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LONG TERM FINANCING FOR LARGE SCALE FARMING
Your programme may call for pasture improvement-
establishing improved varieties of grass, sub-divisions, or
providing continuous water supply to your dairy cattle to
increase milk production and earn you higher income.
Perhaps you wish to purchase additional cattle to
expand and improve your herd. Or you may wish to build
new stalls for your feedlot operations and grow more
choice meat for markets that pay premium prices for
You may even be thinking of getting into, or increas-
ing your acreage of citrus or coconuts to cash in later, on
stable domestic and export markets for these two crops.
Whatever your plans may be for Beef, Dairy, Citrus
or Coconut expansion, the JAMAICA DEVELOPMENT
BANK, with assistance from World Bank Loan Funds, is
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JAMAICA DEVELOPMENT BANK
15 OXFORD ROAD, KINGSTON 5 PHONE 936-4520
Published in association with the Faculty of Agriculture, University of the West Indies. Edited
by CAROL RECKORD. Caribbean Farming welcomes suggestions, articles. Address all
correspondence to CARIBBEAN FARMING, P.O. Box 174, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica, W.I.
April- June 1971 Vol. 3 No. 2
General 4 HOW WELL DOES THE UWI FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE
SERVE THE CARIBBEAN?
Crops 8 LETTER FROM A FARMER
13 'RAINCOAT' SLOWS NUTRIENT LEACHING.
14 NEMAGON FOR BANANA FIELDS
Machinery 22 FARM MACHINERY SYNDICATES
Livestock 29 DIARRHOEA IN CALVES AND YOUNG CATTLE
34. CROP BY-PRODUCTS FOR LIVESTOCK FEEDING PART 3
The editor will be glad to hear from farmers, research workers, extension officers
and others who would like to offer articles or photographs for publication in
Preference is given to articles of a practical nature which will help to put the
results of research and experiment into the farmer's hands. Where possible, good
drawings or diagrams should accompany articles. Good quality photographs of not less
than 5" x 7" are welcome they should relate to farming in the region.
Payment will be made (on publication) for all material accepted.
Rates for 4 Issues
Jamaica $2.00 Eastern Caribbean E.C. $5.00, U. S.A. and other Countries US$3.00
To simplify technical terminology, com-
S mercial names may be used. This is not in-
tended as an endorsement of products
named, nor as criticism of similar products
The opinions expressed in articles do not necessarily represent
the views of the publishers
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April- June 1971
Our political leaders and farm leaders in the Caribbean have spent a great deal of their time during this past
year seeking assurances for our export farm products after the United Kingdom joins the European
Economic Community that is, of course, if Britain does join. Various pronouncements during recent
months have led some of these leaders of ours to declare that they have in fact received 'bankable
assurances' for the future of our farm products.
When our leaders announced how effectively they had presented our case to the governments of western
Europe, they all but convinced us that powerful persuasiveness had won the day for the Caribbean farmer.
We must remember that the politicians who pleaded our case in the U.K. and in talks with the governments
of Europe are men who see our predicament as desperate and who could lose power and prestige if our
export crops fall on evil days. For this reason they may be forgiven for reading promises into the
encouraging statements of Mr. Rippon and the others.
It is less easy to understand why farm leaders from the Caribbean are so confident about their industry's
future when British farm leaders are still asking searching questions and carefully examining politicians'
statements on the subject. We submit that child-like faith is for children and we suggest that our farm
leaders stop echoing the politicians with whom they travel. It seems to us that the British farmer is well
served by his leaders when they warn him that he and his industry are by no means out of the woods.
Such a warning came recently from the editor of the British FARMERS WEEKLY when he drew his
readers' attention to a statement by French President Pompidou addressing French farmers: "Britain is
importing 75,000 tons of cheese every year from New Zealand, but under EEC rules these imports will
decrease and tend to disappear. There lies a new opportunity. You will have to take it..." The FARMERS
WEEKLY editorial comments: "No room for misinterpretation here. The President's clarity contrasts
starkly with the meaningless waffle which envelopes nearly every Common Market announcement from
Westminster and Whitehall. It is language which French farmers can understand. Our dairy farmers will get
the message too. It's Britain's food market they're after." FARMERS WEEKLY goes on to say that there
have been "...similar assurances to Continental producers in the past. The French were told months ago:
'From the first day (of UK membership) we shall be buying more and more of your food from you at very
much higher prices than we now pay, thus enabling your farmers to realise the promise of expansion by
virtue of their preferential access to the biggest food importing market in the world.'
This was no speech for domestic consumption. The quotation comes from an article in a French newspaper.
And the author was Mr. Christopher Soames, British Ambassador to France and a former Conservative
Minister of Agriculture."
Does anyone really believe that the farmers of the Caribbean can regard themselves as safely assured of a
profitable market in Europe when British farmers are still uncertain as to the future?
