Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Back Cover

Title: Caribbean farming
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101460/00016
 Material Information
Title: Caribbean farming
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Mona, Jamaica
Publication Date: May 1986
Copyright Date: 1969
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101460
Volume ID: VID00016
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 3116219

Table of Contents
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    Table of Contents
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        Page 3
        Page 4
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    Back Cover
        Page 35
        Page 36
Full Text

CaribbeanMAY 1986

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__ Agricultural
Yamada Supplies SUBSIDIARY OF
Versatile Toft and

FREDERICK PARKER CRUSHERS & CEMENT 379 Spanish Town Road, Kingston 11
F _E PMIXERS Telephone: 92-39251.
Caribbean Chemicals & Services (Jamaica) Limited

"\ I

a one-stop
investment agency.
And would like to make
you an offer.
If you want to take advantage of
Jamaica's investment opportunities,
come to us. We make the investment process
Technical assistance, market intelligence, finding
and linking joint venture partners, and the identification
of sources of finance are part of our expertise.
JNIP responds to all enquiries on investment in Jamaica, and will
advise you on available opportunities. We cover manufacturing, agriculture
and tourism. We maintain close links with all government ministries and agencies.
All formal investment proposals come to us because we expedite your project.
Your ideas remain confidential with us. Let's talk.

Jamaica National Investment Promotion Limited
Jamaica Development Bank Building 15 Oxford Road Kingston 5 Jamaica Telephone 929-7190-5 Telex 2222 JANIPRO

We make



Lfor you.



- FAR INMAY 1986 ,


EDITORIAL ................. ....................................... . .7
ZERO GRAZING & A TIE-STALL SYSTEM A Workable alternative for
dairying on a limited acreage ................................................... 8
RED POLL AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT ................. ........................10
INTESTINAL WORMS A Prime Killer of Young Dogs..................................12
BLACK BELLY SHEEP ....................................................... 13
COCOA RESEARCH IN TRINIDAD& TOBAGO ............ .................. .........16
MOST DANGEROUS TROPICAL TICK ...........................................23
CARIBBEAN FOOD CROPS SOCIETY MEETING .....................................26
CARDI FACT SHEETS FOR LIVESTOCK FARMERS ................................. 26
VETERAN CATTLEMAN TELLS HIS STORY ......................... ..............26
YAM RESEARCH WILL CUT PRODUCTION COSTS ..................................27
EDUCATION FOR AGRICULTURE The Eastern Caribbean Institute
of Agriculture & Forestry ................................. ................... 29
Planter ..................................................................30
PUBLICATIONS CARDI'S LEUCEANA A Versatile Plant ............................ 32
AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMME ...............................................34
WYE COLLEGE AND WORLD FAMINE ..........................................34
STORING FRESH CASSAVA: The Problem is in the bag ................................34
LETTER TO THE EDTOR ............................... ................... 34

S Jamaica Red Polls being judged
at Denbigh 1984

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Developing nations have always marvelled at and envied the
production and productivity of the agricultural sectors of the
developed nations. These developed economies have come to
our aid and rescue many times following drought and disaster,
yet the statistics support the thesis that the countries of the
developing world have the necessary arable land to be just as pro-
ductive as their benefactors.
What are the major constraints preventing the developing
nations from being more productive? There is no shortage of
reasons for the present situation, yet we believe that one area
that is often mentioned but not given the attention it deserves
is tia need for PLANNING. Regardless of how it is defined,
effe, :ive and efficient planning can only be achieved when the
pro( ssing begins with a reliable data base.
L .t us examine the situation in the developed nations and
two )asic factors underline their consistent high production of
agric itural commodities which are given and sold to developing
nati( s; these are:
(planning in the agricultural sector is on a long term basis,
with clearly defined objectives;
(i planning is derived from a reliable data-base.
T se two factors are required for sound planning and effi-
:ienp production, supported by the technical, managerial,
finar, dl and human resources.
In he Caribbean, as in so much of the developing world,
we n )gnise the value of agriculture, both for domestic needs
and eign exchange earnings, yet we have consistently failed
to st .ture our agricultural sectors in a way that will achieve our
expr. :d objectives. All sorts of excuses (some very legitimate
and ie quite lame) are offered for our failure. Undoubtedly,
there e many factors (some beyond our control) which militate
again realisation of our admirable objectives but without a
doub i prime contributing factor is the unreliability of absence
of a liable data base for efficient planning, both short and
long i m, in our agricultural sectors.
Le is look at some examples:
a) -low much and how reliable is our information on the
amount of arable land available for production? amount
cultivated? by how many farmpr and in what crops with

what yield? What are the sizes of the farms? How much
is irrigable? irrigated?
b) What is the size and composition of the livestock popula-
tion by type, category, breed, sex, and age? What are the
major production parameters e.g. conception, birth,
mortality? How much land is used in rearing livestock?
How much is in improved pastures? How many animals
are slaughtered? How much meat is produced?
These are just some of the questions for which we can often
not find adequate and reliable answers. The situation is further
compounded by the fact that several agencies set about collect-
ing the above, each with different objectives and data collected
can rarely be found in any central data bank. The result wide
ranging variation of data quoted and used, on the same subject,
depending on the source. Such a situation leaves a lot to be de-
We are now in the 'computer age' and the wonders of its
use abound for all to see. All our economists, planners and
managers extol the virtue of a proper data base and its value
in planning, yet throughout the region and in other developing
nations the quality and range of our data base can at best be
described as 'inadequate'. Until we take meaningful steps at
establishing reliable data bases for developing realistic plans, both
short and long term, the future for any prolonged progress in
agricultural development will be full of frustration.
Information gathering is costly, tedious and time consuming,
even with the aid of the computer, but we must, if we are serious
and accept the idea that our future lies in a vibrant agricul-
tural sector, come to grips with the fact that the data base on
which all our plans, projections and programmes are based is
unreliable and inadequate. We will have to set our priorities
right and firstly set about establishing a reliable data base and
then follow through with the application of the most appro-
priate technology that our meagre financial, managerial and man-
power resources can offer. Failing this, we are destined to remain
underproductive, dependent on the well-planned developed
nations to supplement our food basket from time to time;
as we produce less and less for our growing propulations.
Cyril Adams

GLORIA Agricultural and Gardon
-M Spraying Equipment-

Garden and Household Insicticides, B e r
Pesticiaes and Riodepticides-
Veterinary Products

Caribbean Farming May 1986

Zero Grazing & A Tie-Stall System -
A Workable alternative for dairying on a limited acreage.

When in 1977 we were asked to vacate
the farm we were renting, we were faced
with the alternatives of selling the 20-odd
cows we had and moving out of dairying
or trying to purchase our own farm. Un-
fortunately at that time with sugar still
holding its own, it was possible to buy
only an entire sugar estate or a two or
four acre lot from an estate that had been
sub-divided. We had planned eventually
to be milking about forty cows and
would have been comfortable with 30 to
60 acres. We finally settled for seven 2-
acre lots and a few years later rented
two additional adjacent acres, giving us
a total of 16 acres with 14 acres under
pasture. The land was flat and suitable
for mechanisation and there were nine
acres established in pangola grass.
The decision to cut and carry all our
fodder to the cows was obvious from
the outset, since to feed the herd we had
in mind from 14 acres would require
maximum utilisation of our pastures.
Over the years we have progressed from a
small gasolene-powered sickle mower to
a tractor-mounted cutter-bar, forage har-
vester, rotary mower, rake/tedder and
Our objective in pasture management
i. to harvest at the stage when we can
obtain highest yields consistent with
good quality and
ii. to store whatever we cannot use in the
short term.
For various reasons, we have never fully
achieved these goals in any one year.
Our first concern was to produce as
much fodder as possible and we were
advised that sugar cane would be the
best choice. Three acres were established
and every day cane was cut, passed
through a Cremaseo chopper and fed to
the cows.
With the coming of the wet season
however, it became a rather unpleasant
job to be handling wet cane in a soggy
field every day. In addition, since we had
the only mature cane in the area, rat
damage became a particular problem. The
climax came when our only employee
had a nearly fatal bout of leptospirosis
which kept him away from work for
three months; sugar cane was abandoned
once and for all.
In fairness, one would say that it

does produce high yields and is very
palatable to cows. In our situation, it
might have been better to ensile the
entire crop during the normal cane
harvest season, rather than attempt to
grow it all year round and cut every day.

The sugar cane was replaced with
Elephant Grass, which was interplanted
with the legumes Leucaena, Glycine and
Siratro. This provided a successful pro-
tein/energy bank and must be considered
one of the best combinations for pro-
ducing high yields of good quality forage.
Elephant Grass also has the advantage of
yielding during the dry season when
Pangola just stops growing.
However at this time we knew little
of silage-making and had decided that the
time had come when we would have to
acquire our own hay-making equipment if
we seriously wanted to store grass of
good quality. We had retained the original
nine acres of Pangola and felt that to
justify a baler on our small acreage, we
should replace the Elephant Grass which
is not ideal for hay-making and rent two
additional acres. After an unsuccessful
planting with Coastal Bermuda, we es-
tablished Pangola in these areas.
Given the same choice today, we
would probably retain the Elephant
Grass/Legumes and acquire silage hand-
ling equipment.

Given the usual rainfall distribution
in Barbados and not having irrigation
facilities, it is possible to get four cut-
tings per year from Pangola grass. Having
opted for hay-making equipment, we try

to bale whatever grass is not fed as green
chop. It is however very difficult to make
hay with confidence in the wet months
when yields are highest and we realise
that when we have to let the grass be-
come overmature because of prolonged
wet spells, we are still not using our
pastures to their full potential.
It is only in the last year and a half


that silage-making has become v dely
practised in Barbados and we would
now advise anyone interested in s )ring
grass to choose silage because of i ver-
satility and lesser dependence or wea-
ther conditions. Incidentally, some four
hay, admittedly not the best was
checked at 5.6% protein, while tl two
stacks of silage made with the h p of
the Ministry of Agriculture average 10.8
and 9.8% protein.
For fertilizer, we try to supply 3 lb.
of nitrogen from urea or sulph te of
ammonia after each cutting, w also
spread the slurry from our io-gas
digester system on the pastures 'ith a

We considered that the main objec-
tives of housing in a dairy with ter aerate
type cows on a very limited lan areas
1. to keep the cows cool and
ii. to keep the cows clean.
We wanted to keep the cov., cool

Richard and Wendy Hoad are two of the
few graduate agriculturists in the C. ibbean
who have gone into farming as a businesss
Richard graduated from the Univ ,sity of
the West Indies at Saint Augustine, Trinidad
with a degree in agricultural economics; hs
wife Wendy graduated from the same institu
tion in Agronomy. They work their farm ir
Barbados with the help of one young, un
skilled worker.
Caribbean Farming May 1986


because heat stress not only affects milk
production but also reproduction and
susceptibility to disease; clean cows are
quicker and easier to milk and suffer less
with mastitis.
Unfortunately the temperate dairy
cow in the tropics seems to think that
these objectives are incompatible and
considers that the best way to keep cool
is to wallow in a pool of muck, mud and
After a year of keeping cows in a pad-
dock with coconut trees for shade, during
which time they drooled and panted all
day, lay in self-created muck puddles and
in the wet season were up to their knees
in mud, we decided that proper housing
facilities were a must. Although some
people seem to think that housing for
cow. in the tropics is an expensive
luxiUiy, we are of the opinion that for a
farr- ir to pay Bds.$1200-2400 for a cow
and keep her in dirty and uncomfort-
able surroundings were she is under
con nt stress is as ridiculous as a gar-
mer manufacturer setting up his ma-
chin in an open yard.
S3 alternatives open to us were:
i. ie-stalls
ii. ose housing
iii. .e stalls
\ were never keen on free stalls be-
caus we had seen cows in this type of
syst, lying in wet manure in the walk-
way :o keep cool. We were attracted to
loos, losing with bedding but the large
area quired and the cost to put a roof
ovei were prohibitive.
V finally settled for tie-stalls and
have ever regretted the decision. Dimen-
sion 'ere taken from U.S. recommenda-
tion, o that a mechanical gutter cleaner
could oe installed if required. Individual
stallk re 5'6" x 4' with a gutter 18" wide
and ." deep behind. With three rows
of s ;s, 63 cows are housed in an area
48' > 34'. Electric trainers over the cows'
back, are a must for getting the manure
and 2rine in the gutter and keeping
the c.ws clean. These can be easily made
on the farm and are attached to an
electric fencing unit. Incidentally, we
have recently removed the horizontal
beam originally in front of the cows and
they are now tied to a vertical rope as is
done in Dutch barns. This allows them to
come forward and eat comfortably and
they are less inclined to stand with their
back feet in the gutter.
The shed itself is built with 12'
wallaba posts set at 12' centres. The roof
is a mixture of corrugated galvanized,
asbestos, aluminium and asphalt sheets.
There are problems associated with each
type galvanized sheets create a hot
Caribbean Farming May 1986

environment and rust easily, asbestos
sheets need a lot of support to prevent
sagging. In choosing roofing materials
therefore one must aim for durability
and protection of the animals from heat
and balance these against cost.
The clear advantages of a tie-stall
system are:
i. The cows are free from interference
and timid cows are able to eat, drink
water and relax at their leisure.
ii. Cows on heat do not harass others.
It also assists in spotting cows on heat
because they all tend to mount each.
other as soon as they are released.
iii. Cows are individually fed and one can
be sure that each one is getting its proper
iv. A quick walk through the shed will
show those cows which are not eating
as well as those with constipation or
v. Manure can be handled as semi-solid
or as a slurry and makes possible its use
in a digester system.
vi. If trainers are properly adjusted, cows
keep very clean.
vii. Because the cows are not on the
pastures, there is no build-up of ticks and
spraying is seldom necessary. If spraying
is required, this can conveniently be done
in the tie stalls with hand sprayer.
Obvious disadvantages are:
Initial cost
ii. Tying and untying cows. After a few
weeks, each cow returns to its own stall
and it takes only a few minutes to snap
the hooks on them.
iii. Manure must be cleaned out every*
Concentrates are fed in the milking
parlour. We follow Ministry of Agricul-
ture recommendations and levels are
allocated each month according to milk
production and weights of animals. In
the tie-stalls, they each receive daily
51 Ib. of whole cotton seeds mixed with
about 24 Ib. of wet brewers' grains
(given in two feedings) and two pints of
Fodder is provided during the morn-
ing and at night. We try to combine
green and dry fodder for each day e.g.
hay at one feeding and green chop at
the other, or hay/silage or hay/cane
tops. (Cane tops are available during the
sugar harvest season of about three
months and are the only fodder brought
from outside the farm.)
For the first few years, we took the
manure from the gutters to a manure
spreader with a wheel-barrow and put it

on the fields. However we still had a
problem with the urine which ran across
the field, causing the grass to die in that
With financial and technical assistance
from the Caribbean Development Bank.
we installed a bio-gas digester system.
This comprised a mixing tank, two
digesters with ferro-cement gas-holders
(built on the site by local masons) and a
large storage tank.
The manure in the gutters, mixed with
some water, is pushed with a barn-
scraper into a collecting gutter leading
to the mixing tank. At least once a week,
the resulting slurry in the mixing tank is
thoroughly mixed by passing it through
a gasolene driven 4" pump and back into
the tank. The pump outlet hose is then
diverted into one or other of the digesters
and the mixing tank is emptied. In the
digesters, bacterial action on the slurry
under anaerobic conditions leads to the
formation of methane gas which is
trapped in the gas-holders, causing them
to rise.
As fresh slurry is added to the
digesters, digested slurry overflows into
the storage tank. In contrast with the
fresh manure, this effluent has very
little odour and can be applied direct to
plants without scorching them. Although
we have had conflicting analyses of its
nutrient content, it appears to be rich in
nitrogen, phosphorus and potash and has
had an obvious beneficial effect on the
pastures. We hope in the future to use it
in place of some of our commercial
The methane gas is used for cooking
and hot water in the home and hot
water in the dairy. It does not have as
high a calorific value as commercial pro-
pane gas but adapting existing burners is
simple. In the future we plan to run an
absorption-type refrigerator and freezer
off the gas and possibly an electric
The cows are milked twice daily in a
6-abreast parlour and spend their days
in the tie-stalls. After the evening milking,
they are kept at night in a small paddock
unless it is wet, in which case they
return to the stalls.
Milk production in this system has
been better than average for Barbados,
with cows in milk averaging 30-36 Ib.
/day for most of the year. Total annual
production has increased steadily from
80,700 kg. in 1978 to a maximum of
152,900 kg. in 1984. Production last
year was 136,800 kg.

