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Title: Caribbean farming
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101460/00018
 Material Information
Title: Caribbean farming
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Mona, Jamaica
Publication Date: November 1986
Copyright Date: 1969
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101460
Volume ID: VID00018
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 3116219

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Advertising
        Page 4
        Page 4a
        Page 4b
    Editorial
        Page 5
    Main
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Back Cover
        Page 35
        Page 36
Full Text


NOVEMBER 1986


V: 1
.1 I
1.K


* JOHN DEERE Agricultural
RUBBER WHEELED TRACTORS Chemicals
Yamada Supplies SUBSIDIARY OF
BRUSH CUTTERS Suppl
Versatile Toft and / )
CANE REAPERS AND LOADERS. .
Sprayers. a LTD.
FREDERICK PARKER CRUSHERS & CEMENT 379 Spanish Town Road, Kingston 11
MIXERS Telephone: 92-39251.
Caribbean Chemicals & Services (Jamaica) Limited





































TOPFLIGHT HY-MARK


CANTALOUPE SHIPPERS

PICK PETOSEED


MAGNUM .45 is the big gun of western shippers.
Earliness, high yields and exceptional quality
have made it the dominant variety in Texas.
Growers in the southeast and California have
had similar success. MAGNUM .45's shipping
quality and outstanding flavor and aroma have
made it one of the most sought-after cantaloupes
in the country.

TOP SCORE has become the top choice for
growers in the southwest desert areas. This full
netted, sutureless hybrid produces early harvests
of large melons with high sugar content and
excellent quality. Another outstanding shipper,
TOP SCORE offers the taste and quality
consumers want.

TOPFLIGHT is another high quality western
shipper. Fine-netted with indistinct sutures,
it matures 5-7 days before Topmark. This is


a quality hybrid with a small, tight seed cavity
and sweet, salmon flesh. Yields have been
outstanding and shippers find it can go the
distances and arrive in good condition.

HY-MARK offers growers and shippers another
choice for a full net shipper. A medium-net hybrid
with no sutures, HY-MARK matures 5-7 days
earlier than Topmark. This cantaloupe offers
uniformity and quality that includes firm, salmon
flesh, a small seed cavity and excellent
shipping ability.


SP.O. Box 4206
Saticoy, CA 93004-0206 U.S.A.
(805)647-1188
PETOBEEDE Telex No. 65-9247


@1986 CAL GRAPHICS


MAGNUM .45


TOP SCORE















r.
C Jc~?


CONTENTS






GROWING FOR THE PROCESSOR. .............................................. 6
ANY FUTURE FOR CASSAVA?. ................................................8
JAMAICA'S FOOD TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE ......................................9
SUCCESS FACTORS IN AGRICULTURE............................................10
LIVESTOCK POISONING BY CHEMICAL PESTICIDES. ................................ .13
CHEESE-MAKING IN HILL COUNTRY............................................14
ST. LUCIA'S PIG FARMERS' CO-OP .............................................15
GROWING BLACK PEPPER ...................................................16
FARMING FRESH WATER PRAWNS PART II..................................... 20
COCOA PROCESSING..................... .................. ................. 24



















COVER PHOTO: Products of Caribbean Farms.



CARIBBEAN FARMING is published with financial assistance from The
Jamaica Agricultural Development Foundation, four times a year, by
Creative Communications Inc. Ltd., P.O. Box 105, Kingston 10, Jamaica.
Telephone: 92-74271. Telex: 2431 CARISHIP JA. Cable: CAROGAM JA.
MANGING EDITOR: Tony Gambrill, EDITOR: Carol Reckord,
EDITORIAL BOARD: Tony Gambrill, Carol Reckord, Lloyd Barnett,
Dr. Richard Jones, Joe Suah, Prof. Lawrence Wilson,
ART DIRECTOR: Douglas Wilson. ADVERTISING SALES: Eleanor Sutherland,
P.O. Box l 5,.Kingston 10, Jamaica. Tel: 92-74271, 92-76184.
PRINTERS: Glade Printing Service Ltd., Kingston, Jamaica.
SUBSCRIPTION: US$11 USA, Caribbean & Latin America;
US$15 All other countries, air mail for four issues.


Caribbean Farming, November 1986


I:)
C









Less for pests. More for people.
More for the farmer.
/

We're helping Mother Earth give you her best.



AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS DIVISION
Rockfort, Kingston 2
Tel: 92-87230-9, 92-87300-9


These and many other internationally
proven chemicals are provided
m by Shell to Jamaican farmers.


,I


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'\ P T-, **t

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In heavy duty vehicles and equipment:

OUR BRAND NAMES CARRY WEIGHT

Jamtrac is even older than independent Jamaica. For years...
we have been the distributors of leading name brands in Heavy
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Agricultural uses-
We supply the best names in the business and provide excellent
sales follow up a dependable spare parts supply and expert
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Tractors, Lift trucks, Earth-moving
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Telephone: 92-39251
Caribbean Farming, November 1986





















Caribbean

FARM
Creative Communications Inc. Ltd.
P.O. Box 105 Kingston 10, Jamaica
Telephone: (809) 92-74271, 92-76184
Telex: 2431 CARISHIP JA.
Cable: CAROGAM JA.

























Caribbean

FARMING
... a quarterly publication


The only publication of its kin
the English-speaking Caribbean
that's devoted exclusively to
tropical agriculture!


Subscription rates per year:- postpaid US$11 USA, Latin America, Carib. Islan
US$15 All other countries

Nam e......................................... ................... .............................................
Com pany ...................................................................................................
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Payment enclosed 0 Bill me ] Bill Company 0
Also send me the 1985/86 CARIBBEAN PORTS HANDBOOK postpaid US$36
and/or the next four issues of CARIBBEAN SHIPPING postpaid US$16 D



















During his years of helping farmers grow better coffee and
make more profit from the crop. Bobby Moss often went back
in memory to the Dry Harbour mountains of Jamaica's parish
of Saint Ann. That's where Bobby spent his boyhood and
he used to recall some practices which seem to have gone with
the passing years. He remembered, for instance, that farmers
;sed to grow three or four varieties of yam and store the
harvestedd tubers carefully so that there was always home-
c own "food kind" for the family whatever the time of year.
That was food security half-a-century ago when food
f- rage was done on small hill farms in a little room set away
tr m the other buildings and raised a foot or two off the
gr und as a precaution against rats and mice. Roots and tubers
w *e cleaned free of earth, dusted with wood ashes or lime and
st 'ed away from damp. As often as not, there was a wooden
b; rel which held its store of home-slaughtered pork, kept in
bi e. Overhead, ears of corn were hanging by the stripped-
bi < husk after they had been carefully dried in the sun and
at ie the kitchen fireplace. In many parts of the tropical
w id, wet sugar from cane grown on the farm and milled in
th village was also an item of the small farmers' food security
p jre.
1 the old days food security measures were redoubled when
tl e was a strong wind which blew down plantain and banana.
1 i the blowndown fruit was salvaged, peeled, grated and
d J to provide emergency rations. These were the years
v :i most of the population of these Caribbean countries
li j on small farm holdings or in country villages and food
s ed on the farm found its way into the towns and cities
t eed relatives and friends during times of hurricane or other
s5 Ss.
There are farming areas in the Caribbean where some or all
o the food security practices in our story are still known.
F wever, for the Region as a whole, local foods are steadily
c ;lining in importance. And, of course, storage of the food


we eat is done chiefly in tall concrete silos which stand next
to flour mills or in refrigerated store-rooms which hold eggs,
pork and poultry meat produced on imported grain. Located
close to the food-producing land mass of North America,
the countries of the Caribbean seem to regard themselves as
being totally and securely protected by this closeness from risk
of food shortage due to man-made or natural disaster.
Food storage is only one part of this story, While the Carib-
bean imports food staples such as cereal grains, meat, milk
solids, protein-rich peas and beans, our agricultural exports
may be considered essential to comfort but certainly not to
anyone's life. Our farmers have every reason to be insecure
in their market when the best that they can hope for is to
persuade people in the temperate country markets to drink
another cup of coffee or eat an extra banana. Looking at the
crops which are being touted for our new export initiative,
we find ornamentals and winter vegetables taking pride of
place over more "solid" coconuts and tree fruits.
It is one thing to recognize an uncomfortable situation,
another to know what to do about it. Many of our leaders
say that what is of greatest importance is to earn foreign
exchange with our export agriculture so that we can afford to
buy the imported staples. In this case, how do we come by
our food security? We do not fix the price of the food we
import nor of the farm produce we sell overseas.
Farmers' organizations in the Caribbean have not always
been principal parties in deciding how much of pork products,
eggs and milk (for example) these countries import. With the
increased pressure on the farming sector to produce for export,
the people and the land that feed our nations have to "make-
do" with insufficient new capital, roads, marketing facilities
and public attention.
Is anyone really interested in the food security of the Carib-
bean people?


ARNOLD OTTO MEYER

fto 4fa CudU and Gardon
mORIA Sraying Equipment

Agulturl Chmicals- aye r
Girden and Househol insecticides,
Pesticidks d Rodntickdds-
Veterinary Products

SS n t ort est, ington T o: -

Caribbean Farming, November 1986











Growing for the processor


Farmers' Option

When faced with the prospects of ex-
cess production and no markets, farmers
are told to take their produce to the pro-
cessors. Why accept lower prices, which
may be below the cost of production, so
that the processors have cheap raw mate-
rials?
Increasingly, farmers and processors
are linked together to take advantage of
increased markets for processed foods.
Yet price competitiveness forces the pro-
cessors to keep costs down. Processors are
required to wash or otherwise prepare
















and store the food, pay for the pro-
cessing and packaging of the commodity,
and sell it on the open market. Both sides
have an important role to play. If the
farmer insists on controlling a greater
share of the gross returns he has options.
He can process the fruit in a plant as part
of the farm operation.
Most tropical fruits can be marketed
fresh. Fresh fruits are often preferred by
consumers due to flavour, colour, appear-
ance and enzymatic superiority over pro-
cessed foods. Fresh fruits contain only
their natural sugars no additives. What
you see is what you get. This does, how-
ever, lead to discriminating consumers
discarding blemished fruit.
"Pick your own" operations, where
the consumer actually goes into the field,
is the epitome of direct fresh food mar-
keting. These are among the most profit-
able farming enterprises, but are suitable
for only a small percentage of farmers.
However, fresh fruit generally fetches
better prices than selling for processing.
Channelling fruit into processing schemes
is an alternative to fresh fruit sales in a
glutted market.
Processed fruit, while it is generally
required to be in good condition, is not
6


required to be blemish free. Seconds can
be utilized. Processing is value-added pro-
duct that must, in the end, be roughly
associated with fresh fruit prices. Accord-
ingly, the price is often lower than that
found for fresh fruit.
Processing extends the shelf life and
acceptance through change in form.
Citrus, West Indian cherry, passion fruit,
othahiete apple, guava, cashew, soursop
and tamarind are primarily processed be-
fore consumption, with citrus being the
leading tropical juice. This reflects our
modern world of convenience in food
preparation; the consumer often prefers
a consistent, processed product.
The consumer may prefer processed
foods due to the form, predictability, con-
venience, storage life, or added flavour of
products. Every can of orange juice is
going to taste like every other and is easier
to prepare than squeezing oranges. Special
mixes of fruit grown in different parts of
the world may be blended, such as straw-
berry-banana nectar. Spices may be added
to enhance mild flavours. The good nutri-
tion of fruit juices are alternatives to arti-
fically flavoured and sweetened drinks.
Processed juices are available for every
day consumption. Consumers don't want
to be told "it's not in season," they want
it now.


V


The marketers may prefer processed
fruits due to less critical timing to mar-
ket, added shelf life, ease of combining
into other products, known standards of
cleanliness, sugars, acidity and quality,
and the possibility of stock-piling for
greater reliability of supply. Additionally,
the economics of combining expensive
fruits with inexpensive fruits gives greater
access to diversified markets. New pro-
ducts may be created to meet or create


market demand, once the raw materials
are available.
The farmers may appreciate the full
marketing of their crops, with relaxed
grading standards including size, colour,
shape and condition of fruit peel. Farm-
ers can grow special processing varieties
bred and selected for uniform ripening,
mechanical harvesting, and/or superior
processing characteristics. Additionally,
farmers may grow fruits with poor fresh
market options, such as the West Indian
cherry or otahiete apple.
Processing Methods
Dehydration involves rapid movement
of dry air over fruit. Moist fruits require
thinner sections; dehydration time varies
among fruits.


Dried fruits may last for years w
good properties as concentrated foo.
They take up less storage space and
quite no refrigeration and are attract 3
when eating or selling. Popular dried tro
cal fruits include mango, pineapple, pal -
ya and carambola, although others ,
possible. Farmers can set up small ur s
on their farms and grow dry, packa ,
and sell a processed product from 1 J
farm. Variety is important when sell ]
fresh fruit and certain varieties of man( ,
pineapple, and papaya are preferred i r
canning or freezing; dried fruit is n t
variety sensitive or fruit specific.
Air drying is perhaps the easiest ar i
oldest method of preserving. In mar;/
cases, fruits can simply be sliced into th:i
layers and left to dry under cover.
Solar drying is popular, easy and in-
expensive. Plans for solar driers are avail-
able from the USDA and the French
Technical Mission. French units are cur-
rently in operation in Barbados. The units
can dry about 4 kg fruit per square meter
of rack space in about 2 hours. They can
Continued on next page


Caribbean Farming, November 1986














Commercial Develo
the above publication
Sapodilla", available fo

A brief overview
more abstracts, over
(16) years, are compile
leading international
of tropical agriculture
cessing.

Sources consulted ir
Royal Tropical Insti
Trn 'ical Agriculture,
Fo, 1 Information Ser
ano Technology Abstra


Publication announcement


Abstracts on Sapodilla

pment Division has Food and Agricultural Organization's This publicati
in "Abstracts on AGRIS, United States National Agricul- December 1986.
r sale at $50.00. tural Library's AGRICOLA and the Com-
monwealth Agricultural Bureau's CAB. Direct enquiri
and sixty (60) or Topics i TECHNICAL IN
the last sixteen COMMERCIAL D
id from the world's Cultural practices, cultivars, pests and CARIBBEAN IN
abstract journals diseases, growth regulators, storage and INSTITUTE
re and food pro- ripening conditions and processing cha- c/o TUNAPUNA
racteristics. TUNAPUNA
The publication is aimed at agri- TRINIDAD.
nclude:- cultural researchers, students and exten- TEL. NOS.: (809
itute's Abstracts on sion workers, agronomists, librarians, (809
the International fruit-crop farmers, agricultural develop- (809
vice's Food Science ment banks and entrepreneurs interested
cts, United Nations in fruit crop production.


on will be available from


es to:
FORMATION SERVICE
DEVELOPMENT DIVISION
DUSTRIAL RESEARCH

POST OFFICE


) 663-4161/2
) 663-4179
) 663-4180.


