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Title: Caribbean farming
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101460/00015
 Material Information
Title: Caribbean farming
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Mona, Jamaica
Publication Date: February 1986
Copyright Date: 1969
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Bibliographic ID: UF00101460
Volume ID: VID00015
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 3116219

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Editorial
        Page 5
    Main
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Back Cover
        Page 31
        Page 32
Full Text
C' IV FOLE


3


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Caribbean




Creative Communications Inc. Ltd.
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Telephone: (809) 92-74271, 92-76184
Telex: 2431 CARISHIP JA.
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... a quarterly publication


The only publication of its kind in
the English-speaking Caribbean
that's devoted exclusively to
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* "LM M M MW N FEBRUARY 1986





CONTENTS



ED ITO RIA L ......................................................5
CARDI: The Years of Achievement : .................................... .6
CARDI: Studies new oil-seed crops...................................... .7
COCOA RESEARCH IN JAMAICA .......................................8
MANGOES FOR EXPORT............................................10
CHINA'S PROLIFIC FISHPONDS ....................................... 13
RESEARCH REPORTS FROM THE CARIBBEAN ............................17
'SEEDS OF THE EARTH': an interesting book on an important topic ............... 18
PEANUT PRODUCTION IN THE CARIBBEAN .............................. 20
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF CROP PESTS ................................ 22
CHICKEN FEED CARRIES VACCINE .................................... 23
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT .................................... 24
SMALL VIRUS-FREE SWEET POTATO ROOTS
FOR INTERNATIONAL TESTING ...................................... 24
WEEDS ASSOCIATED WITH BAHAMAS IN THE WINDWARD ISLANDS............ 25
FIELD PROBLEM OF TROPICAL RICE....................................25
DRY RICE SYSTEM REVIVES OUTPUT FOR.NORTHERN CHINA ................26
SWEET POTATO RELEASED IN TAHITI...................................26
CARIBBEAN WORKSHOP TO BE HELD ............................. ......26
HIGH QUALITY ANTHURIUMS FOR EXPORT .............................28
PUBLICATIONS...................................................30







COVER PHOTO: Cocoa Nursery in Jamaica


CARIBBEAN FARMING is published with financial assistance from The
Jamaica Agricultural Development Foundation, four times a year, by
Creative Communications Inc. Ltd., P.O. Box 105, Kingston 10; Jamaica.
Telephone: 92-74271. Telex: 2431 CARISHIP JA. Cable: CAROGAM JA.
MANAGING EDITOR: Tony Gambrill, EDITOR: Carol Redkord,
EDITORIAL BOARD: Tony Gambrill, Carol Reckord, Daphne Brown,
Dr. Richard Jones, Joe Suah, Prof. Lawrence Wilson
ART DIRECTOR: Deryck Leslie. ADVERTISING SALES JAMAICA:
Eleanor Sutherland, P.O. Box 105, Kingston 10, Jamaica. Tel: 92-74271, 92-76184.
TRINIDAD: Helen Prada, Telephone: (809) 667-1409
PRINTERS: Glade Printing Service Ltd., Kingston, Jamaica.
SUBSCRIPTION: US$11 USA, Caribbean & Latin America;
US$15 All other countries, air mail for four issues.















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AGENTS IN CARICOM. SOUTH AND CENTRAL
Chease Electric (Conduit) J. E. Neaaef
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Miami, Florida 3312.
Telephone: 305/594-4777,
Telex: 529329.


Caribbean Farming- February 1986
















One day last week an agricultural
research worker named Joe paid a visit
to a farm in his country an island in
the Caribbean. As a matter of fact the
farm is only about thirty miles from the
village where Joe was bom and where he
I is his own farm. So Joe knows pretty
All the position of the workers on the
.-m he was visiting last week. He knows
at the women weeding the rows of
letables are all of them really depend-
t for their living on the land they were
rking. Generations of those women
I their menfolk have earned some sort
livelihood from those acres near the
Jn where they live.
Joe was very pleased to introduce to
-n last week a simple hand tool which
help them weed the rows of vege-




^.4














tab i. This tool is a push hoe which
the can use while walking along the
row;v and the women will work more
comfortably when they don't have to


stoop to weed. So Joe and the women
are glad that he is making their work
somewhat easier.
The new farm supervisor is very in-
terested in what Joe is introducing. He
asks Joe how much the new tool will
improve the women's productivity.
Joe says: "About fifty percent" and
the supervisor says: "Fine. That means
we can send home about one-third of
the women we have on the job." Joe and
the women look at each other in
silence. The supervisor is happy because
he has found a way to trim half-a-cent a
pound off the production cost of his
vegetables. His home is several hundred
miles away from this field in the Carib-
bean. In his country, there is work for
everyone or almost everyone who
wants to work. In his country, PRO-
DUCTIVITY is what farming is about.
In Joe's island EMPLOYMENT FOR
RURAL PEOPLE with economic security
for the farm family have been the im-
portant concerns in the minds of most
country people.
In the Caribbean, the broad, level
acres which have irrigation water supplies
have developed farming that is a world
apart from the traditional, more leisure-
ly activity of tree crops and cattle on
hillsides. Not so -easily and quickly
developed are the attitudes that go with
industrial production. We will probably
find that these attitudes come about in
their own time and that rural electri-
fication, good country roads, better
housing and improved technical educa-
tion at primary school level all need to be
in place before rural workers are per-
suaded to move into the world of indus-
trial -type farming.


-[iDoUoofl


ARNOLD OTTO MEYER
GLORIAAulul Gordn
Spraying Equipment

Agricultural Chemicals-
Garden and Household Insecticides, B a
Pesticides and Rodenticides-
Veterinary Products ---


Caribbean Farming February 1986


SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Francisco Sagasti, President of the
Study Group for Development, has made
some comments on the changed context
of science and technology for develop-
ment. To him it is clear that "the concept
of scientific and technological capability
for developing countries will need a tho-
rough revision in the near future. For
most developing countries rit will be
necessary to select carefully the fields of
specialization, to embark on a long-term
process of developing human resources
and research infrastructure, and to
co-operate more closely with other
developing and developed countries."
(The IDRC Reports, Oct: 85).
The farms of the Caribbean are being
challenged to improve their performance
in a number of ways and under rapidly
changing conditions. The banana grower
is being required to:-
Spay much higher interest rates on
borrowed money
produce upwards of 15 ton of furit
per acre
supply fruit that is without spot or
blemish
Spay better wages to his workers.
Where farmers have changed from cane
or cattle to the much-touted winter
vegetables, the challenge has been greater.
The experience gained has been at high
cost, capital required seems to be greater
by far than any feasibility study indicated
and the market seems to defy all predic-
tion. The managers of our agriculture are
only now beginning to understand what
Mr. Sagasti is about when he recommends
"a long-term process of developing hu-
man resources and research infrastruc-
tu re."
The world of rain-fed coconuts and
Brahman cattle seems warm and friendly
by comparison with the complication and
uncertaintities of highly-mechanised irri-
gated cropping of soft and delicate fruit
and vegetables. U












CARDI: Ten Years of Achievement


John L. Hammerton
CARDI The Caribbean Agricultural
Research and Divelopment Institute -
came into being just over ten years ago.
The Institute was born out of the
Regional Research Centre (RRC), which
had been set up by the Colonial Office
in the 1950's based at the old Imperial
College of Tropical Agriculture (ICTA)
at St. Augustine. When ICTA became
UWI's Faculty of Agriculture, RRC
became an integral part of the Faculty.
In the early 1970's RRC had some 15
scientists based at St Augustine, another
four in Jamaica, one in Barbados (to
serve the Windward Islands), and one in
Antigua (to serve the Leewards). This
was the staffing position when CARDI
came into being in 1975.
What has been achieved since then?
Firstly, CARDI has "dencentralised", and
now has scientific staff in every
CARICOM state from Belize in Central
America, to Guyana in South America.
This decentralisation has increased
management and communication
problems, but has ensured close liaison
with the Ministries of Agriculture,
farmers and other agricultural organisa-
tions in all these states. Secondly, CARDI
has increased its pool of skills ir the agri-
cultural and social sciences, with an in-
crease in scientific staff from about 25 in
1975 to about 60 in 1985! Thirdly,
CARDI has successfully attracted project
funding from a wide range of regional
and international agencies. These include
Barclays Bank International (BBI) now
Barclays Bank (PLC), the Caribbean
Development Bank (CDB), Canadian
International Development Agency
(CIDA),, the European Development
Fund (EDF), the Overseas Development.
Administration (of the UK) (ODA), the
International Development Research
Centre (of Canada) (IDRC), the United
States Agency for International Develop-
ment (USAID), and the United Nations
Development Fund (UNDP).
These projects have varied widely in
scope from small, single-country pro-
jects, to large sub-regional projects re-
quiring many new staff members. They
have included projects on farm-recording,
publication of extension information,
banana cableways, yam improvement,
peanut production, pasture development,
milk production, sheep deworming and
so on. One point must be emphasised:
projects may be discrete in many ways,
but they interact and link together, so
6


that the results of one lead to a second,
or the results of one are channeled into
another for extension to other islands
and to more farmers.
Not all of CARDI's projects have been
equally successful. The banana cableway
project for example was badly hit by
Hurricane David in Dominica, and the
"field pack" technique for handling
bananas rendered the cableway concept
largely redundant But let's look at some
positive achievements.
Yams ODA funded a project to
tackle the problem of internal brown
spot on white yams. This proved to be
caused by a complex of viruses, and
clean-up techniques were developed in
Barbados and Trinidad, leading to the
production of "virus-free" yam planting
material. This material has been widely
distributed 'in the Eastern Caribbean.
Work is now in progress on Anthracnose
control in yams.
Forage Legumes this was funded by
a number of agencies and is continuing.
Several hundred legume accessions were
screened for persistence and productivity,
and seeds of the most promising acces-
sions are being produced for distribution
to Ministries of Agriculture and farmers
throughout the region.
Aroids This EDF-funded project is
bsed in Dominica with work in pro-
gress in the other .Windward Islands as
well. The problem of tanniaa leaf burning
disease" has been largely resolved it
has proved to be a root disease and
techniques for cleaning-up planting
material and reducing the chances of soil
contamination have been developed. A
method for treating dasheen to ensure a
good shelf life has also been devised.
Farming Systems USAID funded a
project on multiple cropping in the
Eastern Caribbean, from 1978-82, and a
similar project was funded in four other
countries by UNDP. These two projects
generated a wealth of data on farming
systems, and USAID later funded a
farming systems project which started in
1983 and is continuing. This project
works with farmers on their farms to
develop appropriate improved technolo-
gies that are validated by the farmers
themselves. The project includes work on
marketing and socio-economic aspects of
farming. The approach is interdiscipli-
nary, and the project is using informa-
tion obtained in other projects to "ex-
tend" to farmers through on-farm trials.


Lassava tHnpper JUlltL uy /nvArtu ullyilluC-
showing disc with blades.
Among the achievements to date are t le
completion of a reconnaissance surv y
of Carriacou, describing the exist ig
production system and identifying c< n-
straints and opportunities for i n-
provements. An intensive study of ie
Mabouya Valley in St. Lucia has hi h-
lighted the inter-relationships of at o-
ecological factors and socio-econoi ic
factors, and will lead to more inde th
studies of the family unit in decis an
making. In St. Lucia also quarterly id
monthly reports on the marketing of
local produce are being produ ed
jointly with the Ministry of Agriculti -e.
The economic benefits of intercropp ng
cotton with peanuts have been dem n-
strated in both Nevis and Montser it
Mulching trials in Antigua have sho in
many-fold increases in the yield of e g-
plant, squash and tomato, and minimi m
tillage in aroid crops in St. Vincent t as
been shown to reduce soil erosion. N w
varieties of onion, cauliflower, toma o,
pigeon pea, dry beans and other crc s
have been introduced.
Milk Production an IDRC-func'd
project in Guyana is improving past e
quality and productivity and milk p -
duction, working both on a Governme it
station, and-on satellite farms. This pt3-
ject is a collaborative one with the
Guyana Ministry of Agriculture and tne
Livestock Development Corporation. In
Dominica, a CIDA-funded project is
helping small farmers increase milk pro-
duction by establishing "feed banks" and
improving the management of their
dairy animals. It represents an exten-
sion of a single activity under the
earlier Farming Systems Project. This
proved so successful that the concept was
extended as a separate project with
CIDA funding.
Peanut Production this EDF-
funded project succeeded in substan-
tially increasing per acre yields and
Caribbean Farming February 1986









annual production of peanuts in St.
Vincent, Belize, Antigua and Barbuda.
New varieties were introduced and im-
proved technologies developed. A signi-
ficant part of this project involved the
development, by CARDI's Agricultural
Engineers, of simple equipment for
planting, lifting, threshing, shelling and
drying the peanut crop. CARDI-Jamaica
has also made significant advances in
local peanut production technology.