We would not claim that to keep 42

Red Poll and Their Environment

The Caribbean region is best known
for cricket, carnival and calypso and the
island of Jamaica for its rum, beaches,
sunshine and reggae music. Recently,
Jamaica has gained some popularity for
its development of tropically adapted
cattle breeds.
The island is situated in the Caribbean
Sea at 18 Degrees North Latitude and 77
Degrees West of Greenwich and has a
total land area of 4,450 square miles of
which about 1.5 million acres are avail-
able for agricultural use. Owing to the
considerable altitude variation ranging
from sea level to 7,400 feet where the
Blue Mountain Peak is reached, there is a
fairly wide difference in mean tem-
peratures; at sea level the maximum tem-
perature is 88 Degrees F. and the mini-
mum 71 Degrees F. These temperatures
are moderated by land breeze during the
night and by sea breeze by day; Annual
rainfall averages 78 inches, but the
precipitation ranges from 300 inches in
the North East to less than 20 inches in
the dry areas of the island. Usually, the
rainfall is seasonal.
With this climate, Jamaica is classified
in the humid tropics, an area of the world
in which productive European cattle have
found it difficult to survive. It is no small
achievement, therefore, that after much
pioneering work during the first half
of this century, four locally adapted
cattle breeds have evolved during the
second half of the century. Among these
four breeds, one is specialised for dairy
production the Jamaica Hope and
three for beef; the most popular of the
four is the Jamaica Red Poll.
Efforts to breed cattle adapted to local
conditions should be seen within the
overall strategy for the exploitation of
Jamaica's land resources. Some 80 per
cent of the land is hilly or mountainous
and the need exists to devote large areas
of steeply sloping land to agriculture.
Animal/pasture systems are widely recog-
nised and used as an important means of
utilizing such land, whilst conserving the
soil and water resources. The develop-
ment work with the Jamaica Red Poll
can therefore be regarded as an important
contribution to the national objective of
increasing the efficiency and intensity
with which agricultural land is used.
Columbus found no cattle when he
claimed Jamaica for Spain in 1494. The
Spanish introduced cattle but the first

recorded importation of Red Poll cattle
into Jamaica was in 1880. They arrived
by sailing ship and adapted reasonably
well to the tropical conditions and the
marginal lands on which they were kept.
Later, in 1910, the establishment of a
Government Agricultural Station called
Hope Farm ushered in the era of scienti-
fic cattle breeding in Jamaica. Private
farmers at that time made no effort to
breed purebred beef cattle. The popular
mating system at that time was the cros-
sing of different exotic breeds with the
Zebu. It was therefore an unconventional
approach when the Department of Agri-
culture started to breed purebred herds of
Jerseys, Guernseys and Red Polls at Hope
Farm, in order to test their dairy charac-
teristics and to provide bulls for upgrad-
ing the private herds of Jamaica, thus
improving the animal production poten-
tial of the country for increasing the
supply of milk and meat. In 1910 a
nucleus herd of 10 in-calf Red Poll heifers
and a bull was imported from the Sud-
bourne herd in England. A second im-
portation of 14 heifers was made in
1912 but proved less successful than the
first, as seven died during the first year
and a further three during the second.
Nine bull calves out of these 14 heifers,
imported in utero, were sold to local
farmers and greatly influenced the Red
Poll herds of the island..There was a tend-
ency to hairiness in these cattle and their
crosses. A clean-skinned bull and four
cows were imported from the United
States of America in 1919 in order to
correct the hairiness. This importation
had a great influence on the Red Poll
herds of the island as 24 sons of this
bull were sold for breeding. He served in
the Government herd for six years and
was sold for export to Cuba in 1925
(Cousins, 1933). The four imported
females were good breeders and 8 of their
sons by five different sires were sold to
leading farmers.
Other notable importations came from
Iowa, Illinois, and the New Hall herd in
England. Because of a deterioration of
conditions on the farm during the 1930's
only those cows with sufficient Zebu
blood were able to survive without
showing marked degeneration. The pure-
bred Red Polls suffered badly, the herd
was dispersed in 1938 and selection for
milk production ceased.
In the evolution of the Jamaica Red
Poll breed, the dispersal of the Hope
Farm Red Poll herd and the earlier prac-
tice of selling purebred Red Poll calves
for breeding are two factors of great sig-
nificance. Because purebred breeding

had ceased, it facilitated the development
of an ecotype. As purebred Red Polls
were not commercial beef cattle, crossing
with Zebu was practised and this
hastened the development of an ecotype
(Lecky, 1979).
The sale of purebred Red Poll calves
ceased in 1938 and only limited im-
portation of Red Polls has occurred since
that time. The gene pool created by the
earlier distribution resulted in the rapid
development of the Jamaica Red Poll
breed when grade bulls were used. This
rate of improvement reflected the genetic
characteristics of the foundation cattle of
the breed.
When the first cattle appraisal was held
in 1952 and the breed named, there were
animals with varying percentages of Red
Poll blood and cows with outstanding
characteristics from which sires coulii be
selected. No effort has been made tc fix
the percentage of Red Poll blood ir the
new breed. With selection pressure )ver
the intervening years, many outstar ling
cows and bulls have emerged.
The breed was evolved from an )ut-
standing ancestry of recorded sires and
dams tracing back to 1910. Their )ro-
geny were spread through the Red Poll
herds of the island, with over 100 bull
calves sold in the early years, and aug-
mented by other sire service pro-
grammes such as loan of bulls, live ock
improvement centres and artificial ir ami-

Zero-Grazing and a Tie-Stall Syster
From p. 9
mature cows and 21 heifers at v. ious
stages on 14 acres is an ideal situ :ion.
Zero-grazing requires relatively hi in-
vestment in equipment and con ning
several animals in a small area cai for
careful management.
In our case, we had to take wha land
was available. With the overheads :om-
mon to all dairy enterprises, m king
machine and cooler, we do not hink
we could have survived with a si aller
herd and lower production. Altt )ugh
there is no more land available to is in
our area, we do have the option oi rent-
ing or buying additional land and .rans-
porting the fodder. We are ho ever
reluctant to abandon this farm which has
provided us with a living for the past
eight years and in which we have invested
so much of our labour and resources.
Our advice to anyone interested in
dairying with only a small area of pasture
available is that zero-grazing and tie-stalls
are a workable alternative well worth
considering. N
Richard and Wendy Hoad.
Caribbean Farming May 1986

nation. Initially, dairy traits were em-
phasised; later, selection pressure was
applied for improvement of beef charac-
teristics, resulting in the creation of the
Jamaica Red Poll as a beef breed.

During the early days beef cattle
breeding in Jamaica followed a plan of
upgrading by using a purebred bull for
two or three top crosses. When the herd
showed signs of becoming unthrifty or
too hairy, a bull carrying some Zebu
blood was introduced. The favourite
outcross of the Red Poll breeders was
made by using a bull of South Devon and
Ze)u ancestry. This increased size, re-
du ed hairiness and the South Devon
blc d maintained the milking qualities of
th: progeny. Moreover, the animals of
thl cross were docile and easy to handle.
1 1948, the Department of Agricul-
tul in conjunction with the Jamaica
Lit tock Association decided to develop
bet cattle breeds adapted to tropical
cor itions. The Jamaica Brahman was the
firs and planned development of the
Jan :ca Red Poll began in 1952. By then
an otype had developed which retained
the seful genes contributed by the Red
Poli It is not possible to say how much
the 3w breed owes to the Zebu for its
adal nation; the principal contributors
wer the Red Poll, Zebu, South Devon
and 3tive cattle of Jamaica. The percen-
tage contribution of each of these is not
knc 1.

1 breed is constantly under study
on e Government's Research Station
and 1 private herds. Performance of the
bree was reported in Animal Husbandry
Bull in No. 3, 1979, Ministry of Agri-
cult, e, and a report is given by Wel-
lingi n, 1981, in Desarrollo Rural En Las
Ame cas and a thesis by Holness, 1983.
T e breed is outstanding in growth
and ,ertility parameters and is a useful
resource in crossbreeding for both beef
and milk production.

Average Birthweight is 76 Ib for males
and 73 Ib for females; mature weight of
bulls 1,860 Ib and cows 1,110 Ib Ani-
mals gain 2.5 3.0 Ib per day in feed-
lot and are marketed at liveweights
ranging from 800 1,200 Ib.
The gestation period averages 282
days and age at first calving ranges from
31 to 35 months, depending on manage-
Caribbean Farming May 1986

ment practices. Services per conception
average 1.6 herd conception rates fre-
quently exceed 95 per cent, calf mor-
tality ranges between 5 and 8 per cent
and adult mortality is less than 2 per
As the initial female parent in cross-
breeding for beef, the Jamaica Red Poll
imparts milkiness to the F1 female. En-
hanced weaning performance has been
recorded for the F1 and triple cross beef
animal. The breed is also useful as the
male parent in crossbreeding.
In crossbreeding to a dairy breed for
milk production, the Jamaica Red Poll
female is a valuable resource not ade-
quately exploited.
These levels of performance are ob-
tained under a pastoral system of graz-
ing tropical grass species all year round,
with reasonable control of internal and
external parasites and endemic cattle
diseases to which these animals demon-
strate varying degrees of resistance.
The work of developing cattle which
are highly productive under Jamaican
conditions has been approached with all
seriousness for over 75 years. Included in
the breeds is the Red Poll which came to
Jamaica as early as 1880 with subse-

quent importations from England and the
United States of America. Early crosses
with the Zebu, South Devon and Native
Creole cattle resulted in the development
of an ecotype which was elevated to
breed status in 1952. Thereafter, selec-
tion for beef traits was emphasised.
Animals are docile, do well on improved
pastures and show resistance to some tro-
pical diseases.
The breed is well adapted to tropical
conditions and is in high demand both at
home and abroad. Satisfactory levels of
fertility and growth have been reported
and the breed is popular in crossbreed-
ing work. Breed development continues.
1. Cousins, H.H., 1933. History of Hope Farm
and Part I of the Jamaica Herd Book of
Purebred Cattle, Government Printing
Office, Kingston, Jamaica, 392 pp.
2. Holness, Jasmin, 1983. Genetic, Environ-
mental Parameters and Predicted Sire
Values For Jamaica Red Poll Beef Cattle.
M.Sc. Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca,
New York, 98 pp.
3. Lecky, T.P., 1979. The Evolution of the
Jamaica Red Poll Breed of Cattle. Animal
Husbandry Bulletin No. 3, Ministry of
Agriculture, Jamaica, 111 pp.
4. Ministry of Agriculture, Jamaica, 1979.
The Development of Jamaica Red Poll
Breed of Cattle. Animal Husbandry Bul-
letin No. 3, 111 pp.
5. Wellington, K.E., 1981. The Jamaica Red
Poll: Its Background, Development and Per-
formance. Desarrollo Rural En Las Ameri-

C I R 1 Its a high quality concentrated carbo-
M 1 I hydrate feed with low fibre content.
2. It's progressively palatable to all dairy
and beef animals in addition to being
P UP highly nutritious.
3. It contains natural minerals essential to
milk production and animal growth.
4. It has a very high TDN (Total Digestible
Nutrients). This means little waste
when eaten.
5. It is mildly laxative thereby ensuring a
"Ivrfl f healthier herd.
6. It imparts no unnatural flavour to milk.
7. It gives a sleek finish to your steer or
tram ox.
*4 / 8. It keeps unusually well in storage.
c f9. It can be fed at the rate of 1 Ib. per day
for every 100 Ibs. of body weight.

NOW AVAILABLE 10. And it costs only 15C per Ib!
Manufactured by
Co-operative Citrus Growers Association
Eastern Main Road, Laventille.