G:. wing for the processor
be operated using natural convection or
for d air convection.
4 ray drying is adapted to large scale,
cor luous-feed operations. The fruit is
pul d, spread into thin layers and fed
inte :onveyor system taking the fruit to
heo J rotating drums. The resulting pow-
der oncentrates the solid parts of the
fru and is preserved against loss that
ma ;oon be caused by decay organisms.
Spi drying has been used to produce
We Indian cherry powder for intro-
dul on into vitamin C tablets and
ca ]les.
FI re drying is beyond the capabilities
o -y small producer as the plant is very
e, nsive and requires huge volumes of
p auction to be economically viable.
T: resulting product is highly desirable,
'w better flavour and keeping qualities
ti n spray dried product.
J ,i and jellies have been popular ways to
er oy fruit for a large percentage of the
po pulation. While farm processing
h.s been acceptable for the market in the
past, present standards usually require
greater sophistication in preparation.
Also jams and jellies are high volume pro-
ducts requiring a good marketing organi-
zation. It is unlikely that major inroads
can be made selling jams and jellies unless
close ties exist with marketers. However,
there is always the possibility of market-
ing an exclusive brand of unusual fruit,
a trendy mixture or an especially at-
tractive presentation for specialty mar-
kets.
For this, small scale production plants
are available from more developed coun-
tries where small scale has become un-


profitable. US-based Alard Equipment
Company buys and sells processing equip-
ment that may be useful to the Carib-
bean entrepreneur.
Pulped and pureed fruit are typically
found in the commercial market place.
The equipment needed is not usually
available on the farm. However, it is not
prohibitively expensive for mango, ban-
ana, cherry, soursop, guava and passion-
fruit. It is possible to use a paddle pulper
to process the fruits. Once these fruits are
pulped they must be preserved by drying,
canning, pasteurizing, or freezing. These
are usually concentrated, but may be
single strength, which obviates the need
for expensive concentration equipment.
The puree is particularly useful in allow-
ing mixing with water or other fruits to
make blended drink products. Many of
the fruit nectars presently on the market,
such as mango, papaya, guava, and sour-
sop, are made from the fruit puree. These
nectars contain particulate matter, pre-
sently esteemed by large numbers of con-
sumers. The purees are almost always sold
in frozen form, requiring that the growers
have access to freezing equipment.
Presses to express a clear juice are avail-
able in a wide range of sizes and capa-
city. The juice can be frozen and put into
bulk drums or small retail packages for
direct distribution to retail outlets. Filters,
clarifying agents, stabilizers, and other
additives must be managed properly; ex-
pertise in processing is necessary for good
results in juicing. Commercial juice is often
concentrated and frozen or canned as
single strength.
Using the West Indian cherry, it is
possible to follow the options for fruit


Caribbean Farming, November 1986


uses. The fresh fruits may be used for
local marketing. They can be processed
immediately or frozen until quantities are
reached for larger scale processing. The
cherries are so perishable they should be
frozen within 12 hours after harvesting.
Paddle pulpers may be used to grind
the cherries into a pulp, with the seeds
being ejected. Yield is between 60% and
75% of the fresh weight. The pulp is
cloudy and full of particulate matter suit-
able for jams, jellies or addition into pre-
pared foods such as baby foods. European
processors like Barbados cherries as a
baby food amendment. Powder can be
made by spray drying or freeze drying.
Fruits may be pressed using standard
rack and cloth presses or improved
continuous feed presses. These and
new bladder presses result in a clear juice
suitable for consumption or mixing with
other juices. The juices, depending upon
concentration, can be mixed, pasteurized,
canned, or frozen. Colour may be added,
spices for flavour, sweeteners to correct
sugar/acid balance, pH regulated, vita-
min C analyzed, and colour stabilized.
All are techniques to insure that set
standards are maintained, creating con-
fidence in the product and expectations
of reliability.
Processors depend upon farmers for
their raw materials. Farmers often depend
on processors for full marketing of their
crops. Both are specialized businesses,
inter-related in providing food. When the
farmers does not like the offer from the
processor, as the raw material producer,
it is his option to do his own processing.
He would have at least one advantage; not
having to face an angry farmer.
By Stan Michelini
7



























A few enthusiastic people are working
against odds to persuade farmers and con-
sumers in the Caribbean that cassava is a
crop worthy of promotion as an income-
earner for the farmers and a tasty, nour-
ishing food for the householder and
family. All through the Region the crop is
well-known. When drought strikes some
island or some district, cassava comes into
its own until it rains again, when this
Cinderella crop is left to fight weeds and
poor soils and some insects and diseases.
Most cassava fields are small and are
given the poorest, stoniest part of the
farm. Traditionally, there is not enough
selection of types for planting and
yields overall have been low. Very few
farmers would spare a few ounces of
chemical fertilizer on cassava plants -
and marketing of the crop has had little
serious study.
Probably the chief reason for the low
esteem for cassava is that the harvested
crop loses condition within a few days if
cut ends of tubers are exposed. In many
places another reason is that bitter and
sweet types of cassava are not easily told
one from the other. In a few Spanish-
speaking countries of the Region, cassava
(yuca) is a country family's staple food
and a popular snack shop item. In many
islands cassava farine (meal) is standard
market item and in some places cassava
wafers and bread are regularly available.
With all this, cassava has not been a cheap
food compared with standard competi-
tors such as sweet potatoes and wheat
flour. The crop is seldom produced with
any but hand labour and the processed
meal, bread or wafers are also produced
by hand labour.
Research and Development
For some years now research organi-
sations such as CIAT the International
Centre of Tropical Agriculture and
11ICA the Inter-American Institute for
Co-operation on Agriculture have been
8


collaborating with national governments
to conduct programmes on cassava. Re-
search work has brought high-yielding
varieties to attention. Disease resistance,
pest control, tuber quality and storage
possibilities all have been investigated,
discussed and recorded.
It is now known that harvested tubers
which are washed and dipped in a solu-
tion of fungicide such as thiabendazole
will keep for weeks in good condition if
enclosed in plastic bags.
For more sophisticated customers, peel-
ed cassava tubers keep well in frozen
storage. In countries where currency
.devaluation has caused substantial in-
crease in the price of wheat flour, cassava
bread and wafers stand a good chance on
the market if attention is paid to quality,
packaging and reliability of supply.
Certainly a high point of the work on
cassava is the identification of promising
local varieties and the breeding work
carried out by CIAT in Colombia and
neighboring countries. Largely as a
result of information on this work, local
effort such as that in Barbados and
Jamaica has given extension workers
something to tell farmers about.
Workshop in Jamaica
Planting Material from CIAT has been
distributed all over the tropical world -
and has been joined by planting material
from Africa and elsewhere to make up an
impressive genetic pool. At a recent work-
shop session in Jamaica, the Government
Ministry of Agriculture in collaboration
with IICA field staff took their guests on
a tour of cassava trial plots and com-
mercial plantings providing at the same
time information on aspects of produc-
tion, pest control, commercial prospects
and crop economics. The meeting was
told of yields of 20 tons/acre from well-
cared, fertilised plantings of a number of
tho CIAT varieties.


Any future




for Cassava ?


Caribbean Farming, November 1986


Dr. R.J. Baker of the Jamaica Mini-
stry of Agriculture told the workshop
group about the importance of potassium
in cassava fertilisation, Nitrogen being
also needed in the.early growth stages and
phosphate less critical.
In cassava production, said Dr. Baker,
Potassium is necessary for:-
(i) Carbohydrate synthesis and
translocation
(ii) Increased yield and dry matter
content
(iii) Good quality and lowering of
the (toxic) HCN content of
tubers.
(iv) Influencing the reduction of sev-
erity of spider mite damage and
increasing resistance to bacterial
blight and anthracnose.
Mr. David Ellis, also of the Jamaica
Ministry of Agriculture, told the work-
shop that the insects and mites recorded
on cassava in Jamaica are:
cassava hornworm
cassava budworm
red spidermite
green spidermite
but that the crop is also attacked by eaf
hoppers, mealy bugs, cut worms, eaf
miners, scale insects, lace wing bugs,, igs
and rats. Mr. Ellis' paper gave some de-
tals on a number of the pests he r en-
tioned.
Of all the ways of using cas, va,
the two that'offer hope of increE ing
the size of the market are (a) the ad ng
of some small percentage of cassava f ur
to the commercial wheat loaf and (b Js-
ing cassava as a substitute for the i rn
(maize) or sorghum now mixed to
rations for pigs and poultry. The sec id
alternative brings us right up against ie
price of corn and sorghum on the we Id
market, which is at present oversupp ad
with feed grains. Until cassava product )n
can be mechanised thereby reduce ig
the farm gate price per ton the Reg )n
will be well advised to think of a cassa a-
supplemented loaf as one end product Af
Caribbean agro-industry in the futu e.
The workshop group in Jamaica-was sr
sured that the the equipment for pao-
ducing this type of cassava meal is in
place and that the addition of this meal
to the standard wheat loaf will at
cassava prices that farmers are willing
to accept add very few cents to the
price of a loaf. It appears, however, that
the bakers industry is not willing to make
the change and that force of habit is
the chief reason for keeping some thou-
sands of acres of Caribbean acres in a state
of idleness.









amaica's Food Technology Institute

elps local farn l o


In many countries of the Caribbean
the foods processing industry has grown
from small family plants making guava
jelly and orange marmalade. Some of
these plants grew by merger or take-
over; others disappeared leaving some
equipment and one or two experien-
ced people to try again. In Jamaica of
the nineteen-fifties, Government soon
recognised that there was some help
that it could offer to this industry.
S,. the Ministry of Trade set up a Pro-
ce.sed Foods Division in 1954; the
D vision had a Food Inspectorate, a
IV robiology Laboratory and an Experi-
nr ital Kitchen. The Division's job was
to promote the Island's food industry by
ne product development, making use of
lot crops and giving assistance to food
pr. essors.
the course of time part of the Pro-
ces J Foods Division evolved into the
Fo Technology Institute, which is now
att bed to the Scientific Research Coun-
cil. he Institute still is in the business of
giv ; technical assistance to the food
prc ssing industry. Its technical staff
are 3cognised as specialists in establish-
ing :heduled processes for low acid and
aci, ied foods.
Pilot Plant
)r people with modest means who
h; an idea that may have commercial
pt abilities, the Institute is particularly
v ible. For an affordable price, for-
n itions are available so are product
d, lopment services. Usingthe Institute's
pi : plant the would-be investor can
bi g a product to the stage where it
c; be test-marketed all without
g( ing into debt to buy expensive
m -hinery or take on highly-paid techni-
ca staff.
The pilot plant includes equipment for
a fairly wide range of processing opera-
tions canning, sausage making, jam
ard jelly bottling, drying and salting fish
and meats are among the most .often
used. Associated with the pilot plant are
facilities for determining the acidity,
solids in solution andviscosity of materials
being processed.
Training
The Food Technology Institute has
played a useful part in training groups
and individuals for the food processing
industry on a cottage or factory scale.
When Caribbean Farming visited, the


institure was answering telephone ana
mail enquiries about a course in yoghurt
making that had been advertised to begin
shortly. This was one of a series of work-
shops, lecture-demonstrations and semi-
nars that are a regular feature of the In-:
stitute's work. The service extends to
helping students who, as part of their
school work, need to know something
about the fogd processing business or its
technology.
Supply situation
While the Institute is most willing to
work at developing new formulations of


iRINFRUI 2.
CIIRUS PUtP 3
aIM -of -9 0 4.

S5.


U


all sorts T animal ana vegetaDie products,
its workers have to keep an anxious eye
open for the adequacy of supply. For
tree crop products, for example, plant-
ings have to be established and main-
tained for many years before crops
are available for processing. In the case
of fruit such as Seville orange, soursop,
breadfruit, very few trees have been plant-
ed on any scale. This immediately limits
the interest that processors will take
in these crops. Quite clearly, price is not
the only subject that the farmer and the
food industry need to discuss.


Caribbeen Farming, November 1986


It's a high quality
concentrated carbohydrate
feed with low fibre content.
It's palatable and highly
nutritious.
It contains natural minerals
essential to milk production
and animal growth.
It has a very high TDN
(Total Digestible Nutrients).
This means little waste when
eaten.
It's mildly laxitive ensuring
a healthier herd.
It imparts no unnatural
flavour to milk.
It gives a sleek finish to
your steer or ox.
And it costs only 154 per Ib I


TRINFRUIT


CITRUS

PULP


Co-operative Citrus Growers' Association of
Trinidad & Tobago Limited
Post Office Box 174. Port of Spain. Trinidad. West Indies.
Telephones: 62-34378 / 32255 / 34195
Telex: 22575 CITRUS WG.









































JIM- success factors in Agriculture


The Jamaican Institute of Management
(JIM) is an independent, non-profit, non-
political membership organization, estab-
lished in 1967 by a group of businessmen
to promote professional management and
raise the standard of management in Jam-
aica.

JIM regularly conducts management
training courses -- and its Management
Studies Diploma has received inter-
national recognition. JIM also sponsors
Top Management Discussions in areas of
topical interest, the most recent being in
CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS IN


In approaching the subject we had an
option: to add to current debate on, and
further dissect certain recently termin-
ated projects (about which we have no
hard information), or to be more con-
structive and analyse certain other suc-
cessful projects and draw conclusions
therefrom. We have opted for the latter.
We first would like to discuss the suc-
cessful growth of milk production at
Alcan Jamaica Company.
That company bought a dairy farm
in the late 1940's or early 1950's and con-
tinued it as such. Production was poor,
technology inappropriate, industrial re-
lations were unsatisfactory, and access to
market was poor. The project was closed
and the farm diverted to beef production.
10


MANAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL
ENTERPRISES. One of the papers was
by Dr. K.B. Davidson and Dr. K.L.
Roache and described two enterprises
which are surely among the most success-
ful in the Region.
Dr. Davidson is Chairman of Agro
Grace Ltd and was formerly in charge of
the agricultural operations of Alcan in
Jamaica. Dr. Roache is Managing Director
of the Jamaica Agricultural Development
Foundation. The text of the paper is
given with the kind permission of the
authors and the Executive Director of
JIM, Dr. Patrick Bennett.