Pest Control BBI and the Barbados
S gar Producers have for several years
fi ided a biological control project in
B c tries. It has been successful in reduc-
ii insect pest damage to sugarcane,
s; le vegetable and other crops by re-
It es of natural enemies. Unfortunately,
ti jghtless use of insecticides often
b many of these natural enemies.
Although project funds account for


much of CARDI's work programme,
the Core Funds those received from
the CARICOM Governments also sup-
port a programme of work. Significant
achievements among core-funded projects
include the following. Collaborative work
between CARDI-Trinidad, the Universi-
ty of Florida and Petoseed Company,
led to the marketing of Calypso tomato
seed. CARDI-Trinidad has also been
screening dry-bean varieties (mainly from
CIAT in Colombia) for local adaptation,
and some of these have been sent to
other Caribbean countries for trials.
CARDI-Jamaica has screened many cow-
pea varieties from IITA in Nigeria and
one Vita 3 is now commonly grown
in the drier parts of Jamaica. Also in
Jamaica, CARDI has been collaborating
with the University and the Coffee
Industry Development Board, on the con-
trol of coffee berry borer as part of the
National Coffee Berry Borer Control
Programme. In Belize, CARDI has


screened varieties of several oil seed
crops, and hopes shortly to recommend
the most promising varieties to farmers.
CARDI staff also provide a "fire-fighting"
service and may travel to several countries
to advise on problems that have arisen
- such as coconut mite or virus diseases
of yam, or to provide training in a range
of subjects.
This account is only a partial listing
of CARDI's achievements.' Much re-
mains to be done to improve farmer's
productivity, and to reduce food import
bills.
CARDI'S MISSION IS TO CONTRI-
BUTE TO AGRICULTURAL DEVEL-
OPMENT THROUGH THE GENERA-
TION AND DISSEMINATION OF
APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY FOR
THE BENEFIT OF THE CARIBBEAN
PEOPLE.
CARDI will continue to work with
Ministries, farmers and other agencies to
accomplish its mission. N


( XRDI studies new
SI-seed crops
oconut is the traditional source of
ec ie oil in the CARICOM region. How-
e'. in recent years there has been a
dc ne in the production of coconut;
th ias been attributed to several factors
in ding age of trees, pests and diseases,
ne -t of farms,'praedial larceny and the
di: rous effects of hurricane.
,pra production has also been af-
fec i in a large measure due to the
di& ion (over 50 per cent of pro-
du, on) of nuts from processing plants
to green and dry nut trade.
!is decline in local copra production
has :ed to increased imports of both
cru and refined vegetable oils. This
def it is expected to continue well into
the ext decade.
ius there is a need to diversify the
sources of oils and fats through cultiva-
tion of annual oilseed crops. The ad-
vantages would be three-fold:-
increase in oil production from
short term crops.
reduction of dependency on a
single source of oil seed
better utilization of existing extrac-
tion and processing capacity.
Belize has the advantage of large
available land resources for growing
annual oilseed crops which could help
to reduce the substantial imports of oils
and fats. It is estimated that 6000-
8000 ha of soyabean, sunflower and
other oil seeds would be needed to make
Belize self-sufficient in oils and fats and
protein concentrate for livestock feed.
Between 1982 and 1983 Belize im-
Caribbean Farming February 1986


ported oils and fats to the value of
Bz$5 million (US$2.5 million). In addi-
tion $4 million were spent in animal feed
concentrates. (With the efforts now in
progress to increase pork production it is
envisaged that the future for feed con-
centrate would increase considerably).
Since Belize considers oilseed cultiva-
tion pivotal to agrarian economy to
meet its needs for oil and fats for human
consumption and the protein component
of animal feeds, CARDI began intensive
research and development efforts in
1981.
Results obtained so far are promising.
Soyabean
Soyabean varieties from AVRDC, Tai-
wan yielded up to 2700kg per ha when
planted in November. Oil content varied
from 19 to 23 per cent and protein 35-
40 per cent.
Sunflower
The best yield obtained from varieties
of sunflower from USA and Rumania
was 1600kg seed per ha.
Rape and Mustard
Varieties from India yielded between
1000 and 1500kg per ha.
Sesame
Out of 70 imported sesame (called
Vangala in Belize and Bene in Trinidad &
Tobago) varieties, three yielded more
than 1000 kg per ha; the local variety
yielded 825 kg per ha. The oil content of
the highest yield China Roja from Nicara-
gua, was 49 per cent and that of the local
variety 50 per cent.
It is clear that further work on these
crops is needed before a successful com-


mercial industry can be built up involving
both small and medium scale farms.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
Evaluation of the potential of selected
oilseed crops in a crop diversification pro-
gramme in Belize.
Development of systems of production
of selected oilseed crops on small and
medium scale farms.
Maintellance of foundation seed of
pure lines and development of a system
of production, storage and distribution of
quality seed.

METHODOLOGY
Research work done so far suggests
that the various oilseeds will be harvested
in March and April. To make the milling
operation more economical (by reducing
cost of storage of oilseeds), efforts will
be made to spread the harvest by planting
in various districts with different rainfall
patterns and by identifying technology to
harvest oilseeds semi-mechanically in the
rainy season. Production technology will
be developed for small and medium sized
farms. Sesame cultivation is labour in-
tensive and thus would ideally suit the
5,000 milperos (farmers who practice
shifting cultivation).
Cultivation of some soyabean is
desirable to get a quality protein source
for the livestock industry. However be-
cause of its low oil content its sole
cultivation to meet the oils and fats needs
of Belize would lead to over-production
of protein for livestock. This is another
reason for the desirability of the cultiva-
tion of other oilseeds high in oil such as
sunflower, sesame, rape and mustard. I
7












Cocoa research in Jamaica


By: Percy Miller, Regional Research
Director, Ministry of Agriculture, Andrew
Dunbar, Co-ordinator, Growers' Service
Unit, Cocoa Ind. Board, Bryan Topper, -
Chief Cocoa Development Officer, Cocoa
Ind. Board.

The history of organised Cocoa Re-
search in Jamaica is relatively recent, al-
though the history of cocoa cultivation
dates back more than 350 years to the
original introduction of the crop to the
island in 1646.
During the years 1905 to the end of
the 1920s, with cocoa enjoying the status
of a major crop, the early investigatory
work on cocoa concentrated on the vege-
tative propagation of the crop and spray-
ing to control black pod disease. How-
ever, with the decline of cocoa produc-
tion in the 1930s because of unfavour-
able market prices, interest in investiga-
tive work also declined.
In 1947, there was a resurgence of
interest in cocoa as a major crop with sig-
nificant export potential. Since that time,
appreciable progress in research work has
been made.
The scope of the research work under-
taken locally has been guided by two
main factors: because of extensive work
in cocoa breeding, spearheaded by the
then Imperial College of Tropical Agricul-
ture (ICTA), it was decided at an early
date to rely on that institution to
generate improved planting materials.
A cocoa breeding programme was there-
fore not a primary concern of local re-
search efforts.
Additionally, because Jamaica has not
been plagued by the range of lethal di-
seases found in other cocoa-producing
countries, work on the control of pests
and diseases locally has been largely
confined to the control of black pod
disease (Phytophythora palmivora) and
rat damage.
The main areas of irtterest in terms of
cocoa research has therefore been con-
centrated on agronomic practices and
field husbandry, in an effort to improve
yields; and to testing new clonal introduc-
tions and hybrids from the ICTA pro-
grammes.

FERTILIZER RESPONSE INVESTIGA-
TIONS
Heading the list of investigations un-
dertaken so far is a fertilizer-response
research programme, which is to be con-
ducted on the various soil types on which
8


cocoa is cultivated.
The investigations to date have been
concentrated on the Richmond Bed
Shales series of soils soil types which
collectively comprise more than 40% (or
149,245 acres) of the total soil types
islandwide, recommended for growing
cocoa. St. Mary and St. Thomas possess
the largest acreage of two of the soils in
the series: 42,200 of the Belfield Clay
and 21,540 of the Hall's Delight Gravelly
Loam, respectively.
Results to date of the fertilizer trials
being conducted at the Ministry of Agri-
culture Orange River Agricultural Experi-
ment Station, Highgate, and at the
Cocoa Industry Board Richmond
Federation Farm, Richmond, St. Mary,
indicate that the NPK 12-10-18 mixture
applied at the rate of 21b/tree is the grade
of fertilizer which gives the best yield
from this eight-member Richmond Bed
Shales Series of Soils.
With the conclusion of fertilizer res-
ponse investigations on the Richmond
Bed Series of Soils, similar work is sche-
duled for the remaining important cocoa-
growing soil types. These comprise Soils
over Conglomerates (soil numbers 30,
31, 34, 36, 38, 39): Soils derived from
Tuffs & Tuffaceous Shales (soil numbers
32 & 95); and Recent Alluvials and In-
land Basin Soils.

COCOA PROPAGATION TRIALS
Jamaica is credited with being
the first country to achieve success
through experiments at the Department
of Agriculture, Hope Agricultural Station
- with both patch budding (in 1903) and
shield budding (in 1946) as methods of
vegetative propagation.
However, despite these early successes
with budding as a reliable method of
vegetative propagation, work done since
1946 has seen the development of rooted
cuttings as the main method of this type
of propagation. This method continues


to work well for most varieties but has
proven problematic for some important
varieties, such as the ICS 1. The over-
reliance on rooted cuttings has been one
of the factors responsible for the limited
availability of the ICS 1 variety to cocoa
farmers despite,the fact that it is cur-
rently the variety most recommended.
A current project at Orange River, on
budding as an alternative method of
propagating the ICS 1, has yielded very
encouraging -results. Optimium age and
stage of budding, time of budding, type
of budding technique, and identification
of suitable root stock materials are
being investigated.

COCOA BLACK POD INVESTIGA-
TIONS
Research in black pod disease in
Jamaica has been concerned with c e-
mical control of the disease and eva! a-
tion and identification of resist it
varieties.
(i) Chemical Control
To date, the most effective chem :al
which has been identified to con ol
black pod is the fungicide coF er
hydroxide. It is recognized, howe !r,
that the effectiveness of the cherr :al
is limited significantly by the ct
that it does not control establish ad
cankers on the stem. Evaluatior of
various chemicals is an on-g( ig
exercise, since new products ap| ar
on the market annually their 3y
changing the cost/benefit equal )n
in terms of degree and cost of c ,n-
trol, versus increment in yields 7d
earnings to the farmers.
Current investigations into chem :al
control are paying particular at! n-
tion to a new generation of system! ic
fungicides for controlling black pc i.
(ii) Black Pod-Resistant Varieties
Investigations into the susceptibi ty
and/or resistance of various co oa
varieties .tb black pod have she vn
the ICS 1 variety to be most resist nt
to the disease. However, work de ne
by Dr. Carol Henry formerly of -he
Ministry of Agriculture has shc.vn
that under extreme weather cordi-
tions (i.e., continuous rainfall accom-
panied by low temperatures) the
highest build-up of black pod spores
occurs and even the ICS 1 variety
suffered a 30% infection. This was
recorded at Caenwood Agricultural
Station, Portland in 1975.
Additionally, where there is black
pod infection in the ICS 1 variety,
there is also the suggestion that the
evolution of new strains or morph-
types of Phytophthora palmivor
Caribbean Farmlng February 198










may result in the eventual break-
down of resistance in this variety.
This re-emphasizes the need for a
continuing programme of identifica-
tion and introduction of new, im-
proved resistant varieties.
SHADE VERSUS NO SHADE
A two-acre observation plot (one acre
shaded, and one acre un-shaded) was
started in'1966 at Orange River, using the
ICS 1 clone. With 900 Ib. (3ilbJtree) of
fertilizer applied to both plots each year,
productionn on the plots was as follows
- r the first and fourth year:
SHADED
Year 1 1967/68 1040 Ib of dried beans
Year 4 1970/71 2376 Ib of dried beans
UNSHADED


Year 1
fear 4


2831 Ib of dried beans
3316 Ib of dried beans


)COA SPACING TRIALS
Cocoa spacing research at Orange
jer Agricultural Station has compared
traditional 12 ft x 12 ft spacing of
:oa with closer spacings and modifica-
Sis on hillside terraces. Data on these
,eriments is not conclusive since the
s were not carried to the planned date
S:ompletion.
-owever, in the initial results, the
c est spacing (7 ft x 7 ft) had to be
t ned because of obvious competi-


tion among trees for light, and the re-
sulting poor yields. Spacing of 10 ft x
10 ft in open sunlight gave the greatest
initial yields of pods per acre.

PRUNING TRIALS
A pruning experiment (in the form of
a randomised complete block design) on
hybrid seedlings using three types of
pruning was established at Orange River
Agricultural Station in 1961, and con-
tinued to 1970.
Two of three pruning treatments kept
the tree at its lowest jorquette (crutch).
In one of these treatments, the number
of branches which arise at the first jor-
quette was reduced to three, while in the
other treatment, five branches were re-
tained.
The third treatment allowed the tree
to develop a second jorquette, with each
of the two jorquettes being allowed five
fan branches. The control plot allowed
trees to develop naturally without prun-
ing.
The results of these trials showed
that there were no significant differences
between the number of pods reaped for
each treatment.
HYBRID SEEDLINGS VERSUS
CLONAL MATERIALS IN YIELDS
AND AGRONOMIC COMPARISONS
In the early 1950s, efforts were made


to replace imported planting materials
with local hybrids as a possible alterna-
tive source. An experiment established
in 1953 sought to compare the per-
formance of the best imported varieties
with the locally-derived clones. The
experiment was carried out under shade
and the results revealed that the ICS 60
and ICS 6 varieties gave the highest
yield (approximately 1,740 It per acre).
On the other hand, the Criollo ICS 45
and the local clones JCV 1, 2, and 3 gave
the lowest yield (i.e., 400 Ib per acre).
Subsequent research at the Orange
River Station has revealed however, that
the ICS 1 clone provides the highest
yield consistently producing more
than 2,000 Ib of cocoa per acre.
A second experiment with hybrid
crosses started in 1972 at Orange River,
aimed at determining whether resistance
to black pod is transmitted to progeny.
The hybrids used were PA 169 x ICS 1,
PA 169 x ICS.60, PA 150 x ICS and PA
150 x ICS 60. This experiment also
sought to determine if the hybrids pro-
duced high yields.
Results of the cross between PA 169
and ICS 1, and the cross between PA 150
and ICS 1 showed an increase in the resis-
tance to black pod disease when com-
pared with other crosses. This proved that
the resistance of the ICS 1 to black pod


Caribbean Farming- Februtar 198








could be bred into its progeny. In 1978
a yield of 60 boxes per acre was recorded
from the then 5 year old plants, com-
pared with the previous years of 10 boxes
per acre.
Further work in cocoa breeding at
the Orange River Station and the Ministry
of Agriculture was discontinued in favour
of importation of improved planting
materials from Trinidad's Cocoa Re-
search Unit at St. Augustine.


COCOA MIXED CROPPING INVESTI-
GATIONS
The first experiment of this kind was
carried out at Spring Garden in 1972
by the Ministry of Agriculture in conjunc-
tion with the Coconut Industry Board.
The aim was to determine whether the
net income per acre from pure stand
Malayan Dwarf coconuts could be im-
proved by inter-cropping with cocoa.
Three cocoa hybrids were used at
three spacings and this experiment has
been rehabilitated with a veiw to getting
more data.
In 1984 a similar experiment was
initiated at the Montpelier Agricultural
Station, St. James, with four agencies
viz., Cocoa Industry Board, Ministry of


Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture,
U.W.I., and the Coconut Industry Board.
Plantains are being used as temporary
shade.

PROPOSED RESEARCH PROGRAMME
A number of short-term research pro-
grammes, aimed at providing the type of
information to immediately up-grade
field practices and secure higher yields are
planned to take place over a one to three
year period.