Co-operative Citrus Growers' Association of
Trinidad & Tobago Limited
Post Office Box 174, Port of Spain, Trinidad, West Indies.
Telephones: 62-34378 / 32255 / 34195

Jamaica's Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory

By: Sharon Pitterson (M.T.)
The Linton McDonnough Veterinary
Diagnostic Laboratory was established
in Jamaica in 1941. It was set up to meet
the need for indepth laboratory support
by veterinary practitioners, livestock and
poultry farmers and others involved in
animal related matters such as animal
disease regulatory officials.
The present facilities were opened in
1978. This laboratory is the only one of
its kind in Jamaica and offers full service
to hundreds of farmers and pet owners
each year. One of its major objectives is
to give diagnostic support to the
problems of the livestock and poultry
industries, through the local field veteri-
narians. Staff personnel work in con-
junction with specialists from local and
international laboratories.
This central laboratory has six com-
ponent parts Bacteriology, Pathology,
Virology, Serology, Parasitology and
Leptospirosis; they function to establish
where possible definitive diagnoses of
disease entities from specimens re-
ceived. Here, post mortem examinations
are performed by a Veterinarian; relevant
specimens of tissues, fluids etc. are sent
to the appropriate laboratory for the
isolation and identification of pathogens
or diseased conditions.
The Linton McDonnough laboratory is
committed to working through local
veterinary practitioners since they can
evaluate the problems of clients and pro-
ducers and identify those requiring
laboratory assistance. Specimens are sub-
mitted to the laboratory at the direction
of the field veterinarian. Results of
examinations, tests and analyses are re-
turned to the veterinarian for consulta-
tion in helping to formulate a diagnosis
and to recommend action in terms of
treatment regime and or control.
The laboratory is involved in several
projects such as the Food and Agricul-
tural Organization's Veterinary Health
Delivery Project, which is undertaking
various surveys such as in parasitic and
mastitis problems affecting livestock
In the 1947-1951 period it served as
an adjunct laboratory to the Government
Medical laboratory in preparation of
media, identification of Salmonella and
potency testing on drugs.
The treatment of animals is greatly
dependent on the susceptibility res-
ponses obtained in the Bacteriology
laboratory. Diseases such as Mastitis,
Blackleg, Camphylobacteriosis, various
Mycoses and Colibacillosis are identified.

The laboratory also facilitates the pro-
duction of vaccines such as Escherichia
coli and wart types.
The Serology laboratory functions
mainly in the programme to eradicate
Tuberculosis and Brucellosis. Here, sera
and milk from cattle and sera from goats,
sheep, dogs, horses and man are tested
for antibodies to the Brucellae organisms.
Also, Hematological tests are carried out
on whole blood as an aid in the diagnos-
ing anemias, bleeding disorders, hemo-
parasites and other hematological dis-
orders of animals.
The Leptospirosis laboratory has been
designated the National Leptospirosis
Laboratory. It works in association with
the Veterinary Public Health Sector of
the Ministry of Health in the survey and
diagnosis of leptospirosis, a Zoonotic
disease affecting both humans and
In Parasitology the main service pro-
vided is fecal egg counts of gastrointes-
tinal parasites of animals. There is also
the isolation and identification of some
blood parasites such as Heartworm in
dogs, Anaplasmosis and Piroplasmosis in
sheep, cattle and goats.
In the Histology laboratory, consulting
Veterinary Pathologists work on the
diagnosis of pathological entities. In
addition, this laboratory serves to facili-

tate the teaching of Medical Technolo-
gists from the College of Arts, Science
and Technology (CAST).
Screening programmes and the survey
of certain Viral and Poultry diseases are
undertaken through the Virology and
Poultry Pathology laboratory. This helps
to establish an islandwide profile of
animal diseases due to viruses and to
make for an early recognition of the
presence of some important Viral
diseases. Tests are made for diseases
such as Newcastle Disease Salmonel-
losis, Equine Infections Anemia, Pseu-
dorabies, Toxoplasmosis, Caprine Arth-
ritis/ Encephalitis and Bovine Leucosis.
These tests are important in determin-
ing the status of livestock and products
for import and export.
The Veterinary Laboratory works in
conjunction with the Government Tcxi-
cology Laboratory in diagnosing poison-
ing by plants, chemicals and other ? ib-
The laboratory, located at H( e,
adjacent to Hope Boulevard is c en
from 8:30 a.m. 5:00 p.m. daily w ik-
days. Here, a team of veterinari ns,
Medical Technologist and Techi cal
Assistants work together in the diagt 'sis
of animal and zoonotic diseases, in idi-
tion to giving advisory information to
livestock owners and the public. N

Intestinal Worms -
A Prime Killer of Young Dogs

By: Dr. Vincent Lopez
Parasites undoubtedly take a high toll
not only in deaths but also loss in weight
which renders the animal more suscept-
ible to diseases. The disease they cause
is insidious, and far more prevalent than
the more dramatic diseases such as dis-
temper andparvo.
Worms can cause a serious problem in
young dogs, especially puppies; they
account for 60 to 70% of cases pre-
sented to most veterinary clinics.
Types of worms: There are three
major worms in the intestines of dogs in
Jamaica the hookworms, small blood-
sucking worms and the most harmful; the
roundworms which live on tissues and
digested intestinal contents and the
The most common tapeworm seen
here is the 'flea tapeworm' which is
transmitted by the ever-common dog
flea, and picked up by the dog swallowing
an infected flea. Segments of the tape are
voided in the stool and appear as moving

white flecks. Hookworms and r( nd-
worms are rarely passed whole, gg's
however, are always passed but can )nly
be seen with a microscope.
Hookworms: The female hookw( m is
a prolific egg-layer and each female may
produce up to 20,000 eggs per d /. A
'mild' infestation comprising of ) to
50 females will shed a tremendous: load
on the lawn! These eggs hatch if .uffi-
cient moisture and warmth are pr sent,
and within 4 to 7 days are ready o re-
The young forms or larvae can aene-
trate intact skin or the gums and t -igue,
get into the blood stream and pass
through the lungs on the way to taie in-
testines. This travel through the issues
takes 4 to 5 weeks.
Roundworms: Roundworms are also
prolific egg-layers like the hookworms.
They do not however, cause severe
disease, as the hookworms do. The eggs
passed out do not hatch but take 2 to
5 weeks to develop to the infective stage
Caribbean Farming May 1986

The Black Belly Sheep

By Michael Hunte Senior Agriculture Officer Livestock

The Barbados Blackbelly Sheep (BBS)
has for many years been recognized for
its high profficacy.lndeed it is now widely
considered as one of the three leading
breeds in the world for high prolificacy,
the other two being the Finish Ladrace
and Russian Romanov. It has however
not gained much recognition as a meat
breed because of its apparent lack of
muscling in relation to its skeletal frame-
Cross breeding experiments conducted
at Greenland between 1975 and 1984

produced BBS carcasses that were
superior in quality to BBS x Suffolk and
BBS x Dorset Crosses (Romans, 1979). It
was concluded that any further improve-
ment should be pursued through within-
breed selection rather than cross breed-
ing. Further, recent growth rate trials
conducted by the Ministry of Agricul-
ture (Blaylock 1984) suggested that if
challenge fed BBS can produce growth
rates comparable to most breeds of
North America and Europe. It is against
this background that the experiment at

INTESTINAL WO RMS Prime KilIler of Young Dogs

t'd. from p. 12
have to be passively ingested through
amination of food scraps or licking
5 rear end by the puppy.
-fection of puppies through the
b and milk: Pregnant bitches have
hookworms and roundworms in the
.s; these pass through the placenta
trth membranes into the puppies
e they are born. As the young
s have already completed part of
'travel' they take less time to
e and cause damage. In fact from
'8 to 21 of a puppy's life, these

worms could kill the pup depending on
the number of worms that have crossed
Your veterinarian will advise you when
to deworm by examining the puppies.
Meanwhile, other young worms would
have migrated into the bitch's breasts
and infect the puppy each time it suckles.
This does not mean that the puppies
should be taken away from the bitch.
Your veterinarian will advise you at what
age they need to be dewormed again. U

Greenland is being conducted. The
Ministry of Agriculture is collaborating
with Lincoln University, with financial
assistance from USAID, on this project.
The experimental flock is kept in
confinement and is fed hay, molasses
and one of three pelleted rations 18%
protein ewe feed, 18% lamb feed and 14%
finishing ration. All animals are fed
to NRC requirements, except fattening
lambs, which are full-fed.
The barn is divided into 17 pens to
provide for breeding ewes in early and
late gestation, ewes lambing, creep feeding
of suckling lambs and feeding lambs
to market weight, following weaning.
There are 147 ewes on the experiment,
rotated every five weeks in groups of 21
exposed to 3 rams in groups of 7 (see
table I). The sheep has a 16-17 day
"Heat" cycle, so five weeks should pro-
vide ample time for two "heat" periods.
The experiment started June 10, 1985
and to date two groups have lambed.
Four ewes lambed too early, suggesting
that they were pasture bred. Thirty-three
of the remaining 38 produced 74 lambs
or recorded a lambing rate of 224%. Five
ewes did not lamb, giving a lambing
percentage of 86.4%.
Cont'd. on p. 14

ess for pests. More for people.

Wore for the farmer.

le're helping Mother Earth give you her best.

i ockfort, Kingston 2
Tel: 92-87230-9, 92-87300-9

These and many other internationally
proven chemicals are provided
a by Shell to Jamaican farmers.

Caribbean Farming May 1986

r. -*

LrJ .

i -311~

Notes from CIAT's Pasture Research Programme
nrA e*lrl f t eaIP RkjlDIl ACRA.

FAS I unRp .h WKnavlu~iil

New Accessions for Better Pastures
Collecting seed germplasm from dif-
ferent regions of the world to increase
genetic variability is the base for the pro-
cess of identifying and breeding improved
For the Tropical Pastures Program,
both grasses and legumes are of interest.
Scientists, comparing the natural varia-
bility of different pasture germplasm of
often undomesticated and unidentified
species, look for characteristics that
show their adaptability to the various
ecosystems in the tropics. In general,
this grass and legume germplasm is col-
lected from acid, low-fertility soils which
make up so much of the region. In addi-
tion, they look for its ability to withstand
dry periods, its capacity to regenerate
itself, and, of course, its palatability and
ability to withstand heavy grazing.
The scientists have identified a list of
'key species' that are very promising.
Among the grasses, there are species of
Brachlaria; among legumes, several species
of Centrosema. Species of both genera
were the object of collection expeditions
last year.
In 1985, Tropical Pasture scientists
collected new germplasm in three major
areas: Tropical America, Asia and Africa.
The 2300 additional accessions, consist-
ing of both grasses and legumes, increased
CIAT's pastures collection to approxi-
mately 16,000 accessions.
TROPICAL AMERICA. A total of 320
legume samples were collected in colla-
boration with the Instituto de Investi-
gacion Agropecuaria de Panama (IDIAP)
and USAID/Rutgers University. The
extensive sweep through a major portion
of the Panamanian provinces sought
drought-tolerant, late-flowering legumes,
particular Centrosema spp. ecotypes.
An expedition to Venezuela done
with the Fondo Nacional de Investi-
gaciones Agropecuaries (FONAIAP)
aimed at collecting principally Centro-
sema species. During the mission, 371
legumes were collected, with Centrosema
accounting for 27%.
ASIA. The International Board for
Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR), spon-
sored a collecting project in Sumatra.
Done in collaboration with the Sukarami
Research Institute for Food Crops
(SARIF), emphasized native legume
germplasm, particularly species and eco-
types of Desmodium and Pueraria
phaseoloides. Altogether, 172 samples
were gathered.'
AFRICA. Systematic collecting was
carried out in collaboration with the In-

ternational Livestock Centre (ILCA), in
Ethiopia, Kenya, Burundi, Rwanda, Tan-
zania and Zimbabwe. National agricul-
tural research programs in these countries
participated. Altogether 905 samples
were collected, 81% were grasses. Of
these, 452 were Brachiaria ecotypes.
Much effort was given to collecting
germplasm of the grass Brachiaria. Ori-
ginating in Africa, the grass forms,
together with Andropogon gayanus and
Panicum maximum, the core of CIAT's
tropical grass research and development.
Its characteristics of adaptation to
acid, low-fertility soils and persistence
under grazing make it one of the most
promising grasses yet found for tropical
pastures. The major limitation, how-
ever, of commercial Brachiaria spp.
cultivars and material tested as yet, is
susceptibility to spittle-bug, a devasta-
ing insect pest in many locations in Latin
America. Scientists believe that the
newly collected germplasm of large
genetic diversity, offers great promise to
overcome this limitation and has po-
tential as pasture plants for many sub-
humid and humid ecosystems in the
In order to avoid disease-transmission
problems and to accelerate the process

BLACK BELLY SHEEP Cont'd from p. 13

Group No. IN OUT No. 2553 No. 2412 No. 2912
Group No. 1 85-06-10 85-07-15 7 Ewes 7 Ewes 7 Ewes
Group No. 2 85-07-15 85-08-19 7 Ewes 7 Ewes 7 Ewes
Group No. 3 85-08-19 85-09-23 7 Ewes 7 Ewes 7 Ewes
Group No. 4 85-09-23 85-10-28 7 Ewes 7 Ewes 7 Ewes
Group No. 5 85-10-28 85-12-02 7 Ewes 7 Ewes 7 Ewes
Group No. 6 85-12-02 85-12-23 7 Ewes 7 Ewes 7 Ewes
Group No.7 85-12-23 86-01-06 7 Ewes 7 Ewes 7 Ewes

The selection scheme is to be aided by
a computer programme written in BASIC
language for the IBM-PC and corrects
for the environmental variation in type
of birth and rearing, age of the ewes and
sex of the lamb. This allows for a more
accurate value of genetic differences in
the weight ratios for 60, 90 and 120
day weights that will be used in the
selection process for replacing ewe
lambs, ram lambs and culling non-pro-
ductive ewes.
As part of the Ministry's sheep ex-

tension activity during 1986/87 fir incial
year 5-10 sheep producers w I be
enrolled in the programme and a listed
in the selection of superior off ring.
Carcass evaluation will also be d( ne at
the abattoir on a random samrle of
lambs selected for slaughter. E
Blaylock L.G. (1984) Commercial anc small
farm management and feeding of Blackbelly
Sheep in Barbados. Ministry of Agriculture
Food and Consumer Affairs, Barbados.
Romans J.R. (1979) Final Report Carcass
evaluation and composition of a sample of
Barbados Blackbelly Sheep. Caribbean Council.
Caribbean Farming May 1986

of transferring the new Brachiaria collec-
tion, the majority of accessions were
transferred in vitro as meristems cul-
tures using a technique developed by
CIAT's Biotechnology Unit. The pro-
cedure was applied in close collaboration
with ILCA in Ethiopia and with the
quarantine center in Kenya. A total of
more than 350 accessions have been
already transferred to CIAT. The col-
lectiori considerably broadened the
genetic base of the grass, bringing the
collection to more than 900 acces-
sions and 24 species of Brachiaria.

An Exceptional Grass for Tropical Pas-
Andropogon gayanus, a pasture grass
introduced into the American tropics
only 13 years ago from Africa, is
being used more and more by farmer; in
Latin America. The grass is particul irly
attractive to farmers because it is hi hly
productive on very acid, high-in-al mi-
num soils, a condition for which few
grasses seem adapted. Among its
other features is its tolerance to
drought. This is traceable to its sleep
root system and its very rapid regr wth
after the first rains following the

tropical dry season. Cattle grow and re-
produce well on the grass. It tolerates
diseases and pests, especially the pasture-
destructive spittlebug. It is also very com-
patible with legumes.