In 1965, that same farm was rededi-
cated to milk production. In 1967 two
milking parlours capable of accommo-
dating a total of 200-220 cows in milk
were constructed and equipped and pas-
tures were planted. Calf mortality was in
the order of 20% per annum, services per
conception were approximately 3. Milk
production per cow per day was some 12 lb.
- 14 Ib. and total number of cows in milk
was approximately 60. There was signi-
ficant capital budget over-run and Alcan
came very close to closing the project,
but persevered.
Seven years later, in 1974, Alcan built
one more dairy, another in 1975, and has
continued so that in 1984 there were
a total of 8 farms with a total capacity of


875 cows in milk. Calving interval 'as
approximately 13 months, mortality -e-
duced to under 10% and decreasing, i Ik
production was 25.8 Ib./cow/. :y.
Growth rates for heifers and milk o-
duction for cows compared well k th
published data for Jerseys on the be er
Canadian farms. The dairies were all t ilt
within budgeted dollars and time anc )n
a cost per quart basis were among le
least cost farms in Jamaica.
What caused this turnaround?
1. Planning
The first two farms were built )o
soon one after the other and w 1-
out taking into account the a\ il-
ability of cattle. Thus capital : Id
been invested with no real hope )f
throughput

In subsequent developments, he-d-
projections were made start ig
from the then number of breeding
cows, using the then birth, mortal-
ity data and age at breeding and cal-
ving and so availability of cattle to
utilize the capital was known. When
there was an anticipated shortfall
firm arrangements were made in ex-
cess of 2 years in advance to buy
heifers from other farmers. Further
shortfalls were made good by the
planned mating of Jamaica Red Poll


Caribbean Farming, November 1986









dual purpose cows to bulls of
dairy breeds.

2. Adapative investigation and research
to develop appropriate technology
and/or to overcome current pro-
blems.
New systems of calf feeding were
developed, field trials into several
anthelmintics and parasite control
programmes including pasture
management were undertaken,
bacterial load of drinking water
was established.
Systems of ensiling various fodder
crops were investigated, and of
producing 'hot-house' veal.
Response of cows to various levels
of concentrate intake was observ-
ed to develop the most cost ef-
fective level, and the response of
pastures to levels and grades of
fertilizer was also studied. Herbi-
cides were compared one with the
other.
In sum a learning curve was estab-
lished such that in constant dollars
whenever production increased by
100% there was a 19.6% decrease
in cost.
3. capital Funding:
The 1966-67 dairy project was
funded by Alcan, and the Agri-
cultural Division was very much
under the spotlight. Up to that
time the division had depended
upon the company to meet capital
outlays and cover recurrent losses.

4 he 1974 onward project was finan-
ed largely from profits within the
agricultural Divisions: little parent
companyy debt was involved.

Several mistakes are made in capital
Funding for agricultural projects in
Jamaica.

(a) Hard currency debt, absorbing
the foreign exchange risk, when
one is not dealing with an export-
able commodity.

(b) High debt/equity ratios with con-
sequential high fixed charge cover.

(c) Agriculture, general speaking,
does not spin off large cash sur-
pluses especially in the early
periods. Every project planner
should accept the fact that even
the most experienced and resource-
ful manager from one part of Jam-
aica, is going to take a year or two
to match his own performance

Caribbean Farming, November 1986


were he to move to another area
with different slopes, soils, rain-
fall patterns.

Conservative funding policies and
revenue streams are indicated.
4. People and Training.
Jamaica does not have a significant
pool of developed talent: we have
an impressive pool of untrained but
easily trainable people who require
not just training but motivation
reward for work done, job enrich-
ment and advancement.

This was the single most significant
contributory factor to the Alcan
success.
In 1967, reconstituted milk replacer
was measured by the quart bottle
and milk powder by the cup. I soon
learned that a quart bottle was any-
thing from 10-oz. to 40-oz., and the
cup measure was anything cup-
shaped.
Heat detection was a bull's job, and
in fact after artificial insemination
on more than one occasion the cow
was naturally mated artificial
insemination being 'unnatural'.

Training by supervision and manage-
ment showing workers in the dairy
how to prepare cows for milking
and to milk cows was the starting
point. This lead to audio-visual pre-
sentations on the same subject, on
heat detection and on mastitis, its
prevention and management.

Formal and informal training was
offered in Jamaica and overseas
over time in:


1. The physiology of milk pro-
duction.
2. The physiology of milk re-
production
3. Artificial insemination
4. Collection, handling and storage
of semen
5. Installation, maintenance and re-
pair of milking and cooling
equipment

6. Veterinary first aid
7. Remedial English

8. Supervision, communication,
work planning
9. Budgeting

10. Maintenance and operation of
farm equipment.
12. Welding.

Some personnel obtained '0' Level
equivalences, others did correspondence
courses in Agriculture and yet others ob-
tained degrees in Agricultural business,
Animal Science, Agricultural Engineering
and Vet Medicine, and Business.

Alcan (I know) continues to take great
pride in the fact that casual labourers of
the 1970's now can recharge refrigeration
compressors with freon, do Al, do preg-
nancy tests, treat sick animals, weld, pre-
pare budgets, manage farms, drive trac-
tors, train others, and still go into the
dairy and by example show others how
cows are to be milked.
Alcan also takes pride in the fact that
junior supervisory personnel from the
College of Agriculture have moved up the
promotional ladder on the basis of per-
Continued on page 22
11



























TAKE TWO
TODAY
SDESNOES& GEDDES LIMITED
214 SPANISH TOWN ROAD, KINGSTON 11
TEL: 92-39291-9
12
Caribbean Farming, November 1986











Livestock poisoning by chemical pesticides
By George H. Grant, D.V.M., D.H.M.


Poisoning of domestic animals by
toxic stances has been a problem since
earliest L s in most parts of the world.
There continues to be a significant in-
crease in the incidence of poisoning which
could be attributed mainly to the trem-
dous increase in the number and variety
of animal biologics and new chemicals
being placed on the market. This is in
addition to a parallel increase in the num-
ber of people who get their hands upon
These substances thus increasing the risk
of their misuse. Many people who handle
these chemicals do not realise that they
, dangerous even to the larger animals
a to humans. In Jamaica, as in many
o ier countries, misuse of chemicals has
r, ched alarming levels. Because in-
st ices of poisoning in domestic animals
ar not generally considered as legally
re )rtable it is difficult to arrive at the
ac al number of cases. This would ex-
pl 1 the low level of public awareness
of iis ever-increasing and real danger.

Mi HODS OF EXPOSURE

is probably true to say that in some
wa domestic animals are somewhat
mc( exposed to the undesirable effects
of iese substances than say either man
or boratory animals. This is due to seve-
ra' actors such as the free-roaming habits
of ,me, their tendency to forage and to
fe from the ground whereby they
ir 't considerable quantities of toxic
si tances. This is in addition to their
e: access to waste such as garbage heaps
ir whichh are carelessly disposed the dis-
c; ied and undesirable portion of human
ft ds. Then animal feeds are seldom
w hed and bulk feed frequently chop-
p and milled with machinery con-
tl >uting metallic dust and fines which
c ,i be toxic. That is, many instances of
poisoning have been largely the result of
c-ntamination of feeds, food stuffs and
water sources. There is also the added
problem of the motility of toxic sub-
stances from one place to another by
seepage and like phenomena thereby be-
coming an important environmental
pollution of increasing magnitude. It is
probable true to say that domestic ani-
mals are usually the innocent victims of
man's carelessness and his inability to
manage poisoning substances and toxic
wastes carefully and efficiently.

Chemical intoxications in most in-
stances are due to over exposure to a
number of compounds in use as agricul-


tural and industrial chemicals. Exposure
may take many forms but oral ingestion,
dipping, spraying and dusting are the
major ones. Attempts by unscrupulous
individuals to inject chemicals into ani-
mals such as dogs and horses have led to
severe intoxication. Many instances of
poisoning as mentioned above have also
been largely the results of contamination
of feed, food stuffs and water sources
either accidentally or maliciously. Medi-
cated feeds as well as some legally inject-
able drugs can also be sources of intoxi-
cation.
It is essential to emphasize that ab-
sorption of these substances occur ir ani-
mals as they do in humans and that each
exposure no matter how brief or small
results in some of these compounds being
absorbed or perhaps stored. That is, re-
peated short exposures may eventually re-
sult into intoxication. Therefore, every
precaution should be taken tominimize
exposures of pets to these toxic sub-
stances.

TYPES OF POISONOUS SUBSTANCES
These substances fall into several
groups. Well known among the herbi-
cides are the Dinitro, Ammonium, Chlo-
rate and Pentachloro compounds while
Organophosphates such as parathion,
malathion and diazinon are commonly
used pesticides. There is a large group of
poisonous substances referred to as
rodenticides such as red squill, warfarin,
Pindone and thallium which have been
used for the extermination of rats and
other rodents and which have been
known to be among the most common
causes of poisoning in domestic animals.
In addition, there are many other groups
such as the heavy metals with lead and
copper as examples and the so-called
"controlled substances" such as nar-
cotics, stimulants and depressants with
high potential for intoxication. Finally,
animal feeds containing medication whet-
her for growth stimulation or for thera-
peutic purposes must be considered as_
both feeds and drug and constitute an
important source of intoxication. Like-
wise, many of the industrial chemicals
in use for household purposes must be
considered potential poisons for man and
animals alike.

SIGNS OF POISONING
The signs of poisoning may be sud-
den and the course rapid with poisoned
animals dying within a very short period


of time. Some of the more common clini-
cal signs observed in poisoned animals are
vomitting, excessive salivation, abdomi-
nal pain, hemorrhage, convulvsion, weak-
ness, posterior or generalized paralysis
and respiratory crises. Again, visible
signs of poisoning may be delayed for
weeks following initial ingestion or phy-
sical contact.

DIAGNOSIS

Generally speaking, the diagnosis of
poisoning is difficult and definitive diag-
noses in most instances must be based on
a combination of history signs post-
mortem findings and chemical analyses
of tissues. Again, treatment of poison-
ing is at best difficult since no effective
treatment or antidote is known for many
of these contrary to popular belief. Al-
though there may be specific antidotes
for a few there is really no universal anti-
dote as such. In many instances poison-
ed pets may hide or stray and are only
found when dead. For a majority of cases
the prognosis may be considered poor.
In summary, the control and pre-
vention of poisoning in domestic ani-
mals continue to be a problem. The great
majority of these cases are probably dir-
ectly related to the improper distribution
and use of chemical substances. Very few
losses occur when chemicals are used pro-
perly. Therefore, efforts will have to be
made to prevent ingestion and physical
contact with these poisonous substances.
As a general rule in no event should the
amount used be greater than that speci-
fically recommended by the manufac-
turers and with maximum precaution
being taken to prevent contamination of
surrounding areas such as water source.
Due to the potential danger of these
chemical substances every user should
make a special effort always to read and
follow current label directions. Thus, pre-
vention hinges primarily on proper man-
agement, along with the adequate pro-
vision of food and water for these ani-
mals on a daily basis. Finally, there should
be strict regulations concerning the pro-
duction, distribution, sale and use of all
animal biologics and chemical substances
inclusive of both industrial and agricul-
tural being made available to the general
public. This is to ensure purity, efficacy
and above all safety as it should be em-
phasized that all of these substances in
one way or the other must be regarded
as potential hazards to man and animals
alike.
13


Caribbean Farming, November 1986











Cheese making



in hill country


All over the world there are areas of
rocky, sloping land which have had to be
left in rough pasture for cattle, sheep and
goats while more gentle slopes can be
profitably put into tree crops and flat
land under the plough. In those places
which fall into the steep and rocky class,
small scale farmers have difficulty in or-
ganising themselves for milk production
largely because of their remoteness.


i ,

U',


Dr. Wright is co-ordinator. The program-
me includes the villages of Maidstone,
Medina and Mayfield (hence 3-M) and its
plan is to help farmers to buy cattle for
re-stocking their farms with help from
a revolving loans scheme, to help young
people secure farm land from abandon-


ed estates, to organise a milk-collection
route for supplying a cheese-making
enterprise in the area.
Cheese production began at Maid.
stone in October, 1983 with half-a-
dozen young locals trained in cheese.
making. Supply of milk has reached
about 600 Ib a day and a second cheese
factory has been completed near Medina
village. The cheese produced is a cheddar
type and leaves the plant vacuum-wrap-
ped in one-pound plastic pack. All pha: -
of the programme are dependent on sL )
sidy and technical assistance from o t.
side which is hardly surprising, gi\ n
the state of the local economy. Whet, ;r
efforts such as 3-M ever become via ie
and self-sustaining depends on natio al
food policy but there can be no qi s.
tioning the value of the imagination ; d
enterprise which are helping to br ig
cattle back to the hill farms. In fact, tl y
are helping to bring back hope to :e
farmers and their families in the II
country.





S-


For many years in Jamaica, milk col-
lection routes were maintained in a num-
ber of hill villages to accommodate farm-
ers with one or two milking cows but
with the tightening of the economic situ-
ation the condensary market found it
impossible to continue buying small
quantities of milk from farmers spread
out over a wide area. Another pressure on
the farmers was the drift of young work-
ers away from the hill farms into more
attractive work in the bauxite industry or
in the cities and towns.
Recognising the value of the milk cow
to the hill farmer, a returned native of the
hill country of Jamaica's parish of Man-
chester Dr. Lloyd Wright set about
persuading farmers of three villages to
take another look at milk production as a
possible restorer of the farming industry
in their hills. With help from a number of
local and international development agen-
cies, the 3-M programme has been develop-
ed by PROJECTS FOR PEOPLE a
national development agency of which
14


.- I


*. ;"


Caribbean Farming, November 1986











St. Lucia's Pig Farmers


Co-operative

By Berinus Jn Baptiste


The islands of the Caribbean are all
very dependent on imported livestock
products while their own farmers strug-
gle to keep themselves in business. One
step toward correcting this situation was
a meeting called by St. Lucia's Minister of
Agriculture in 1979 and attended by
more than 200 pig farmers.
The meeting was followed by others -
a; d after some months of brain-storming,
a co-operative grouping was agreed upon
ti embrace all serious producers without
d crimination. A co-operative would per-
rr a wider participating base, attract
fi ding agencies for much-needed capital
in its as well as advisory services from
GI 3rnment and specialised agencies.
was an important break-through for
thi 3rogramme of diversification in agri-
cuu ral development. The St. Lucia Pig
Pr( jcers Co-operative Society Ltd. was
so, registered under the Co-operative
So, :ties Act and immediately embarked
upc a marketing thrust with emphasis
on ,ecialised pork cuts.


and establishing the necessary infra-
structure including facilities for transport
and equipment for grading, packing and
distribution. As a joint co-operative ven-
ture, they were able to attract experien-


Against this background, the Mini-
stry of Agriculture was able to set in
place a production monitoring strategy
which helps both farmers and planners to
take very important decisions with res-


ced and competent management person- pect to importation which has gone a
nel to supervise operations and to see to long way in making the approach towards
it that commodities reached the market the goal of self-sufficiency in pork and
place. eggs meaningful and positive.


Farmers and Gardeners'

catalogue


With members resources, assisted by
loan capital, the co-operative was able to
open its doors to business with a retail
and wholesale outlet, cold storage facili-
ties, and warehouse space for animal feed.
Successful representation was then made
to Government to remove price control
on pork in order to allow the local enter-
prise to thrive.