The only farm crop which seems to have an assured market for many years at a good price is beef;
consumption is increasing and production is nowhere growing at a comparable rate. It should be possible
for our scientists to examine the requirements for commercial production and then to let us all know what
are the chances for Caribbean countries to get into the beef export business. Certainly there are enough
acres in the region which can produce weaners from beef cows on pasture how many weaners a year?
And can our molasses and bagasse (from the sugar industry) be mixed with urea and a not-too-large
tonnage of imported material to add up to an economical proposition?
Work done by Preston, Willis & Co. in Cuba and by others in Florida and elsewhere has obviously
introduced new possibilities into the position of tropical countries and tropical crops. There is probably
enough of data from the nutrition and livestock management folk to give the economists a lead. May we
hear something from them soon, please?
April- June 1971
How well does the
UWI Faculty of Agriculture
serve the Caribbean's farming community?
by Professor Nazir Ahmad, Department of Soil Science,
University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
Increasing doubts are being raised in the Caribbean as to
the extent to which the Faculty of Agriculture is under-
utilised. I assume that these doubts refer primarily to the
Faculty as a training institution. In fact within the
Faculty there is a great deal of concern about this
apparent under-utilisation. In order to throw some light
on this question it must be remembered that the
predecessor of this Faculty was the Imperial College
of Tropical Agriculture, an institution with a world-
wide reputation in the fields of instruction and research.
In instruction the college concentrated on postgraduate
training, and in research, on export crops and factors
related to their production. When the college became
the Faculty of Agriculture in 1962, in addition to
these activities, undergraduate training and research
in-a wider area of tropical agriculture were emphasised
thus greatly increasing its scope and regional committ-
Allocation of Staff
The research and teaching functions of the Faculty
are distinct and financing and staffing for these two
purposes are separate. The finances for research are
contributed at present on aformulabasis by the
Governments of Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica, Barbados
and the British Government on behalf of the other
islands and partly on behalf of Barbados. Substantial
financing is also contributed from outside sources,
chiefly the Foundations. Twenty-three of the sixty
members of staff are included in this category and
annually their work is rigorously reviewed and
research priorities outlined. Staff members in this
category are allowed to participate to a very limited
extent in teaching, which remains the primary main
function of the remaining twenty eight members of
staff. It must also be stated that ten out of this number
are full-time teachers in the College of Arts and Science.
Courses of Study
Against this background, let us examine the
courses offered by the Faculty. Agriculture covers a
wide scientific discipline with a number of areas
of specialisation such as animal science, plant
pathology, genetics, agronomy, soil science,
extension, agricultural technology etc. Indeed the
Faculty would like to be able to provide specialist
training in all these fields at first degree level but
at present, facilities do not permit this. Instead at the
first degree level there are five areas of specialisation
i.e. Plant Science, Animal Science, Soil Science, Agri-
cultural Technology and Agricultural Economics. At
the M.Sc. and Ph. D. levels, the Faculty offers facilities
for greater specialisation. There is also a postgraduate
diploma course in tropical agriculture as well as special
courses for individual agricultural scientists from time
The Faculty of Agriculture differs from other Facul ies
ini the University by having a high percentage of posr-
graduate students relative to undergraduates. A
postgraduate student demands personal and individt al
attention and therefore his training requires much n ore
time from Faculty members than say an undergradu ite
student. In short, the number of different courses ai d
groups in the Faculty imposes a strain on the
slender resources. Consequently teaching members
in the Faculty have as many contact hours as any ot er
teaching staff in the University. In the case of under
graduate training, however, the actual student numb rs
could increase without increasing the numbers of ho rs
of teaching by members of staff. There is much awa i-
ness of this possibility within the Faculty and it is ii
this way that the Faculty is under-utilised.
The actual numbers of undergraduates for the acade ic
years 1968/69, 1969/70 and 1970/71 are 106, 122; id
141 respectively. These figures show some increase i
enrolment although not up to the Faculty's expect on,
Let us now examine some of the reasons for the
apparently slow increase in student intake. These ma
be summarised as follows:
Firstly, we are convinced that prospective students ii
the final years of their high school career are not full
aware of the entrance requirements for a degree court e
at the Faculty of Agriculture. Trinidad's experience
points this out clearly in 1970 there were some 56
scholarship places available in agriculture. There was
a large number of applicants with university entrance
requirements but only relatively few had in addition
the Faculty entrance requirements so that many of the
scholarships remained unallocated.