A. gayanus was released in 1980 by
national programs in Colombia (ICA) and
Brazil (EMBRAPA). Shortly thereafter it
was released for commercial use in
Venezuela (FONIAP), Panana (IDIA) and
Peru (INIPA). Today, more than 150,000
hectares have been planted in the Bra-
zilian Cerrados and more than 30,000
ha in other Latin African countries.
It is estimated that within four years
almost 300,000 ha will be sown in the
gras The picture is clearly dominated by
the extent of adoption in Brazil which
con ibutes 93% of the total area. Never-
the! ;s, important areas are also found
in olombia and Venezuela, countries
witt substantial areas of acid infertile
save ias.

/ gayanus appears promising for
Cen il America and Panama, grown on
mor than 1000 ha in the latter country
and i initial.areas in Nicaragua, Mexico,
Hon ras and Costa Rica. Virtually all
the eas have been planted as pure
grass )astures, that is without the in-
clusi of nitrogen-fixing legumes.
E 'ence indicates that in 1986 there
will \ a planting expansion of about 31%
over existing areas at a regional level.
This ure nevertheless masks the marked
diffe ices in adoption stage and growth
rates 'tween Brazil and Colombia, where
the Aterial was released first. These
cour. es have annual growth rates of
25% id 45% respectively; the rest of
the < Jntries have a growth rate above
1000/ This is clearly an overwhelming
tende cy to establish A. gayanus as a
pure- ass pasture.
A. gaynus is a valuable and distinct
germl asm contribution to the develop-
ment of Latin American tropical pas-
tures. It is contributing increasingly to
beef r.nd milk production in marginal
frontier lands by diversifying pasture
options and reducing the spittle bug
problem in the region. Broader adoption
of legumes is still a major challenge for
the tropical pastures research programs
of CIAT and National Institutions in the
Stocking Rates Increase
Farms cooperating with an ICA-
CIAT on-farm pasture evaluation project
involving improved grasses and legumes
are obtainting results similar to those
Caribbean Farming May 1986

obtained at CIAT's Carimagua research
station. Both the farms and the research
station are located in the Colombia
Llanos. It would be expected that on-
farms results would not be as good as
those obtained under the more con-
trolled conditions of the station.
On one farm, having a very extensive
cattle production system, the rancher
aimed to gradually increase the number
of cows that could be grazed on the
ranch. Grass-legumes pastures,
mostly an A. gayanus and S. capitata
mix, were sown on 5.5% of the farm.
In five years the stocking rate of the
ranch doubled. Breeding animals had sig-
nificant weight gains a necessary con-
dition for the cows to improve their re-
production, though weight gains were
less than they would have been had not
the stocking rate been doubled on the
land. Still, it showed that with 5.5% of
the area in improved pastures it is feasible
to feed twice as many cattle as before,
and simultaneously improve by 14% the
reproductive performance of the heard.
Weaning weight was improved by 50%.

Although it may seem logical that the
large increase in stocking rate for a long
period of time might reduce the pro-
ductivity level of the pasture, samplings
show that this not the case. The amount

of forage on offer and legume content
of the pastures in the farms continued to
remain at an acceptable level, and so far,
six years after planting, the pastures show
no sign of degradation, despite the lack
of maintenance fertilization.
In another on-farm trial it was found
that the regular alternation of grazing
periods on native grasses with periods of
grass-legume pastures gives results in
terms of reproductive performance
similar to those for grazing exclusively
on improved pastures. Calving rates have
also been comparable on the farms to
those on experiment stations.
For cattle growers, the most econo-
mically attractive activity is cattle fatten-
ing. In the tropical American savannas,
this is only possible, though, if they have
good pastures. Cattle growers on two
farms decided to use the improved pas-
tures for fattening during the wet season.
Both growers found weight gains to be
similar or even superior to those on the
experiment station (500 gr/animal/day).
The farmers used a somewhat higher
stocking rate than the one generally
used at the Carimagua station, but at
the farm, the pastures were only used
during the wet season. Despite the high
stocking rate, there is no evidence of de-
gradation of the pastures, although the
botanical composition of the Andropo-
gon gayanus-Stylosanthes capitata asso-
ciation has had strong seasonal fluctua-
tions. N

Workshop on Development of Small-scale
Farmers velopment.
More than thirty Caribbean nationals A particularly interesting and valuable
with experience and responsibility in feature of this worskhop was the presence
areas relating to small-scale farming met of a number of younger members of the
during the week of April 21 in a work- corps of senior technical officers repre-
shop sponsored by the Commonwealth senting Ministries of Agriculture in the
Secretariat with the Government of countries of the Region and the Universi-
Grenada acting as hosts. The Inter- ty Faculty of Agriculture.
American Institute for Co-operation on During the course of the conference it
Agriculture collaborated on domestic became clear that better group organisa-
arrangements for the workshop. The tion among small-scale farmers is going
workshop participants represented ten to be a prime necessity if these producers
Caribbean States and about eight regional are to gain the recognition they need for
and international organizations. improvement of their position in the
The Workshop was announced as a dis- Caribbean economies.
cussion on POLICIES AND PRO- Other general conclusions of the work-
GRAMMES FOR SMALL FARMER shop related to the need for including
DEVELOPMENT IN THE CARIBBEAN. small farmers in any planning or pro-
Papers were presented under subject grammes undertaken on their behalf.
heads:- There was also comment on the neglect
Agricultural Research (in the name of foreign exchange earn-
Agricultural Marketing ing) of traditional food crops in the re-
Agricultural Credit search programmes in CARICOM.
Agricultural Extension The final report on the workshop will
Use of Communications Media include specific recommendations in the
Group Organisation areas of agricultural research, extension,
The papers and the discussion of each credit, media use, marketing and small
subject were related to small farmer de- farmer organisation. E

Cocoa Research in Trinidad & Tobago

by St. G.C. Cooper
Cocoa in Trinidad and Tobago has
been traded international for over 100
years, and there is no substitute for it. It
has had, like most tropical crops, a che-
quered history of prosperity and decline,
the latter mostly due to disease and un-
favourable economic conditions. The
period 1890-1920 was its Golden Age in
Trinidad, and sixty years after, it is once
more on the upturn.
Perhaps no other tropical crop has
been researched as intensively and ex-
tensively as cocoa, ever since the inno-
vation of chocolates by Europeans.
European scientists working in tropical
countries, particularly the Dutch in Java,
the French in West Africa, and British
scientists in Trinidad and Tobago, have
carried out classical research on all as-
pects of the cocoa tree. The literature
has been well documented in books,
notably those by VanHall and Urquhart,
and in the Imperial College of Tropical
Agriculture Annual reports from the
thirties to 1985.
More recently, the distinguished gene-
tical pathologist, Dr. A.F. Posnette,
F.R.S., D.Sc., was invited to summarise
in a single volume the work done on
cocoa in Trinidad. This is expected to be
out shortly, and is entitled "Fifty Years
of Cocoa Research in Trinidad and
Tobago" by the scientists of a previous
generation. There is Dr. Bartley's work
on "Twenty Years of Cocoa Breeding
at the ICTA". Other recent books on
Cocoa are "Cocoa"by G.A.R. Wood and
R.A. Lass; Cocoa Production Present
Constraints and Priorities for Research,
edited by R.A. Lass and G.A.R. Wood,
and the London Cocoa Trade Amazon
Project described in a special issue of the
Cocoa Growers Bulletin, August 1983 by
J. Allen all of which make worthwhile
reading for those engaged in the
Cocoa Industry.
The layman, and even Ministers of
Agriculture frequently ask why with
30 to 50 years of research, do you need
more of it. The question is of great re-
levance in a situation where means are
scarce and ends are limitless, but there
are no limits to research. Agricultural re-
search is a user of capital resources and
serves as an indispensable aid to develop-
ment. It is not an alternative to, but an
essential partner in agricultural develop-
ment, and it is wrong to consider it as a
luxury that developing countries cannot
afford, since technological breakthroughs
can only be obtained through research.

New unpredictable problems arise, and
as the years go by, new concepts, new
techniques and new technologies are re-
quired to solve them. It is like rediscover-
ing springtime after a long winter of re-
search. Cocoa illustrates very well how
new knowledge about diseases, for
.ii -L -

example, requires new techniques for
their control. Research therefore, cannot
be confined in a framework of rigidity
where the priorities remain permanently
frozen. The frontiers of research are
infinite, and it has been shown in Brazil,
India, Japan, Mexico and the USA that
agricultural research yields a rate of
return that is two to three times higher
than returns from most alternative in-
vestments, of which wheat and rice are
prime examples.
Scientific cocoa research in Trinidad
began in the thirties by the Imperial
College of Tropical Agriculture, and
among the outstanding achievements of
the period was the work of Professor
Frederick Hardy and his colleagues, in
elucidating the nutrient requirements of
the cocoa tree, and emphasising the need
for the careful selection of soils as an
interacting factor in cocoa growing.
Great advances in the botany and physio-
logy of cocoa were also recorded.
The Department of Agriculture, as it
then was in the colonial days, has been
working on manurial and spacing as far
back as the first World Ward, and further
work was undertaken by the Ministry, at
Independence. Thus research on cocoa in
Trinidad and Tobago is undertaken at
two levels, the first at the Ministry of

Agriculture level, and the second at the
level of what was the Regional Research
Centre, and now the Cocoa Research
Unit, which has a special relationship
with the University.
The outstanding work of the Ministry

of Agriculture in the past 25 years ias
been that of W.E. Freeman, a F nt
Breeder, who developed a package of
potentially very profitable techno jgy
of cocoa production. He develop I a
set of highly productive clones 'ith
apparently high levels of resistance t, the
three main diseases in Trinidad viz
Witches Broom, Black Pod and Ce ito-
cyctis. The beans produced are large and
reportedly have a typical Trir dad
flavour. They take about 10-12 poi ; to
produce Ikg. of cured beans, a char cter
which should save much labour ir pod
The agronomy of Freeman's wc 'k is
based on close spacing (6 ft. squa e or
2 m.) with only temporary shade i id a
liberal use of fertilisers. Yields av rage
about 1200 Ibs of cured beans per acre.
One could argue from this tha the
solution to growing cocoa success fully
in Trinidad and Tobago has been fe und,
but as indicated earlier, research is iota
static phenomenon, and the Scientific
Adviser to the Cocoa Research Unit,
Ing. Hille Toxopeus, has identified fur-
ther research requirements as follows:-
1. (i) Confirmation and quantification
of the expression of the econo-
mic characters of the clones in
Caribbean Farming May 1986

the field eg. resistance levels to
the three diseases, pod and bean
values, flavour, and production
in demonstration plots. These
characters should be recorded
every year for a period of five
2. Research into the following problems
should be considered, viz:-
(i) Phytophthora bark canker
(ii) The possible occurrence of Wit-
ches Broom pathotypes
(iii) Chemical control of Witches
Broom and Black Pod
(iv) The incidence of small "Sca-
vina" beans in cured cocoa
(v) Soils and fertilisers
vii) The mass production and trans-
port of planting material
viii) Pollination
ix) Mechanisation
3. publication on the history and back-
round of the breeding work and
characteristics of the clones.
The issues listed above indicate,
in spite of the success of the
technology, how desirable it is
that research should still be con-
tinued, for all research should
contain some contingency plan-
ning for emergency cases, where
novel genotypes may be re-
quired. Space does not permit

detailed discussion of the issues,
but they do imply that there is
room for a few more years of
The Cocoa Research Unit sprang from
the old Regional Research Centre which
had responsibility for regional cocoa re-
search. It functions at a different level
from that of the Ministry of Agriculture.
since it has at its command a reservoir of
'gene pools' not duplicated elsewhere
in the cocoa world and is concerned with
fundamental breeding. This was the work
of a previous generation of British Scien-
tists notably Dr. F.J. Pound, whose col-
lection of wild cocoa in the Amazon
basin for resistance to Witches Broom
laid the basis for genetic improvement in
the world cocoa industry, leaving a heri-
tage (supplemented by other collections)
of some 1300 genotypes
The Unit's germplasm collection has
had a chequered history, largely and para-
doxically because even though it has
been for many years an international
germ plasm collection, it has lacked a
firm base of international financing. At
present, the Unit is currently financed
by five international and regional sources
on a project basis: These are:

(i) The Governments of Trinidad
and Tobago and Jamaica.
(ii) The European Development
(iii) The Cocoa, Chocolate and Con-
fectionery Alliance (CCA, UK)
(iv) The International Board for
Plant Genetic Resources
(v) The University of the West
Indies, St. Indies, St. Augus-
tine Faculty of Agriculture.
The CCA funds the Plant Breeding
Programme and the governments of
Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica fund
the post of Plant Pathologist and Plant
Pathologist/Agronomist respectively. The
European Development Fund supports
the Agronomy Programme,.including pro-
vision of new field station facilities, and
Quarantine facilities in Barbados. The
IPBRG programme is funded for the
Cocoa Descriptor List Project, which
includes two research scholars reading
for M.Phil. degrees, and the University
provides the essential services necessary
under the rubric of 'shared facilities'.
Although funded separately, the indivi-
dual research projects are co-ordinated
into one CRU Programme, with the
major objective of the provision of germ
plasm with high yield potential, pest

The Jamaica Agricultural Development Foundation

S The Jamaica Agricultural Development Foundation promotes and
develops agriculture and agri-business to assist in improving the eco-
nomic and social well-being of the people of Jamaica.
The JADF provides:

Venture Capital, Loans and Equity
Grants for Research and Training.
Technical Assistance.
If you have a project in agriculture or
Sagri-business which you
believe is viable contact:

I Jamaica

Agricultural Development

'Working for the Future'
13 Barbados Ave., Kingston 5. Tel: 92-98090-2

Caribbedn Farming May 1986 1


V- '. 7:w *"rato

The story behind
good tractors and
great dealers.
For years, Ford has been
the best-selling* brand of
tractors in the Caribbean.
That's not surprising.
Ford tractors offer fea-
tures and performance
proven in all kinds of
work, from simple tasks
around the farm to heavy
tillage in tough soil. And
Ford dealers, like Jamaica's
Kingston Industrial, offer
a commitment to quality
service that keeps custom-
ers coming back.

There are Ford dealers
throughout the Caribbean.
Hadeed Motors
St. John

For nearly 70 years, Ford h as

more than ji st

Simple operation,
steady performance.
Farmers know the long-
standing Ford reputation
for power, ease of operation,
serviceability and depend-
ability. That reputation,
which began early in the
century with the famous
Fordson, is enhanced
today with the new line of
Force II tractors.

American British Canadian Motors, Ltd.
Charles McEnearney & Co. Ltd.
Velox Equipment Ltd.

These new tractors rep-
resent the latest evolution
in Ford tractor design.
You'll find everything you
need to work quickly and

A history
of service.
Caribbean farmers also
know they can count on
their Ford dealer for more
than just a good tractor.