Two years later, the Pig Farmers Co-
operative teamed up with the St. Lucia
Egg Producers Co-operative for common
services, such as the purchasing of inputs


AGRO GRACE LIMITED are among
the leading dealers in agricultural supplies
in the Caribbean. Their Jamaica head-
quarters are at 235 Marcus Garvey Drive,
Kingston 11 and they have brought
out a pocket-sized catalogue which should
be a most handy addition to farmers' and
gardeners' bookshelves.
In addition to setting out particulars
of their merchandise lines, the catalogue
provides several pages of information
on important matters safe pesticide
handling, metric conversions, herbicide
recommendations for various crops and
situations, seed variety recommendations
for local conditions.


AGRO GRACE have considerable
experience in production and processing
of agricultural crops. Their team includes
a number of people with considerable
hands-on experience of the business
they serve. In these days of poor parts
supply and indifferent workmanship,
the AGRO GRACE catalogue carries one
item that will be particularly welcome to
harassed farmers and gardeners: WE PRO-
VIDE TECHNICAL SERVICES FOR ALL
OUR CHEMICALS & EQUIPMENT &
OTHER PRODUCTS.
Write or phone for a copy of this
catalogue.

15


Caribbean Farming, November 1986











Black Pepper


and how to grow it

Part I

J.R.R. Suah


Black pepper Piper nigrum L. plays an
important role as a spice in Jamaican
cooking. It became popular here and
worldwide because it preserves the fla-
vour of foods that would otherwise be-
come tasteless due to spoilage, salting nr
monotony. Almost all the black pepper
consumed here is imported, and a small
portion is ground and packaged for re-
export to other Caribbean islands.

Most of the Jamaican soils and clim-
atic conditions are conducive to pro-
ducing the crop to meet local needs. It
can be grown in pure stand supported on
dead or live stakes, planted in home gar-
dens, on shade plants of cocoa and cof-
fee, on the trunks of fruit trees or in
broad-leaf forests.

THE PLANT
The black pepper plant is a vine, ori-
ginating in the forests of the south-west
coast of India. It is now grown in many
tropical and sub-tropical countries for its
berries which are used dried or green as
the pepper in commerce.

It belongs to the family Piperaceae and
is a perennial polypodial vine with woody
articulate stem, swollen at the nodes. The
young stem is purplish and smooth, later
becoming green and rough as it ages. The
plant clings to trees and other supports
by numerous adventitious roots pro-
duced at the stem nodes. In its natural
state the vines grow to 30 feet or more,
but under cultivation they are pruned to
manageable heights.

Roots
The plant develops a profuse root
system. Some of the roots serve as anchor-
age, capable of penetrating the soil to
depths of 9 feet. Most of the others are
however confined to the upper 3 feet of
soil, approximately equal to the spread
of an average mature vine. These roots
are delicate and are easily damaged by ex-
cess or shortage of moisture. A mass of
rootlets usually develops- in the topsoil,
particularly near areas of nutrient concen-
tration or under mulch.
16


Branches
The branches of black pepper are of
three types.
1. Runners. These are produced near
the base of the main vine, have
relatively long inter-nodes, tend to
grow along the soil surface and
usually produce roots on the nodes
that touch the soil. Cuttings from
these are used for propagation.
2. Watersprouts of Fruiting Vines.
The succulent branches originate
from the main vine. The young
stem is bronze in colour, later
turning green as it matures. Fresh
whittish adventitious roots grow
from the nodes, gradually turning
to brown and finally dry out.
Each node usually produces one
lateral branch. Young watersprouts
can be air-layered' -while other
stems used as cuttings for propa-
gation.
3. Lateral Branches. These arise from
the main vine, watersprouts, pri-
mary laterals and other lateral
branches. They grow horizontally
to form the cylindrical foliage
canoov of a plant and are the po-
tential fruiting branches. They are
not used in propagation as they
hardly produce roots.

Leaves
The black pepper leaves are alternate,
petiolate broad ovate or oval in shape,
ending in a sharp point. They are leathery,
smooth, dark green and shiny above and
pale green underneath.
Flowers
The flowers are tiny, borne in cat-
kins produced at the nodes opposite the
upper leaves of watersprouts and some
lateral branches. They are either perfect
or imperfect depending on the clonal
variety, but for commercial pepper the
hermaphrodite forms are preferred.
Fruit
The fruit of black pepper is a small
green drupe 4-6mm in diameter, with a
pulpy mesocarp. As it ripens it becomes


yellow and later bright red. Each fruit
contains a single seed with a hollow
centre. Matured fruits when reaped and
dried (pepper corn) turn dark brown or
black with deep set wrinkles. The dia-
meter is reduced to 4-5 mm. White pep-
pers are dried pepper corns with the pulp
removed.
PLANTING SITE SELECTION
For commercial production of black
pepper a warm humid climate is ideal.
Rainfall of 100 to 300 cm uniformly
distributed throughout the year is needed
Rainfall distribution is more critical thar
amount. Most of the mountain ridges an(
some coastal areas of Jamaica meet thi
criterion. Although the crop requires par
tial shade, this can be dispensed witl
where the rainfall is suitable. Sites pron
to erosion, waterlogging and flooding
should be avoided. Preference should b
given to areas with good accessibility an
adequate labour especially for reaping.

SOILS
Although black pepper can be grow
on a wide range of soils, the ideal is a wel
drained alluvium rich in organic matte
and with a pH above 5.5. Heavy clays an
poor sandy soils are not recommended
Planting can be done on a heavy soil i
done on mounds.
PROPAGATION
Black pepper can be propagated b
seeds, but preferably from air-layering c
the watersprouts of fruiting vines, an
cuttings taken from runners and physic
logically mature watersprouts of fruitin
vines.
Seeds
Although commercial propagation i
mostly done by the use of cuttings, plant
can be grown from seed. In doing this thf
pulp should be removed from selected
ripe seeds and the seeds dried. Since vi-
ability is poor seed should not be stored
for any long period. To ensure quicker
and more even germination, seed should be
soaked in concentrated sulphuric acid for
about two minutes, then washed clean in
water. Fresh seed planted under heavy


Caribbean Farming, November 1986










shade will give up to 90% germination in
about 6 weeks. Seedlings show a great
variation in size of the cotyledon and
vigour, and a high proportion of abnor-
mal plants is often produced. The result-
ing plants take up to 9 years to come into
production and some plants may revert
to the unisexual condition.
Air-Layering
Air-layering of the water sprouts of
the fruiting vines with fresh adventitious
roots or two nodes are enclosed in a con-
tainer e.g. plastic bag, waxed paper cup,
mall tin can, bamboo joint or alumi-
ium foil, which is filled with well
decayed compost, loam soil rich in
-ganic matter or their combination. It
wouldd then be tied securely to a support,
itered until moist and kept moist until
Sadventitious roots develop into
fictional roots. The new plants should
L ready for severance in 30 days from
Ir ering and can be either potted or
p cited out into the field under ideal
Cr editions.
n Jamaica it is recommended that
b: k pepper plants are produced in nur-
se )s and are well rooted and developed
bE ire they are set out in the fields.

CI :ings
here are several methods of pro-
pi tion from branch cuttings. It should
be loted that the young bronze coloured
su ulent stems .are too immature for
re ings while older ones take longer to
p: luce roots and shoots.

Cuttings 4 to 5 feet long are select-
ed from runners which grow from
the base of a plant. They are layer-
ed by lightly covering them with
compost, leaf mould or soil. When
the runners are well rooted at the
lower nodes, they may be cut and
set in potting bags and planted
directly in the field.
2. A common method is to take 5-to6-
node cuttings from the basal run-
ners and set these with three nodes
underground in shaded beds. The
basal cut should be smooth and
close to the pode.
3. In another method the cuttings are
selected from the young shoots
which are less than two years old.
In preparing the cutting, the tip
with terminal bud is cut off and the
leaves and small branches between
the 3rd and 7th node from the apex
are removed. After about 10 days
when the terminal bud has regener-
ated, the shoot is severed below the
7th node, and the cutting which
Caribbean Farming, November 1986


should be about 2 feet long can be
rooted in a nursery and planted in
the field. The cuttings should be
set at 450 angle with 3 to 4 nodes
below the surface but not deeper
than 4-6 inches.


4. When planting materials are in short
supply, plants can be produced
from single nodes or leaf cuttings.
These each consists of a leaf attach-
ed to about 2 inches of stem with a
good quality bud. The cuttings are
treated with a rooting hormone and
placed in a propagator as is done
for rooting cocoa cuttings.

Nursery Practice
Wherever possible the nursery site
should be located in a relatively flat area
with rich well drained soil, near to a reli-
able source of water and partially shaded
with natural existing shade trees, bamboo
or wood slats, coconut fronds or shade
cloth. Where shade trees are used, care
should be taken that they do not har-
bour pest and diseases that can transfer
to the black pepper.
Slightly raised beds measuring 4 feet
by 20 feet should be prepared from deep
rich stone-free soil. If possible the beds
should be made from an equal mixture of
fine sand, well decayed compost and pul-
verised soil. Finely sifted sand can some-
times be used as a rooting medium.

FIELD PREPARATION

Not much land preparation is required
if black pepper is to be planted among
existing crops. All that would be needed
is to prepare mounds near the existing
support or in the areas not occupied by
other crops. If the land is covered with
secondary growth and trees, the under-
bush and some trees should first be select-
ed support plants pruned and allowed to
decay on the spot. This will serve as a
source of organic matter and aid in soil
erosion control. The mounds should be
made by digging a hole about 18 inches
square and 12 inches deep, filling this
with decayed organic matter mixed in
rich top soil and raised to about 8 inches
above the surrounding area.
VINE SUPPORT
As pepper is a climbing vine, provi-
sion must be made for supports. Living
trees and dead hardwood are often used.
Plants supported by dead wood generally
give higher yields than those supported
by living trees. This is probably because
the trees and black pepper plants com-
pete for the available soil moisture and
nutrient. To be economical, dead hard-


wood support has to last ten or more
years.
Live plant support is the most com-
mon method used in commercial black
pepper production. Plants are selected on
the following basis -

1. They should be quick growing.
2. Have permanent rough bark.
3. Withstand heavy pruning.
4. Have deeply penetrating roots so
they do not offer competition to
the pepper roots, but at the same
time can withstand heavy winds.
5. Are (preferably) leguminous species
or have other accepted uses.
Several local plants are considered
acceptable. These include quickstick
Gliricidia sepium, Wild Tamarind Leu-
caena leucocephala, Immortelle Eryth-
rina spp. Calabash Crescentia cujete,
Physic Nut Jatropha cureas. Other like-
ly plants are mango Mangifera indica, hog
plum Spondias sp and several broadleaf
forest trees.
Live trees not only provide support
but also shade needed during relatively
long dry seasons, protection against wide
fluctuations in air temperature, and or-
ganic matter formed from fall leaves and
pruning.
For a new black pepper plantation, the
support/shade trees should be set out in
the rainy season about one year ahead of
the pepper. Spacing varies according to
the plant species, the terrain, etc., but the
average spacing is of plants about 6 feet
apart along rows 9-10 feet apart. On
slopes the rows should be laid out along
the contours.
The support plants should reach an ac-
ceptable size before the pepper vines are
tied to them. They should be cut back to
about 7 feet to induce branching below
that level, as those with branches can
support the black pepper vines better
than those without.
Next issue Part II









.tr
... ~~~ S~~;'~ '.
~6 4. ?


The story behind
good tractors and
great dealers.
For years, Ford has been
the best-selling* brand of
tractors in the Caribbean.
That's not surprising.
Ford tractors offer fea-
tures and performance
proven in all kinds of
work, from simple tasks
around the farm to heavy
tillage in tough soil. And
Ford dealers, like Jamaica's
Kingston Industrial, offer
a commitment to quality
service that keeps custom-
ers coming back.


For nearly 70 years, Ford hi s


more than just a good tracto r.


Simple operation,
steady performance.
Farmers know the long-
standing Ford reputation
for power, ease of operation,
serviceability and depend-
ability. That reputation,
which began early in the
century with the famous
Fordson, is enhanced
today with the new line of
Force II tractors.


These new tractors rep-
resent the latest evolution
in Ford tractor design.
You'll find everything you
need to work quickly and
efficiently.

A history
of service.
Caribbean farmers also
know they can count on
their Ford dealer for more
than just a good tractor.


Kingston Industrial, li ;e
all Ford Tractor dealers,
has a history of commit-
ment to the finest service
support. Their mechanic
are trained by Ford in all
aspects of tractor mainte-
nance and repair. These
technicians work with
specialized Ford tools an:
equipment. They'll give
your tractor the attention
it deserves.


There are Ford dealers
throughout the Caribbean.

ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA
Hadeed Motors
St. John


BAHAMAS
American British Canadian Motors, Ltd.
Nassau
BARBADOS
Charles McEnearney & Co. Ltd.
Wildey
CAYMAN ISLANDS
Velox Equipment Ltd.
Georgetown


CURACAO
R.E. Yrausquin
Williamsted
DOMINICA
Acme Garage
Rosseau
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
Compania Santisteban C. Por A.
Sto. Domingo


GRENADA
McIntyre Bros. Ltd.
St. George's
GUADELOUPE
S.O.R.E.C.
Pointe-a-Pitre
S.O.D.I.M.A.T.
Pointe-a-Pitre










































o: fered Caribbean farmers


1 hat's why we are number one.


I :pendable
p rts support.
T your Ford dealer,
p rts are more than just a
si eline-they're a competi-
ti edge.
That's why Kingston
Industrial maintains a
large inventory of Ford
maintenance and replace-
ment parts. Like all Ford
dealers, they can supply


nearly all the parts you're
ever likely to need.
In the rare instance
that a needed part isn't in
stock, they can get it fast
from a centrally located
Ford parts depot.
Ford's commitment
to Caribbean farmers.
Finally, your Ford dealer
has the support of one of
the world's best-known


companies behind him.
Ford's commitment to
the evolving needs of
agriculture includes
mechanization research
and development programs
that never cease, in good
times or bad. It's a commit-
ment you'll find in the new
range of Force II tractors.
Kingston Industrial has
been working with Ford
since 1912. Like Ford


dealers throughout the
Caribbean, they've been
helping farmers grow for a
long, long time.
And they look forward
to growing with you for
many more years to come.
*Based on figures from Systematics
International.




More than
just a good tractor.