These short-term programmes comprise:
(a) Completion of the present series of
Fertilizer Response Trials, located at
Orange River and Montrose.
(b) Completion of the present investiga-
tions re Leaf Analysis as a Diagnostic
tool in evaluating nutritional require-
ments in the cocoa crop.
(c) The establishment of two additional
NPK fertilizer trials on two other
major groups of cocoa soils. (These
are soils over Conglomerates and
Inland Basin Alluvials).
(d) Continuation of present work on
budding as an alternative technique
in the production of planting ma-
terials (particularly of those clones
which are difficult to propagate by
rooted cuttings).
(e) Evaluation of a wider spectrum of
fungicides in the control and
economics of control of Black Pod.
(f) Evaluations of current rodenticides
in the control of rat damage.
(g) The establishment of planned com-
parison of the effects of reducing
shade and increasing NPK applica-


tions v.s., control plots on esta-
blished bearing cocoa.
(h) Continuation of cocoa intercropping
trials with cocoa under coconuts and
underbrushed woodland.

Long-Term Research Programmes
Long term research programmes are
aimed at those areas which are of long.
term importance to the survival and via-
bility of the cocoa industry. They com-
prise:
(a) Expansion of present facilities to
screen and evaluate a greater variety
of improved germ plasm with a view
to the identification of higher yield-
ing clones and hybrids.
(b) Renewal of specimen collections of
pests and diseases occurring on
cocoa, for future reference.
(c) Preservation of museum plots c *n-
taining original germ plasm as wel as
new introductions. U

REFERENCES:
Cocoa Industry Board's Annual Re: rts:
Jamaica Cocoa Research 1959-1978 and
Cocoa Expansion 1959-1968.
Cocoa Research: Reports from Annu In-
vestigation Bulletins, Ministry of A! cul-
ture, Jamaica.
Reports of Commodity Committees f, Re-
search and Development, Ministry of \gri-
culture, Jamaica.
Soil-and Land Use Survey of Jamaica :ub-
lished by Regional Research Centre, L N.I.,
St. Augustine, Trinidad.
H.J. Fagan An assessment of Pathol jical
Research on Cocoa in Jamaica from 950
to 1980 and Current Research Priori 3s -
Tropical Pest Management 30 (4): 430 39.


Mangoes for export


The mango (Mangifera indica) is be-
lieved to have originated in Burma over
6,000 years ago from where it spread to
neighboring countries. It is now found
growing extensively in the Tropics (as as
far north of the Equator as Florida and
Israel.)
The mango tree is one of the largest.
tropical fruit trees with heights ranging
from 30 feet to 150 feet. The life of
seedling trees, under favourable condi-
tions, is believed to extend up to 100
years. Grafted trees are somewhat smaller
with a shorter life span.
Mangoes, weighing up to two pounds,
very considerably in colour, with smooth,
but inedible skins ranging in colour from
green to yellow, orange to red, many
tinged with pink. Inside is an orange-
10


coloured flesh which is very juicy. At
the centre of the fruit is a flat oval stone
from 'which, in some varieties, fibres
radiate into the surrounding flesh.
The raw green fruit is used in making
curries, pickles, preserves and chutneys.
The general use of the fruit, however, is
in its ripe stage eaten as a snack or as a
dessert. Both green and ripe mangoes
are processed into jams, jellies, etc.
Mango is cultivated commercially in a
number of countries and the world
annual production is estimated to be
about 15 million tons. India is the
largest producer accounting for about
two-thirds of world production, how-
ever, as with several large producers, most
of this is consumed domestically. Be-
sides India, other important producers are


Pakistan, Phil:ippines, Tanzania, Z re,
Haiti, Mexico, Dominican Republic.
The mango is oneof the most -n-
portant tropical fruits in internati, ial
trade, yet it should be noted that lis
trade accounts for less than 1.0 >er
cent of world' production. The m jor
areas of import are Western Eun ?e,
the Middle East and North Ame, ca.
Major suppliers of fresh mangoes in-
clude Philippines and India, mainly to
the Middle East, Mexico, Mali, Ket ya,
South Africa and Haiti. Out of
thousands of varieties of mango grown
in the world, the following are the main
varieties traded international Alphon-
so, Haden, Apple, Ameli, Kent, Julie,
Keitt and Tommy Atkins.
The mango has been growing in the
Caribbean for over 200 years but con-
trolled orchard production of selected,
high-quality grafted varieties is a recent
(30) years development. The trade of
fresh mangoes from Jamaica started in
Caribbean Farming February 1986









the late nineteen-fifties to meet the
demands of its growing immigrant popu-
lations in North America. This develop-
ment mirrored a similar pattern of trade
with immigrant populations from other
developing countries which still accounts
for the majority of the consumption of
mangoes in North America and Europe.
While no official statistics are avail-
able on Jamaica's mango acreage and pro-
iuction, it is estimated that there are
.bout 500 acres in orchards in addition
1 a large number of scattered mango
ees. Four farms account for about half
the orchard production.
Many "common" varieties such as
r the production from the scattered
;es. These are of little importance for
a fresh export trade but are used ex-
isively in the local processing industry.
e major orchard varieties grown are
den, East Indian, St. Julian (Julie)
mmy Atkins, Keitt and Palmer.
The major export destinations are the
(. and Canada with small accounts
ng sent to the U.S.A. and Bermuda.
laica's exports of fresh mangoes have
-eased from approximately 175 tons
'he mid 1970's to over 300 tons per
uIm in the 1980's.
considerablee interest is being shown
t Jamaican private and Governmental


interests in the investment and foreign
exchange earning potential of the mango
industry. Current plans are in place for
over 1,000 acres of orchards to be
planted in the next 2 years, and consider-
ation is being given to setting up another
1,000 acres on Government lands.
Varieties being emphasized are those
likely to be successful in the fresh pro-
duce markets of Europe and North
America due to their bright colouring,
shelf-life and firm and fibreless flesh -
e.g. Tommy Atkins and Haden.
With the possibility of 2,000-2,500
acreas of mangoes and a potential yield of
15,000-20,000 tons per year at peak pro-
duction in the early 1990's, concern has
been expressed about the likelihood of
the overseas market size and price struc-
ture being sufficiently favourable, in a
competitive supply situation, to give
attractive financial economic viability of
investments in tree crops generally, where
revenues being three to four years after
project initiation, in light of the high
interest rates now characteristics of
Jamaican funds.
With one significant reservation,
market characteristics suggest optimism
is appropriate in evaluating the market
viability of new mango production. In
both North America and Western Europe
the market for mangoes has been growing


at a rapid rate nearly 20 per cent per
annum in the 1980's. In both markets
mango consumption has largely tradi-
tionally been by immigrant populations
- but recently the fruit has been gain-
ing acceptance in the larger national
markets.
In the U.S.A., for instance, over 80
per cent of the mangoes consumed in
1982 were in the'four major metropoles
of New York-Newark, Los Angeles, San
Francisco-Oakland and Miami all
areas having a major concentration of
Hispanic/Caribbean immigrants. A quick
survey shows nearly 20 cities having
populations of over 1 million which are
largely unexposed to mangoes.
By and large, therefore, the American
consumer (and the European consumer)
is unaware of the fruit and its attractive
qualities and a reasonable assumption is
that, all things being equal, with suffi-
cient promotion and attention to qualify,
the current growth rates of mango con-
sumption will continue until well into
the 1990's. Similarly, market prices, if
carefully supported by product promo-
tion and high quality, will tend to be
maintained at current levels in a growing
market.
Still, the proposals for an export
trade in fresh mangoes from Jamaica
hangs in balance pending the resolution


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Get first band information, daily from 9:00 a. m. to 6:00 p. m.
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of a health regulatory measure in the
U.S.A. Countries with a fruit fly problem,
including Jamaica, are required by the
U.S. to fumigate mango with the
chemical Ethylene Di-bromide (EDB).
Since 1980 the Environmental Pro-
tection Agency of the U.S. has advocated
the banning of the use of EDB arguing
that laboratory tests in rats have estab-
lished the chemical is a potential carcino-
gen. Its use in the U.S. has already been
banned but several waivers have allowed
for its use on mangoes in countries which
export to the United States. The latest
waiver is due to expire in September
1986.
Although two alternative treatments
- hot water dips and irradiation are
being considered, neither has been proven
to effectively control the fruit fly and
they have, therefore, not been approved.
Recent information from the U.S., how-
ever, suggests the possibility that the use
of EDB on mangoes may be relieved in
full from the strictures of the ban, since
further laboratory research indicates that
residual EDB levels in a peeled fruit may
be well within tolerance levels that are
acceptable.
Still, the position for the future is
unclear and if the ban is indeed en-
forced before alternative treatments are
approved trade will be diverted to


Western Europe and Canada flooding
these markets, lowering prices and threa-
tening traditional suppliers, including
Jamaica, to those markets. The situation,
all things considered, calls for cautious
optimism since forces in the U.S. mango
trade are lobbying for a more liberal
position on the part of the U.S. Govern-
ment. This caution would be well demon-
strated by investors making plans with
potential local processors who should be
able to take off periodic (or chronic)
surplusses for making juices, nectars,
mango slices, etc. for which there is also
considerable and growing demand in
developed countries.
As to the question of the high capital
cost and relatively long period before
revenues are generated, investment in
mangoes is indeed characteristic of in-
vestments in tree crops generally.
Potentially viable projects may falter in
the first four years solely for the reason
that there is a negative cash flow through-
out this period. In addition to the
obvious necessity for keen capital budget-
ing, investors in mangoes would be well
advised to include specific plans to in-
tercrop their mango orchards with in-
come generating cash crops for as long
as possible until their trees achieve full
maturity.
All things considered there is a posi-


tive climate facing potential Jamaican
investors in mango production:-
a) export markets are expanding and
should continue to expand rapidly;
b) a pool of resources/skills already
exists to generate the necessary ex-
pansion in production with varieties
that are in demand;
c) local processors are well equipped
to handle excess, or non-export
quality fruit.
If Jamaican producers and marketers
can come together to face the challenge
of supplying the world's largest market
places with well promoted quality pro-
ducts, the reward should be impres-
sive.
Mrs Marjorie Davidson has doie
some interesting work with mange- s
during the years she spent with ie
Jamaica Ministry of Agriculture. /e
asked her to add some notes on e
varieties that have shown promise dul ig
the past several ears

Mangoes are tropical and st
tropical; so far in Jamaica presf it
cultivations with quantities accept e
to modern market requirements e
limited to the lower altitudes ; d
warmer conditions. Climatically, e
Southern plains are best, as they are i ;s
humid; on the northern side of the isl; d
the control of fungal diseases is har( r.
In spite of this, the best orchards at F 3-
sent are at Lima, St. James thanks to ie
dedicated work of Mr. Joe Mathias, n
the 70's and early 80's; he also d
pioneer work in root stock select n.
The best for his conditions were se d-
lings of a tree he observed growing )y
the side of a marl pit, which he nar Ad
Ann, though a Haden seedling (Bally in
the Wakefield district was also good.
Varietal selections by the Ministr\ of
Agriculture in the 1950's were Bomt !y,
Julie, East Indian and Haden. Of tl ,se
only Haden is regarded as suitable or
export now. Bombay does not have he
attractive colouration and its skin is lot
thick enough for transport; Julie's col ra-
tion and flavour do not appeal to :he
taste of people who dislike the trace: of
turpentine and who prefer subitid
flavours; East Indian is too sweet and the
fibre objectionable, however these are
still popular with the immigrant popula-
tions of North America and Europe;
their resistance to fungal infection is
low. The newer introductions are seed-
ling selections from Indian mangoes in
Florida. Keitt, of similar parentage to
Haden, is a very large, late-maturing
mango with good colour, acceptably
low fibre, a good shelf life, and was
Caribbean Farming February 1986










chosen by Mr. Mathias as the best for his
conditions after trials with a number of
other varieties. Tommy Atkins, a large
mango of brilliant colouration, low in
fibre and with good shelf life, is an
earlier maturing variety and was, in Mr.
Mathia's opinion, second best for his
conditions. His third choice was Palmer,
wnich mature in a position between
Tommy Atkins and Haden. These gave an
extended cropping season from June to
September.
It is the writer's opinion that using
-limatic conditions and selections of early
o late maturing varieties the mango
eason fpr Jamaica could be extended to


9 or 10 months, though all of these
would not be suitable for export, nor for
growing on the "north coast". Kent, a
large attractive mango more like a Bom-
bay in texture and a seedling from a
different Indian variety, does not have
the disease resistance required by the
north side; it is late maturing; Early
Gold, as its name indicates, is a bright
yellow mango which is early maturing,
has acceptability, low fibre and a very
thin seed; it is most suitable for canning.
While its flavour may be too bland for
the island taste, this makes it more
acceptable as an introduction abroad
and will not be despised here as it


matures before other mangoes are
ready. It is medium in size.
Van Dyke, a small, brilliantly
coloured, very sweet mango, should be
watched. While large mangoes are the
popular choice now, there may be a shift
to small in the future as in the case of
avocadoes. Van Dyke was introduced in
the 70's by the Ministry of Agriculture
and bud wood given to Mr. Mathias. It
should be introduced in other areas of
the island. i


China's prolific fishponds


X.- --" --




Modern aquaculture ponds on an integrated fish farm in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province. Canal in foreground
is used for the transport of feeds, fertilizers, and harvested fish.


China's agricultural landscape con-
tains many beneficial, long-tested food
production strategies that serve a high-
density population. To some extent these
practices stem from the combined pres-
sures of a' diminishing agricultural bash,
equalling approximately 0.1 hectare per
person, and of a population that has
doubled since 1950 and now exceeds one
billion. Despite massive losses of topsoil
and silting of rivers resulting from cen-
turies of extensive deforestation, these
new agricultural approaches have been
able to conserve resources and abate pol-
lution.
While the precise management tactics
Caribbean Farming February 1986


within these strategies can usefully be
examined, the underlying principles have
particular significance.
Although China's climatic conditions
range from wet and tropical in the south
to dry and cold temperate in the north,
similar agricultural and human geographic
pattems have developed throughout the
country, transcending climatic differen-
ces. Little food is transported from one
region to another. Diets depend upon
what can be grown in the immediate
locale. Manufactured goods, coal, and
petroleum products, on the other hand,
do travel from region to region, primarily
by rail and to a lesser degree by canal.


Ronald D. Zweig
President
Eco Logic
North Falmouth
Massachusetts 02556, USA.