Kingston Industrie
all Ford Tractor deale
has a history of comn
ment to the finest ser
support. Their mech
are trained by Ford i:
aspects of tractor ma
nance and repair. Th
technicians work wit
specialized Ford tool
equipment. They'll g
your tractor the atter
it deserves.

R.E. Yrausquin
Acme Garage
Compania Santisteban C. Por A.
Sto. Domingo

McIntyre Br Lt
St. George's

of ered Caribbean farmers

Stood tractor.

Del ndable
par support.
To y r Ford dealer,
part: 7e more than just a
side :-they're a competi-
tive ge.
Ti, i's why Kingston
Indu rial maintains a
large inventory of Ford
maininance and replace-
ment parts. Like all Ford
dealers, they can supply

nearly all the parts you're
ever likely to need.
In the rare instance
that a needed part isn't in
stock, they can get it fast
from a centrally located
Ford parts depot.

Ford's commitment
to Caribbean farmers.
Finally, your Ford dealer
has the support of one of
the world's best-known

companies behind him.
Ford's commitment to
the evolving needs of
agriculture includes
mechanization research
and development programs
that never cease, in good
times or bad. It's a commit-
ment you'll find in the new
range of Force II tractors.
Kingston Industrial has
been working with Ford
since 1912. Like Ford

dealers throughout the
Caribbean, they've been
helping farmers grow for a
long, long time.
And they look forward
to growing with you for
many more years to come.
*Based on figures from Systematics

More than
just a good tractor.

Behrmann Motors S.A.
Kingston Industrial Agencies

Technimat S.A.
Fort de France
Clemente Santisteban, Inc.
San Juan

National Agricultural Corp.
Beachcomber Ltd.
St. Vincent Motors, Ltd.
Arnos Vale

Charles McEnearney & Co. Ltd.
Port of Spain
Armstrong Ford
St. Croix

COCOA RESEARCH- Cont'd. from p. 17
and disease resistance and good herita-
bility, to be used in cocoa improvement
programmes in ACP states.

The Unit is headed by Dr. A.J.
Kennedy, a statistical geneticist,
supported by an Agronomist, a Patholo-
gist and some eight post graduates work-
ing for their M.Phil or Ph.D. degrees. The
Unit has several authoritative Consul-
tants upon whom it could call, and
ideally, could work jointly with the
leading experts from Institutions and
Universities engaged in cocoa research.
The Unit is recognized by the Interna-
tional Board of Plant Genetic Resources
as an International Cocoa Gene Bank,
Trinidad (ICGT). The main objectives of
the Unit are:-
(i) To act as an internationally
recognized gene bank in the
IPBGR network, and to main-
tain, for the benefit of the
world cocoa industry, represent-
ative genetic diversity.
(ii) to take an active role in ex-
panding the collections in CRU,
with additional materials col-
lected from the centres of
origin/centres of diversity.
(iii) to characterise samples from
specific collection sites and to
produce a catalogue compatible
with others (Engles/Soria) and
to include statistical analysis. In-
cluded would be self compati-
bility differential at wilt point,
and number of ovules per ovary.
liv) to disseminate full descriptive
and photographic information
on samples, initially to all rele-
vant institutes in ACP countries,
on the understanding that they
will feed back further informa-
tion which can be added to the
gene data bank.
(v) to initiate more speedy distri-
bution of plant materials to
ACP institutions, using the most
up to date scientific methods.
(vi) to be a Training Centre for
cocoa researchers in ACP states,
and to foster inter-regional and
international co-operation in
cocoa research.
(vii) to utilise the services of experts
in relevant organizations engaged
in cocoa research; and to main-
tain a position of scientific
leadership in the cocoa growing

Over the last forty years individual
clones have been distributed world wide
and have played an important role in
every major cocoa breeding programme.
Modern thinking on the purpose of col-
lecting wild cocoa has shifted from that
of collecting for disease resistance only
as the paramount criterion, to one of
widening and deepening the 'gene pool'
of cultivated cocoa, by using a con-
siderably increased number of wild geno-
types in breeding programmes.
It has been postulated for example
that absence of disease in wild cocoa
at the time of collection, is not always a
reliable indicator of genetically in-
duced resistance, and is therefore not a
sufficient criterion for selection, as in-
stanced by the loss of resistance of some
of Pound's collection eg. Scavina. One of
the reasons for this has been the emer-
gence of different Witches' Broom patho-
types which has altered the direction of
research from field testing for witches'
broom resistance, to one of screening
methods in the early seedling stages.
It is not intended here to go into de-
tails of the research programme, but to
give the bare outline. The Agronomy
programme deals with the propagation of
the existing germplasm and the establish-
ment of newly propagated material, agro-
nomic trials, selection plots etc. In
addition, training of post graduate stu-
dents and personnel from the ACP
states form an integral part of the
Agronomy programme.
The Plant Pathology programme is
concerned with screening for Black Pod
disease, evaluation and rating of resis-
tance, inoculations on progenies from
crosses, Witches' Broom screening,
standardisation of screening techniques,
chemical control, evaluation of fungi-
cides, Bark Canker studies etc.
The new Plant Breeding programme
was the result of intensive discussion with
leading Consultants in plant breeding.
The programme has to satisfy local,
regional and international requirements.
To meet these needs, a programme based
on improvement of populations for a
closely defined but restricted set of
characters has been formulated. The pro-
gramme is essentially that of recurrent
mass selection modified to suit the bio-
logy of cocoa.
With this population approach, im-
proved germplasm may be distributed
internationally as populations which
embody enough genetic diversity, for
adequate selection and screening in the

receiving country's environment. This
will avoid the problem of selection of
clones in Trinidad that will be poorly
adapted to differing cocoa environments
at regional and international levels.
A Quarantine Station of interna-
tionally acceptable standard has been
established in Barbados, where no cocoa
is grown or has prospects of being grown.
Barbados has the geographical advantage
of being the most easterly of the Antil-
lean chain, and is significantly distant
from the cocoa growing countries of Tri-
nidad and Grenada.
The International transfer of cocoa
genetic material requires (i) thorough
inspection in the country of origin (ii)
an international quarantine facility and
(iii) local or post entry quarantine before
release in the field. Barbados however
is not inter-continental as Kew was, and
for West African countries facilities at
Miami and Montpelier in France are being
It has been agreed by the Inte na-
tional Board of Plant Genetic Resou ces
that there should be two Cocoa ne
banks of international status, and ley
should have as extensive collec ons
as possible and have duplicates whei ,ver
possible. The Cocoa Research Uni of
Trinidad and Tobago and the C( itro
Agronomico Tropical de Investigaci n y
Enzenanza (CATIE), Turrialba, ( osta
Rica, are the designated centres.
Relations with the International F )ard
of Plant Genetic Resources hav re-
sulted in funding to develop a datE base
for the ICGT, using internatic ally
agreed descriptors.
Through the joint project of I HIAP
and the London Cocoa Trade Ar azon
Project (LCTAP) germ plasm col cted
in the upper Amazon will be trans !rred
to ICGT via quarantine in Barbador from
the Instituto Nacional de Investiga ones
Agropecuarias (INIAP), Ecuador.
The Quarantine Stations at liami
and at Montpelier in France offer s lecial
facilities that will be necessary f( the
transfer of material from the :ocoa
Research Unit to non Am rican
countries, ACP countries, and ;outh
East Asia. Germplasm materials have
already been sent to Kew and Mial ii for
Ig Hille Toxopeus of the Foundation
for Agricultural Plant Breeding, Wagen-
ingen Holland, acts as Consultant to the
Cocoa Research Unit and has been instru-
mental in developing the research policies
and programmes within the Unit, and
Dr. B.D.G. Bartley was lent by the Inter-
Caribbean Farming May 1986

american Institute for Co-operation in
Agriculture (IICA) on a short term Con-
sultancy, to assist in the evaluation of the
existing population in the Trinidad gene
bank, as well as to acquaint the present
Plant Breeder with the rationale used in
earlier breeding programmes.
Collaborative programmes are under-
way with both the Governments of
Trinidad and Tobago and the Govern-
ment ot Jamaica, as well as participation
in an international co-operative research
project on Witches Broom, which is
funded by the International Office of
Cocoa and Chocolate, Brussels.
few final observations. Cocoa re-
sea: h by the Cocoa Research Unit can-
noi be considered in isolation from the
loc regional and international aspects.
the local level, the research by the
Mir try of Agriculture could benefit,
for :ample, by mass screening methods
beir developed by the Unit for disease
resi nce. Similarly, the investigations by
the nit on whether forms of witches
bro. exist in Trinidad which may be
calk pathotypes will be of great im-
port ce to the Ministry. Micropropaga-
tion dies are underway, and if success-
ful, II help in multiplying the availa-
bilit )f planting material and reducing
tran' rt.
It s equally certain that Jamaica
stan, to gain from the work of the
Cocc Research Unit. With the excep-
tion f the well known Orange River
expe ient station, where yields of some
2 to of cured beans per hectare were
obta d for about a decade in the
sixtit ;eventies, yields on the whole
are I v. The majority of the planting
mate I distributed and planted in
Jama 3 are seedlings resulting from seed
of a ingle hybrid, Pa 150 x ICS 60,
harve: ed from both parents in the seed
garde: at Sunningdale. Both parents are
repor:-d by the experts to be self in-
All the experts agree that Jamaica,
because of a narrow genetic base in her
cocoa population, stands in danger of
pathologic susceptibility arising from this
use of a small range of genotypes. One
of the experts, Hille Toxopeus, has sug-
gested the possibility of a degree of cross
incompatibility in Jamaica's single-cross
hybrid planting material, which might
be responsible for the overall low level
of production, but recognizes that this
Cont'd. on p. 22
ICaribbean Farming May 1986

Mr. Exporter,

what you're doing is

serious Business...

and the Trade Commissioner will help you
increase your export earnings. There are 7 Trade '
Commissions spanning the globe, manned by experts
on-the-spot' and all having an interest in your business.

They will:-
* Identify new markets for Jamaican products.
* Recommend new products for development in Jamaica.
* Assist in solving trade problems.
* Provide credit reports on overseas firms
* Provide good officers' service for handling trade complaints.
* Organise purchasing missions to, and sales missions from
* Organise mini fairs, displays and in-store promotions for
Jamaican'Manufactured products.
Contact the J.N.E.C. Trade Commissioners service and let
your connections work for you.

The Trade Commissioner

8 Waterloo Road, Kingston 10.
Telephone: 926-1200/926-1680 5
An agency of the Government of Jamaica and part of
the Structural Adjustment Programme.



hypothesis will need to be tested ur-
gently. Thus the Cocoa Research Unit
with its wide range of genotypes, could
provide material for testing in the varying
ecologies of the Jamaica environment,
and it would be most unfortunate for
Jamaica, if, for financial reasons, she
is unable to continue participation in
the work of the Trinidad Cocoa Research

At the international level, Kennedy
has pointed out that the breeding pro-

CGIAR system on the food crops, there
were two examples of successful research
in Africa for large scale development.
The first was the patient research extend-
ing over 15 years by British scientists in
the Gezira Cotton Scheme in the Sudan,
which laid the basis for a successful
cotton industry for that country. The
second was the work of the once bril-
liantly directed Agricultural Research
Council of Central Africa, as it was then,
under the leadership of Dr. H.C. Pereira,
who later became Director of East
Mailing Research Station. It rested on the

Quarantine Station exclusively for cocoa introductions in Barbados built with the help of
EDG funding and generosity of land from the Barbados Government

gramme of the Unit is directed not at
the selection of varieties to release to
farmers, but at the more fundamental
problem of detecting the genetic poten-
tial of the ICGT population for improve-
ment. He recognized that all populations
cannot be improved for all characters,
and that there must be genetic variation
within the population, and postulates
that by using a population approach to
breeding, together with new screening
methods, the potential for response to
selection for given populations or groups
can be assessed.
He concludes by saying that the future
of research and development in cocoa
must rest on the identification of new
successful, cultivars, in the evolution of
which, the role to be played by a gene
bank such as the Trinidad Unit (ICET)
is central to the world cocoa industry.
Before the outstanding work of the

A.J. Kennedy The International Cocoa Gene
Bank, Trinidad and Tobago; its Role in Future
Cocoa Research and Development Cocoa
Growers Bulletin, No. 36, September 1985.

principle of the Project: Team approach,
where groups of specialists of three or
four scientific disciplines with 50 gra-
duate workers and 300 assistants found
answers to major problems over the
vast territories of Zambia, Malawi and
Rhodesia. In a relatively, short period,
outstanding' results were achieved in
tsetse fly biology, cattle infertility,
treatment of infertile soils, breeding of
disease resistant groundnuts, and the
measuring of flood flows by radio-
active tracers.
These examples are quoted because
they provide valuable lessons for the
prosecution of successful research which
rests on (i) competent organization of
first class personnel working on specific
tasks and (ii) adequate funding and
Having regard to the importance of
cocoa breeding as the long term solution
to the world cocoa problems, it is hoped
that an effort will be made to equate
quinquennial research programmes with
corresponding quinquennial financing,
particularly in terms of core funding. At

the end of every five years, an appraisal
of the results achieved would form the
basis for financing for the next five years,
which would give sufficient time for two
generations of cocoa. The cost of research
for each tropical crop where plant breed-
ing is involved, has to be assessed, as in
rice, on the potential benefits likely to be
gained from a successful breeding pro-
It seems plausible to suggest that the
cost of centralised research for breeding,
as is the function of the Cocoa Research
Unit, could be met by a spread of con-
tributions by all the cocoa growing
countries, as well as all the manufac-
turers of cocoa, thereby ensuring long-
term financing for a long-term project,
making it a truly joint international
The low income countries of Africa,
Latin America, the Caribbean and
Asia absorb only 11 per cent of world
investment in agricultural research, and it
might be timely to select at least one
elite crop in the Caribbean of local,
regional and international importance for
adequate research funding. Cocoa and
bananas would appear to be candi Jates
for selection, as foreign exchange ea ners.
Financing research on food pr ,duc-
tion alone, although urgently nece sary,
is not a sufficient condition for exp isive
agricultural development. Agrici tural
research in the English-speaking arib-
bean accounts for a very small sh -e of
international financial assistance, ar I itis
to be hoped that increased funds v ill be
made available in the near future. I





Any group of in,
trees with a comn
cestory or origin: /
ation is adequate'
sented by 100 or
linated seeds. The
ation approach is i
to reduce the time
the search for rn
to disease, testing

A tree has a se of in-
herent characters xed in
its genes and locE Id and
grouped in its nromo
sones. The geno /pe V
genetic make up is thd
collective of inher nt ch
S A gene bank that can be
used or exploited y pla1
: Used to indicate the d&
gree to which the GenotyP
of tree can.express itself in
terms of a certain chart
ter in different environ
Cont'd on p. 2
Caribbean Farming May 198

Most Dangerous Tropical Tick

The Tropical Bont Tick Amblyomma
variegatum, is considered the most
damaging tick affecting warm blooded
animals, horses, mules, mules, donkeys,
cattle, buffaloes, goats, sheep, birds, pigs
and even humans.
The female of this tick, in the adult
stages sucks a considerable quantity of
blood, 3 to 5 ml., and is one of the largest
ticks known.
The male of this tick is much smaller
and is distinguished by the many colours
on the back or scutum. It is very
pretty and ornate, hence the term "Bont"
The tick is characterized by a very long
pr( oscis with biting mouth parts that
pei orate the skin deeply causing irrita-
tio to the animal. The tick sucks blood
fro the wound which it has produced.
Thi proboscis penetrates so deeply, pain
is ( :jsed to the animal when the tick is
ph, cally removed.