HAITI
Behrmann Motors S.A.
Port-au-Prince
JAMAICA
Kingston Industrial Agencies
Kingston


MARTINIQUE
C.C.I.E.
Lamentin
Technimat S.A.
Fort de France
PUERTO RICO
Clemente Santisteban, Inc.
San Juan


ST. KITTS AND NEVIS
National Agricultural Corp.
Basseterre
ST. LUCIA
Beachcomber Ltd.
Castries
ST. VINCENT
St. Vincent Motors, Ltd.
Amos Vale


TRINIDAD
Charles McEnearney & Co. Ltd.
Port of Spain
U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS
Armstrong Ford
St. Croix


d~











Current Practices in Fresh-Water Prawn


Farming-Part
HARVESTING, HOLDING AND
TRANSPORTING POST-LARVAE:
Larvae are first acclimatized to fresh
water in the larval tanks. This is done by
lowering the level of water in the tank
arid flushing with fresh water for about
2-3 hours. Harvesting is best done by
dipping out the larvae with hand nets.
Larvae may be transferred directly to
a farm or be kept in holding tanks for
1-4 weeks. Holding tanks contain aerated
fresh water and a regular exchange (equi-
valent to 200% per week) continues.
Larvae are now weaned on to adult food.
Although densities up to 200/sq. m can
be kept for up to one month, better
survival is achieved with half that
number.
Larvae are transported short distances
in various types of aerated containers.
For longer distances plastic bags contain-
ing 1/3 water and 2/3 air or oxygen are
used. 125-250 post-larvae / litre is a
practical density. These bags are carried
in a cooled environment on long hot
journeys (New and Singholka, 1982).

(c) THE GROWING OUT OF POST-
LARVAE TO ADULTS:
Post-larvae are reared to adults in
earthen ponds containing fresh water.
Present technology has the following
general components.
FEATURES OF THE POND:
The pond is usually rectangular with
a width such that a seine can be con-
veniently drawn from one end to the
other. The consensus is that the most
easily managed pond size is between
0.2 ha and 1.6 ha. The bottom of the
pond is smooth and well compacted
and slopes from a shallow end to a
deep end. The water outlets are converted
with a %" mesh screen. The average
depth of the water is 0.9m the deeper
end being at most 1.2m. A free-
board of approximately 60cm is kept
(New and Singholka, 1982).
WATER QUALITY CONTROL
The pond is filled with water which
contains less than 100 ppm of Calcium.
During the grow-out process dissolved
oxygen concentration, phytoplankton
density, water level and to some extent
temperature are regulated at optimal
values by means of adjustment of the
flow of water through the pond. The
ranges maintained by farmers in
Hawaii (Malecha, 1983) are:
Temperature: 260 280C
20


Phytoplankton: Secchi disc visibility
15-35cm
Dissolved oxygen: 6 8 ppm
pH: 5.2-8.2
Sometimes, particularly when stocking
density is high, aerators have to be em-
ployed to maintain the Oxygen levels.
Floating paddle wheels, air blowers or
jet blowers are used. Thus 4 to 5 1-hp
paddle wheels or 2 sets of 1-2 hp air
blowers are required by a 1 ha farm in
Taiwan (Liao and Chao, 1982).
CULTURE PRACTICES
There are two major systems em-
ployed in the commercial grow-out of
prawns. These are (a) Extensive culture
and (b) semi-intensive culture.
In extensive culture, post-larvae are
stocked at low densities and grow by
feeding on the natural production in the
ponds. Often in such a system, non-
carnivorous fish are grown simul-
taneously with the prawns thereby pro-
ducing a polyculture system. The fish
are commonly carps of the following
species Ctenopharyngodon idellus the
grass carp, Artistichthys nobilis the big-
head, and Hypothalamichthys molitrix,
the silver carp. However other fish such
as Chanos Chanos the milk fish and
Mugil cephalus the grey mullet have
been successfully cultured in such an
arrangement. (Liao and Chao, 1982).
Polyculture of M. rosenbergii with
chinese carps and common carps in a
pond fertilized with swine manure is
such that prawn growth compares favour-
ably with that obtained in monoculture
with supplemental feeding (Malecha et al,
1981).
Semi-intensive culture includes two
types of operation (a) batch culture and
(b) continuous stocking and harvesting.
In batch culture, the ponds are stocked
once, the post-larvae are allowed to grow
for 6-9 months, after which the pond is
drained and the prawns harvested. Yields
of 300 kg/ha/year have been reported
from Honduras (Wulff, 1982) and Taiwan
(Liao and Chao, 1982). The continuous
stocking and harvesting system was
developed in Hawaii and is widely used
there. It has also spread to a number of
other countries. In this system, ponds
are stocked at densities varying between
10-16 post-larvae/sq.m. The post-larvae are
allowed to grow for about 6 months
after which the pond is harvested every
three weeks. Harvesting is done with a
mono filament seine which has a mesh


of approximately 5 cm size so that only
prawns over 30g are taken. Thus 1kg
would contain 13-22 or 1 Ib 8-10 prawns.
Fresh sets of larvae are added to the
pond at least once a year and the ponds
are drained down and completely
harvested at the end of three years. The
yield in this system is of the order of
2000 4000kg/ha/year (i.e. 3000 Ib/
acre/year/ (Malecha, 1983).
NURSERIES
In a number of countries, prawn
farmers now include a nursery phase in
the grow out process. Nurseries are
generally small earthen ponds or concrete
tanks where post-larvae are held at high
densities, 70-90/sg.m in Hawaii (Corbin
et al, 1983) and 1000/sq.m in Hondu as
(Wulff, 1982). The post-larvae are h Id
in these for about 60-90 days at wk ch
time they are between 2-5 5 cm I ng
depending on stocking rate.
Nurseries reduce stocking mortal cy,
reduces the time for which the pro(i c-
tion ponds are in operation and allow for
more effective stocking and feedin( of
shrimp in the production ponds.
MULTIPHASE GROW OUT SYSTEM AS
Multiphase systems have been de el-
oped in Hawaii for the growing ou of
prawns. In these systems prawns ire
harvested, counted and restocked at
least once within the grow-out per )d.
In the more complex of these systt is,
the prawns are re-stocked in gra ed
sizes (Malecha et al, 1981). The ad in-
tages of these systems are that ey
allow for more effective stocking nd
feeding of the shrimp, they allow for
more accurate prediction of the ro-
ductivity of the ponds and they Iso
produce better growth and more ev nly
sized prawns.
FEEDING
Prawns are usually fed once a cly,
The feed used in most farms is ei ler
commercial chicken broiler starter ca
pelleted prawn feed based on the brc ler
starter formula. In some countries 'g.
Thailand, this food may be supplemen ed
by a variety of materials or replaced by
a mixture made up by the farmer and
which has amongst its components some
of the following: fish meal, shrimp meal,
trash fish, rice bran, cooked broken rice,
barley, corn, brewery waste and soy bean
cake. (New and Singholka, 1982).
Pelleted feed is usually applied at a rate
of 1-8% of estimated body weight but


Caribbean Farming, November 1986










feeding is adjusted depending on the
amount left over in the pond each day.
This can be observed by using a sub-
mersible plastic pipe with a mirror fixed
at an angle in the bottom. In Hawaii
pelleted foods generally contain between
24% to 38.5% protein and the conversion
ratio with prawns is approximately 3:1
(Corbin et al, 1983). Although New
(1976) considers that a consensus of
opinion indicates that the optimal level of
dietary protein for shrimp and prawns
may lie between 27% and 35%, recent
experiments (Boonyaratpalin and New,
1982) suggest that diets containing 15%
protein are as good as those containing
higher quantities for these prawns.


MARKETING
Prawns are marketed in four ways (Lee,
1979). They may be sold live or they
may be sold frozen. This latter involves
first immobilizing the prawns in a crushed
ice/brine mixture (3% salt). They are
then sorted, frozen in a blast freezer and
stored in a conventional freezer. The
shelf life of frozen prawns is 6 months.

Ice-chilled prawns are produced by
simply keeping-the prawns on ice.

Blanched-chilled prawns are produced
by rapidly killing the-animals in an ice/
brine mixture. The prawns are then
dipped into water at 650C for 15 seconds
after which they are chilled again to


01 mm


HAF TESTING:
H vesting may be complete or partial.
Corr iete harvesting is done by draining
dow the entire pond and removing the
praw s by dip-nets or fish pumps.

P rtial harvesting is done by using a
seine The seine is drawn down the long
axis of the pond care being taken that
the bottom of the seine is kept on the
bottom of the pond. It takes 4 persons
about 1 hour to harvest a 1 acre (0.4 ha)
pond (Malecha, 1983). Williamson and
Wang have developed and tested a tractor
mounted seine which under commercial
conditions was shown (1) to have a
harvesting efficiency at least as good as
hand harvesting and (2) to take a shorter
time to seine the pond than if it were
done manually. However the time taken
to remove the shrimp from the net
remained the same (Corbin et al, 1983).

Caribbean Farming, November 1986


regain the original colour. They are
finally packed on ice. Blanching extends
shelf life to five days.

REFERENCES
Adisukresno, S., G.L. Escritor, D. Tribawono
and B.'Wiyarsno, 1982. Field evaluations
of freshwater prawn farming in Central and
East Java, Indonesia. In Giant prawn farm-
ing, edited by M.B. New. Amsterdam,
Elsevier, pp. 213-224.
AQUACOP, 1983. Intensive larval rearing in
clear water of Macrobrachium rosenbergli
(de Man, Anuenue stock) at the Centre
Oceanologique du Pacifique, Tahiti. In
Handbook of Mariculture. Vol. 1. Crusta-
cean Aquaculture, edited by J.P. McVey.
C.R.C. Press, Florida, pp. 179-187.
Bonnyaratpalin, M. and M.B. New, 1982.
Evaluation of diets for Macrobrachium
rosenbergli reared in concrete ponds. In
Giant prawn farming, edited by M.B. New.
Amsterdam, Elsevier, pp. 249-256.


Corbin, J.S., M.M. Fujimoto and T.I. Iwai, Jr.,
1983. Feeding practices and nutritional con-
siderations for Macrobrachium rosenbergii
culture in Hawaii. In Handbook of Mari-
culture Vol. 1. Crustacean Aquaculture
edited oy J.F. McVey. C.R.C. Press, Florida.
pp. 391-412.
Fujimura, T. and H. Okamoto, 1970. Notes on
progress made in developing a Mass Cul-
turing Technique for Macrobrachium rosen-
bergii, in Hawaii. Indo-Pacific Fisheries
Council, 14th Session Bangkok, Thailand.
18-27 Nov. 1970. F.A.O. Regional Office
for Asia and the Far East. Bangkok 2 Thai-
land.
'Lee, C.L., 1982. Progress in developing stand-
ardized system for production of Juvenile
Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) at
Mardi, Malacca. In Giant prawn farming,
edited by M.B. New. Amsterdam, Elsevier,
pp. 129-142.

Lee, S.R., 1979. The Hawaiian prawn industry,
a profile. Honolulu: Aquaculture Develop-
ment Program. D.P.E.D., State of Hawaii
320o.

Liao, I. and N. Chao, 1982. Progress of Macro-
brachium farming and its extension in
Taiwan. In Giant-prawn farming, edited by
M.B. New. Amsterdam, Elsevier, pp. 357-
379.

Ling, S.W., 1969. Methods of rearing and cul-
turing Macrobrachium rosenbergii. F.A.O.
Fish. Rep. 3 (57): 607-619.
Ling, S.W., 1969a. The general biology and
development of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.
F.A.O. Fish. Rep. 3 (57): 589-606.
Malecha, S., J. Polovina and R. Moav, 1981.
Multi-stage Rotational Stocking and Har-
vesting system for Year-Round Culture of
the Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium
rosenbergii. Sea Grant Technical 'Report.
UNIHI SEAGRANT TR-81-01 26pp.
Malecha, S.R. 1983. Commercial pond produc-
tion of the freshwater prawn Macrobre-
chium rosenbergli in Hawaii. In Handbook
of Mariculture. Vol. I. Crustacean Aquacul-
ture edited by J.P. McVey. C.R.C. Press,
Florida, pp. 231-259.

New, M.B., 1976. A review of dietary studies
with shrimp and prawns. Aquaculture 9
(1976) 101.
New, M.B. and S. Singholka, 1982. Fresh-
water Prawn Farming, A Manual for the
Culture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii
F.A.O. Fisheries Technical Paper No. 225.
F.A.O.. Rome.
Wulff, R.E., 1982. The experience of a fresh-
water prawn farm in Honduras, Central
America. In Giant prawn farming, edited by
M.B. New. Amsterdam, Elsevier, pp. 445-
448.
Cohen, D. and A. Barnes, 1982. The Macro-
brachium programme of the Hebrew Uni-
versity, Jerusalem. In Giant prawn farming,
edited by M.B. New. Amsterdam, Elsevier,
pp. 381-386.
Malecha, S.R., D.H. Buck, R.J. Baur and D.R.
Onizuka, 1981a. Polyculture of the fresh-
water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergli,
Chinese and common carps in ponds en-
riched with swine manure. I. Initial Trials.
Aquaculture 25 (1981): 101-116.
21










JIM success factors in Agriculture Continued from page 11


formance. Where the potential was seen
formal university training cemented the
foundation to allow for greater contri-
bution.
Expansion took place as people were
ready to manage it, and not before.
Secondly, we wish to discuss the
"Jamaica Broilers Model" a fully inte-
grated agribusiness operation.
We quote from a paper presented by
Dr. David Wildish at a Workshop on Food
& Nutrition Security in Jamaica organised
by the Caribbean Food & Nutrition Insti-
tute in July 1986.
"Twenty-eight years ago, the company
commenced with a small pilot project,
processing some 3,000 broilers a week
using imported day old chicks, import-
ed feed, a contract grower and process-
ing was performed at Bond Street at
the back of a wholesale meat outlet.
The company is now operating:-
1. a Breeder Flock operation to pro-
duce fertile eggs which are trans-
ferred to
2. a Hatchery which produces day old
chicks, which are transferred to
3. a Field grow-out operation compri-
sing some 250 contract farmers.
4. a Feed Mill which supplies feed to
the chicks which are placed.

5. a warehouse which supplies medi-
cation, spare parts, vaccines and
medication to the farmers.
6. a Processing Plant to which the live
birds are transported and where
slaughtering, eviscerating, chilling,
cut-up, blast freezing and cold
storage is carried out.
Some 90% of the product is distri-
buted frozen in refrigerated vehicles and
the other 10% is distributed as fresh ice-
packed product, also in refrigerated vehi-
cles,
Normal sales, marketing, accounting,
administration and executive support
systems have also been put in place
but this is not the whole story.

At the Processing Plant the feathers,
offals and heads are rendered into ani-
mal feed ingredients which are trans-
ferred back to the Feed Mill to be in-
corporated into the feed at a level of
up to 5%.
Jamaica Broilers policy over the past
twenty-eight years has been of con-
stantly re-investing profits to upgrade
and expand facilities to enable the de-


mand in broiler meat in Jamaica to
be met."

Dr. Wildish did not mention
1. The intensity of the extension
coverage i.e. training given the
contract farmers.

2. The incentives for good perform-
ance and disincentives for unsatis-
factory performance.

3. The fact that the chicken farmer.
had his own capital invested. Fur-
ther, given the equity structure of
Jamaica Broilers, management also
had their own money on the line.

