministry of Agriculture is the
national institution concerned with the
multiplication of cassava planting matE -
ial for improved cultivars, and the e:-
tension of improved cultivars and oth r
improved technology.
Budgetary strictures have, during 19E i,
resulted in severe reduction in this acti i-
ty. National capability to resolve thf ;e
problems exists and an be applied to th ir
resolution if IICA technical assistance is
provided.
Between 1981 and 1984, IICA in as o-
ciation with the Ministry of Agriculti e,
conducted experiments under the Sin )n
Bolivar Fund Cassava-Peanut Proj :t.
These experiments consisted mainly of
cassava/peanut intercropping trials, ( is-
sava multiple cropping trials, ferti ty
studies, variety trials and peanut mo -o-
crop trials.
These were conducted at Elim, Goslh n,
Montpelier, and Thetford Seed Farrr in
the parishes of St. Elizabeth, St. Jan es,
and St. Catherine.

The Cassava-Peanut Project was ir 10-
vative. It identified local and introdu,:ed
cultivars which could be expected to i ro-
duce under rain-fed conditions minirr im
yields of 10-12 tons/acre.in sub-opti ial
but more than marginal lands, and wl ch
have the potential to produce yields of
more than 14 tons/acre under favour~ le
conditions. The cultivars identified wei -:
(i) For consumption as fresh roc ts:
M Col 22, CM 321-170, CM 51J-7

(ii) For animal feed:
CM 517-1, CM 342-170, CM 516-7
CM 323-403, CM 849-1, and
Smalling.
Caribbean Farming February 1987











More recently in verification trials on a
larger scale under rain-fed conditions at
the Midland Enterprises, Lydford, St.
Ann, where eight cultivars were tested,
the four cultivars listed performed as
follows:


Smalling (bitter)
CM 517-1 (sweet)
849-1 (bitter)
CM 516-7 (sweet)


17.54 tons/acre
17.24 tons/acre
15.20 tons/acre
14.2 tons/acre


Additionally, two national technicians
have already been trained at CIAT in
rapid multiplication techniques with
:assava. Both of them are available to
collaboratee in this project.
In late 1985, the Ministry of Agri-
ulture requested IICA's technical sup-
ort and assistance in developing and
d processing of cassava in Jamaica.
his technical cooperation activity will
I epare the way for a national Cassava
I oduction Project for which funding will
t sought.

.2 Scope of Work

The IICA Jamaica personnel involved
ir this project provide technical support
ar assistance to the Ministry of Agri-
ct ure for the execution of this project.

Pt iect objectives are to:

Produce planting materials of super-
ior cultivars for 300 acres by
December 1986.

Identify from among 4 outstanding
cultivars the best adapted ones for
St. Elizabeth, St Catherine, and
Manchester.

Obtain comprehensive data on the
economics of cassava production on
small farms (less than 4 acres) and
on medium-sized holdings (5-20
acres).

Sensitize feed manufacturers to the
use of dried cassava chips in blend-
ing livestock feeds.

Upgrade knowledge and skills of na-
tional personnel in cassava product-
ion and cassava planting material
multiplication.

Project execution involves:

The Ministry of Agriculture Re-
I'aribbean Farming February 1987


search Stations at Bodies and Grove
Place where the initial multipli-
cation of planting material will be
undertaken on 22 acres. (see map)

at Lydford Farm, St. Ann, 5 acres
of cassava planting material multi-
plication has been undertaken. Lyd-
ford Farm provides all land prepar-
ation inputs, security, and day-to-
day supervision on site. (see map).

- validation tests in St. Catherine,
Manchester Clarendon and St. Eli-
zabeth to identify which of the
four cultivars are best adapted to
rain-fed cultivations in these parish-
es.

- studies of the economics of cassava
production accomplished through
the execution of an economic
survey of cassava producing farms
in Jamaica.

- training of personnel in cassava pro-
duction and multiplication of plant-
ing materials through collaboration
with CIAT.


WINCOR

ALWAYS

ONE STI

AHEAD


P IS

-


If


- the development of a national pro-
ject for cassava production.


- collaborating institutions which are
the Ministry of Agriculture, the
Jamaica Livestock Association,
Feed Processors, Midland Enter-
prises, Jamaica Industrial Develop-
ment Corporation (Goshen Cassava
Factory), Caribbean Agricultural
Development Institute (CARDI),
and CIAT.

- sensitization of feed processors to
the use of dried cassava chips as an
ingredient in livestock feeds to be
initiated through the collaboration
of Lydford Farm and CARDI.
Lydford Farm already is producing
cassava and CARDI has a cassava
chipper. A

From information supplied by IICA.