GL ;SARY CONT'D from p. 22

Mic ropagetion: A technique of plant por-
pagation under controlled
conditions where single
buds are excised, grown
on a culture medium,trans-
planted out in sets of small
pots, easily transported.
Will be grown in a nur-
sery prior to field plant-
Clon All cuttings and buddings
derived from a single tree
are referred to as the
IPBG International Board of
Plant Genetic Resources.
ICGT International Cocoa Gene
Bank, Trinidad.
IOCC International Office of Co-
coa and Chdcolafe, Brus-
CGIA Consultative Group for In-
national Agricultural Re-
Mr. S, George Cooper is a 1934 Asso-
ciate graduate of the former Imperial
College of Tropical Agriculture and has
served widely in the Caribbean and
Africa where he was a member of FAO
and the Economic Commission for
Africa. He is author of "Agricultural Re-
Search in Tropical Africa;" (ii) co-author
of "The Natural Resources of Trinidad
and Tobago" and (iii) co-author with
Professor L.A. Wilson of "The Inter-
national Programme of the Faculty of
Agriculture, UWI." He is now Managing
Director of a private Agricultural Devel-
opment Company.
Caribbean Farming May 1986

In Africa, the Tropical Bont tick
causes weakness and debility especially in
young animals because of the large
amount of blood loss associated with
heavy infestation. Deaths may result.
The ticks transmit several diseases such
as HEARTWATER a serious Rickett-
sail disease of ruminants, NAIROBI
associated with a severe skin infection
seriously affects the heath of the
animal, reduces its productivity drasti-
cally and may also lead to death.
The tick was introduced into the West
Indies over a hundred years ago with the
importation of cattle from Senegal. The
tick became well established on Antigua
and the French Islands of Martinique and
In recent years, the tick has spread to
neighboring islands. Its distribution is
on Nevis but considered restricted in
Puerto Rico, Vieques, St. Kitts, Anguilla,
St. Maarten/St. Martin, Montserrat,
Dominica and St. Lucia. The male ticks
were reported in Barbados in 1984.
In 1967 it was introduced into St.

Croix but successfully eradicated after
an intense campaign. The Tick Eradica-
tion campaign being conducted in
Puerto Rico since 1981 is now claiming
success for its elimination. It was first
confirmed in the Cidra-Cayey area in
In 1981, HEARTWATER was con-
firmed in Guadeloupe. The disease has
recently been confirmed also in Antigua
and Marie Galante. The disease must be
considered endemic on these islands.
HEARTWATER can be expected to
cause high mortality among susceptible
animals buffaloes, deer, cattle, sheep
and goats following initial introduction.
tion causing heavy economic losses wher-
ever Amblyomma variegatum exists. Der-
matophilosis often leads to the initial
recognition of the ticks presence.

- The male is very ornate and pretty.
- The adult female when engorged can
be as large as a nutmeg.
- The tick is a three host tick during its
life cycle which may or may not be
on the same species of animal.
- The adult tick can live for nearly two
years without a blood meal. Immature
stages can survive for 9 months.
Cont'd on p. 24


- The tick has long mouth parts to suck

The life cycle can be completed in
142 days under ideal conditions. This
period may be extended to more than 2
years. The male can parasitize a host for
4 to 8 months and produce two or three
generations of ticks per year, The female
lays around 20,000 eggs. There are four
stages in the tick development egg,
larva, nymph, adult.
The female lays its eggs on the ground
under shade or protection e.g. a rock
etc. The larvae hatch, crawl up on a blade
of grass and seek hosts which are usually
small mammals. The larvae feed, drop
off and moult into nymphs which simi-
larly seek other hosts. These feed, drop
off and moult into adults. Adult males
and females mate on the host and the
cycle is repeated.
On the host, larvae are found in the
ears, on the head, the neck and the
clefts of the hooves.
The nymphs and adults are found in
the axillae between the claws, in the
groin, the-udder and around the genital
areas. Preferred hosts are the larger
animals, especially cattle and horses. In
Guadeloupe, goats are infested with large
numbers of adults. The density of ticks
is considered high on this island and the

opportunity for contact with birds, dogs
and mongoose is increased. Infestation of
cattle egrets and their migration could
explain the spread of Amblyomma varie-
gation in recent years.
The range of hosts is narrowed in the
Caribbean as there are few wild mammals
mice, rats and mongoose in most
islands, deer and monkeys in St. Kitts.
Repeated treatments at one-week or
two-week intervals with insecticides have
been successful in reducing the incidence
of Amblyomma variegatum and Derma-
tophilosis. Recommended insecticides
include organophosphates or Amitraz,
and the newer pour on Bayticol. Careful
attention must be paid to correct dilu-
tions being used and complete application
on the animal.
The cooperation of all farmers in
infested areas is required to achieve con-
trol or eradication. Appropriate legisla-
tion must be considered. The effects of
Amblyomma variegatum have been
so devastating to farmers that compliance
with recommendations initially is easily
obtained. Follow-up treatments that are
necessary however have suffered as
farmers are reluctant to expend energy
and resources to treat animals when they
are not obviously infested. Some farmers,
too, are wary of contact with animals
having dermatophilosis.

Seasonal activity of the tick varies
with its location. Usually populations on
hosts increase in number and remain
high through the rainy seasons and de-
crease rapidly during the dry seasons.
1. Closely observe all farm animals and
ensure that they do not have Ambly
omma variegatum, the Tropical Bont
2. Ticks suspected to be Amblyomma
variegatum should be reported to
veterinary- authorities immediately.
They can be placed in vials of clear
alcohol, white rum or 10% formalin
and carried to the laboratory for
3. Cooperate with the National Tick
Control or Eradication Programme -
follow instructions for the can ful
spraying, dipping or treatment of
4. Do not introduce animals from
known infested areas.
5. Do not pasture animals from -ee
areas into known infested areas.
6. Control the movement of all anir als
in and around infested areas. E
Dr. Alexander is a veterinarian who w, ks
with the International Institute of Co lo-
ation in Agriculture. He is station in
Georgetown, Guyana.

St. Kitts Holds Agricultural & Industrial Exhibiti n

Small farmer production in St. Kitts
was one of the major highlights of the
was held in St. Kitts April 17-19. The
Exhibition was organised by the Ministry
of Agriculture in conjunction with the


Ministry of Trade and Industry and the
Private Sector. Agriculture and Industry
are two of the three main sectors of the
economy upon which the Government
is placing a major thrust for the country's
growth. The theme of the Exhibition


/ '


fore chosen to reflect the expectatic of
these two sectors.
The holding of the Exhibition )in-
cided with the amalgamation of the
field and factory side of the sugar i; ius-
try. The amalgamation is in an att npt
to reduce the cost of production a; I to
make the industry viable. The e ort
of sugar has for many years beei the
largest foreign exchange earner ar i its
production on St. Kitts has beer the
largest single employer. The pro-
duction of sugar has however dec ined
from 39,000 tons in 1978 to 3 ,000
tons in 1984 and the foreign excl ange
generated declined from $12M U. to
$10M US during the same period. A
constant increase in the value of food
imports has however been recorded from
$5.6M US in 1976 to $10.3M US in
Resulting from the declining economic
importance of the sugar industry and the
constant increase in the food import
bill, the Government is placing great
emphasis on diversification and the
Caribbean Farming May 1986

Exhibition was planned to show achieve-
ments in the agricultural sector. The
Exhibition therefore had four objectives
which were:-
1. To show general achievement in
Agriculture and Industry;
2. To generate interest in Govern-
ment's plan for diversification;
3. To attract young people to Agri-
culture and Industry and also to
highlight career opportunities in
both sectors;
4. To establish a contact point where
buyers and sellers can interact.

The previous Exhibition was held in
1983 and the 1986 Exhibition high-
ligh ed achievements during the past
thr a years. Self sufficiency in eggs is
one of the major success stories in the
live cock subsector. Egg production is
beii j undertaken by one relatively large
pro ucer and a number of small to
mec um size producers. The second
maj r achievement is the pasteurization
of r ilk. Local milk was previously only
avai ible fresh in bottles. Artificial in-
serm ation has also been introduced at
the sole commercial dairy farm and
som calves from Al were on display
duri 3 the Exhibition. A marked in-
crea, in the availability of fresh beef

and pork has also been observed during
the past three years.
Animal exhibits from livestock
farmers were on display as competing
exhibits in eight main categories viz:-
dairy cattle, beef cattle, dual purpose

cattle, swine, sheep, goats, rabbits and
poultry. The livestock division also dis-
played local forages and feeds, equip-
ment and drugs used in the veterinary
service and a photographic display of
health problems found in the livestock
In the crops subsector, one of the
major achievements during the past three

years is the significant involvement of
young farmers in production, particularly
of vegetables. An increase in the produc-
tion of non-traditional crops such as
tomatoes, cabbages, sweet peppers,
carrots, lettuce and string beans has been

observed among small farmers. The young
Tarmers are spearheading the production
of relatively new crops such as butternut
squash, zucchini, cauliflower, broccoli,
parsley and watermelon.
Highlights of the food crop exhibits
included a display of locally grown rice.
white potato and onions. These are three
Cont'd. on p. 26

In heavy duty vehicles and equipment:


Jamtrac is even older than independent Jamaica. For years...
we have been the distributors of leading name brands in Heavy
Duty Vehicles and Equipment for Commercial, Industrial and
Agricultural uses-
We supply the best names in the business and provide excellent
sales follow up a dependable spare parts supply and expert
servicing .

Tractors, Lift trucks, Earth-moving Cranes and Hoists
Equipment and Diesel engines
Irrigation & AEROSPACE LIM
Pump Systems Aircraft (all types) Alternat

la Compressors Highway Trucks
Compressors Highway Trucks

Caribbean Farming May 1986
Caribbean Farming May 1986



Diesel Engines

Asphalt and Crushing Equipment

379 Spanish Town Road,
Kingston 11,
Telephone: 92-39251

w o

of the main food crop import items and
the local production is being investigated.
The rice trials are being conducted by
agriculturalists from the Republic of
China, Taiwan while the Ministry of
Agriculture and CARDI are investigating
white potato and onion production.
Machinery to be used in the proposed
small farmers machinery pool and also
those used by the ugar industry were on
display. Also or' display were various
types of irrigation including drip and
mist and also the use of computer in
The Exhibition, which was well
attended, appeared to have achieved it's
four main objectives. The general public
was able to interact with some of the
main producers and contacts were made

Caribbean Food Crops

Society Meeting
The Twenty-second annual meeting of
the Caribbean Food Crops Society will
be held in the island of Saint Lucia from
August 25 to 29, 1986. This will be the
first time that the Society meets in an
English-speaking island of the Eastern
Theme of this year's meeting is NON-
recognizes the recent increases in export
of non-traditional crops such as yams,
aroids, plantains, fruit and vegetables
from the Caribbean to markets in North
America and Europe.
Papers for the August meeting are
invited; they may be on any aspect of
food crop production but those papers
dealing with crops having export poten-
tial or importance will be particularly
welcome. The organizers of the meeting
wish to focus on:-
Agronomic practices
Crop protection
Economics of production
Extension and farmer organisation
Poster displays and presentations will
also be welcome.
Contact Caribbean Food Crops
Society, c/o Ministry of Agriculture,
Castries, St. Lucia. E

CARDI Fact Sheet

For Livestock

CARDI the Caribbean Agricultural
Research and Development Institute -
has prepared a number of Fact Sheets

P r v, -., 1 -7-1

for future delivery of local produce. The
wide range of agricultural exhibits on
display and the interest shown by the

dealing with pasture grasses and legumes
as well as with management of pastures
Fact Sheet AP-F/7-82 with the title
described as a guide to pasture grasses in
It has notes on:
Giant African Star Grass,
Coastal Bermuda
Elephant Grass
Guinea Grass
Fact Sheet AP-F/8.83 is called A
out some management hints for establish-
ing and maintaining improved grass and
legume pastures. Even experienced
farmers will find something -useful and
new in this fact sheet. It would be an
excellent introduction for students as it
is written in simple English and well
Fact Sheet AP-F/11-83 is also titled
out as a useful wall chart listing a
number of improved grasses and legumes.
It also gives information of the rainfall
range in which each will thrive, the
tolerance to drought, periodic water-
logging and low fertility soils, sowing
rate and seed count.
Fact Sheet AP-F/17-85 is a guide to
production of guinea grass seed.
Fact Sheet AP-F/12-85 describes
WINER or Rabbit Vine a West Indian
forage legume which is well adapted to
salty, badly-drained soils and is a
valuable protein-rich fodder.
Ask your nearest CARDI field repre-
sentative or write to CARDI, Cave Hill
Campus, UWI, Barbados. U

public indicated
duction holds a
Kitts. N

that agricultural oro-
bright future for St.