Thus the success factors have been
1. Personal risk and profit motive.
2. Reward for performance

3. Complete integration, with mini-
mization of external (and necess-
arily more fragile) linkages: value
added components being in house.
4. Security of market for the primary
producer with the necessary train-
ing being provided.
5. Phased growth.

Any agricultural venture at the plan-
ning stage should address market identi-
fication, resource requirements tech-
nical, capital and otherwise to fill the mar-
ket niche and the assembling of the
team to transform opportunity to reality.

In our context the marketing exer-
cise begins when the seed is purchased to
be planted or the breeding plen-finalized
and not at the time when there is a sur-
plus to be disposed of. If the wrong variety
is produced, in so doing, the marketing
problem is created. This statement might
appear trite but we have experienced situ-
ations in which production options are
locked in by virtue of the fact that land
is first acquired before the final decision
of what to produce is made. A more
structured approach involves finding a lo-
cation that best fits the production pro-
ject rather than forcing the project to fit
the location.

In both examples we have cited, pro-
duction developed from a small start.
Within our small island there is a myriad
of micro-climates, each to be understood
while working within it. We have pre-
viously mentioned the need for Managers
to acclimatize to the working environ-
ment. Making a small start creates the op-
portunity for learning:-


(a) about the idiosyncrasies of th,
market
(b) about the appropriate practices
(c) about sourcing of inputs incudin,
capital
(d) about adaptability and availability,
of labour
Making a small start provides the op-
portunity of getting the facts inexpensive-
ly free of the pressures of a large opera-
tion. Too often this approach is bypassed
in the rush of getting started.
The business of agricultural production
like any other business requries a discip-
lined approach. It calls for proper plan.
ning and analysis which can be achieved
through the execution of feasibility stu-
dies. This is particularly important in the
Jamaican context wherein there does not
seem to be a tradition of preparing com-
prehensive feasibility studies as a tool of
monitoring project execution. Rather,
there is the tendency to regard the V re-
paration of a feasibility study as a t ne
wasting and costly exercise and onew ich
is designed to satisfy the func ng
agency rather than guiding the active ies
of the project.
It has been suggested in some quar ers
that involvement in agriculture is sc ne-
thing we tend to romanticize about nd
hence are reluctant to take time to na-
lyse the decision critically fearing t at,
the figures will not support the desire.
The rigorous exercise of preparir ] a
feasibility study, quite apart from its
importance as a tool for monitoring ro
ject execution and setting realistic g( als,
prepares the proposer mentally to eal
with unexpected occurrences. It invc ves
developing contingency plans, exami ingi
the options and being conditioned foi the
surprises. As has been said elsewhen, in
agriculture, MURPHY is an optimist.


Caribbean Farming, November 1986










Propagation of Citrus


Jamaica's Citrus Growers' Association
has produced a series of clearly-written,
well illustrated booklets which will be


CROSS CUT
plates the inverted T which is opened up
eive bud).


useful to farmers, students of agriculture,
extension workers and teachers. One
booklet discusses three aspects of citrus
propagation growing seedlings, nursery
trees and top-working citrus trees. It runs
to 51 pages and includes such matters as
diseases and pests of citrus seedlings and
control methods.
According to the foreword to the book-
let, propagation of citrus should be carried
out by commercial nurserymen. Most
growers do not want to devote the
time, effort, space and skill needed to
produce satisfactory nursery stock. The
foreword continues:-
Growing citrus trees in your own
nursery may save you some of the
expense involved in setting out a new
orchard or in an extensive replanting
programme. However, regardless of the
method employed, the production of
well-grown, compatible, disease-free,
true-to-type trees requires systematic
and detailed attention, in addition to
much labour and some capital.
Our photographs are copies of some
of the 23 illustrations which complement
the clear, simple instructions of the text.


The Citrus Growers' Association and
the European Development Fund, which
financed production of the series, have
done a service to the farming community
in this effort.


Young growth of bud tied to rootstock stub of
6 inches.


Caribbean Farming, November 1986


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And they come in five different sizes to suit
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Wisynco Bags are always available, so get yours
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Cocoa Processing-

a vibrant industry


Jamaican cocoa has traditionally enjoy-
ed an enviable reputation on the export
market. The Cocoa Industry Board has
therefore, as a matter of policy, sought to
guarantee the continued supply of only
top quality grade beans to that market-
place.
Also an integral part of the Cocoa
Board's policy, however, has been the en-
couragement of a strong local" base for
cocoa partly to help anchor the indus-
try's aggressive marketing in the export
arena.
Cocoa's local manufacturing industry,
which comprises the two major manu-
facturing firms of Highgate Food Pro-
ducts and Pioneer Chocolate Company,
has been purchasing increasing quantities
of fermented cocoa beans from the Board's
annual output. Some 1208 tons or 40%
of targeted output for 1986/87 are ex-
pected to be used locally.l
These beans are offered to the local
manufacturing industry at a discount on
the export price.
According to the Cocoa Board's Gene-
ral Manager, Mr. Fitz Shaw, this discount
is a tolerable cost which the Board is
willing to meet in order to maintain a
strong local base for the cocoa industry.
He notes that the local processing in-
dustry for cocoa provides significant
value-added through the production of
24


multiple products which satisfy local de-
mand and reduce the use of scarce foreign
exchange on the purchase of imports to
satisfy these demands. Additionally, since
the price of coffee began escalating, local
demand for cocoa powder has also in-
creased as people seek substitutes for
coffee.
Mr.Shaw also notes that the com-
panies produce enough to permit export
of large portions of their production -
thereby making them significant earners
of foreign exchange.
"In addition, the processing activity
creates employment," Mr. Shaw says,
"and between them, the two companies
employ up to 250 persons each year".
Highgate Food Products product line
comprises chocolate products, cocoa
beverages, cocoa powder, cocoa butter
and mixed drinks. The Company is also in
the process of putting in the necessary
equipment to stabilize and standardize
existing products, and then to broaden
the range of items produced.
Highgate Foods also makes a signifi-
cant contribution in the area of export
earnings increasing such earnings by
more than 300% in 1985, over the amount
earned in 1980.
Pioneer Chocolate Company produces
cocoa butter, cocoa powder, drinking


chocolate, and chocolate bars. The Cc n-
pany enjoys an especially good re u-
tation on the export market for the I gh
quality of its cocoa butter, and virtu ily
all of this product is sold in the L ;A
and Canada. In 1985, exports accol it-
ed for 60% of the Company's gross re-
venue, and showed an increase of aln )st
300% over earnings for 1980.
The Cocoa Board General Manager ias
will be increased as their product rang. is
ed for 60% of the Company's gross re-
venue, and showed an increase of aln )st
300% over earnings for 1980.
The important contribution in the i ea
of import substitution that both tt :se
companies already make to the econc ny
will be increased as their product rang is
broadened.
The Cocoa Board General Manager "ias
emphasized that in view of such trem. n-
dous value added to the Jamaican e,.o-
nomy, the Cocoa Board would undr-
write any price increases that the cocoa
manufacturing firms make for beans for
the local processing industry.
"The local market is already a major
and increasingly important determinant
of the Board's annual revenue," Mr.
Shaw says "and all evidence points to an
expanding local market in the future. We
intend to support this growth."


Caribbean Farming, November 1986











Caribbean Food

The Caribbean Food Crops Society to contribute
held its 22nd Annual Meeting in St. Lucia industrial sc
from the 25th to the 29th of August fermented fl
this year. About 120 members from 19 corn and su
countries presented and discussed papers important i
which for the most part related to the fermentation
themeofthemeeting-NON-TRADITION- level alcohol
AL EXPORT CROPS. effluent wast
carbon dioxic
In our last issue we carried sum- bondioxi
marines of some papers from the St. In Brazil,
Lucia meeting. The Proceedings of the cessfully con\
meeting will be published in due course. mixed with
Poceedings of previous meetings are cattle with g
available. The Secretary of CFCS is Dr. tion of fe
C rlos Cruz, P.O. Box 506, Isabela, provided an e
P -rto Rico 00662. ted into an
compared to
Following are some abstracts of papers proportion.'
fr n the St. Lucia meeting. This pape
PRESENCEE OF THE YAM NEMA- Part I, preser
T( )E SCUTELLONEMA BRADYS IN explanation
GI \DELOUPE AND MARTINIQUE. and assess
Al i Kermarrec, Jose Anais and Lucien contribution.
De aes, Institut National de la Recherche potential for
Ag )nomique, Centre des Antilles et de city develop
la t jyane, BP 1232 F 97184 POINTE- the potential
A-F TRE, GUADELOUPE, FWI. by-product t
ie "root-lesion nematode" Pratylen- cost efficient
chu coffee has been, until 1985, the ma- in the region.
jor oil-borne pest of yam crops in the
Frei :h West Indies. Since'this year, the A COMPAR
acti "yam-nematode" has been found ZERO-TILL
regi irly in tubers sampled in Guadeloupe TILIZERLE
and .lartinique. Research strategies for an PRODUCT
intE 'ated control of nematode pests of Agriculture,
yan -re presented. dad.
)N-TRADITIONAL EXPORT CROP In the Ca
OP )RTUNITIES IN PUERTO RICO. of land prep
So: 3 Velez, Agronomist, Fidel Barbosa, tion are con
Ag' nomist and George Jackson, Special ized tillage e
As! tant, Department of Agriculture, Box of ridges or
10 i3, Santurce, PR 00908. former meth
by many si
he Commonwealth Department of may not be
Ag culture has renewed its interest, effort the latter re
anm participation in the stimulation of cultivated b
act ve projects with non-traditional crops compares tl
for export. (Ipomoea b
(Ipomoea b
The principal crop areas of attention and zero ti
are: 1) Food crops; prawns, mango and nitrogen and
Ta;iti lime. 2) Spice crops; more than EFFECTS
eight dry spices including basil, chives and PLANTING
majoram. 3) Beverage crops; such as tea, TINGS ON
guava and wine grapes. TATO (IPOA
HIGH QUALITY SINGLE CELL PRO- Franklin W.
TEIN; AN ETHANOL FERMENTATION Research St
BY-PRODUCT, Richard Moore, Office of Service, U.S
the Governor, P.O. Box 580, St. Thomas, Mayaguez. P
V.I. 00801. When th
In recent years a transformation in from vine
chemical technology has created a bur- different pei
geoning opportunity for the Ag. sector cutting and


Crops Sc
e valuable chemicals, on a
:ale. Specifically, ethanol,
rom commodities such as
igar cane, has become an
industrial commodity. The
process generates a low
and two co-products; an
e (costly to dispose of) and
Je.
the effluent has been suc-
verted to a protein substance,
sugar cane fiber and fed to
ood results. A second genera-
rmentation processing has
affluent which can be conver-
even higher.qualtiy protein
the current 16-22 per cent

r is developed in two parts.
its an historical background,
of the conversion process
ent of this feed stock's
Part II, examines the
ethanol fermentation capa-
ment in the Caribbean and
I significant of this protein
o the development of more
t animal protein production


ISON OF TILLAGE AND
AGE AT DIFFERENT FER-
VELSFOR SWEET POTATO
)N. F.A. Gumbs, Faculty of
U.W.I., St. Augustine, Trini-

ribbean the normal methods
aration for root crop produc-
ventional tillage using motor-
quipment or the preparation
mounds with hand tools. The
iod is costly, not affordable
mall farmers or machinery
available when needed and
stricts the area that can be
y the farmer. This study
he yield of sweet potato
atatas) under conventional
Ilage and different levels of
potassium fertilization.
S OF PRE- AND POST-
TREATMENTS OF CUT-
YIELD OF THE SWEET PO-
O4EA BA TA TAS (L.) LAM.)
Martin, Tropical Agriculture
ation, Agriculture Research
Department of Agriculture
uerto Rico.
e sweet potato is planted
cuttings it passes through a
riod of healing the wound of
initiating roots. Therefore,


society
the initial treatment of the cutting is
very important. The effects of 4 simple
practices, removal of leaves of cuttings
versus non-removal, holding the cutting
for two days and stimulating roots
versus immediate planting, delayed versus
immediate irrigation, and planting in the
morning versus planting in the afternoon,
were tested in small, replicated trials with
4 clones of sweet potato. Removal of
leaves reduced respiration and water loss
but delayed establishment and reduced
yields. Holding cuttings two days and sti-
mulating rooting increased the number of
storage roots and thus yield. Delayed
irrigation tended to reduce size of storage
roots. Planting in the morning versus
afternoon did not significantly affect
any yield components. Thus, leaves
should be left on cuttings. Cuttings
should be prerooted before planting,
and immediate irrigation appears benefi-
cial.
PRELIMINARY CHARACTERISA-
TION OFYAM (DIOSCOREASPP) GERM-
PLASM CULTIVATED IN DOMINICA.
Barton A. Clarke, CARDI, P.O. Box 346,
ROSEAU, Commonwealth of Dominica.
Nineteen (19) yam accessions cultivated
in Dominica were grown at the Botantic
Gardens and La Plaine Agricultural Station
sites to assess their potential for further
development. Using the descriptors for
yam of the International Board for Plant
Genetic Resources selected data on
species, habit, stem and leaf characteris-
tics, underground tubers and disease sus-
ceptibility were recorded. Amongst the
nineteen (19) accessions there were two
(2) D. trifida, one (1) each of D. cayanen-
sis D. rotundata, D. escultenta and D. bul-
bifera, and the remainder were D. alata.
Anthracnose disease was observed on some
of the D. alata accessions only. On the
basis of this preliminary characterization
the D. alata accessions "White Yam"
and "Kaplaou" have been included as
local checks in on-farm trials to evaluate
imported selections for tolerance to
anthracnose.
EVALUATION OF TOMATO BREED-
ING LINES FOR RESISTANCE TO AND
CONTROL OF SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII.
C.K. Bonsi, C. Stevens, E.G. Rhoden
and V. Khan GWC-Agricultural Experi-
ment Station, Tuskegee University, TUS-
KEGEE, AL 36088.
Results of experiments conducted to
evaluate several tomato breeding lines for
resistance to S. rolfsii showed that toma-
Continued on next page
25


Caribbean Farming, November 1986









toes carry very little resistance to this
pathogen. However, L. pimpinellifolium
and some of its breeding lines were found
to be resistant. Crop rotation using re-
sistant or tolerant bell and hot pepper
and bambara groundnut varieties signi-
ficantly reduced the incidence of disease
when followed by a susceptible tomato
cultivar. Foliar applications of Bravo and
Dithane M-45 at 1 or 2 L/ha and 1.2 or
2.4 kg/ha respectively to control early
blight and significantly increased yields of
tomatoes. Applications of Tilt (1 [2 (2,
4 Dichlorophemyl) -4 propyl 1,
3 dioxolan -2 -yl methly] 1 H 1,
2, 4 triazole) in both greenhouse and
field studies reduced the incidence and
severity of the disease on sweet banana
peppers. Although plants showed phy-
totoxicity when dipped in solutions of
Tilt, fairly good control was achieved when
plants were inoculated 2 or more weeks
after dipping in the fungicide solution
before transplanting.
ST. VINCENT'S PILOT PROJECT IN
EXPORTS OF VEGETABLES TO USA/
PUERTO RICO IN JANUARY-MARCH,
1986. Leon F. Hesser, P.O. Box 102,
Kingstown, St. Vincent.