EP *-- --,

Wincorp keeps in front of
the competition by providing the best in service,
quality and technology for animal feed ingredients,
feed mill management, nutritional and veterinary needs.


INGREDIENTS & ADDITIVES
Custom Formulated Vitamin and
Mineral Premixes
Amino Acids
Coccidiostats
Growth Promoters
Mold Inhibitors
Feed Grade Phosphates
Vitamin and Electrolytes Stress Packs


IWi nenrn West Indies
,P INutritional Corp. Ltd.
ANIMAL FEED INGREDIENTS
38-39 Caracas Avenue, Kingston Export Free Zone
P.O. Box 112, Kingston 15, Jamaica, W.I.
Tel: (809) 923-6880, (809) 923-6885.
CABLES: WINCORP TELEX: 2394 WINCORP.











Black Pepper how to grow it

(Part 2)


FIELD PLANTING

Well rooted, vigorous, healthy black
pepper plants should be set out in the
mounds in the fields at the start of the
rainy season or anytime they are ready if
irrigation is available. Usually two or
three plants per support are used, opposite
each other and close as possible to the
support. The potting container should be
carefully removed and the plant placed
in a hole at the top of the mound. It
should be covered around with soil which
is gently but firmly pressed down. Light
watering and mulching are beneficial.
VINE TRAINING
There are several methods of vine pru-
ning but the one now most commonly
used is as follows. As the new plant begins
to grow and branch, three vigorous bran-
ches are selected and tied firmly to the
support. The others are pruned off. By
the time these primary branches grow
to 8 or 9 nodes they are cut back to with-
in 3 or 4 nodes of the previous cut and
this is allowed through secondary, terti-
ary and others until the vine reaches the
desired height on the support. The
terminal buds are then removed periodic-
ally to prevent further vertical growth,
and leaves and side branches near the
ground are also removed.
As the vines grow and branch, they
should be carefully and firmly tied to the
support. The tie should be made around
a node so that the node is closely pressed
to the support or can send out clinger
roots Some vines may produce shoots
without branches and should be re-
moved.
During the first two years flowering
spikes should be removed to prevent pre-
mature fruiting, and selective leaf pluck-
ing done to encourage prolific side branch-
ing. By the third year the vine should be
developed into a uniform cylindrical
canopy of foliage. Fruiting should then
begin, and the productive life continued
for up to 20 years on live support.

SHADE REGULATION
The regulation of shade has two main
objectives

1. To maintain shade during hot dry
weather to keep the soil cool.
2. Letting in sunlight during cool
weather to encourage production
of flowers and fruits.


Regulation can be done by selecting which
will shed leaves during the cool weather
or by judicious pruning.

INTERCROPPING
Where black pepper is planted in new-
ly cleared sites the land can be used to
grow intercrops until they are shaded
out by the developing vine canopies.
Most short-time bush type crops and
even some with running vines can be
grown. The crops includes legumes, veget-
ables, condiments, grains and root crops,
probably including yam, pumpkin and
sweet potato.

MANURE AND FERTILIZER
Black pepper responds very well in
growth and production to organic fertil-
izer whether applied as well-rotted com-
.post or derived from decomposed mulch.
In many countries wood ash or burnt
earth is applied with good results -
obtained from the presence of potash,
the availability of other salts or the raising
of the pH value of the soil. As a general
rule compost and lime plus some inorganic
fertilizer always results in high produc-
tion. The fertilizer analysis and amount
should be determined by soil tests.

PRUNING OF VINES
Pruning of black pepper vines actually
starts during the training stage of the
plants when the growing tips are cut off.
However, vines which have reached their
productive stage are pruned only once per
year and this is done soon after harvest.
Old unproductive branches and some of
the crowding laterals are removed to pro-
vide good aeration to the remaining
branches and to minimise over-shading
between branches within a vine. Prun-
ing also induces the production of new
laterals thereby increasing the number of
potential fruiting branches. It also facili-
tates other farm operations such as spray-
ing and harvesting.
Approximately 27 pounds of white or
33 pounds of black pepper are produced
from 100 pounds of newly picked green
pepper. A healthy, well grown vine will
produce about 2/2 to 4 pounds of green
pepper in the third year, 9 to 20 pounds
annually in the 4th to 7th year increas-
ing with age, then 4 to 5 pounds annually
in 8th to 15th year decreasing with age.
Yield gradually lessens until the planta-
tion is abandoned or replanted.