Regionally, then, the country is inter-
dependent for these needs while regional-
ly self-reliant' for nearly all its food.
The intricate strategies developed to
achieve efficient use of available re-
sources vary according to local condi-
tions, but again there are similarities in
the way intensive agriculture is woven
into the landscape across the country.
The success of China's agriculture may
be explained, perhaps, by drawing an
analogy between the social structure
and the way in which ecosystems func-
tion, evolve, and interrelate. For example,
interfaces between different ecosystems
have been found to be the most bio-
logically productive zones, as in inter-
tidal areas and salt marshes or at the
bottom of ponds where aerobic and
anaerobic micro-environments are in
contact. In these cases, symbiotic and
commensal relationships occur in which
byproducts of the indigenous organisms'
biological activities are exchanged and
cycled as nutrients or resources for each
other. Similarly, zones of high agricul-
tural productivity in China are often
found in bands of land surrounding popu-
lation centres ranging in size from rural
villages to large cities, at the interface be-
tween urban and rural environments or
ecosystems. Here is found the most
intensive food production: vegetables,
fruit, livestock, or fish, the selection
depending upon what is appropriate with-
in a particular area. Within these inte-
grated farming designs, diverse sub-
components utilize a number of external
nutrient resources by-products from
food-processing factories, nightsoil from
population centres, wastes from the ex-
tensive agriculture practised in the out-
lying areas but also cycle resources
13


--V.













































I Iyilliy aJc,| L IIIcaC I i LCJ LU UCLc IIIIIIG C IVVV
much hormone will be needed to induce
spawning.
within the farms themselves. The by-
products from each food-producing
activity are used to enhance the pro-
ductivity of the others. Farm enter-
prises are selected with a view to
achieving this complementarity.
Aquaculture's role. China's use of
freshwater resources for food produc-
tion is exceptional, the million metric
tons per year of freshwater fish produc-
tion representing 10 per cent of total
world output in this category. Roughly
60 per cent of this is produced in the
Yangtze River basin and 30 per cent in
the Pearl River area. Half of the fish is
produced through intensive aquaculture
on fish farms, the remainder coming from
freshwater capture fisheries.
Eastern China's ample freshwater re-
sources ponds, lakes, rivers, and reser-
voirs, often adjacent to densely populated
areas are managed intensively for fish-
eries development. The Government has
launched a number of research pro-
grammes to determine the most effective
strategies for maximum fish capture at
sustainable levels. Habitats are created
to encourage fish breeding. Reservoirs
and lakes, like Golden Chicken Lake near
Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, are stocked
with several species of Chinese carp
fingerlings to ensure continued high pro-
14


duction, and fish are grown in these
bodies of water in net cages and pens as
well. In some cases, entire lakes are divi-
ded by net barriers and the components
are managed as large pens by work units.
The nutrient base for fish production
is mostly gained from land runoff,
domestic sewage discharge, and nutrient-
laden fishpond water from nearby inten-
sive aquaculture operations. In this last
instance, fertile water from fishponds is
pumped into lakes or other freshwater
bodies during times when water exchange
is required and in areas where seasonal
draining takes place. The natural lakes
and ponds, then, function to some
extent as organic waste receptors and as
pollution control systems, with the fish-
eries conducted within them assimilating
nutrient inputs.
One of the most remarkable food pro-
duction strategies using aquaculture may
be found on integrated farms where fish
culture is the predominant activity. Fish
yields exceeding 13,000 kg/ha/yr have
been achieved, quite remarkable com-
pared with US catfish yields of 3,000 kg/
ha/yr on nonintegrated farms dependent
upon costly fishmeal-based feeds. These
farms, found most frequently around
villages and cities, serve a number of use-
ful functions. They combine fish culture
with animal husbandry and agriculture,
increasing efficiency through ingenious
use of nutrient sub-cycles within the
farm [in to nine snpncie of fish each


k
1 : 4 r I




It. :


Mr. Chuan, chief engineer of Yixing State Fish
Farm, prepares LRH-A, a synthetic hormone
used to induce breeding in Chinese carp.
with different feeding habits, may be cul-
tured in a single pond at any one time to
maximize the use of both pond-generated
feeds and external nutrients. The fish
polyculture includes grass carp (Cteno-
pharyngodon idella) and Wuchang fish
(Megalobrama amblyocephala), which
feed on terrestrial plants and aquatic


.4

Yixing State Fish Farm. Carp hatchings are p t
in net cages for conditioning prior to sale.
macrophytes; silver carp (Hypophth I-
michthys molitrix), which ingests phy >
plankton; and bighead carp (Aristicht 's
mobilis) that feeds on zooplankton. n
addition, the black carp (Mylophar) i-
godon piceus) eats snails, and the m J
carp (Cirrhinus molitrella) feeds on b t-
tom detritus. Common carp (Cyprir s
carpio) is also cultured, and it feeds n
benthic invertebrates and most of 1 e
nutrients already mentioned with the f :-
ception of plankton. In recent years a
couple of tilapia species (T mossami a
and T. nilotica) native to the near E it
and Africa have been combined with ie
aforementioned species. All these fisi is
are differently stocked in ratios to ma h
the quantity of external nutrient inp ts
and pond-generated feeds. A broad rat je
of nutrient resources which other se
have little direct food value to hum; is
can be put into the ponds and effective ly
used. The wide variety of feeding hat its
of the indigenous, edible fishes of Ch na
permits integration of a number of a! ri-
cultural activities with aquaculture.
The two pond fish culture strategies
most commonly followed in China are
stocking and harvesting in rotation end
multigrade conveyor culture. With the
rotation method, three size classes of the
species mentioned above are stocked in
each food fish pond. In July and August,
the harvest-sized fish are seined out of
the pond and replaced with fingerlings.
Additional harvests take place in Septem-
ber, October, November, and mid-winter.
The multigrade conveyor method uses a
series of ponds with fishes of specific size
Caribbean Farming February 1986








classes cultured in each pond and moved
as they grow. Market-size fish are har-
vested each month from the last pond,
generally the fifth in the sequence. The
second method is practised most fre-
quently in the south of China where high
growth rates are possible year-round.
To achieve high productivity in either
of the two strategies, day-to-day manage-
ment is a key element. With a history of
more than 3,000 years of practical trial-
.:nd-error experience behind them,
chinese fish farmers are able to manage
"ie ponds with relatively simple visual
jes, including water colour and tur-
dity and fish behaviour. For instance,
hen asked what the best colour for the
iter is, farmers usually reply "fresh
own" a characteristic not easy to
3asure precisely and consequently not
ry useful for technology transfer
.her within or outside the country.
e correct transparency of the water is
mewhat easier to determine. It is done
immersing one's forearm to the elbow
)out 30 cm) with the hand cocked at
-ight angle to the arm. If the hand
appears at just this depth, the fertility
-ight, and the feeding schedule should
maintained. If it disappears before, the
id is too fertile, meaning that the
Srient input rate should be slowed,
vice versa. When fish gasp at the
s ace of the pond it means that aera-


Fish capture nets on Lake Tai Hu in Wuxi next to net barrier sectioning lake for fisheries
management.


tion, water exchange, and/or reduc-
tion in feeding are required.
The linkages on integrated fish farms
are numerous. Livestock manures (from
pigs, ducks, geese, chickens, cows, and
sheep) and nightsoil are used directly as
pond fertilizers for plankton production.
Such agricultural byproducts as dregs
from wine processing, wheat and rice
chaff, cotton or rapeseed meal (after
oil extraction), and others are also put
into the ponds as fish feeds. In addition,
floating aquatic plants, such as water
hyacinths, water peanuts, and water
lettuce, are grown on canals adjacent to


ponds. On some integrated fish farms
anaerobic digesters are being used to
produce methane gas from agricultural
waste and manures. The nitrogen-rich
slurry residues are then used to fertilize
ponds. The resultant pond bottom
humus is also used as a fertilizer for crops
grown adjacent to ponds or directly on
their dikes. These include green fodders
and some grains for fish feeds as well as
for human consumption, vegetables, sugar
cane, bananas, and tree crops.
Use of human and animal wastes as
fishpond nutrients rouses concern about
possible transmission of diseases to con-


available now




ARAWAK




CHICKEN


T
Ph
S24315
i 245(


ENQUIRIES TO:
CANNING'S LTD,
P.O. Box 220
'ort-of-Spain
rinidad.
one: 667-3471/
9/3566.
5EX:
}5 CANCO.


Caribbean Farming- February 1986


k


gnibsqI


i#


f




































Boat full of aquatic weeds collected from Tai Hu to be used as green fodder for grass carp and
Wuchang Fish.


.4L_


Catching parent fish on Yixing State Fish Farm. Buildings in background are pig sties; pig manure
is commonly used for pond fertilizer. Wuxi students are assisting.


sumers. In China, fish that may carry, but
not be obviously affected by, pathogens
deleterious to human health are cleaned
outside the kitchen area and are cooked
thoroughly. Anaerobic digesters also
contribute to the control of some patho-
gens through their internal biological
activity. In addition, it is .important
that the water source be free of organic
toxins and heavy metal pollutants which
may accumulate in the fish. Aquaculture
provides an advantage over capture
fisheries in this respect, for the water
used to rear fish or other aquatic or-
ganisms may be easily monitored for
these pollutants.
Silk production. Sericulture, an n-
cient practice in China, is one of a w de
variety of activities with links with ac ,a-
culture. The mulberry plants, wh se
leaves are the single most import at
fodder for silkworms, are grown )n
pond dikes, ana the pond bottom hui Js
is used to fertilize them. Silkworm fa, es
as well as wastewater from cocoon : o-
cessing are used to fertilize fishpc ds
and some of the silkworm pupae are d
to fish.
Improvements in efficiency of i :e-
grated fish farms are constantly b ig
made. Farm managers of the Zh g-
zhuang Brigade of Huangquiso C -n-
mune in Wuxian County, Jiangsu o-
vince, for example, have recently rr de
comparative analyses of the use of rig
manure in fish culture. Findings indi, ite
that for every 100 kg of pig manure ut
directly into a pond devoted to Chi ;se
carp and tilapia polyculture, the pl ik-
ton generated by this fertilizer gener tes
in turn approximately two kilos of ig-
head and silver carp. However, if :he
same quantity of manure is used to er-
tilize rye grass cultivated on the F rnd
dikes, 56 kg of the grass can be harve, ed,
which, used as greed fodder in the ish
ponds, accounts for production of kg
of grass carp. In addition, the pl nk-
ton generated from the grass carp's rr 3ta-
bolic wastes provides the nutrient ',ase
for an additional kilo of bighead and
silver carp and 0.2 kg of tilapia, to a total
of 3.2 kg of fish, an increase of 60 per
cent over the more conventional practice
of direct pond fertilization. N

Reprinted from CERES the FAO
Review on Agriculture and Development,


opICaunIgy ine Freus over puna surTace; tUD is transport to assure even distribution.


Caribbean Farming February 1986










Research reports from the Caribbean


The November '85 issue of CARIB-
BEAN FARMING carried a report of the
joint meeting of the Caribbean Food
Crops Society and the American Society
for Horticultural Science held in Trinidad
recently. More than one hundred papers
and poster displays made the meeting a
useful occasion for tropical farmers
and research workers
We continue with some mini-summary
t-oorts of papers from this meeting:-
TRINIDAD & TOBAGO L. Andrews
id U. Lee Fook told the meeting about
, ir work with chemical growth
r -ulators on Julie mango trees. The
e ects of growth regulator treatments
c flowering pattern, flower suppression
SI fruit set in mature mango trees were
Smined. Gibberellic acid, 1000 parts
F million, suppressed flowering for
t months, this response being delayed
ii mne trial. Potassium nitrate, 20,000
p i, greatly increased flowering whereas
E 3rel (ethephon) 2000 ppm was not
a successful. Planofix (1-naphthylacetic
at sodium salt 20 ppm) increased
ir Il fruit set when applied in inflores-
c s but this effect was not sustained
ir e trial. Planofix applied to fruit (1-
2( diameter) caused an 18% reduction
in lit drop which doubled final fruit
yik
)MINICA Clarke, Adams and Pattan
jal i1 described tannia production
sys ns as found in the islands of
Gr -da, St. Vincent, St. Lucia and
Do nica. Tannia is an important staple
foc and export item for these islands.
The: paper advances proposals for im-
pro ment in production and pro-
duc .ity. It also provides an informa-
tior base for research and development
work toward the improvement of the
tannia industry in the Eastern Caribbean.

TRINIDAD & TOBAGO Ena C.
Harvey reported on recent developments
in post-harvest handling, storage and
transport of fruit, vegetables and orna-
mentals. Emphasis is given in the paper
to methods of quality evaluation, cooling,
Packaging and storage. Equipment and
instruments which can be used for esti-
mation of produce quality both in the
field and at the research laboratory level
are highlighted. The applicability of tech-
niques to current post-harvest systems in
the Caribbean is examined.
GUADELOUPE C.M. Messiaen des-
cribed some original features of germ-
plasm of bean varieties grown in Haiti.
The paper also discussed the possibilities
Caribbean Farming February 1986


of using this material in breeding pro-
grammes. The Haitian germplasm seems
to be original by its general earliness and
daylength indifference. The best lines ex-
tracted from it have a yield potential of
1.4-1.7 tonnes per hectare (dwarf varie-
ties) and 1.6-1.9 for the indeterminate
types. Some of them are tolerant or
resistant to powdery mildew.
FLORIDA', USA V.L. Guzman and
N.C. Hayslip discussed the effect of two
varieties and two soil types on the quality
of onions cured with solar radiation in
plastic tunnels.
Mature onions need to be cured to im-
prove their keeping quality. Curing is a
drying process which removes about 5%
of water. The plastic tunnel accumulates
solar radiation, which raises the air tem-
peratures, lowers the relative humidity
and promotes drying of the bulbs inside
the tunnel. Onion production in Florida
is limited mainly by poor quality asso-
ciated with inadequate curing. A curing
system using solar radiation showed
economic and practical possibilities.
These studies were undertaken to deter-
mine the effect of curing on Granex 33
and Texas Grano 502 when grown in
organic and mineral soils on the quality
and shelf life of the bulbs.
It was found that marketable bulbs
of Granex 33 and Texas Grano 502 have
good appearance and eating quality after
curing. Granex 33 gave 9.7% shrinkage
plus 9% weight loss due to rot in 76 days.
Texas Grano 502 shrinkage was 20% plus
34% loss due to rot in 61 days. Onions
grown in sandy soils had considerably
less shrinkage and rot than bulbs grown
in organic soils. Sand-grown onions also
kept better than muck-grown onions.
SAINT LUCIA A. Sajjapoggse and C.
George conducted trials during the
period October 1984 to May 1985 to
identify tomato varieties that can give
reasonably high yields when grown
during the hot wet season (off-season)
and/or cool season (in-season) of the
tropical lowlands. A total of 30 varieties
was evaluated. CARAIBE, which was
previously found to be the best, was
used as the check. The results showed
that four (4) open-pollinated varieties
and two (2) hybrids out-yielded
CARAIBE. The highest yield of 43.99
t/ha came from CL5915-229D4-1-5-0.
This yield was more than twice that of
CARAIBE (19.15 t/ha.). Yield difference
was due to difference in fruit size and
number of fruit/plant. *


Injection Planters: Centre Planter developed
by International Institute for Tropical
Agriculture at Ibadan, Nigeria. Right and Left-
constructed by CARDI engineer.
I iam.L ,


--. --.