In Jer 1985, St. Vincent's Ministry
of Trade, Industry and Agriculture ini-
tiated a 100-acre pilot project, financed
by the U.S. Agency for International
Development and coordinated by RONCO
Consulting Corp., to export cucumbers,
zucchini squash, sweet peppers, eggplant
and watermelon during January, February
and March 1986. The objective was to
learn about possibilities and constraints
in producing and exporting high-quality
vegetables in the markets were laudatory
about the quality of produce. Except for
zucchini, which suffered from a combi-
nation of maladies, production was good
to excellent. Transit time with available
shipping to the U.S. was too long except
for watermelons which graded No. 1 for
several refrigerated container-loads after
17 days at sea. Puerto Rico was an
excellent market for watermelon, but was
soft for the other vegetables. Sweet
peppers to London by air did reasonably
well; eggplant could not carry the freight.
FARMER ORGANIZATION; AN EX-
PERIENCE OF MARKETING OF NON-
TRADITIONAL EXPORT CROPS IN
THE SOUTH EASTERN DISTRICT OF
DOMINICA. Michael Genthon, F.T.C./


T.R.E.D.U., P.O. Box 368, Roseau, Do-
minica.
Marketing of Food Crop is a main
problem in the South Eastern District
of Dominica (very limited local market,
bad access to the main Port). Therefore,
farmers' groups in the District have been
tackling the problem for a year and a
half.
This paper presents how these groups
were formed to meet the problem how the
Extension Staff initiated and directed the
process and the evolution of the common
approach (Extension Staff/farmer) to this
problem.
EVALUATION OF TOMATO VARIE-
TIES FOR OFF-SEASON PRODUCTION
IN JAMAICA. Joseph R. R. Suah, CARD,
P.O. Box 113, Kingston, Jamaica.
Eight (8) tomato varieties were tested
for fruit set and production outside of
regular planting times. Tropic and Roma
were used as joint control to compare
five varieties from Asia. No statistical dif-
ferences were detected at the 5% level ;f
significance.


Caribbean Farming, November 1986


Cocoa Farming

............

The Smart Choice


DID YOU KNOW THAT
YOU CAN-
y Earn at least J$50.50 for every box of cocoa
you produce
* Guarantee yourself a higher dollar return from
every acre of land when you plant cocoa with
other crops.



MAKE THE DECISION TO PLANT COCOA...

IT'S THE CHOICE OF WISE FARMERS
For further information, contact:
The Cocoa Industry Board
P.O. Box 68
Marcus Garvey Drive
Kingston 15










Notes from CARIRI Technical

Information Services


The coconut industry in Trinidad and
Tobago has recently been the focus of
much attention in the national thrust
to develop the agricultural sector of our
economy. Of the 10,000 hectares of ar-
able land suitable for coconut cultivation,
6,500 are being utilized. Coconut oil
has been the traditional product manu-
factured locally, but coconut is a natural
raw material for the production of a
variety of consumer goods. There is good
reason for not discarding the rest of the
coconut after extraction of oil, and the
veaue added by further processing can
bi ng additional monetary gain to the
in ustry. In addition, the development
ar I utilization of new equipment such as.
th labour-saving coconut dehusker will
in *ease the overall efficiency of the in-
di try.
"he concept of integrated coconut
pr( :essing is not new, and is based on
op mal utilization of the crop in any
par icular area. It can be used to com-
ple lent already existing copra and oil
pro essing, or to build up entirely new in-
dus ries, particularly in areas of coconut
reh, jilitation. Basic and secondary pro-
cess ng can yield a range of products with
pot itial for local use as well as for ex-
por from the meat, water, shell, husk,
brar :hes and stem of the palm. These in-
clue numerous products which could
save valuable foreign exchange such as
cha :oal, soap, activated carbon, parquet,
brick ettes, rubberized fibre for mat-
tres s and car seats, filters, soil condi-
tior rs, desiccated coconut, coconut
cre; n and pasteurized/carbonated water.
I or systematic development of a
maj r coconut industry, the establish-
mei t of a wet-processing plant for oil
ext action is considered essential The tra-
ditional method of oil extraction yields
oil ;ind a residue fit only for animal feed.
We:-processing by comparison, yields a
very high quality oil, a protein concen-
trate which could be used to supplement
bread and other foods, and the tasty,
nutritious water of medicinal value,
which now goes to waste.
Wet-processing can give rise to a
variety of industries to exploit all the
other parts of the coconut, which are
traditionally ignored. The thick husk
which -surrounds the coconut shell com-
prises 1/3 of the coconut, and is itself
composed of 1/3 fibre and 2/3 dust. Both
are valuable resources, but frequently one
or the other becomes waste. The dust is a
good soil conditioner, and the fibre or


coir can be used in agricultural filters, or
rubberized in the manufacture of mattres-
ses and upholstery. Rubberized coir car
seats are extensively used by leading Ger-
man and Italian car manufacturers, no-
tably Mercedes, BMW and Fiat.
However, coir and other coconut by-
products have never been given due re-
cognition, because of the bias towards oil,
which can also be processed into more
sophisticated products. Coconut oil is
used in the manufacture of edible, non-
edible and industrial products such as
margarine, confectionery, soaps, cos-
metics, pharmaceuticals, explosives and
paint. When used as a coating for ice
cream bars, coconut oil remains very hard
during storage, but melts quickly and com-
pletely in the mouth when eaten. It gives
biscuits a glossy appearance, and its good
creaming quality makes it ideal for use as
a biscuit filling Because of its unique
chemical properties, coconut oil is used in
the manufacture of high lathering soaps,
which retain their brilliant whiteness and
cleansing power in hard water, as well as
sea water. The biodegradability of coco-
nut-oil and its unique combination of
water-loving, water-repellant properties
are desirable in the manufacture of sur-
face-active agents used to produce fabric
softenders, automotive cleaners, synthetic
perfumes and softening agents for plastics.
Glycerines produced from coconut oil
are extensively used in the preparation
of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, as a
base material for paints, and in the manu-
facture of explosives.
It is notable that petrochemical-based
synthetic products from twine to poly-
bags, hairbrushes, glycerine and acti-
vated carbon can all be made locally from
coconut. These are solid foundations for
an important industry, which point the
way to coconut rehabilitation and inte-
grated processing of the crop in Trinidad
and Tobago. We need to carefully con-
sider, however, such factors as plant cen-
tralization, cost of machinery, consis-
tency of raw material supply, and markets
for end products.
The Technical Information Service of
CARIRI provides information on coco-
nuts, in such areas as processing, equip--
ment suppliers, patents and international
standards.
Write to:-
Technical Information Services
Caribbean Industrial Research Institute
Tunapuna P.O.
Trinidad.


Caribbean Farming, November 1986


Fast Growing

Trees

For many people, says Donald Thomp-
son, planting trees is a new experience.
Certainly it must be a new (and distur-
bing) experience to people who have
been cutting timber and firewood from
someone else's land all their lives and
now find that this is no longer possible.
For one reason or another, many thou-
sands of farmers in the Caribbean region
will be well advised to plant some trees
other that the orange, avocado and mango
which are our orchard species. Firewood
supplies and timber for sawing are both
running out; windbreaks have in some
places been destroyed. Even (maybe
especially) where the farmer owns only a
few acres, somehow space will have to
be found for some trees on just about
every farm holding in this Region.
The Organisation of American States
(OAS) has since 1982 supported the
Department of Forestry and Soil Con-
servation in Jamaica's Ministry of Agri-
culture in a Caribbean Region Leucaena
Project. One product of this operation is
a useful 36-page booklet, LEUCAENA
LEUCOCEPHALA AND OTHER FAST
GROWING TREES written (and illustra-
ted for the most part) by Mr. Thompson.
The booklet will be useful to farmers on
holdings of whatever size, to extension
workers and to students in primary and
secondary schools. For many readers it
will provide an introduction to the
"alley" method of growing food crops
in strips between hedges of taller plants
or trees which are cut back from time to
time as their material becomes usable for
firewood or poles. The technique seems
to have been developed in Tropical
Africa in areas where firewood and poles
are no longer available "in the bush." a
great deal of work on this technique has
been done at the International Insti-
tute for Tropical Agriculture at Ibadan in
Nigeria.
The first part of Mr. Thompson's
booklet deals with techniques of
planning, growing seedlings, planting out
and harvesting. The rest of the booklet
gives some information on nine species of
fast-growing trees some of which are
familiar to people in the Caribbean. There
is a printer's error on page 16 of the
booklet the size of a cord of wood is
given as 36 cu. ft. It is, in fact, 128 cu. ft.
The booklet is available at OAS offices
throughout the Caribbean and from some
forestry department offices.
27















F_ -I

INTERNATOA

INSTIUT


Agrometeorology


and


crop protection


There is a dire need to establish in each
country a multidisciplinary body compri-
sing agrometeorologosts, farmers, crop
scientists and plant protection special-
ists to constantly exchange ideas for the
purpose of protecting crops against
diseases, insects and weed pests. In ad-
dition, a broader use of climatic know-
ledge to improve the choice of crop
varieties and improved cultural practices
suitable for each ecological zone are
desirable.
These are some of the recommenda-
tions adopted at a recent international
conference on agrometeorology and crop
protection in the humid and subhumid
tropics, held at the sub-station of the
International Institute of Tropical Agri-
culture (IITA), Cotonou, Peoples' Repub-
lic of Benin. The conference which drew
about 60 participants from different
parts of the world was jointly organized
by the IITA, the World Meteorological
Organization (WMO) the Food and
Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the
Organization of African Unity (OAU).
Conference participants observed that
hundreds of millions of tonnes of grain are
lost to pests favoured by climatic condi-
tions annually. They therefore recom-
mended effective disseminationa of agro-
meteorological information as an econo-
mic pest control measure for tropical
farmers.
In his opening address, the Beninois
Minister of Transport and Equipment,
Camarade Gado Girigissou described the
conference as timely in view of the
prevailing climatic problems with devas-
tating effects on crops and culminating in
famine in many parts of Africa today.
He advised that the outcome of the
deliberations be made available to every
28


national agricultural extension department
in Africa for effective utilization. This is
important, he emphasized, because the
farmers who really need the information
are too far removed from the information
centers.
Weather factors affecting the develop-
ment and population dynamics of crop
insect pests and diseases cut across all
seasons and geographical zones. There is
no disease or insect pest which is not
favoured by a particular climatic con-
dition temperature, relative humidity,
rainfall pattern, wind, light and darkness,
etc.
"In plant pathology," according to Dr.
Jan Zadoks of the Laboratory of Phyto-
pathology, Biennenhaven, The Netherlands,
"the complex reality is symbolically
represented by disease triangle . in
which the crop, the pathogen and the
weather occupy the corners; crop and
pathogen at the base of the triangle
influence each other, while the weather at
the top affects the crop, the pathogen
and their interactions." A timely warning
of possible attack or invasion of known
diseases and insect pests may prepare the
farmer for the challenges and arm him with
cost-effective measures to protect his
crops. But disease warning systems can
be functional only when the message can
be delivered to farmers in a form which
they can understand and handle.
This is where the training of agro-
meteorologists for effective information
dissemination comes in. In the view of Dr.
Louis Jackai, a cowpea entomologist with
IITA, the number of agrometeorologists
in the tropics is too small to be function-
ally effective. In addition, the existing
meteorological service stations operate
in a more general perspective without


adequate attention to the relevance of
meteorological forecasts to crop protet-
tion. Whereas shortage of personnel end
equipment were identified as handic ps
for effective operations, it was also bb-
served that the interaction betw en
existing meteorological stations and z ]ri-
cultural centers in many tropical coun! ies
leaves much to be desired. How else an
one explain the establishment of 'ri-
cultural research stations without prn es-
sional agrometeorologists to complern .nt
the studies of crop breeders, entom lIo-
gists, pathologists and crop protect on
specialists?
Speaking on agrometeorological ef cts
on maize diseases Dr. B.L. Renfro, rr ize
pathologist with the International Ce ter
for Wheat and Maize Improver 3nt
(CIMMYT) in Mexico, concluded iat
agrometeorology is a dominant factor in
the determination of the prevalence tnd
severity of maize diseases. Maize, s a
warm weather crop has a broad gei stic
diversity which permits it to be grown ver
a wide range of climatic conditions. ess
light during the growing season, high r ght
temperatures, and generally higher :re-
quency of flood and drought are fe, of
the constraints posed by weather on-
ditions on maize yields. After har 'st,
various molds cause deterioration to (c in
stored under high-moisture and wi m-
temperature conditions. Timely plan ing
is an effective control measure against sjch
diseases as bacterial wilt and maize dwarf
mosaic.
According to Dr. J.M. Fajemisin,
maize breeder with the IITA, the maize
streak virus disease (MSV) which is the
most severe in tropical Africa, is associated
with high temperature and irregular rain-
fall pattern. The disease which often
Continued on page 30
Caribbean Farming, November 1986









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Agrometeorology Continued from page 28


causes 25-75 percent yield loss is trans-
mitted by a biotic agent Cicadulina leaf-
hopper. It is windborne and thrives
better in the second maize growing
season. Vector activity is considerably
reduced during the rainy season so plant-
ing of early-maturing varieties is an effect-
ive control measure where resistant
varieties are not available.


to design some control programs.
In general, diseases caused by biotic
pathogens are limited to those areas where
the environment is simultaneoulsy favor-
able for a sufficient time period for the
host, the pathogen and any necessary
vector. As the climate varies, the geo-
graphical distribution of diseases also
varies. But the humid and subhumid


Participants at the conference
Participants at the conference.