PRUNING LIVE SHADE/SUPPORT
The growth of the shade trees should
be regulated to provide the black pepper
vine with sufficient sunlight. In the early
stages of vine development, denser shade
may be required. However, approximate-
ly 40% less shade is needed during the
productive phase Shading also depends on
the length of the rainy or dry season. In
areas with short dry season, pruning of
shade trees should be done during the on-
set of the wet season. This will allow the
shade trees to produce new shoots big
enough to provide the needed shade for
the vine during the dry season. The cut
materials can be used as mulch or ero-
sion control barriers in the field or re-
moved to use as animal feed etc.
DISEASE AND PESTS
Although a number of diseases an(
pests have been known around the work
to affect black pepper, few of these ari
recorded in Jamaica. The most oui
standing disease is -root-rot caused by i
fungus, Phytophthora palmivora. It he;
caused serious damage and even loss c
fields under poor drainage condition .
The disease is controlled by good cu -
tural practices and the application f
soil-active fungicides.
Other diseases are root-rots caused y
Corticium solani and Pythium splendor ,
collar rot caused by Sclerotium rolf ii
and anthracnose caused by Colletotrichu n
capsici. Nematodes of some important e
are root-knot nematodes Meloidogy, e
spp. and burrowing nematode Radophol is
similis.
No serious pest has been record d
on black pepper in Jamaica. Some su :h
as green scale insect Coccus viridis, f -e
ant Iridiomermys sp. and thrips Thrips J.
have been noticed occasionally.
In a few areas slugs Veronicella sp. c in
be damaging.

HARVESTING AND PREPARATION N
OF PEPPER
Although rooted and air layered wat,'r
sprouts of fruiting vines may bec ir
fruiting in a year, black pepper plar ts
should not be allowed to come into
commercial production below three years
of age. By this time they should be well
developed and accumulate sufficient
nutrients for good growth and heavy
bearing.
Caribbean Farming February 1987











It takes 5 to 6 months from emergence
of the flower spike to flowering and 4
months after flowering to ripe fruits.
The whole spike is ready for picking
when the following signs are observed:-
1. When a few peppercorns have turn-
ed red;
2. When the pepper-corns have brown-
ish cotyledons;
3. When the pepper-corns turn from
dark green to shiny yellowish green.

The vines are reaped once a week dur-
;ng the harvesting season. The harvested
pikes are taken to a shed for cleaning
nd processing.
Black pepper is prepared by drying the
Pepper corn attached to or removed from
ie spikes, in the sun for 3 to 4 days. A
better quality pepper is obtained by dip-
ng the green pepper corn in boiling
ater for 10 to 20 seconds. To ensure
tiform blanching they should be dip-
i twice. This helps to produce pepper
, ducts of uniform black colour and
i sten the drying process.
White pepper is prepared from cherry
r 3 pepper corns and those with hard


matured well-developed cotyledons. They
are crushed slightly, placed in sacks, and
soaked in clean running water until the
pulp is easily removed (5-7 days). Slight
rubbing and washing will now remove the
pulp and the seeds can be dried in the sun
or in dryers. Sun drying lasts for 3 to 5
days. A

REFERENCES

Purseglove, J.W. (1977). Tropical Crops Dicoty-
ledons; pp. 441-450.

Ward, J.F., (1960). Black Pepper. A Review of
Cultural Practices and Their Application to
Jamaica. 13 pp.

Anunciado, I.C., Black Pepper Piper Nigrum UP
at Los Banos College of Agriculture, Laguna.
20 cyclostyled pp.

Blacklock, J.S. (1954). A short Study of Pepper
Culture with Special Reference to Sarawak.
Tropical Agriculture Trinidad Vol. 31 pp.
40-56.

Martin, F.W. and Gregory, L.E. (1962). Mode
of Pollination and Factors Affecting Fruit
Set of Piper Nigrum L. in Puerto Rico. Crop
Science Vol. 5 295-299.


The Jamaica Agricultural Development Foundation


The Jamaica Agricultural Development Foundation promotes and
develops agriculture and agri-business to assist in improving the eco-
nomic and social well-being of the people of Jamaica.
The JADF provides:

Venture Capital, Loans and Equity
Grants for Research and Training.
Technical Assistance.
9 If you have a project In agriculture or
agri-business which you
believe is viable contact:



[Jamaica

| Agricultural Development

Foundation
'Working for the Future'
19 Dominica Dr., Kingston 5. Tel: (809) 92-98090-2.
arbbean Farming February 1987 27


__111


Old-time

Caribbean

farming








f- r; z



Cl"RiEZE-*


7__


cOrl-

P



























sib ns
qqos ibq-


For more information call:

II .,*
IBM World Trade Corporation
52-56 Knutsford Boulevard
Kingston 5, Jamaica
Telephone: 92-63170


iext step up from a PC
is big as you think.