.,. ...

Simple jab planter for small fields makes
stooping unnecessary. Constructed by
CARDI engineer.

flhiCti~ II- ri~-%


Cassava Chipper, showing drive mechanism.
Cassava Chipper, showing drive mechanism.












'Seeds of the Earth':
an interesting book on an important topic


Collaboration .between the Canadian
Council for International Co-operation,
the International Coalition for Develop-
ment Action and Inter-Pares has pro-
duced a book which concerns farmers
everywhere.
The foreword by Richard Harmston
of CCIC seems as good a way as any
to say what the book is all about. Writing
in May 1980, Mr. Harmston tells us:-

t Following the Fourth Session of
the UN Conference on Trade and
Development (Nairobi, 1976),
where agricultural commodity
issues dominated, the International
Coalition for Development Action
(ICDA) convened a small sympo-
sium for international food researh-
ers in Canada. This meeting was
held in Qu'Appelle Valley near
Regina, Saskatchewan in November
1977. The participants identified a
number of central food issues de-
serving broader international atten-
tion. High on the -list was an issue
referred to simply as 'Seeds', which
arose from a concern that the gene-
tic base'of the world's food supply
was quickly disappearing and that
restrictive legislation was making
it possible for agribusiness to gain
control of this vital segment of
the total food system.
ICDA designated a working
group to examine the issue in De-
cember 1977. It included Cary
Fowler from Chapel Hill, North
Carolina, USA who first raised
the issue and had already done
considerable preparatory work;
Jean-Pierre Berlan of Paris, France
who attended the Qu'Appelle
gathering and had offered sub-
stantial information on the Euro-
pean situation; Dan McCurry from
Chicago, USA another Qu'-
Appelle participant with extensive
contacts, among US farm groups;
and Pat Mooney from Brandon,
Manitoba, Canada who, as a
member of ICDA's Co-ordinating
Group, arranged the Qu'Appelle
session and had special responsi-
bilities within the ICDA network
for monitoring multinational enter-
prises.
Initial research revealed that res-
trictive varietal legislation plant
breeders' rights (PBR) was slated


for Australia, Ireland and Canada in
the near future; and that the US
government intended to expand its
legislation. Attention focused on
Canada, where early debate was ex-
pected in Parliament. In March
1978, the Saskatchewan Council
for International Co-operation
(SCIC) composed of 30 interna-
tional voluntary agencies in that
province presented a brief,
"Food for People", to the Saska-
tchewan Cabinet. This brief ex-
pressed strong opposition to the
proposed legislation. Throughout
1978, SCIC worked closely with
ICDA's international group to de-
velop a position on plant breeders'
rights. By the fall, SCIC in colla-
boration with ICDA produced a
preliminary report, Genetic Re-
sources and Plant Breeders' Rights,
which was widely circulated and
became a source of intense debate
in agricultural and policy circles in
Canada and Europe.
Following ICDA's General Meet-
ing in Geneva in October 1978, it
was agreed that a detailed study -
more international in scope -
would be useful. The working
group continued to research the
issue, co-ordinated through ICDA's
Canadian member, the Canadian
Council for International Co-
operation (CCIC) and closely
supported by Tim Brodhead of
ICDA's Co-ordinating Group. At
this point it became apparent that
one person was needed to pull
together the growing volume of
material and give direction to the
study. Pat Mooney was asked to
undertake this task, and Seeds of
the Earth was eventually produced
in the summer of 1979.
The purpose of this book has
been to draw attention to, and sti-
mulate discussion and action on,
this vital agriculture/development
issue. Too few people in policy--
making, agricultural and scientific
positions, appeared to understand
the full dimensions of the 'seeds'
issue. The general public was cer-
tainly not aware of the situation,
and people in positions of power
did not seem eager to have an
open discussion of the related


concerns.
Judging from reactions to the
book since it was first printed last
summer, we have succeeded in our
goal. In countries where seed legis-
lation is currently being considered,
serious debate has been stimulated.
Farm groups, scientists, legislators,
government officials and journalists
have either been supporting the
basic tenets of the book or been
obliged to respond to the issue in a
wider social/political context.
According to agencies within the
United Nations, serious attention
must be given to the agricultural,
environmental and economic conse-
quences of current trends in seed
control and use. People in the Third
World have begun to see these
global concerns in terms of their
own agricultural security and self-
determination.
Initial reactions from represen-
tatives of the corporations involved
in the seed industry were, not sur-
prisingly, negative, there were ever
attempts to question the motives o-
the researchers. Since then, the
corporate attitude has appeared tc
be one of keeping a low profile anc
hoping that the issue 'goes away'
With many industrialized govern
ments 'on their side', through sup
port to PBR legislation, the corp
orations probably have not wanted
to draw attention to this issue, an,
of course, their involvement. Wher
debates have taken place, however
the basic theses of the book hav
not been refuted.
Meanwhile, Pat Mooney has cor
tinued to be active in the aree
through further research and di!
cussion of the issues in Europe an(
North America. As chief 'seed.
spokesperson for ICDA, he he
dealt with many people from th
farm, business, government an'
media sectors. For example, ii.
Ireland he publicly addressed th,
issue immediately after seed patent
legislation had been introduced to
the Irish Parliament; and in the
USA, he was invited to present his
views to a House of Representatives
subcommittee considering exten-
sions to US patent legislation.
What began less than three years
ago as a concern discussed by a
handful of people, has grown into a
matter generating serious debate on
a global scale. This phenomenon
Caribbean Farming February 1986











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rhizomes, saving labour and time.
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;upplied in an oil base, Sigma is easy to mix into spray oils, effectively prevents and eradicates Sigatoka disease (leaf spot) in
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islands.
a* et to the root of the problem and control Nematodes and the Banana Weevil Borer with ITIOCap;
versatile Nematicide-lnsecticide which effectively controls these pests*, the cause of extensive root damage which reduces
yields and causing toppling.
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products, contact: MAY & BAKER LTD.,
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M ay& Bake JAMAICA (W.I.) Tel,: 929 8532-4


or our agents:
BARBADOS
Carter & Co.,
10 &11 High Street,
Bridgetown
Tel: 4297017


TRINIDAD
Carlsen Chemicals
96, Orange Field Rd.
Carapachaima
Tel: 6655047


ST. LUCIA
Stanthur and Co.,
Brazil Street
Tel: 22777


BELIZE
James Brodie and Co.,
P.O. Box 365
Belize City
Tel: 023783


ST. KITTS
TDC LTD.,
P.O. Box 142
Basseterre
Tel: 465-2511









has demonstrated the capacity of
voluntary agencies to open up an
important world issue, missed by
the more formal institutions with-
in our society. In February 1979,
the CCIC Board of Directors unani-
mously passed a resolution calling
for a world-wide campaign to con-
serve genetic material and for a
halt to restrictive Canadian legisla-
tion. CCIC and ICDA remain com-
mitted to raising the issues dis-
cussed in this book, and challeng-
ing the trends of increasing control
over seed resources and diminish-
ing food security. P
Richard Harmston,
CCIC, Ottawa
May 1980.

SEEDS OF THE EARTH tells its story
in 126 pages and author Pat Roy Mooney
says that he (and the publishers, pre-
sumably) would welcome any comments,
observations and/or contributions. It
was reassuring to note that each chapter
of the book begins with at least one (and


sometimes three or four) quotations
from people whose words are worth
noting. For example, Lord Mayo, Vice-
roy of India, is reported as saying in
1870:
"I do not know what is precisely
meant by ammoniac manure. If it
means guano, superphosphate or any
other artificial product of that kind,
we might as well ask the people of
India to manure their soils with
champagne."
Now nearly a hundred years later,
the cost and complications of some
farm chemicals make for thoughts that
Lord Mayo would recognize if he were to
come back.
Mr. Mooney's storycarries a very clear
indictment of some agri-business people
- the companies which sell seed of com-
mercial varieties of farm and garden
crop plants. In the course of their busi-
ness these companies have grown by
methods that have become accepted in
today's world. Mr. Mooney makes a
strong case that these methods are going
to prove indeed are already proving
- damaging to the interests of farmers


and the communities they feed. What
seems to be most urgently needed is for
the people affected to recognize their
(and our) predicament and for farmers'
groups and community groups to take
necessary action. In the Caribbean,
one casualty of the current hard times
has been non-government leadership of
small-scale producers and, especially, of
rural folk. A number of books and studies
such as Mr. Mooney's have been pro-
duced to present the case for the people.
While there are agencies such as the
International Board for Plant Genetic Re-
sources doing what they can at their
level, it is for local and national groups
and their leadership to inform them-
selves and take the action necessary to
their condition. I

SEEDS OF THE EARTH is available in
English, French and Spanish from the
Canadian Council for International Co-
operation, 321 Chapel, Ottawa, Ont -io,
Canada KIN 7Z2 and the Internat: nal
Coalition for Development Ac on,
Bedford Chambers, Covent Ga 'en,
London WC2, United Kingdom.


Peanut production in the

Caribbean


Beginning in September, 1980, the
Caribbean Agricultural Research and
Development Institute (CARDI) started
work on an assignment from the Carib-
bean Development Bank (CDB) to
develop improved systems of peanut
production in the countries of the Carib-
bean. Money for the project came from
the European Development Fund and
field work was done on farms in Antigua,
Barbuda, Belize and St. Vincent. For a
number of reasons work did not start in
Barbuda until August 1982. The project
continued until the end of the 1983/84
cropping season.
All the field work except for primary
cultivation was done manually. Farmers
in St. Vincent planted a local runner
variety, in Belize farmers planted Tennes-
see Red. Little use was made of plant
protection chemicals especially in
Belize, where insect pests did not seem
to present a serious problem. Weed con-
trol was by hand.
Generally speaking yields were a satis-
factory improvement over those obtained
using previous practices. The best yields
were recorded in St. Vincent where
farmers regularly produced over 2000kg
per ha with the introduced technology.
Traditionally farmers would expect to get
around 1000kg per ha.
In Antigua and Barbuda dry weather


conditions were sometimes a constraint
to good production but nevertheless
satisfactory yields were obtained during
two of the three growing seasons in
Antigua.
In Belize yields were generally im-
proved to a satisfactory level although
again weather conditions especially
during the second crop planted in
October/November sometimes had an
adverse effect.
Costs of production were very much
reduced in St. Vincent with the intro-


duced technology. Although costs ere
higher in Antigua, farmers were till
able to realise an acceptable gross re irn
for their enterprise because of the fa ur-
able market price there. Farmer in
Belize were also satisfied with the m ley
they made from peanut production as
is evidenced by the enormous increc i in
production there; from an estin ted
14,000kg in 1980 to about 150,000 a in
1982.
TOOL AND MACHINE COMPONEf '
It was early realized that labou was
the main item in the production cos' and
small machines and equipment vere
introduced in an attempt to reduce hese
costs. These were tested and used n inly
in Belize at first but after the api )int-
ment of the Engineer in May 198: this
aspect of the project gained. mome! :um.
The problem areas with respe t to
small scale farming were identified a :
Land preparation
Planting
Weeding and moulding
Harvesting
Farm level primary processing.
Sample surveys conducted by the
Engineer showed that investment in
agricultural tools and equipment was
generally low. Most farmers used only
hand tools and were not even familiar
with wheeled manual implements not
to mention small power operated equip*
ment.
Work was taken up to improve power
Caribbean Farming February 1986








utilization efficiency of existing manual
system and introduce additional power
both mobile and stationary.
Appropriate equipment and machinery
were designed and fabricated or suitable
existing items identified (and modified if
necessary) for use within two production
systems viz.
(a) Manual system
(b) 2-wheel tractor system
For both systems machines and equip-
ment for farm level primary processing
w re designed and constructed.

H GHLIGHTS
The project generated immense in-
t, 3st in peanut production in all CARI-
C M countries and especially in the pro-
j countries. In Belize production
jt ped from an estimated 14,000kg in
1 0 to 50,000kg in 1981 and then
p n St. Vincent, the Marketing Corpora-
ti was able to purchase 67,000kg of
pi iut in shell at EC$4.40 per kg in
1i ? whereas none were sold through
th agency in 1981. Of these 45,000kg
w exported to Guyana and 4,500kg
tc inidad.
all project countries farmer-accep-
ta: of the introduced technology has
be high and amongst the small farming
co unities peanut has become one of


the preferred crops.
In Antigua project farmers (who had
not had previous experience of growing
the crop) were able to achieve average
yields of over 1600kg per ha during two
cropping seasons the highest yield ob-
tained being equivalent to 3050kg per ha.
In Belize, also, satisfactory yields were
recorded; average nearly 1800kg per ha
with several farmers producing over
2000kg per ha.
The St. Vincent farmers, who were
more experienced in peanut growing,
generally produced a yield of over
2000kg per ha in the main cropping
season. The best farmers' yield recorded
was 3800kg per ha whereas project staff
were able to produce the equivalent of
4700kg per ha from a 0.3 ha plot.
There was a great improvement in the
so called 'catch crop' planted in Novem-
ber and this could be mainly attributed
to the newly introduced variety NC-2
whose seed is non-dormant. As a conse-
quence many more farmers now regu-
larly plant a second crop thereby evening
out the market and also ensuring seed
supply.
St. Vincent farmers have fully
accepted NC-2 and are particularly im-
pressed with yield, nut quality and the
ease with which it can be harvested.
Farmers usually had no difficulty in


marketing their nuts at a price high
enough to realise a very satisfactory
groww margin. However, in Belize, the
Marketing Board was unable to find
export markets for the greatly increased
production in 1982 (150,000kg). This
situation however was put to good effect
in that CARDI was able to encourage
farmers to process (roast) their own nuts
on the farm and the crop was then all
consumed locally. In a further effort to
reduce dependence on overseas trade, a
processing factory to produce peanut
butter (and possibly salted nuts) was
established in 1984.
The variety NC-2 is demanding on
gypsum for good yield and quality.
Gypsum is available in Jamaica in large
quantities and is exported commer-
cially. This project has initiated trading
in gypsum within the CARICOM region.
Several items of small equipment and
machinery to increase the efficiency, re-
duce labour costs and ease the work in
peanut farming have been made available
through the Engineering Workshop in St.
Kitts. These include:
(i) Manual digging tool
(ii) Tyre dibbler
(iii) Dual-row marker
(iv) Tool-bar for Howard Dragon 2-
wheel tractor
Cont'd on p. 25


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SCaribbean Farming February 1986
i












Biological Control of Crop Pests


COMMONWEALTH INSTITUTE
OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL (CIBC)
AND ITS ACTIVITIES IN THE
COMMONWEALTH CARIBBEAN
by
M. Yaseen
Principal Entomologist
Commonwealth Institute of
Biological Control
Curepe, Trinidad, W.I.
CIBC is the biological control service of
the Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux
(CAB), an organization which coordinates
and administers agricultural information,
identification, biological control and other
services of agriculture on behalf of the
member countries. With its Headquarters
in the UK it operates a series of field
stations strategically located to carry out
the relevant studies and to obtain bio-
control agents as efficiently and as
economically as possible. At present field
stations are operative in Switzerland,
India, Pakistan, Kenya and Trinidad and
entomologists are based in Malaysia and
St. Lucia.
The station in Trinidad was set up in
the 1940s. However, the Farnham House
laboratory, the predecessor of CIBC, sent
to the West Indies in 1928 an entomolo-
gist Dr. J. G. Myers to conduct prelimin-
ary surveys of the insect problems and to
explore the possibilities of biological
control. His preliminary report produced
in 1931, contains a wealth of detail on
the major insect pests of the West Indies,
their general ecology and agricultural
conditions. He engaged in biological
control projects which led to the success-
ful introduction of the Amazon fly Mega-
gonistylum minense into Guyana, where
it provided excellent control of the black
headed sugarcane borer Diatraea saccha-
ralis. The same pest in St. Kitts was
brought under effective control by the
introduction of another parasitic fly
Lixophaga diatraeae popularly known as
the Cuban fly. Dr. Myers's services were.
withdrawn in the mid-1930s. However,
a permanent base in Trinidad was estab-
lished in 1946 and some biological con-
trol successes have been achieved.