Effects of weather on maize diseases
are not too different from the effects of
climatic conditions on all other tropical
crops. This was asserted by Dr. K.M. Lema,
an IITA root and tuber entomologist,
when he described potato weevil (Cylas
spp.) as a seasonal pest. He said the weevils
are scarce in the rainy season and increase
to damaging levels only in the dry season.
Figures provided by him showed that
delay in harvesting sweet potato till the
dry season may cause at least 10 percent
loss of crop to weevil attack while a farm-
er who plants entirely in the dry season
stands the risk of losing as much as 40
percent of his crop yields to the pest. For
control, he suggested planting early
enough in the rainy season and harvesting
before the dry season sets in.
Speaking in a similar vein bn the effect
of army worms which attacked vegetables,
tomatoes and legumes in ,ome Sahelian
countries of West Africa'in 1980-1984,
Dr. Souleymane Bah, director of the
Guinean Laboratory for Plant Protection
said the spread of the worms depends on
climatic conditions. He said they thrive
better under a temperature of 350C and
relative humidity of 250C while heavy
rainfall checks their spread. He advocated
an exchange of crop scientists and plant
protection experts by different countries
30


tropics are of unique interest to the
conference participants because nowhere
on earth do plant diseases, insects and
weeds take such a heavy toll. The tropical
farmer is in no position to take much
risk unless he believes the possibility of
gain is great enough for him to take the
chance. He has been left for too long to
gamble with nature and his environment.
D. Pedgley of the Tropical Develop-
ment and Research Institute, London,
remarked that agrometeorologists do not
often invoke synoptic meteorology when
helping to solve problems of agriculture.
He said individual weather events can in-
deed be significant, e.g. heavy rain causing
wash-out, or strong winds causing lodging,
whereas plant growth and crop yield are
determined largely by cumulative wea-
ther influences over weeks or months.
Even so, winds on particular days can
bring insect pests into a crop. Explaining
weather effects of migrant insect pests of
agriculture, and with reference to the de-
sert locust Schistocerca gregaria and the
African army worm moth, Spodoptera
exempt, Pedgley said migrant insects
aided by wind may move hundreds of
kilometers in a life time. And even in a
few days or nights, they have great fecun-
dity. Interestingly, such insects are adap-
ted to hosts that are temporary, either


because of their seasonality of growth
due to rains or cold, or because of a limi-
ted duration of the edible stage such as
fruits or flowers.
Migration by flight takes place in
stages, take-off, displacement, landing.
Each of these stages is affected by the
weather, particularly temperature and
wind. Flying insects can be concentrated
in zones of strong wind\ convergence,
particularly wind shift lines associated
with. sea breeze fronts and outflows
from convective storms.
Such concentrations according to
Pedgely can lead to mass arrivals and
subsequent severe damage to crops The
movements af notable insect migrants
e.g. the desert locust have been widely
studied and incorporated into monthly
forecasts for many years to warn people
of the spread of infestations.
It is not only crops that are vulnerable
to the attack of windborne virus diseases.
There is growing evidence that a vari ty
of biting flies that spread animal disee:es
including mosquitoes, midges and bl ck
flies undertake long distance, airbc ne
migrations. The black fly Simul im
damnosium for example is know tc be
the carrier of the parasite causing ri 'er-
blindness in West Africa. An integr: .ed
approach system for weather forecast nd
warning against the invasion of ( op
pests for effective crop protection c uld
also be an effective safety device or )re-
ventive measure against animal and hu nan
diseases.
Conference participants therefore re-
commended frequent or regular us of
the media especially radio, televi on,
newspapers and handbills both in the
rural areas and urban centers and ir the
language of the people as a wa, of
reaching the right audience more al pro-
priately.Weather forecasts and approp iate
warnings can reach farmers more qu -kly
through them. Participants also err ha-
sized the role of well-trained exter sion
workers who can combine meteorolc jicai
knowledge with agronomy and SLU ply
farmers with farming calendars st tint
the type of diseases and insect jest!
likely to attack crops at particular pe- iods
of the year and what farmers should do
to protect their crops. Above all, it was
recommended that scientists should in-
tensify efforts to provide farmers with
improved cultivars and cost-effective
cultural practices to reduce loss due to
the attack of diseases, insects and weed
pests.
Taye Babaleye
Communications Associate
IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria.


Caribbean Farming, November 1981













International Development

Centre


1986 Publications List

The International Development Re-
search Centre is a public corporation cre-
ated by the Parliament of Canada in 1970
to support research designed to adapt
science and technology to the needs of
dev loping countries.
'he Centre's activity is concentrated
in five sectors; agriculture; food and
nut ition sciences; health sciences; in-
for, nation sciences; social sciences; com-
mu ications.

Hea quarters of IDRC are in Ottawa,
Can; da.
T ie 1986 publications list of IDRC in-
cludf s titles in a number of subjects with-
in a d around the general area of the
Cent e's interests. Some publications are


available in English, French and Spanish.
There is a modest charge for publications.
However, requests from libraries insti-
tutions, researchers and administrators in
developing countries for free copies are
given special consideration.

Requests from Africa, Asia, Latin
America and the Middle East should be
directed to the nearest regional office.
Southeast & East Asia
IDRC
Tanglin P.O. Box 101
Singapore 9124
Republic of Singapore
South Asia
IDRC
11 Johr Bagh
New Delhi 110003
INDIA


Eastern &Southern Africa
IDRC
P.O. Box 62084
Nairobi, KENYA
Middle East & North Africa
IDRC/CRDI
P.O. Box 14 Orman
GIZA, CAIRO
Egypt.
West & Central Africa
CRDI
B.P. 11007, CD Annexe
Dakar,
SENEGAL

Latin America & the Caribbean
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Intensive Weed Management

Course 1987


The International Plant Protection
Center at Oregon State University (U.S.)
will again conduct an intensive 3-week
Weed Management Strategies shortcourse
in 1987.
The course emphasizing research
and methods for developing countries -
is specifically designed for specialists in
agriculture and will be devoted to provi-
ding practical information in a "hands-
on" format.
"Response to the first course, in 1986,
was very encouraging," IPPC Director
S.F. Miller said. "It attracted participants
from seven countries on three continents
and, we felt, provided them with exactly
the kind of applicable information they
sought."
The 1987 WMS course, scheduled
from July 13-31 at Corvallis, Oregon,
32


again will utilize university facilities
including a nearby research farm where
participants will, after reviewing field re-
search methods, conduct experiments
they design themselves. Research results
will be reported in a classroom where
activities aremore "interactive information
sharing sessions rather than stiff, one-way
directed lectures," according to IPPC
training coordinator, M.D. Shenk.
Each WMS course participant receives
a mini-library of weed management tech-
nical publications (worth approx. $US250)
for use during the course as well as
free shipment to the participant's duty
post following the course.
The WMS course is purposefully de-
signed for researchers, graduate students,
and government specialists involved with
conducting or administering weed man-


agement programs, particularly in siti
nations where available resource: ai
often severely limited. Participants nee.
a command of spoken English and nini
mum of a bachelor's degree or aqui
valent.

The basic course fee is US$ ,60'
and covers matriculation, single occu, 3nci
lodging, meals, *and all supplies an:
transportation during the course. Pai
ticipants are responsible for their ow
financial support including the course
fee, transportation to and from Oregon
and personal expenses. Scholarships ar
not available.
A free information brochure is avail
able from: WMS Course, Internationi!
Plant Protection Center, Oregon Stat
University, Corvallis, OR 97331/USA.











New Grass Killer


CARIBBEAN FARMING asked John
Allen of Agro Grace Ltd. to tell our read-
ers about FUSILADE, the new grass-killer
from ICI. Here is what Mr. Allen told
us:-
In the Caribbean region, weed con-
trol is effected to varying degrees by
hand, mechanical or chemical methods.
The predominance of one over the other
is often dependent on crop, terrain, avail-
ali!ity of labour or availability of the cor-
rect type of herbicide or equipment.
ri ,es often there is predominance of
har J weeding in vegetable or small scale
ag culture e while a mixture of mechani-
cal nd chemical weed control predomi-
na in plantation type or large scale
agr jlture.
H d weeding compared to chemi-
cal feeding has always been more labor-
ious and expensive; however, the fear of
dam ge by chemicals to crops has always
led ie untrained and less experienced
farrr n to opt for hand weeding.
It for these reasons and added ad-
vant !es that 'FUSILADE' represents a
maji advance in the control of grasses
in b ad-leaved crops.
Fl ;ILADE is a new concept herbi-
cide developed by Imperial Chemical In-
dus. es (ICI). This herbicide is based on
the, tive ingredient fluazifop-butyl which
is a member of an entirely new chemical
farr with special herbicidal properties.
NoW the farmer can apply a selective
her' cide for the post-emergence control
of nual and perennial grass weeds with-
Sout .ear of damage or adverse effects on
his I oad-leaved crops.
Th attractive feature is that the farm-
er c n wait to see if he has a grass weed
prot iem and then goes in and apply the
spra! over the top of his broad-leaved
crol. The result will be the death of acti-
vely growing grasses while the broad-
leaved crop will continue growing with-
out damage.
FUSILADE has been found to be safe
in over 60 different crops. In Jamaica our
experience so far with this herbicide has
been in tomatoes and peppers, melons,
pumpkins, cucumbers, onions. Fusilade
has also found an application in banana
and coffee plantations.
Grass weeds controlled under Jamaican
conditions include;-
Bahama grass Cynodon dactylon
Guinea grass Panicum
maximum
Johnson grass Sorghum
halepense


- Carpet grass Axonopus
compressus
- Corn grass Rottoboellia
exaltata
- Fowl foot Eleusine indica


grass
- Jungle Rice

- Napier Grass


- Echinochloa
colonum
- Pennisetum
Purpureum


FUSILADE is also a useful product in
a crop rotation programme where it may
be necessary to eliminate volunteer re-
growth of members of the grass family.

The activity of FUSILADE permits a
good kill of the target grass weeds from
seedlings up to flowering. This allows the
farmer some flexibility in the timing of
his application.

However, it is important to point out
at this stage that the longer the crop is
left to compete with weeds the greater
the loss of production to competition for
nutrients, light, water and air. Further-
more, heavy weed infestation will also be
a haven for other pests and diseases.
FUSILADE is conveniently packed as
a liquid emulsifiable concentrate which is
easy to measure, to pour and to disperse

A. ,


in the spray tank. It is currently packaged
in 25 litres, 1 litre and 250 cc units which
makes the product available in quantities
and proportionate value to allow even the
very small farmer to purchase amounts to
meet his immediate requirements.
Stringent tests, carried out in both
laboratory and the field have shown
'FUSILADE' to have a high margin of
safety. It has low mammalian toxicity
and is safe to birds, bees, earthworms and
other soil and water organisms. It is how-
ever, moderately toxic to fish. The chemi-
cal degrades rapidly in the environment.

FUSILADE is rapidly metabolised in
plants at recommended rates, residues in
crops at harvest are so minute as to be
virtually non-detectable and of no haz-
ard to the consumer.
Concern is usually expressed about
maximum time of application before
harvest of the crop. This varies between
4 to 8 weeks depending on the crop.
Allow at least 4 weeks between spray and
harvest for root and tuber vegetables, let-
tuce, tomatoes, egg plants, melons, pump-
kins, cucumbers and peppers. For all
other vegetables an 8 week interval is
necessary.
No interval is necessary following basal
application to tree crops, pineapples and
bananas.


Harvesting Lettuce in Urenada.


JLV UY Mdarly OlUdIM. 33











The "Good Guys" and "Bad


Guys" in Asian Ricefields


Los Banos, Philippines Few farmers
know that most of the insects in their
fields.
The friendly insects, which biological
scientists call "good guys", constitute
most of the insect population in a typical
Asian ricefield. In fact, there are about 800
species of friendly insects in most rice-
fields they outnumber the "bad guys"
by as much as five to one.
The "bad guys" are those insect pests


to 20 brown planthoppers (BPH), one of
Asia's most destructive rice pests, as well
as several stemborers (photo 2). The small
predaceous bugs called microvelia that
live on the surface of flooded ricefields
attack all planthoppers and leafhoppers.
Leaffolder populations are controlled
by several local insects, including pre-
datory beetles (photo 3). The tiny wasp
parasite Goniozus lays eggs inside leaf-
folder larvae. Another wasp, Telenomus


predatory beetle feeding on a young larva of the rice leoffolder.


(brown planthoppers, black bugs, stem
borers, and defoliators) that attack crops.
The "good guys" are rich communities of
predators (spiders, beetles, crickets), para-
sites (wasps, some fly species), and micro-
bial pathogens or diseases that prey on
the "bad guys" and keep them in check.

"The good guys are really the 'farmer's
friends' because they attack and can usu-
ally control rice pests without insect-
icides," emphasizes Dr. B. Merle Shepard,
entomologist at the International Rice
Research Institute (IRRI).

The good guys devour most of the eggs
laid by the bad guys, Shepard says (photo
1). They also attack larvae and even adults.

but the tradegy of the good guys, or
beneficial insects, is that many farmers
consider all insects harmful.
To illustrate the usefulmess of the
friendly insects, Shepard points out:
In 1 day a single wolf spider can kill 10


cyrus, parasitizes the eggs of the black bug,
a serious rice pest in Palawan province,
Philippines.
Dr. Shepard warns that spraying farm
fields with potent insecticides wipes out
both the good and bad guys. Unfortunately,
the pests can re-colonize the crop faster
than the beneficial insects.
"Clearly, rice in most of Asia is over-
treated with insecticides," observes Dr.
James Litsinger, another IRRI entomolo-
gist. "This is disturbing, considering that
natural enemies often control insect pests
better than insecticides and at no cost."
Spraying may even give pests an advant-
age ove natural enemies. For instance, BPH
infestations are often induced when
insecticide applications are early and are
repeated as "insurance sprays."
"In many areas," Shepard notes, "most
of the rice probably never needs insecticide
- yet farmers spray three or four times.
In fact,werecently surveyed 115 Philippine


ricefields and found none where insect-
icide applications were profitable."

IRRI research indicates that over-use
and improper application of chemicals
has caused insecticide-resistant pests to
develop and has increased the costs of
pest control beyond economic levels,
Furthermore, excessive insecticide appli-
cations have side effects, including human
and animal health problems and water
and soil pollution.

"But insecticides are sometimes nef 1-
ed," Shepard says. "When necessa ,
highly selective chemicals should e
applied in minimum effective doses -it
the right time."

In recent years, scientists have cor -n-
trated on "integrated pest manager it"
or IPM, which Litsinger and Cai ida
Adalla, entomologist of the Univers; of
the Philippines at Los Banos, de, ibe
as "a strategy or plan that uses v ous
tactics or control methods cu' tral,
plant resistance, biological, ano che lical
- in a harmonious way." IPM deper s on
multidisciplinary ecological strategic that
weigh the effect of each tactic as p rt of
the agroecosystem to produce the least
disturbance and yield loss over tht long
run.

Although the IPM concept has een
around for about 20 years, the ge be-
tween the concept and practice is w in
developing countries.

"The IPMphilosophy,"Shepard str ses,
"came about largely when the unsc nd-
ness of total reliance on chemical cc .rol
was recognized."

Unfortunately, the IRRI scier tists
note, there is often a delusion that IF M is
a panacea to solve all pest problems. "'hey
stress that sophisticated IPM programs
requiring a cadre of trained personnel,
highly technical equipemnt, and irfor-
mation delivery systems are not appropr ate
for Third World farmers. IPM programs
should be implemented within the context
of the sociaeconomic situation of a par.
ticular region rather than by simple tech-
nology transfer.


Caribbean Farming, November 1986







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We provide technical services for all our products
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We offer a comprehensive range of farm, garden
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