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Enough to handle programs
written for both the
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And it's affordable
enough for a business of
any size.
t can be a standalone
computer for a small
company or corporate
a department, or part of a
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The only quarterly publication in the
Caribbean region that deals with
Tropical Agriculture

Rate- US$11 U.S.A, Latin America. Canbbean
US$15 All other countries

r -- -,-- m -- Wal
I
N am e ............... .............. ....... ................
| A address .............. ................. ....................

I
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L Mail to: Caribbean Farming
c/o Creative Communications Inc.
P.O. Box 105, Kingston 10, Jamaica, W.I.
Tel: (809) 92-74271


(iAcorporated in Delaware U.S.A. with Limited Liability)


SiCaribbeon

IFAMIWNG


.t~1otna3
uo'yI
:btnoaas


In,


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a












Research to help the farmer


For some years the Caribbean Agri-
cultural Research and Development In
st;ute (CARDI) has published FACT-
SHEET information on a number of
farming techniques which can help our
fari;ers produce more profitability and
wit lesshazard. Among the FACTSHEETS
thf have been reports on pasture im-
prc ement and livestock management
me- ods using improved grass species and
inti Jucing such legume varieties as
Clit, ia (Blue Pea), Glycine and Siratro as
crol which our livestock farmers should
give some careful attention. CARDI's
past e and forage work has been done
chief in Belize, Barbados and Antigua -
but February, 1986 Barton and Alice
Cla! and Gregory Robin produced a
pap recommending a CUT & CARRY
FEE NG SYSTEM for cattle farmers in
Dor ica. Photographs and drawings help
to r :e this FACTSHEET an attractive
and 3ful farming aid from the CARDI
tean
I n area with fairly high rainfall, a
half re forage plot planted to elephant
gras, vill provide enough cut fodder for
there :ows if some supplementary pro-
tein ed is given. Coconut meal, citrus
pull ;uttings of quickstick or river tama-
rind eucaena) all these are mentioned
as pi ible supplementary feeds in the cut
nd .rry programme. Cattle are confined
n in ividual pens 4 ft x 6 ft with an ex-
rcis area 20ft x 30 ft shared by three
inir Is. This FACTSHEET sets out eight
ooc reasons for the system; they include
ecui ty from theft and attack by dogs as
vell cs reduced risk of straying and injury.

Application to small livestock
In many parts of the Caribbean owners
f a few cows depend on a neck rope and
length of chain to confine their cattle -
oving each cow from one grazing spot
o another once or twice daily. This allows
he small herd to include open land and
oad banks as feed sources. Without a
oubt some farmers will develop forage
lots that take care of their animals' needs.
ne key component is, of course, how
ell the farmer is able to produce high
protein feedstuff in his/her fodder plot.
Most certainly, the farms which favour
rbbean Farming February 1987


These bio-digesters on a Barbados dairy farm produce methane cooking gas from cow dung.
These bio-digesters on a Barbados dairy farm produce methane cooking gas from cow dung.


the cut and carry system will be those
which produce some milk for sale during
most of the year.
It will be interesting to see how well
the system can be applied to sheep and
goats especially as the cost of fencing
pastures for the smaller animals is getting
entirely out of reach of the small farmer.
With imported milk becoming more cost-
ly, more country folk should be turning
away from canned milk and there seems
to be no reason why goats' milk will not
have an increasing share of the market.

Forage for pigs?
CARDI is not the only agency working
on improvement of forage for farm ani-
mals in this region. The International Cen-
tre of Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) has
also been making steady progress in im-
proving the production and management
of forage grasses and legumes. If grain
prices are driven upward by drought, de-
valuation or fuel price increase, these fo-
rage crops will become more important in'
the region's scheme of things. There will
be enterprising farmers testing their effects
on breeding sows to reduce the amount
of 'bag feed' needed to produce well-
grown, healthy weaners. At this point,
farmers will have to learn more and more
of the nutritionist's trade adding to the
basic forage rations the components need-
ed to put vitamins and minerals and some-
times medication into the animals' diet.
Large-scale commercial farmers are