SUGARCANE MOTH BORER
In Barbados, initial attempts to estab-
lish the Amazon and Cuban flies in the
1930s were unsuccessful. CIBC resumed
these investigations in 1966. Several
larval parasites including different strains
22


of Lixophaga had been introduced
during the intervening period without
success. Trials were made in 1966 with
parasites of related Asian stem borers
and one of them Apanteles flavipes, a
braconid wasp, became established. It
spread rapidly and at the same time
Lixophaga introduced previously, began
to build up in numbers. By 1970 the two
parasites had reduced damage from
around 16% cane joints bored to less than
6% and have since maintained satisfac-
tory control.
The braconid has since been tried suc-
cessfully in other terriroties in the region
and is firmly established in St. Kitts,
Trinidad, Guyana and Jamaica.

CITRUS BLACKFLY,
ALEUROCANTHUS WOGLUMI
The citrus blackfly has spread from
South East Asia to many citrus growing
regions. Its accidental introduction into


Barbados was discovered in 1962. Some
65,000 adults of an aphelinid parasite
Prospaltella opulenta were released com-
mencing in November 1964.. Another
aphelinid parasite Eretmocerus serious had
been released in June 1964. Both species
became established and the populations
of the citrus blackfly declined rapidly
and were brought under effective control
(Pschorn Walcher & Bennett 1967).
In Jamaica, E. serious had been intro-
duced in 1932 and exerted only a fair
level of control against this pest. At the
time biological control of this pest was
organized in Barbados and releases f P.
opulenta were also arranged in Jamai. A. It
readily established and provide an
improved level of control. One or ,oth
of these parasites provided to ( and
Cayman Island and the Bahama are
providing adequate control.

COTTONY CUSHION SCALE
ICERYA PURCHASE
Since 1880 when successful bio! lical
control of this scale by the lac bird
beetle Rodolia cardinalis became )pa-
rent, the predator has been distribu d to
several countries.
In St. Kitts I. purchase was first r iort-
ed in 1964 and in 1966 population :plo-
sion resulted in severe damage to I jeon
pea Cajanus cajan, citrus as well s to
several ornamentals. Releases of )out
500 adults of Rodolia cardinalis it June
1966 brought the infestations to a legli-
gible level and the predator has since
exerted complete control. Subs( luent


~ ~ iaC~.^ p ------

The predatory assassin bug Platymeris laevicollis attacking a rhinoceros beetle.


Caribbean Farming February 1986










releases of the ladybird beetle against
I. purchase in, Montserrat and Antigua
gave complete success.

PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS
OPUNTIA SPP.
In 1952 in the island of Nevis, the
prickly pear cactus Opuntia tricantha had
over-run large tracts of land greatly
reducing the grazing potential. Three
natural enemies Dactylopius opuntiae,
LD sp. nr. confusus and Cactoblastis
c :torum were released in 1957. The
f st two failed to establish but Cactoblas-


Th irasite Gyptomorpha deesae. This is one of
mi borer parasites winch nave been
ex ively studied for the biological control of
su- ane borers in the tropics.
ti, established and repeated its success
st( against the weed in Queensland.
T1 -noth later was successfully released
in .Kitts, Antigua, Montserrat, US
Vi Islands and Grand Cayman Island.

PU TURE VINE
TR JLUSCISTOIDES
Puncture vine T. cistoides has
bee common in Jamaica and elsewhere
in : Greater Antilles for many years
but oparently became established in St.
Kitt: early in the second half of this cen-
tury For a while it was considered to be
an zztractive ornamental. However, in
1964 patches of the weed were discover-
ed in pasture land. The weed was known
to have been earlier successfully con-
trolled in the USA by European weevils
Microlarinus spp. M. lyprifo.rmis and M
lareynii. These were obtained from the
USA and released in St. Kitts and subse-
quently in :Nevis and the weed brought
under permanent control.

DIAMOND BACK MOTH
PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA
The diamond back moth is almost a
universal pest of cabbage and other
crucifers and in many Caribbean terri-
tories is often the key pest. Effective
parasites are present in some areas and
gave promising results when established
in Australia and New Zealand. Their
Caribbean Farming February 1986


distribution in the Caribbean has been
promoted by CIBC. Introduction of
Apanteles plutellae during the last decade
has succeeded in at least Barbados,
Trinidad, Antigua, Montserrat, St. Kitts,
Dominica and St. Lucia and Tetrasti-
chus sokolowskii in Trinidad and Bar-
bados. In some territories in addition to
Plutella, cabbages are also attacked by
other important pests such as the bud-
worm Hellula phidilealis in Trinidad and
farmers resort to repeated applications
of chemical pesticides suppressing biolo-
gical control.
CIBC has collaborative agreements
with organizations in related fields for
integrated pest management. Under such
an agreement the Institute of Virology
at Oxford, UK is investigating possibili-
ties of utilizing insect diseases as for
Hellula in order to allow natural enemies
of other pests to play their role to the
maximum. Preliminary field experiments
in Trinidad have already been conducted
and hopefully confirmatory tests will
lead to a practical solution.
CIBC is also involved in efforts for
biological control of coconut mite in the
eastern Caribbean, of the coconut defolia-
tor Brassolis sophorae in Guyana, and
mahogany shootborer Hypsipyla gran-
della in Trinidad and several other pests
of crops.
Pheropsophus hilaris sobrinus attacking a larva
of the rhinoceros beetle.


Thus CIBC provides information and
advice on biological control, undertakes
research and implementation programmes
on biological control of insect pests and
weeds and participates in integrated pest
management programmes in association
with other organizations. It also holds
training courses and has a role in other
training activities including laboratory
training in biocontrol techniques to
laboratory hands, as well as supervision
of research for Post Graduate students.
Activities also include providing nucleus
cultures of natural enemies to other
organizations or large-scale multiplication
of these for direct release against pests.
It also collaborates with other agencies
in an advisory role. I


Chicken feed

carries vaccine


In Malaysia and other parts of Asia,
many villagers and farmers keep a few
chickens. These small flocks are an
important source of protein for rural
people but, at present, they are not
very productive. A virus causing the
highly contagious Newcastle disease is a
major cause for loss. There is no New-
castle disease in Australia but there are
unusual strains of the virus present
there that are completely avirulent and
cause no disease. Chickens infected with
these strains produce antibodies against
Newcastle disease and are protected
against the disease when challenged with
a virulent strain of the virus.
One of the Australian strains has been
used to manufacture vaccines used to
control the disease on large commercial
poultry farms, but they are expensive
and difficult to administer. It is from this
strain that an Australian research team
hopes to produce a vaccine and a simple,
cheap method of vaccination that could
be applied to village poultry.
In Australian experiments, chickens
developed antibodies after the vaccine
was mixed in their feed. Malaysian re-
search showed that the majority of
chickens vaccinated by feeding, or by
contact with vaccinated birds, were re-
sistant to Newcastle disease.
The Malaysian workers have also
devised a method of coating pelleted feed
with the virus; the vaccine on the pellets
remains infective for several weeks.
Contacts have- been made with several
Malaysian villages, which will be sup-
plied with vaccinated chickens. After
several months, other chickens will be
bought from the villagers and challenged
with Newcastle disease virus.
Already there have been enquiries
from other Asian countries and from
Africa, and it is hoped that the vaccine
may be of benefit in the many countries
where poultry supplies an important part
of the people's diets. 0
Janeen Samuel, University of Queens-
land, from Australian Centre for Inter-
national Agricultural Research News-
letter.
The IDRC Reports, October 1985












Integrated Pest

Management

By Ajai.Mansingh
(Reader in Entomology & Chairman,
Pesticide Research and Monitoring
Group, UWI, Mona)
Pest management envisages coexis-
tence of undesirable pests up to a certain
point, and accepting a certain level of
loss and discomform before any measure
to reduce their population is taken.
Usually, this loss is between 2 and 5%
of the overall income from the crop or
commodity.
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
envisages deployment of all known
methods of pest control,from hand pick-
ing to aerial spraying of pesticides, in a
systematic and integrated manner, for
the maintenance of pest population at
an economically acceptable level. It must
however be remembered that the concept
of IPM has evolved only after recognizing
the awesome power of insects to develop
resistance to pesticides, and the acute and
long-term chronic effects of pesticide
residues in the environment. Therefore
pesticides are to be used only when neces-
sary and only after all other methods
have failed to keep the pest population
down.
The various techniques of IPM may be
grouped into the following categories-
GENETIC: Application of genetic
principles in producing plants and animals
which are not preferred by pests and
parasites. JAMAICA HOPE breed of
cattle is not liked by cattle ticks. The
Geisha variety of our coffee is likewise
not preferred by the coffee berry borer.
Scientists have also manipulated the genes
of mosquitoes which when reared in
laboratory in millions and released, mate
with wild mosquitoes and produce dead
offspring.
PHYSIOLOGICAL: Altering the
natural physiology of survival of insects
is another method of reducing popula-
tion. Certain chemicals and radio-isotopes
are used to interfere with developmental
and reproductive physiology of pests:
Control of screwworm of cattle has
been successfully achieved in USA by
releasing laboratory-reared sterile males
which when mated with wild females,
induce -laying of unfertilized eggs. Dr.
Sam Rawlins of the Pesticide Research
Group of the UWI is an expert in this
technique and is looking at its applica-
tion in Jamaica.
Pheromones, hormones, antifeedants
24


and antimetabolites are other chemicals
being developed for use against insect
pests.
BIOLOGICAL. Most endemic insect
species have a complex of parasites and
predators which keep the population of
the host under control. Sometimes when
a pest from another country is intro-
duced, its parasites are imported from the
mother country. In Barbados, several
vegetable pests are controlled by insect
parasites introduced from India.
An interesting instance of the destruc-
tion of predators occurred in India when
in the late 1960s, heavy demand for.
frogs' leg in Europe induced Indian
farmers to catch from rice fields around
Bombay for export. The grasshoppers
which are the favourite food of the frogs
then thrived unabated and destroyed the
rice crop.
CULTURAL: Modifications in agricul-
tural practices, such as seed dressing,
time of sowing, weeding, ground sanita-
tion, pruning etc. have proven to be a
valuable adjunct to IPM, particularly in
the control of the coffee berry borer.
PHYSICAL: The use of all physical
factors such as temperature, humidity,
sound, radiation, electro-magnetic field
and hand-picking of pests is considered
to be safer than chemical spraying.
CHEMICAL: Selection of proper
insecticide for a particular insect species,
and its application in the proper way and
in the appropriate time is the key to ob-
taining best and safest results from in-
secticides. Long lasting chemicals such as
chlordane, dieldrin, DDT must never
be used around your home, except
against termites.
THE USE OF INSECTICIDE IS MOST
EXPENSIVE AND INADVISABLE IF
THE INSECT POPULATION IS LOW,
BUT MOST EFFECTIVE AND ECONO-
MICAL WHEN THE POPULATION IS
HIGH.
IPM IN JAMAICA
The most effective example of IPM in
the Caribbean is the control of the coffee
berry borer by CIDCO. Their concern
for environment forced them to engage
scientists at UWI and CARDI for develop-
ing an IPM strategy which would employ
least amount of insecticides. The borer
is now controlled by keeping the ground
clean of all fallen berries which may con-
tain boress, strip off all unharvested
coffee berries from trees, and spraying
with endosulfan once or twice between
May and August. The Guatemalan
practice of spraying fallen berries with
chlordane was abolished in favour of
manual sanitation, and in the interest of
environment and economics. E


Small virus-free

sweet potato roots for

international testing

In the future, cooperators- who re.
quest samples of the Center's sweet
potato germplasm will receive small,
virus-free storage roots instead of tissue
culture test tubes.
The small root system, which was
developed by AVRDC Physiologist
George Kuo, should expand the number
of sweet potato samples distributed
by the Center, reduce shipping losses,
simplify testing at the national level, and
at the same time meet phytosanitar; re-
quirements for vegetatively propogted
crops.
It works in the following way: 'iru-
free plantlets derived from conventional
meristem tip culture are transph cited
under insect-free conditions in a teri-
lized soil medium. The expanded I aves
derived from the mature plants are :hen
cut at the base of the petiole an are
planted in a new sterilized soil me ium
where they develop storage roots The
expanded leaf is then subjected to ,irus
indexing by means of enzyme-1 ked
immunosorbant assay (ELISA).
Tests show that four to five virn free
plantlets per month can be grown rom
the in vitro singlenode cuttings us i to
obtain the mature plants. The plar s, in
turn, produce an average of 15 leave s per
month, and, of these, approximately' 50%
produce small storage roots.
Estimates show that an average if 22
virus-free roots can be produced by a
single plant in six months. Further nore,
virus-free plants can be maintain d or
regenerated either as storage roots or as
stem cuttings one of the pr icipal
reasons that.so many roots can b pro-
duced in such a short period of time.
The new system, says AVRDC ;weet
Potato Breeder Steve Lin, esse tially
solves the problem of testing sweet
potato germplasm overseas. "It'' safe,
fast, and ensures that our materials arrive
intact." It should also help to stimulate
cooperation between AVRDC and
national programs and increase the flow
of germplasm between breeding programs
worldwide. Lin estimates that the Center
will distribute over 13,000 small, virus-
free roots in 1985 as opposed to the 130
tissue culture samples distributed in
1983. 0