Veteran Cattlemar

Tells His Story

Dr. Karl Wellington told part o the
story of forward movement in Carib ean
livestock farming when he address, the
'Fourth World Red Poll Congress in Jew
Zealand earlier this year. Dr. Wellit iton
has in fact been one of the de )ted
people whose efforts have produce the
cattle and developed the manage lent
systems of which they can be p jud.
Livestock people all over the worlc lave
heard of the work of Dr. Philip ,cky
whose careful work in selection and
breeding has inspired Dr. Wellingtc and
many other workers in that vineye J. In
Trinidad, Dr. Steve Bennett has done
notable work with buffalo. In rated
fields veterinary, pasture im rove-
ment, farm management the Car bean
has produced outstanding people ad im-
pressive results during the past alf-a-
The work of some of these goe back
to even earlier times. We are fortui ite to
have some detailed reports from t men
and women who, being go'osmai agers,
kept meticulous records of wha: they
were doing. One of these mai agers,
Richard Farewell Williams, was a eader
in Jamaican agriculture. He has left care-
ful account of his life and times in his
memoirs. R.F. Looks Back is many
stories all of them interesting. Part of
the story tells of the development of a
cattle property in the hill country of
western Jamaica. Mr. Williams inherited
this estate and took over management in
1912, when it was carrying 400-450 head
of cattle on its 800 acres of pasture.
This part of Jamaica gets 100" of rainfall

Caribbean Farming May 1986

a year with rarely a "dry" month. In
1912, Mr. Williams tells us, four-year-old
beef steers weighed 900-100 Ib and
sold for L9. An important product of the
farm was the three-year-old "planter"
steer bought by the sugar estates for
hauling waggons of cane.
By 1969, when Mr. Williams sold his
farm, it was carrying 600 head of cattle -
by this time registered and commercial
Jamaica Red Poll. In that year, the farm
"Enfield" sold 254 head i.e. 270 Ib
per acre. This included 59 animals sold
for breeding and 86 which were bought at
about 500 Ib and sold after seven months
at 880 Ib live weight.
From his herd of Jamaica Reds, Mr.
Wi liams also sold 142 Ib of milk per acre
in 1969, milking something like 45 herd
at i time. Pastures received about 125 Ib
of fertilizer and a system of incentive
pa ments was used to keep down cdif
mi tality rates and keep up milk produc-
tic levels.
-uring his long and active lifetime,
R. Williams gave many years to agri-.
cu! Ire. He was a leading figure in the
bai na industry and chairman of the
Jar ica Livestock Association (JLA) in
19 '-48 and 1957-63. He was a founda-
tior member of JLA and the Associa-
tioD headquarters is named after him.

Yam Research Will Cut

Production Costs

Collaboration between the Interna-
tional Institute of Tropical Agriculture
(IITA) in Ibadan, Nigeria and the Uni-
versity of the West Indies, the Scientific
Research Council and the Government of
Jamaica promises to make the growing of
yams a less risky and more profitable
business for farmers in Jamaica and the
rest of the Caribbean.
Yam production has been a high-cost
proposition partly because between 25%
and 30% of each yam crop is used as
planting material for the next crop. The
cost of labour to make yam "hills" and
for cutting, transporting and placing
stakes also pushes up the cost of pro-
Dr. V.L. Asnani of IITA has been
stationed in Jamaica since last year and
he told CARIBBEAN FARMING that he
is hopeful that the technology of tissue
culture combined with the "mini-sett"
method of producing yam plants will be
effective for all varieties of yams grown
here in the Caribbean.
Our photographs show some of the
steps used in producing yam plants under

the new system and a number of local
farmers who have followed Dr. Asnani's
research step-by-step are preparing to
take the next important step of trying
the method on a field scale under condi-
tions where they, the farmers, and the
researchers can observe and learn more
about its problems and potential.
The overall objective of this project is
to increase the production of yams parti-
cularly for export market without reduc-
ing the availability for domestic con-
sumption. Increasing the availability of
yams for domestic consumption (by
not utilizing "heads" as planting material)
would have an additional effect on
foreign exchange balance through import
Although the benefits from this pro-
ject (in terms of increased production
and increased export earnings) would
start accruing earlier on incremental
basis, it is expected that by 1990-91
even if only 20% of the acreage under
yam production is covered with the new
yam production system. Jamaica would
Cont'd on p. 28

Meeting the needs of Jamaican Farmers.

Consolidates various
A-ricultural Loan Programmes
urder one agency.

Serves Agriculture and Agro-
Industry on a continuous basis
by mobilizing adequate Funds
tor Production.

Ensures an equitable
distribution of Funds to the
Jamaican Farmer.

Provides a Credit Service that
is timely, adequate and
responsive to the needs of

Wholesales Funds for Agricultural
and Agro Industrial projects to
People's Co-operative Banks and
participating Financial Institutions.

Provides Financial Counselling
to its clients.

P.O. Box 466, 11A 15 Oxford Road, Kingston 5. Jamaica W.I. Tel. 929-4000.

Caribbean Farming May 1986 2

be able to produce about 134 million
additional pounds annually generating
some 28.0 million additional US dollars
in foreign exchange.
The new yam technology does not in-
volve use of expensive chemicals and
pesticides etc. which normally are re-
quired for the use of high technology
with other crop plants, thus draining a
lot of foreign exchange. Yams are also
less perishable as compared to crops like
fruits and vegetables and thus, a more
stable export crop commodity.
A tissue culture laboratory with basic
equipment, glassware and supplies has
been set up and micro-propagation work
initiated. Additional funds for full-scale
operation are being sought.

". UNA

Am 0h

The project is expected to contribute
significantly to the country's economy,
not only in terms of facilitating increased
production at lower cost for the local
market but also of providing the technical
base for increasing the capacity for
export earnings and import substitution.
The programme could be expanded
geographically to other countries in the
Caribbean region which have similar root
and tuber crops as in Jamaica. It could
also be expanded to other crops like
spices and ornamentals as the techniques
used in yam propagation can also be

applied to a wide range of vegetatively-
propagated crop plants.
So far, since August 1985, the IITA
has provided a major portion of technical
and financial support to the on-going
activities (under a joint GOJ/UWI/IITA
root crop project) by providing a yam
expert (consultant) and some operation
funds. However, due to un-anticipated
financial problems, IITA support will be
phased out by March 1987.
IITA has the required technical capa-
bility and will be willing to provide the
technical expertise, improved germplasm,
training facilities and the needed back-
stopping if the necessary funding could
be arranged through international donor


Bt ~S

Education For
Agriculture -
The Eastern Caribbean Institute
of Agriculture & Forestry

By David Dolly
Within a stone's throw of Piarco In-
ternational Airport in Trinidad the
buildings and fields of the Eastern Carib-
bean Institute of Agriculture and
Forestry are part of the Centeno complex
of Government operations. ECIAF
includes a collection of laboratories, class-
rooms, dormitories, staff quarters, play-
grounds and a fifty-hectare farm. This
ins itution has provided training for
mo e than thirteen hundred Caribbean
stu tents of agriculture and forestry and
- rore recently of teacher training in
agr. culturee for the past thirty-two
yea 3.
CIAF was established in 1954 under
the JK Government's Colonial Develop-
mei and Welfare Scheme with assistance
fror the Carnegie Corporation. At that
time it was the Eastern Caribbean Farm
Inst ute (ECFI) and it became the most
imp tant place of training for extension
offit rs and technicians in agriculture
world ng in the eastern Caribbean.

Since 1964 ECIAF has been adminis-
tered by the Government of Trinidad
and Tobago but it continues to accept
students from other Caribbean countries
- particularly the Windward and Leeward
Islands of the CARICOM group.
In 1966 a school of forestry was
added to the Institute and around that
time there were additions to the buildings
and other facilities with help from an
FAO/UNDP project. Since 1970 the In-
stitute has been a full Division of the
T&T Ministry of Agriculture, Lands and
Food Production (MALFP). In 1983 a
school of agriculture teacher training was
added; this school is located about three
km from the main campus.
ECIAF has two training objectives,

The first is to train people for the teh-
nician and sub-professional levels, includ-
ing teachers of agriculture, The ECIAF
Agriculture Teacher Eduaetion Centre
(ATEC) expects to graduate some 200
agriculture science teachers for the
national secondary schools over the net
ten years, Although ATEC seeks at pre--
sent to supply the Nation's needs, it may
well be that in the future it may train tfe
chers for other countries in the regon,
In this connection, contact has een
made with officials in the island of
In 1985, ECIAF awarded diplomas to
eleven graduates in agriculture, four
game wardens and eighteen teaoder
This brought the total number of rs-
duates in the history of ECIAF to 13M
about one-third of te Inumfl r caw
from other countries Most of fth dipll-
mau were for agricullure but 2 ewtr--
ficates were awarded in AnimP l H@alh,
Veterinary PuMi Hea"th d fps"
Supervision IForestry),
The ECIAF programlni fir aVli6~dfr
is a twcyear ewfse iiiOuding tii"shi
in ie Naturall SWiam, Aniriil Pirsdy-
tion, Crp Prodtiiion, Frpm -Mawp-
mane, Agrviiiltual Exlt&iiS MWOedilheds

available now


) - ENoQUIM TO::

ii lit Port-x Spaiii

*HBlg __________

:aribbean Fam(~iigr MoyP 1986 ~


To Transform

The Tropics:

CIAT's Combined Planter

Jack Raeves
Scientists at the Centro Internacional
de Agricultural Tropical (CIAT), Call,
Colombia, have developed.the technology
that could turn vast areas of the Ameri-
can tropics into more productive pasture
lands for cattle production. Approxi-
mately 200 million hectares of under-.
utilized savanna lands 16 times the
area of the U.K. are included in this
The Center's tropical pasture special-
ists have devised a combined, tractor-
pulled fertilizer/planter that plows,
applies fertilizer, and drops grass and
legume seeds in one pass over the land.
The planter and process are efficient in
terms of time, labor and materials.
Tropical America's savannas are
typically vast grasslands with scattered
trees, interrupted by fingers of forest
along the creeks and rivers. The soils
are poor and acid, and water is scarce at
certain times of the year. Yet, these
underutilized areas, due to a long growing
season and excellent soil physical condi-
tions, invite agricultural development -
especially for meat and milk production.
However, sowing these lands in pasture
grasses and legumes requires respect for
the soil must be turned sufficiently to
get the pasture established. Since the
land is highly vulnerable to erosion by
water and wind, the less the soil is dis-
turbed, the better.
Faced with the particular characteris-
tics of the savannas, CIAT's pasture ex-
perts developed the combined planter,
which is essentially a fertilizer spreader
and seed drill mounted on the rear bar
of a chisel plow.
Two rows of grass are planted in the
middle of a 2.5 meter strip with a row of
legumes on each edge. The legumes are
added because they fix atmospheric
nitrogen in the soil, and the mixture of
grasses and legumes are more nutritious
for grazing animals.
The aggressive, creeping legumes play
the role of pioneer that is, they invade
the savanna, creating more favourable
fertility conditions for the subsequent
invasion of the grasses. The method is
called 'strip planting.'
Strips are planted 12.5 meters apart
leaving a 10-meter strip of undisturbed
savanna. Planting is done immediately

after burning. The fresh regrowth of
native species helps distract leaf
cutter ants from the introduced species
until they become established, and they
also provide valuable forage for the
grazing animals.
Approximately 1 hectare per hour can

ECIAF Cont'd from p. 29

and Agricultural Engineering. Attention
is paid equally to theoretical and practical
In Forestry, the major areas are Silvi-
culute, Wildlife and Forest Management
and Forest Utilization. These build on a
basic training in General Botany, Forest
Botany and Soil Science. The Course also
provides practical training including ex-
tended camping sessions in various parts
of Trinidad and Tobago.
Academic requirements for admission
are five O-level subject passes including
Mathematics and English. Applicants with
passes in science subjects Chemistry in
particular and those with practical
experience in agriculture have an advan-
The Teacher Education Programme
is of one year's duration. It offers courses
in Educational Psychology, Curriculum
Planning and Development, Educational
Media for Agricultural Instruction, Teach-
ing Methods, Evaluation and a host of

be planted. The low-cost pasture
nology allows for significant increE
carrying capacity over time (8-10
more animals per hectare), as w,
more than doubling annual weight
of the animals. N


related topics. Students also eng ,e in
independent study exercises and they
are involved in supervised teaching! prac-
tice. Of the threec-schools, ATEC las a
non-residential programme.
Entry qualifications for this sch Al are
either a diploma in agriculture )r its
equivalent) or a BSc. degree in A iricul-
ture or equivalent. In addition appli-
cants must have two years' t( ;ching
For further information, contact:-
The Director,
Eastern Caribbean Institute of A jricul
ture and Forestry,
Centeno via Arima P.O.
Trinidad & Tobago, West Indies
Phone 664-4382, 664-5176.
The author acknowledges the co-opera
tion of Messrs. Sam Rivers and Ronald
Ramharacksingh, Assistant Directors,
David Dolly is Editor of the Extension
Newsletter published by the University
of the West Indies Department of Agri,
cultural Extension.
Caribbean Farming May 1986

Incentives & Support Systems For

The eighteenth West Indies Agricul-
tural Economics Conference was devoted
to an examination of incentives and sup-
port systems as they have been applied
in parts of the Caribbean in recent years.
The Conference has been a regular exer-
cise of. the Caribbean Agro-Economic
Society and this year's co-sponsors were
the Caribbean Food And Nutrition Insti-
tute /Pan American Health Organization
(CFNI/PAHO), The International Asso-
ciation of Agricultural Economists, the
De artment of Agricultural Economics
an 1 Farm Management of the University
of the West Indies (UWI) and the UWI
In :itute of Social and Economic Re-
sei ch, Mona Campus.
rhis year the conference was held at
thi Mona Campus of the UWI from April
7 o 10; participant members of the
So ety included staff members of UWI
an( regional organizations such as CFNI
an( the Caribbean Development Bank
(C! 3). Guest participants came from
the University of Florida and Michigan
Sta University, the University of
Cal ornia and the United States Agency
for international Development (USAID).

.CL coo-Nd


Food & governments in mind. A government may
introduce a subsidy programme which,
while intended to increase farm incomes,
may turn out to be improving the relative
f ) position of the nation's consumers. Also,
the study cautions government planners
against erratic introduction and ter-
mination of programmes and instruments.
This, the researchers say, may breed
uncertainty about public policy "as it
r affects agriculture at all levels and
-._ compounds the inherent uncertainties of
S ... agriculture and food production." The
"- report emphasises the need for "detailed
-. .. conceptual, operational and empirical
analysis" of the real impact of incentive
and support instruments on the agricul-
I'. tural sector.

DR. RANJIT SINGH is the new President of the
One of the keynote papers of the con-
ference was a report from a research team
headed by Professor Compton Bourne
and Dr. Lloyd Rankine, both of UWI.
The research dealt with incentives and
price support systems for food and agri-
culture in Belize and the Windward and
Leeward Islands of the CARICOM group.
We gather from an introductory para-
graph of the report that the study was
designed with some needs of Caribbean

It must be a dream of political leaders
in most developing countries that one
day they will strike oil or gold or some-
ting that will bring to the public purse
enough money to do what needs to be
done for their nation. To a man these
planners would use their new industrial
wealth (or part of it) to stabilise their
farming sector. To such planners it should
be interesting to see how the Government
of Trinidad and Tobago went about this
in the years of their greater financial

Cocoa Farming

The Smart Choice

? Earn at least J$50.50 for every box of cocoa
you produce
Guarantee yourself a higher dollar return from
every acre of land when you plant cocoa with
other crops.