pretty well tied to the feed mill as a source
of all or most of their livestock rations -
but on the small or medium-scale mixed
farm there is very often the opportunity
to use damaged, surplus or cull root and
fruit crops as part of the feed supply. It
is exactly in places like the island of
Dominica, where banana production is
now increasing by leaps and bounds, that
farmers can benefit from the increase in
reject and left-back fruit which will be
available from time to time. If farmers
take the trouble to learn something
about the balance of amino acids and
other nutrients needed in rations for their
livestock, they will be better able to make
profitable feed-mixing decisions. Whereas
in the seventies farming in the Caribbean
(and in many parts of the world) was a
matter of buying the best of everything,
farmers now have to concentrate on
producing at lowest cost per pound of
product sold.
Research and extension
Fortunately for the farmer, there is a
large and growing body of research by
agencies such as CARDI, CIAT and IICA
(the Inter-American Institute for Co-
operation on Agriculture: In the Windward
Islands, WINBAN Research helps the ba-
nana grower. The information from all
this research is free to farmers although
in many parts of the region farmers are
not as well organised as they should be
to receive and apply this valuable resource.














I '.
- .' g
d 'JY' 4,a~;d't

-, ,- Y'- q a :r


MF 7-- -



Modern

rice varieties

can outyield

the traditional

It is a mistaken impression that modern
rice varieties (MVs) do well only at high
levels of management. "They do much
better than traditional varieties, even with
low inputs in poorer farmers' fields," says
Dr. Gurdev S. Khush, International Rice
Research Institute principal plant breeder.
Modern rice cultivars have outyielded tra-
ditional rices without any fertilizer in
trials conducted by International Rice
Testing Program cooperating scientists in
many rice-pudding countries.
"The great advantage of the MVs is
that they can respond well to high input
levels; the traditional varieties cannot,"
Khush says. Many of the newer MVs com-
bine the yield potential of high yielding
varieties with the hardiness of traditional
rices to perform well under various stress
conditions. IR42, for instance, yields
more than other varieties in low fertility
and problem soils mild saline and alka-
line soils or acid-sulfate soils. It is also
known for its efficient utilization of ap-
plied nitrogen.
"IR42 is very popular in Vietnam,
where farmers grow it on more than
300,000 hectares," Khush says. IR42 is
grown on 1 million hectares in Indonesia
and 500,000 hectares in the Philippines.
Farmers in Burma, Kampuchea, and
Nigeria are adopting the variety exten-
sively. "IR42 is a good variety for subsis-
tence farmers because it yields well with
few external inputs," Khush says.
Most of the short duration varieties
(105-110 days from "seed to seed")
30


yield about the same as the medium dura-
tion varieties (135 day) but have higher
productivity per day. These early matur-
ing rices need less irrigation and fewer
man-hours than long duration varieties.
"With early seedling vigor, they com-
pete well with weeds and they encoun-
ter fewer pest and disease problems.
The short lifecycle allows them to escape
major pest and disease outbreaks as well
as drought," Khush says.


Built-in resistance to pests and diseases
is another advantage of the new cultivars.
"None of the old varieties possess a broad
range of resistance. At best, they may be
resistant to one or two local pests and
diseases," Khush says. Scientists have pul-
led out the desirable resistance genes
from many old varieties and recombined
them into single varieties with multiple
resistance. For instance, IR64, recently
released in the Philippines, is a descen-
dant of 20 original races from eight coun-
tries.
I R36, which covered 11 million ha and
was probably the world's most popular
rice variety in the early 1980s, has resist-
ance genes from 13 different parent vari-
eties from 6 nations the Philippines,
India, China, Indonesia, Vietnam, and the
US. On a global level, IR36's insect resist-
ance alone has saved farmers nearly $500
million per year in insecticide use. Adced
to this are the huge but unmeasurable .n-
direct benefits from avoiding the use of
chemical pesticides.


Royal Agricultural Show (U.K.)


The Uhited Kingdom's Royal Inter-
national Agricultural Show will be held at
the National Agricultural Centre, Ston-
leigh, Warwickshire from 6 to 9 July, 1987.
This- h as become probably the most
prestigious show of its kind in the world.
Over the years the international flavour
'of the show has drawn visitors from al-
most every country.
-^ .- *


The permanent showground at S on-
leigh has become a centre: of 'intere: to
farming people all through the year -
with demonstrations and displays on e, ery
sort of crop and livestock produce ion
theme. : ;
The showground has a fully equipped
International Pavilion as part of its de-
sign to attract overseas visitors.


Caribbean Farming February 19i


~~_~___ ~


- I




















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