Caribbean Farming February 1986















Weeds associated

with bananas in the

Windward Islands

Listed below are some of the weeds
reported to be resistant to paraquat in
banana fields in the Windward
Is hands together with suggestions for
al native herbicides for their control.
W -ere a dosage range is given, the higher
re should be used if the weed growth is
d ise, while in the case of residuals
h ler rates should be applied on heavy
sr s.
Paragrass) Brachiaria mutica. This
i d can be controlled by sprays of 7%-
1i ib/ac 'Dalapon', or 1/4 pt. 'Gramo-
x, 3' mixed with 'Dalapon' at normal
re ; (7% 10 Ib/ac). This treatment has
th advantage of rapidly drying out the
to cover. Three split applications of 5
Ib 'Dalapon', while giving the most
ec omical control and total kill of the
ur ground portions of the weed, is
sic to act.
lild slip) Ipomea spp. This weed
ca; ie controlled by sprays of 2 pt/ac
of groxone', but great care should be
tak to avoid drift on to the banana
pli .
>ur grass) Paspalum conjugatum.
Cat a controlled by sprays of 'Daconate'
at ( pt/ac.
3ter grass) Commelina elegans. Can
be strolled by 'Talent' at 4 pt/ac or
'Dac nate' at 6-8 pt/ac.
( mbo grass) Paspalum fasiculatum.
Thi; ,'eed can be controlled by sprays of
'Tal; ;t' at 4 pt/ac, 'Daconate' 6-8 pt/ac
or '[ lapon' 7%-10 lb/ac.
(E -rmuda grass, wire grass, devil grass)
Cynodon dactylon. The narrow leaves of
this grass weed make effective applica-
tion of herbicides difficult. 'Daconate'
at 6-8 pt/ac gives good control of this
weed.
(Razor grass, sword grass) Paspalum
virgatum. 'Dalapon 7/2-10 Ib/ac or 'Da-
conate' at'6-8 pt/ac gives good control'of
this weed.
(Monkey grass, foxtail) Seteria genicu-
lata. 'Daconate' at 6-8 pt/ac or'Dalapon'
7%-10 Ib/ac gives good control of this
weed.
(Guinea grass) Panicum maximum.
'Dalapon' 7%-10 Ib/ac gives effective con-
trol of this weed.
(White top or Tete neg) Borreria
SPP. and (devils horse whip) Achy-
Caribbean Farming February 1986


ranthes indica. These are deep rooted
broad leaf weeds, a habit which makes
control by foliar sprays difficult. These
weeds can be controlled by residual
sprays of 'Diuron' at 1-2 Ib/ac.or 'Gesa-
pax' and 'Gesatop' (3-4 Ib/ac) to prevent
the germination of this weed.
Notwithstanding the use of herbi-
cides, as outlined, for the control of the
above weeds, no one method of weed
control is by itself sufficient for an effec-
tive weed control programme. Control
of weeds will be found to be most effec-
tive when an integrated weed control
programme (including proper husbandry)
is employed. In this regard, good hus-
handry as a means of ensuring rapid
growth for the development of a suffi-
ciently dense leaf canopy is paramount.
This restricts the penetration of sunlight
to the soil, thereby suppressing weed
growth and making the need for weed
control less necessary. In any case, weeds
growing under well shaded bananas are
more susceptible to herbicides. Similarly,
herbicides must be applied at the right
stage of weed growth to obtain best
results.
As a general rule, the younger the
weeds are at the time of spraying, the
more susceptible they are to post emer-
gence herbicides; while selective residual
herbicides are used when they can be
effectively carried into the soil by rain-
fall. In this regard the need for using the
recommended plant densities, good soil
fertility, optimal planting date and pests
and disease control is evident. Similarly,
the growing of intercrops just after initial
planting of bananas, suppresses weed
growth. Such practices, in addition to
mulching with dry banana leaves and
spent pseudostems suppress weed growth
and can be used to supplement any weed
control programme in bananas.
Except for the use of 'Talent' the stra-
tegies for control of the weed species out-
lined above are not new and have been
recommended in the past to banana
growers by WINBAN. Careful observance
of WINBAN recommendations will
reduce the problem of weeds and parti-
cularly of paraquat resistant weeds. U


Field Problems
of tropical rice

Field Problems of Tropical Rice
was published by the International Rice
Research Institute (I RRI) to help farmers
and rice workers identify common pro-
duction problems such as insects, disea-
ses, weeds, and adverse soils. The
172-page booklet has 158 colorpbotos.
The original (1982) edition focused


only on Asian problems, but the 1983
revision also identifies problems of
Africa and Latin America.
Field Problems is being published, in
cooperation with national agricultural im-
provement programs, in 29 languages.
The book is available from IRRI in
English, Bikol. Cebuano, French, Ilokano,
Pampango, Spanish, Tagalog, and Waray.
Editions are being copublished by
national cooperators in Arabic, Bahasa
Indonesia, Burmese, Chinese, Farsi,
Gujarati, Kannada, Malagasy, Malayalam,
Nepali, Oriya, Portuguese, Punjabi, Sing-
halese, Kiswahili, Tamil, Telegu, Urdu,
and Vietnamese. On request, IRRI will
provide addresses to which orders for
translated editions can be sent.
Natural Enemies of Insect Pests of
Rice is a poster designed to help farmers
identify predators, parasites, and patho-
gens that prey on rice pests. It is distri-
buted to farmers so that they will avoid
using insecticides on beneficial insects.
The 79- x 23-cm poster has 49 color
photos and 5 diagrams.
Natural Enemies, a joint project of the
FAO Integrated Pest Control Program,
IRRI, and several national rice improve-
ment programs, is available in Bahasa
Indonesian, B. Malaysian, Bengali, Bikol,
Cebuano, English, Hindi, Hiligaynon
(Ilongo), Ilokano, Maguindanao, Tagalog,
Tamil, Thai, and Waray. Kannada and
Telegu editions are being prepared.
These materials can be ordered from
the Communication and Publications
Department, IRRI, P.O. Box 933, Manila,
Philippines. R
PEANUT PRODUCTION
Cont'd. from p. 21
(v) 2-tine cultivator for the Howard
Dragon
(vi) Peanut digger
(vii) Peanut washer
(viii) Drying trays
(ix) Cleaning and sorting sieves
(x) Power thresher
In addition to these the project in Belize
developed and had manufactured locally;
a hand-pushed High Wheel Culti-
vator,
a hand operated rocker-type pea-
nut sheller,
a simple comb-like device for
stripping pods from the vines (a
similar piece of equipment was
also made by the project in
Antigua).
These items, especially the sheller,
have proved to be very popular with pea-
nut farmers in Belize and elsewhere.
Also in Belize peanut crop driers using
wood fuel, designed and constructed by
the Project are now in operation. U
25










Dry rice system
revives output for
Northern China

Chinese peasants are growing rice
successfully in dry fields in areas where
water is scarce.
The year 1984 saw 90,000 hectares
of dry fields sown to rice along and
north of the Yellow River, three times as
much as in 1983, according to the
Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Husban-
dry, and Fishery.
Despite natural setbacks, per-hectare
output averaged 4,725 tons. Tongxian
county outside Beijing, with 2,300
hectares of dry rice, managed 6.75 tons
per hectare, and some areas actually
achieved greater per-hectare output from
dry rice than from wet.
By doing away with seedling beds and
flooding, dry cultivation of rice uses less
water, and manpower. In practice, one-
third as much water and two-thirds as
much manure are needed as with tradi-
tional methods. This cuts costs by $60
per hectare and facilitates mechanized
farming.
With less than 500 mm of rain an-
nually, northern and northeastern China
have had no water to spare for flooded
fields, so wheat, maize and sorghum have
been the traditional crops. But with the
new system an estimated one million
hectares are suitable for dry rice.
Rice hectarage around Beijing, for in-
stance, reduced several years running
because of industrial water consumption,
is now rising again with the new tech-
nique. In 1984, dry fields accounted for
about a quarter of the city's rice hec-
tarage.
"Growing rice dry is very like growing
wheat," said Ling Pengzhi, an agronomist
at the Agricultural Science Research
Institute in Daxing county, a major
Beijing rice producer.
After the spring ploughing, each
hectare is spread with 45-75 cu.m. of
farmyard manure and 450 kg of calcium
superphosphate, then levelled and irri-
gated with 750 cu.m. of water.
Seeds are sun-dried for two or three
days to increase germination percentage:
then screened to remove foreign sub-
stances and tipped into a brine of 10
kg of salt per 50 litres. The salt may be
replaced with 15 kg of clay. Only the
seeds that sink are used.
These are steeped in fresh water
for six or seven days to absorb all they
can, then one day before sowing are dried
in the shade and sprayed with a 100 ml
per liter of water solution of the insec-


ticide chlordane E.C. (50 per cent).
"All this is to maximize seedlings,
one key to an ideal yield," says Ling.
The seeds are sown two to three centi-
metres deep, slightly shallower than
wheat. Weeds flourish on the unflooded
land. "They must be kept down with
chemicals," says Ling, "or a good harvest
is impossible." The seedlings are not
irrigated until four to six leaves appear,
when 750 cu.m. of water are used per
hectare.
The five to seven irrigations of 600-
750 cu.m. per hectare each during the
growing period take 3,750-4,500 cu.m.
per hectare, one-third that in flooded
fields, though slightly more than for
wheat.
Ling explains that rice, unlike lotus
or reeds, has no root air cells and can
survive drought like other land plants.
"Intermittent irrigation gives the root
enough air and water," he says. "Only
at critical moments do the plants need
much water."
By "critical moments" Ling means
tillering, booting, heading, and the milk
stage. "Under normal circumstances,"
he adds, "if the plants are watered
plentifully at these times, a good harvest
is as sure as posting a letter."
For an ideal harvest, says Ling, 450
kg of ammonium bicarbonate per hectare
should be applied at tillering and again at
booting.
Serious drought in 1971 and 1972 re-
duced Daxing's rice hectarage from
27,000 to 5,000 and forced Ling and his
colleagues to seek a new way to ensure
output.
Helped by the Academy of Agricul-
tural Science, their dry rice cultivation
experiments succeeded in 1973, and one-
third of the country's rice was dry-
grown by 1984.
The national dry-grown rice hectarage
will be enlarged to 260,000 in 1985 and
one million by 1990, according to the
ministry. U


Sweet potato

released in Tahiti

Five AVRDC sweet potato cultivars
and a cross between a Center line and a
local cultivar were recently released in
Tahiti. Researcher Jean Louis Reboul
of GERDAT-IRAT Mission in Papeete
reported that the new materials were
approved for use on the basis of their
superior yields, early maturity, and
superior eating quality (see CENTER-
POINT August 1983). Yields are said to


range from 50 to 60 t/ha over a 4-month
period compared with 12 to 15 t/ha for
the local check cultivar (see table). The
new materials, he added, are being multi-
plied both for farmers in Tahiti and on
other islands in French Polynesia.
Three of the releases (CN 942-47,
1028-15, and 1038-15) represent the
first of AVRDC's ',second generation"
sweet potatoes to be approved for use
overseas. Tests indicate that the cultivars
produce dry matter totaling 25% of tuber
fresh weight, and that they contain as
much as 6% protein. AVRDC's first
generation lines are noted for their high
B-carotene content, early maturity, and
adaptability to different environments.
Second generation cultivars are somewhat
lower in B-carotene, but have better
eating qualities and are the only known
cultivars that combine light-orange flesh
color and dry texture. They are E'so
earlier maturing than first generate on
cultivars and are equally well adapted to
different environments. I

Characteristics of the AVRDC sweet pt tato
lines released in Tahiti
Yield t/ha
Cultivar No. Pedigree (120days) U ztln
CN 942-47 B 6712 (OP) 60 xod
CN 1028-16 P1344129/B (OP// 50 *d
157 (OP)-4
CN 1038-16 P1344129//Red Tuber Tail/ 50 xod
OK 6-3-118///157 (OP)-4
CN 690-33 Poly 157 (1) 46 aed
Cl 591-14 Poly 157(1) 38 ed
Check Au marie Vareau 12-151 od
1150 days



Caribbean Worksh )p

to be held

The International Science and EC ica-
tion Council (ISEC) Research Comrh :tee
in collaboration with the Caribbean ,gri-
cultural Research and Developmen In-
stitute (CARDI), the Caribbean Food
Crops Society (CFCS), and the I ter-
national Service for National Agricul rural
Research (ISNAR) is planning a w rk-
shop on the management of agi cul-
tural research in the Caribbean re< ion.
The target audience is middle rrana-
gers and above in the agriculture, re-
search institutions and universities ir: the
Caribbean.
The objective of the workshop is to
provide information based on practical
experiences of agricultural research
managers, familiar with the Caribbean.
The workshop is tentatively scheduled
for April 1986, and will be held either in
Trinidad or the Virgin Islands. 0

Caribbean Farming February 1986













Caribbean


FARYMINO


ie only quarterly publication in the
i ribbean region that deals with
opical Agriculture


Rate: US$11 U.S.A., Latin-America: Caribbean
US$15 -All other countries

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Mail to: Caribbean Farming
c/o Creative Communications Inc.
P.O. Box 105, Kingston 10, Jamaica, W.I.
Tel: (809) 92-74271


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Caribbean Farming February 1986