For further information, contact:
The Cocoa Industry Board
P.O. Box 68
Marcus Garvey Drive
Kingston 15

aribbean Farming May 1986 3

piis ity. More particularly, it must be
useful to observe the results to the farm
population and the community after
several years of thews subsidies,
Dr. Carlislle Pemberton of the UWI
Department of Agricultural Economics
and Fann Management has carried out a
study of iivestock production subsidies
in Trinidad and Tobago; his paper was
preated to the Coniference and provides
some interesting (and some surprising)
information. Dr. Pemberton quotes from
the Nation's 1985 Budget:-
"In spite of the high and rising
level of support through such sub-
sidies, trends in output of agri-
cultural products have been dis-
appointing. In many instances the
relationship between the use of sub-
sidised feed and other inputs on the
one hand, and output products
such as meat and milk on the other,
is far lower than can be reasonably
In order to secure better value
for these expenditures, it is pro-
posed in future, where subsidies
continue to be paid, to link them to
the level of output achieved."
That the Government of Trinidad and
Tobago was disappointed at some results
of their subsidy programme is not sur-
prising. The subsidies led to a most prodi-
gal over-use of expensive feedstuffs;
quantities of dairy ration were fed to
sheep, which can effectively and econo-
mically be finished on pasture with small
additions. of by-product such as dried
citrus pulp.
A plea for greater attention to live-

0. -A le& ALat I

Conference participants on a visit to Spring Plain Vegetable Farm

'" w

outgoing treasurer was one of the energetic
organizers of the 1986 conference
stock as a farm activity came from Dr.
Karl Wellington of Alcan Jamaica. Com-
menting on the domination of farm
economies in the Caribbean by the big
plantation crops, Dr. Wellington recalled

that his colleagues Archibald, Singf
Osuji noted (1981) that although a
production is an important part (
lives, well-being and cropping act
of the small farmer, the livestock
has been traditionally regarded
quiring little or no official atte
Dr. Wellington went on to poi
that developing countries are de
0.2-0.3% of their Gross National P
to agricultural research compare
more than 2% of GNP which the
advanced nations provide for th
pose. The paper went on to lisi
other constraints to livestock proc
- followed by a listing of some I
successes of livestock research
Caribbean. The paper ended with
gestion for improved methodology
stock research. U


CARDI's Luceana A Versatile Plant

A versatile e plant'

-I -d .N -A

Dr. Gerald Proverbs, who works with
the Caribbean Agricultural Research and
Development Institute (CARDI) in Bar-
bados, has written a booklet which will
be of interest and use to many farmers,
extension workers, students of agricul-
ture and other people in farming any-
where in the Tropics.
The booklet tells the story of Leu-
caena leucocephala, which is well-
known in many Tropical countries as a
shrub or as a tree growing wild on a wide
range of soils. Some kinds are well-liked
by cattle, sheep and goats while some
are known to cause loss of wool when
eaten by sheep.
Animal nutrition people have done a
great deal of careful study of Leucaena,

which is commonly known in the a*iib
bean as Wild Tamarind or RitN
Tamarind, Dr. Proverbs tells the s ry:im
farmer's words and phrases. He dec s ii
varieties, planting methods, feed vaie
of the crop and for those who "/ant
- something about the chemis.y cf
Leucaena. More than three pages at th
end of the thirty-page book are devof
to a list of published reports o'
The booklet was produced with fin a-
cial help from the Canadian Internatiiom
Development Agency and the Europe
Economic Commission. For further il
formation, ask the CARDI Field Offikf
who is nearest at hand or write to CARD
UWI Campus, Cave Hill, Barbad3
Caribbean Farming May 190

Utilizing Dried Poultry

Feeding Systems

G.A. Proverbs
Caribbean Agricultural Research and
Development Institute (CARDI)
Barbados Unit
Dry poultry wastes (DPW) consists of
the bedding material (baggase in Bar-
bados), excreta, spilled feed and feathers.
Approximately 125,000 metric tonnes
(DM) of DPW is produced in Barbados
ev ry year.
Much of the DPW invariably is used
as nanure in the sugar cane fields and by
ve stable producers because of its inhe-
re: value as a source of plant nutrients.
R( ,arch over the past two decades has
sh vn that DPW also has substantial
nu itional value for livestock. Since it
is gh in fibre and non-protein nitrogen
it best suited as a ruminant feed. DPW
ha! :he highest nutritional value of all
ani il wastes analysed. It is fed fairly
exi lively in Israel, hopefully as a
resi of the feeding programme de-
vel :d at Springhead Farms, the full
pot ial of DPW as a ruminant feed will
be i lately realized.

T nutritional value of DPW is sum-
mari 1 in table 1 (Bhattacharya and
Tayl 1975). It is high in crude pro-
tein, erage 31%, dry basis. It varies con-
si d ly in the crude protein level which
ir impossible to use a standard
but there is nothing to prevent
itch of DPW from being analysed
Commonly done with forages.
pies of DPW from twenty-two
F an broiler bars were analysed
1 ir crude protein content. The
Swas 28% with a range of 23 to

I- Nutrient content of dry poultry

protein 31-3
protein 16.7
fibre 16.8
extract 3.3
(ruminants) 598
am 2A
1horous 1.8
eium 014
m 0.54
sium 1.78
S0 0098 (98 PPM)
0.0450 (450 PPM)
2From BhattacirVa and Teyitor (1975j
Protein nitrogen makes up between 40
and 50 per cent of the total nitrogen in
Caribbean Farming May 1986

Wastes in Beef Cattle

the litter. The main non-protein nitrogen
constituent in DPW is uric acid with
lesser amounts of ammonia, urea and
creatine (Bhattacharya and Fontenot,
1966). Uric acid can be readily utilized
by rumen micro-organisms and is effi-
ciently utilized by ruminants (Cullison,
et al., 1976, Smith and Calvert, 1976).
DPW is also a good source of energy
for ruminants. The TDN value of 59.8%
shown in table 1 compares favourably
with that of good quality hay. The
waste also contains high levels of
calcium and phosphorous and is a good
source of many of the trace elements.
Noland et al., (1955) were among the
first researchers to report on feeding of
DPW. They found that gestating-lactating
ewes fed a ration containing DPW was
similar to that of ewes fed a ration con-
taining soybean meal. Virginia researchers
reported similar rates of gain for finish-
ing steers fed fattening mixtures con-
taining 25% peanut hull or wood shaving
DPW and 1 kg long hay, as for steers fed
a conventional fattening ration and long
hay (Fontenot et al., 1966). Collison et
al. (1976) reported that performance of
finishing steers fed 20% DPW was similar
to that of steers fed a control ration if
sufficient roughage was fed. Webb et al.
(1980) and Ray, (1978) have found that
growing beef cattle and brood cows per-
formed satisfactorily on DPW.

DPW should be processed to destroy
any pathogenic organisms and to improve
palatability and its shelf life. The litter
should be free of molds and all foreign
material such as rocks, pieces of metal
and glass should be removed.
There are many ways to render DPW
free of potential pathogens. Dry heat,
autoclaving and fumigating are three very
effective but costly methods. (Caswell et
al., 1975). In an effort to eliminate high
costs, the DPW at Springhead has been
deep stacked. Deep stacking should in a
covered shed with plenty of air circula-
tion to avoid spontaneous combustion.
Hovatter et al .. (1979) have shown
that deep packing produces considerable
heat and destroys coliform bacteria. The
temperature of the stack peaked at four
to eight days, plateaued shortly after
and then tended to equilibrate with air
temperature. This technique has been
used quite successfully by commercial
farmers in Ontario, Canada with good
results. Harmon at al .. (1975) have
reported that DPW could be success-
fully ensiled with whole plant corn.

1st month after weaning
Daily feed intake
1 kg molasses @ $.17/kg
1.4 kg 14% D-F ration @
4.5 kg forage @ $.11/kg


= .17

= 87
1.54/day x
30 45.90

2nd month to 1 th month
Daily feed intake

2.75 kg molasses
2.25 kg 60% DPW 40%

= .48

D-F @ $.29/kg = .65
9 kg molasses @ $.11/kg = 1.00
2.13/day x
The average feed cost per day from
weaning to market weight was $2.08 and
feed cost was per kg weight gain was
$3.46 (Table 2). When the calves were
fed DPW solely from the second month
after weaning, average daily gain did not
differ significantly from those on the 60:
40 mixture, however, saily feed cost was
reduced to $1.57 while the cost per kg
weight gain was reduced to $2.60.

DPW is readily available in most of the
CARICOM countries. It is just a case of
developing sound feeding programmes for
its use and though I am hesitant to sug-
gest that it should be fed to milking cows
there is adequate justification for its
feeding to dry cows and replacement
heifers in addition to beef cattle. U

However, until a silo is built in Barbados
ensilage with grasses will not be investi-
Beef cows on dry season pasture
offer the greatest potential for DPW
use as a cattle feed. It has been esti-
mated that pregnant cows should receive
5 to 5.5 kg DPW plus free choice molasses
daily. While nursing cows should receive
8 to 9 kg per head per day with access
to free choice molasses. Neither pregnant
nor nursing cows have yet been put on
DPW at Springhead to date.
However, 140 kg weaned calves have
been placed on a ration containing up to
60% DPW days after weaning. These
calves were backgrounded on a conven-
tional 14% dry and fitting (D-F) ration
and free choice molasses for the first 30
days after weaning. After one month of
backgrounding they were switched over
to a ration containing 60% DPW and 40%
of the 14% D-F ration. They were main-
tained on the 60-40 ration for the follow-
ing 10 months. Average daily gains
from day of weaning (140 kg) to market
weight was 0.5 kg for the heifers and
0.6 kg for the bull calves.

Table 2. Feeding programme and cost

UWI at St. Augustine

Plans International

and Regional
The University of the West Indies
Faculty of Agriculture at St. Augustine,
Trinidad is celebrating twenty-five years
as a centre of University education,
training and research in the Caribbean.
During that time the Faculty has gra-
duated more than thirteen hundred stu-
dents, of whom more than four hundred
received post-graduate degrees. Graduates
came to St. Augustine from 44 countries,
including the twelve CARICOM States.
The Principal of the UWI at St. Augus-
tine has commented on the research ef-
forts of his Faculty of Agriculture -
There has also been a significant
output of high quality research
from the Faculty of Agriculture
conducted in five commodity-
three discipline- and two re-
source-oriented research pro-
grammes supported by a range of
national, regional and international
funding agencies.
This quotation is from the foreword to
a Faculty publication outlining its IN-
The foreword continues:-
Over the next 25 years, the Faculty
of Agriculture, as part of the re-
cently restructured UWI, has a ..
responsibility to serve as a catalyst
for major transformation of the
CARICOM agricultural sector to
enable it to benefit from major ad-
vances in production, distribution and
marketing technologies in the 1990s
and beyond. The objective of such
a transformation is service of a com-
munity of CARICOM consumers, with
increasing food and nutrition con-
sciousness and socio-economic aware-
ness. Not a small part of this res-
ponsibility is assistance to govern-
ments in the restructuring of the
national institutional systems for agri-
cultural research, training and exten-
sion in the 12 CARICOM States
contributing to the UWI, to achieve
more efficient use of the considerable
human resources for agricultural
development in some 50 institutions
in the Region.


Wye College

and World Famine
A new venture at Wye College aims to
change the emphasis from famine relief to
famine avoidance. It seeks to bring to-
gether aid agencies, third world need
and the College. The scheme, begun by
Dr. Geoffrey Chapman and Mr. Mark
Cheverton, received an initial grant from
OXFAM for work on Tef, the principal
cereal for Ethiopia. Another grant is
available from ICARDA (The Inter-
national Centre for Agricultural Re-
search in Dry Areas) for work on genetic
variation in faba beans.
Three more projects are being planned.
The first relates to famine prediction so
that appropriate action can be taken in
good time. The second relates to improve-
ment of a small Andean grain crop and
the third concerns the real constraints
on crop yield since these are not always
technological but often social and
The College already has a major com-
mitment to overseas agriculture. Post-
graduate students from about forty
countries are studying here at any one
time. Related M.Sc. courses include
those in Applied Plant Sciences, Tropical
and Subtropical Horticulture, Agrarian
Development Overseas and there is a
diploma course in Agricultural Develop-
ment. Additionally, a new departure is
the M.Sc. degree in Conservation and
Soil Fertility, to be offered jointly by
Wye College and the University of Kent
at Canterbury.
Against this background, the Overseas
Crops Service extends further the prac-

Dear Editor:
Your July '85 issue of Caribbean
Farming carried a short article on ripe
banana drying.
I'm a lover of banana figs and I dry 3
to 4 dozen at a time on racks set in a
baking sheet in a gas stove where the
pilot light gives a constant warm tempera-
ture and in a matter of a few days the figs
are dried sufficiently to be rolled into
brown sugar and stored in a tightly
covered jam jar, of course I start off with
firm well ripe fruit.
Householders may wish to use this
method to produce enough for home use,
and use up the heat the pilot light in the

tical involvement of the College in third
world agriculture. It also seeks in con-
junction with the aid agencies to direct
resources toward medium term problems.
The over-riding aim here is to anticipate
problems in good time rather than, at
enormous expense, reacting late to what
could reasonably have been foreseen.

problem is in the bag


Jack Reeves
Cassava, the starchy, cyanide-contain-
jng root grown throughout the tropical
world, also called yuca and manioc, and
a core ingredient in tapioca pudding, is
one of the world's most important fcod
staples. Seven hundred million people
- about one in six of us obtain 20C to
1000 calories each day from flour nd
foods made from the tuber.
Unfortunately, cassava's potential as
food for both humans and animals las
gone unfulfilled because of its peri na-
bility: spoilage begins two to three I ays
after harvest. How to store fresh cas ava
has been an age-old problem.
Scientists at the International Ce iter
for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Co )m-
bia, have found a solution. If the r oots
are immersed for five minutes in v iter
containing a 0.4% concentrate of nia-
bendazole, a fungicide commonly usei to
protect bananas and potatoes; and :hen
sealed in polyethylene bags which :on-
serve humidity, they can be kept har est-
fresh for half a month.

de b(Utdo...

oven produces.
One or two questions though 'Nh
the sulphur can you explain a little
more about this do you sulphur item
before or after drying and what does
the sodium carbonate do, and the citric
acid? Is there any written material on
this I could get?
Yours truly,
All the chemicals mentioned are for pre-
venting darkening of the fruit, they are
applied immediately after peeling. The
Processed Foods Department of Jamaica
Industrial Development Corporation may
be able to supply printed material. We
will keep an eye open. EDITOR
Caribbean Farming May 1986

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