High Quality Anthuriums for export


A symposium on Anthuriums for Ex-
port was held in Jamaica on February 27,
1986, sponsored by the Export Crop Pro-
ject Information on modem techniques
for the production of export quality was
given by the able team of Ornamental
Horticultural Advisory Services
(O.H.A.S.) of the Ministry of Agriculture
(Tel. 92-79831 Ext. 203) which in-
cluded:-
A SITE SELECTION ANALYSIS By Mr.
R. Derby (O.H.A.S.)
In this the importance of climatic
conditions of high rainfall and/or supple-
mentary irrigation with a low salt con-
tent, to supply two acre inches per week
optimum; a day temperature over 800F,
and a night temperature of not below
60-700F; a level, or gentle slope, not
subject to flooding, with an elevation
between 500-1500'; a free draining sandy
loam; accessibility for supplies for
marketing; land availability for later
expansion if necessary; a reliable source
and supply of energy; an available labour
supply of 4 to 5 people per acre, are all
important.
The Rural Physical Planning Unit of
The Ministry of Agriculture in the Agro-
nomy Building, Old 'Hope Road,
Kingston 6 can recommend the areas
which best conform to the requirements
of soil and climate. JNIP or the Ministry
of Agriculture (O.H.A.S.) team) can
advise as to the availability of land in
these areas.
The Team are willing to visit and
advise as to the suitability of the pro-
posed areas selected. They stressed the
importance of consulting with them be-
fore, and not after finalizing, on the site.
GROWING MEDIA/PLANTING
MATERIAL By Mr. E. Sterkel (Con-
sultant)
A media with no toxic material,
availability of good water supply with a
low salt content, good moisture reten-
tion, adequate drainage and aeration,
are all important.
To reduce transportation costs the
necessary high organic material needed
can be chosen from the following
or combinations of them:- fresh coconut
husks and fibre free from salt; coir dust
and bagasse, both of which tend to cake
and become deficient in aeration and
drainage; bark, wood chips, and sawdust
with the exception of those containing
material from the Caribbean Pine; tree
fern root which must be fresh; and mi-
28


neral culture which is not yet available
in the island and would have a high
energy cost to produce; the use of peat
is being investigated, (sand provides no
food material, so is not suitable). Nitro-
gen is needed over and above that re-
quired for the plant, for nitrogenous
bacteria which break down the media
to supply food to the plants.
The optimum ph is between 4.5 -
5.0; some adjustment can be made by
the application of sulphur and S/A to
increase acidity or the use of dolo-
mite, lime, or CaCO3 to increase
alkalinity. The growing media should
be checked every three months for
this.
Planting material can be obtained
from rooting top cuttings which are
planted as soon as they are rooted, or
setting sections from the stem which are
planted when two mature leaves have
grown from each bud. Six plants can be
taken from a motherplant per year. It is
most important that the plants used are
free from disease so a nursery should be
established; planting material should not
be interchanged from bed to bed and it
should be carefully monitored for pests
and disease once or twice a week. It is
important to use a sharp knife and
sterile tools when cutting; planting
material should be used quickly after
preparation and be free from soil.
Seeds are not used for planting, as
vegetative propagation is uniform and
quicker. The use of seedlings is a spe-
cialized job for obtaining new strains, not
for ordinary production. Tissue culture is
slow and expensive and there is no
known source of this yet in Jamaica; it
is good for the control of disease and
uniformity. Farmers can obtain check
lists of the necessary points, by appli-
cation to the O.H.A.S.
The Sugar Research Institute (Mande-
ville) Jamaica, is equipped to test water
for salinity and has a travelling unit to
do this on the site, if necessary.
The market requirements are higher
in the colder months so attention should
be paid to this in production.

SHADE HOUSE/LAYOUT By Mr. T.
Burton (O.H.A.S.)
Anthuriums require shade. This can
be provided by trees, but is impossible
to regulate; by wood lathes which are
short-lifed, expensive and troublesome
to replace; by polypropylene or similar
material (73-75% shade) which is expen-


sive, but lasts up to 12 years if properly
attached and maintained. Supports of
metal or hardwood are recommended
and are spaced in grids of 12' x 8', 12' x
12' or 12' x 24'. Beds, 75180' long,
should run East-West for best distribu-
tion of sunlight, and are 3-4 feet wide.
Plants are spaced 8" x 8", 8" x 12", or
12" x 12" apart. 12" x 12" gives a popu-
lation of 310 plants 27 thousand per
acre; walkways between beds should be
2' wide, covered with marl or shingle;
drainage from the beds and walkways
is important and where percolation is
poor, must be insured by a slope down-
ward along the bed or a modified con-
tour across the bed with a slope toward
side drains. Wind protection must be ro-
vided and wind breaks of trees she Jld
be planted to insure this.
The beds are best formed, by wall! of
coconut husks turned down and pac ed
to give a minimum depth of 75"; :he
bed inside can be of coconut fibre or
other material.
MAINTENANCE By Mr. V. Diedr :k,
O.H.A.S.
Every six months as plants grow ou of
the media, coconut fibre or o !er
material must be added to increase he
depth of bed and the walls must be m in-
tained. The general practices of c, ti-
vation weeding, irrigation, ferti za-
tion, spraying for protection from ins cts
and diseases should be carried out. A ter
5 or 6 years replanting will be necessE j.
FERTILIZATION/IRRIGATION By Vlr,
L. Davidson, Producer
Fertilization should be done c a
regular basis. Osmocote was rec m-
mended, but with certain reservation ; as
the release is slow at certain teml ara-
tures. N.P.K.. 1.1.1. should be. sed
during growth'but when flowering s arts
a change to N.P.K.:1.1.2. is recom-
mended. Acidic conditions must be
monitored and corrected. A re(jlar
supply of water should be given at the
rate of 2 acre inches per week in two
applications; it is necessary to adjust this
when there is rain; drip irrigation was
not considered advisable.

PEST AND DISEASE PROBLEMS -
INSECTS By Mr. Timon Williamson,
Consultant in Entomology.
It is important to keep weeds con-
trolled in the area as these harbour
pests. The young leaves and blooms
should be examined regularly for small
Caribbean Farming- February 1986












holes and other signs of damage; treat-
ment should be early and fortnightly
applications maintained after control is
established. The chemicals used should be
changed when they are no longer effec-
tive, and others used instead. The warm,
damp conditions needed for the crop
create a media suitable to pests and
disease. The most troublesome are slugs
which can be controlled by a bait made
wit: 1 oz. metaldehyde to 2-lbs. corn-
meal a little concrete can be added
to nake this more firm it should be
pl ed in tin cans open top and
bo om, and placed on the side to protect
frc 1 water; or a slurry of white lime with
me ildehyde. Stomach and contact
po ons are used for caterpillars. In dry
pe jds attacks of red spider mites are
inc :ated by small leaves and discoloured
bit ms. Phosphates are the most effec-
tive oisons.

DI! ASES By Mrs. M. Mais, Pathologist,
0.1 IAS.
factions are spread by rain splashing,
toc and hands of workers through
wo ds and stomata of flowers and leaves
so od practices of hygiene are import-
ant 70% alcohol or other disinfectants
can e used to wash hands and tools, care
she d be taken to keep workers out of
bec
ithracnose is the most common
disc :e as the warm, damp conditions
suit ile for plants is also suitable for
disc ;e. Root infection is associated with
ner todes.

NEI ATODES By Mr. F. Edman, Minis-
try .i Agriculture ,
If a root is scraped and browning of
tissues seen, this indicates the presence of
nematodes. It can be controlled by the
application of Nematocides such as
Nemacur at the rate of 25-lbs. per acre
before planting, dipping the planting
material in a solution and four monthly
applications at the beginning, as preven-
tion is better than a cure.

SELECTION AND PACKAGING By Mrs.
J. Wright, Producer
The Bureau of Standards may be con-
sulted for the required standards and
problems; the international standards are
based on Hawaii's. The market require-
ments depend on the importing country,
sophisticated colours for Europe, reds
and pinks for U.S.A. and orange for
Japan. JEDCO has established quality
Caribbean Farming February 1986


controls spathe sizes are MINI 2-3
inches, SMALL 34 inches, MEDIUM
4-5 inches, LARGE 5-6 inches, EXTRA
LARGE over 6 inches. PREMIUM
superior, large blooms 18 inch straight
stems, with flat spathe and spadix in-
clined for easy packaging. Picking of
blooms is best done after 4 p.m. and
placed in water in a clean container. The
spadix should be half white and half
coloured. After selection the blooms
should be packed as soon as possible
but it is not advisable to use strip plastic,
or paper with markings, as these will
affect the colour of the spathe. The
shelf life of flowers carefully handled
is three weeks, but in winter can last up
to two months.

PRE-CLEARANCE PROGRAMME FOR
THE U.S.A. By Miss Carol Thomas
(counterpart for USDA SPECIALIST)
The shipments are inspected and
cleared in Jamaica so that "perishables"
can be cleared to go right through to the
market without delay. Dr. Iwomato
(USDA) is in the island for a year to
establish this service free of charge to
us. A charge is made of 15c per box to
establish a fund to continue this service
in future. A day's notice must be given
before shipment, for inspection and
fumigation. This service is only available
in Kingston at present but it is hoped
that in five year's time it will be available
islandwide.
Blooms must be free of thrips and
cut worms and conform to standards.

CERTIFICATION AND FUMIGATION
By Mr. Ralph Iwomato, USDA (Certifi-
cation & Fumigation Specialist)
A book on Standards can be obtained
for $6.00 each. Spadix colour change can
be with 2/3 White; blooms should be
free of diseases and pests; in healthy con-
dition and a good colour. Boxes must be
properly stapled and tied, not too moist.
They should never be. left in the sun.
Masking tape should be used to keep
cold air out when travelling.

PROJECT COST AND RETURNS By
Mr. Texton Groves, Agricultural Specia-
list JNIP
Production costs and returns*(J$ per
acre), total operation expenses and
yields; 5 acre and 10 acre models were all
presented and can be obtained from the
JNIP. It was Mr. Groves' opinion that
the 5 acre model requiring an investment


of approximately $1,860,713 would not
be viable but would require the 10 acre
model of approximately $3,033,138.

MARKETS FOR ANTHURIUMS By Mr.
Michael Sealy, JNIP
Studies indicate a growing interest for
tropical exotics, and Jamaica's ability
to penetrate and capture a hold on this
market. The estimated anthurium pro-
duction in 1985 was 108 acres, with an
annual production of 14.5 million
blooms.
SHawaii currently supplies 90% of the
US market the total U.S. demand, and
growth in sales continue to increase. The
popular variety in demand is the red
Ozaki, but is reportedly over supplied and
current demand is increasing for yellows,
pinks, oranges, whites and other tints of
red.
Studies indicate that Jamaica can, in
a four-year period, capture 27% of the
U.S. anthurium market given its lower
production costs and lower freight rate
to the East Coast if the similar high quali-
ty of Hawaii can be maintained.
Wholesale prices vary from city to
city and the time of the year; higher
prices are obtained from November to
May. Prices in New York and Philadelphia
range from $1 to $1.50 US for LARGE
to EXTRA LARGE blooms, $0.47 US
for MEDIUM, $0.36 US for SMALL,
$0.16 US for PEE WEE, at the best time.
The general consumer demand for cut
flowers has shifted from arrangements
to loose flowers, more variety, every-
day purchases, new outlets, etc.
Foreign growers have numerous
options available for the distribution of
their flowers. Flower brokers handle the
majority of the flowers imported and
provide the widest market coverage.
JETCO acts as marketing outlet for
small growers. United Exports Limited
is marketing a wide range of cut flowers
and are willing to market for small
growers. West Germany, Italy and Canada
are growing markets. U


*Note: J$1.00 US$5.50











PUBLICATIONS


GUIDE TO MAINTAINING

A GOOD QUALITY

YAM CROP


a a He Fo L qwdl
It1H. P~wp8ad MA a~


Farmers and extension workers in the
Caribbean and other tropical regions
may be interested in CARDI Factsheet -
Order No. PP/F-3,85 GUIDE TO
MAINTAINING A GOOD QUALITY
YAM CROP.
Since this Factsheet deals with diseases
of yams the colour photographs illus-
trating disease symptoms of yam leaves
are most useful.
The layout and page size of the Fact-
sheet make it suitable for display on
schoolroom walls and other teaching
areas.
With the financial support of the
Canadian High Commission in Barbados
the team of Haque, Chandler, Phelps
and Singh have produced a readable,
interesting guide.
CARDI has put together a much
fuller report on yam research under the
title VIRUS-TESTED YAM TUBER
MULTIPLICATION PROJECT -
FINAL REPORT 1980-84. The
studies covered by this report include
mechanisation of yam production, a
system for producing commercial quanti-
ties of virus-tested planting material by
tissue culture and an analysis of the yam
industry in the Eastern Caribbean. The
report records the collaboration of a
number of commercial farmers in
Barbados with the CARDI team in the
multiplication of virus-tested planting
material. There is also mention in the
30


report of the integration of sugar cane
and mechanised yam production.
A third publication on the subject
of yams will be a useful addition to the
farmer's bookshelf. This comes out
of the UWI Crop Production Depart-
ment at St. Augustine and was written
by Dr. Lynda Wickham and Professor
Laurie Wilson. The 'title is HARVEST-
ING, HANDLING AND STORAGE OF
YAMS and the agency sponsoring pro-
duction of the booklet is the Carib-
bean Agricultural Extension Project.
CAEP is a joint effort of the University
of the West Indies (UWI) and the Midwest
Universities Consortium for International
Activities with funding from the United
States Agency for International Develop-
ment (USAID).
In this publication Wickham and
Wilson introduce the possibilities for use
of gibberellic acid as a dip to delay
sprouting and extend storage life of yams.
CARIBBEAN FARMING would like to
hear from anyone who is using (or has
used) this material commercially for this
purpose.
The last two pages of the booklet
carry a list of related references that
should be of special value to research
workers and extension people.
Trees of Hope. released August, 1985.
The 18-minute film, produced by IDRC's
Communications Division, was shot on


location in Niger, Mali, Senegal, and
Nigeria. English and French c pies
available as 16mm prints or in U-r itic,
VHS, or Betamax video formats, deo
cassettes are in NTSC, PAL or SE :AM
signal systems. "Trees of Hope" car also
be borrowed from IDRC regional c ices
and most Canadian Embassies or ligh
Commissions in developing countries: and
in Canada from National Film i ard
libraries.
In some African countries, 90 pc cent
of all energy requirements comes rom
firewood. Unfortunately, consurr tion
for human needs outstrips natural rege-
neration, and hungry animals attack the
remaining vegetation. When the
rains fail, the- desert advances.' Frees
of Hope" documents this rapid de ores-
tation and analyzes various sol tions
such as shifting to solar energy ar 1 im-
proving traditional stoves. It er pha-
sizes the importance of reforesi3tion
using the example of a village wc .dlot
project in Niger where foresters have
exchanged their traditional rol: of
wardens for that of rural-development
workers. The film documents how they
teach people to plant their own trees
for firewood and construction materials.
This and other IDRC projects in Africa
have fostered national movements that
provide hope for the fragile lands of
Africa. U
from the IDRC Reports
Caribbean Farming February 1986










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H 1- o PIONEER DITHANE M-45
PIO ER TRITON B-1956
HI-BRED
CORN SEEDS KELTHANE
FEEDS SORGHUM SEEDS


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