Secondly there is the shortage of scholarship places
in the Faculty. Experience has shown that once such
places are available they are invariably taken up. We
April- June 1971
feel that the training programmes of some West Indian
Governments are not in keeping with the expanding
needs for professional agriculturists in those
territories and this indicates that such Governments
should provide more scholarship places. The Faculty
is also concerned about the lack of scholarship
opportunities provided by the private sector such as
commercial banks and private companies throughout
the region whose businesses are concerned directly
or in directly with agriculture and whose best
interests would be served by an improvement of
agricultural production through the application of
Thirdly, for the bright young student Agriculture at
present is not an attractive career from the
monetary reward aspect. The degree course takes as
kI;ng as a similar course in Engineering for instance, or,
i.'r training as a specialist in a field of agricultural
science, takes as long as the training required for a.
* medicall specialist. The agricultural course embraces
wide range of scientific disciplines and requires
gh level of scholarship and application by the
dent to successfully complete the training. Yet
len such a trained person enters the field he finds
r it instead of being remunerated at the level of
; engineering colleague, or if he is a specialist, at
3 level of a medical specialist, his remuneration
nnot sometimes be compared to that of a high
'lool instructor or the middle ranks of the
ministrative civil service.
,urthly, there is the unfortunate association of
culture in the region with hard manual work based
subsistence farming. Prospective university students
not fully aware of the highly interesting scientific
.rse in agriculture where all the sciences are integrated
I applied to the most important problems of
.duction, perservation and utilisation of food for the
tterment of mankind.
t us also examine what a greatly increased student
take in the Faculty would mean in terms of teaching
cilities. We now have large lecture rooms that would
commodate these numbers but unfortunately
I boratory classes are not large enough. Without
duplication of some classes, there is space and equip-
nment in most laboratories to hold a maximum 50 -60
students at any one time, the numbers we are now
approaching at the first year level. The only way to
increase the intake is to duplicate such classes. This
would mean additional demonstrators and laboratory
technicians and greater provision for laboratory equip-
ment and supplies. We do not feel that the provision of
these additional facilities is beyond the resources of the
The Faculty is as a matter of urgency considering ways
in which its rich scientific heritage and assets and the
value of the agricultural degree may be used to attract
more students. It is intended to direct attention to the
nature of the degree in agriculture, the standard of
which today is second to none in the tropical world and
the different types of employment the Faculty and its
teaching and research programmes on an international
basis. With these efforts and if the necessary steps could
be taken to correct the disparity in professionals in the
West Indies, the present dilema in the Faculty would
Special effort, is also being given to attract attention
to the Faculty as an international centre for training
of agricultural specialists at the postgraduate level.
BEES AND BEEKEEPING IN JAMAICA.
This is the title of a nine-page article published last
year in BEE WORLD magazine. The article was
written by Dr. Geoff Chapman, Mr. C.D. Frankson
and Dr. S.C. Jay. Dr. Chapman is one of the found-
ing fathers of CARIBBEAN FARMING, he was a
staff member of the Faculty of Agriculture of the UWI.
Mr. Frankson is an officer of the Ministry of Agricult-
ure in Jamaica and Dr. Jay is in the Entomology
Department of the University of Manitoba, Canada.
Principal parts of the article are devoted to notes on
Jamaica's flowering plants, statistics and regulations
relating to the beekeeping industry, bee management
and diseases and pests affecting the hive. The authors
suggest that research be done into:-
(a) the domestic and export demand potential
for honey and other products of
(b) the value of bees in the pollination and yield
of economic crops.
April- June 1971
Sorghum in Central
A m erica By Victor E. Green, Jr.
In our last issue, Dr. Victor Green told the story of the organis-
ations doing research in the sorghum production in Central
America. RefF.:ences was to the PCCMCA a co-operative
Central American programme for the improvement of food
In the following account, Dr. Green reports on sorghum
trials carried out in Costa Rica.
The only sorghum tests in Costa Rica during the
1967-68 crop year were conducted co-operatively
with the PCCMCA at the Tobago Experiment
Station in the dry Pacific area of Guanacast Province
near Canas. Two tests were conducted. One was
with the commercial varieties, and the other was
with the entries in the World Collection from CIMMYT.
Both tests were planted on September 22, 1967, on
a sandy-clay loam soil previously in sugarcane for
four years. Each plot had an area of 15m2 and was
replicated four times. Density of seeding was
13.3.kg/ha. At seeding, 131 kg/ha Urea (46% N)
and 131 kg/ha triple superphosphate were applied
to the soil. Thirty days later, a soil application of
aldrin insecticide was made to combat soil insects.
The number of days to 50% flower was recorded
for each variety, and the varieties were rated for
resistance to leaf rust, zonate leaf spot, target spot,
and gray leaf spot. At maturity, harvest data were
Days to flower, resistance to diseases, and grain yields of commercial
sorghum varieties. Taboga Experiment Station. Test 1. 1967-68.
LEAF DISEASE INDEX 1/
Pioneer tx 848
Pioneer tx 820
Pioneer tx 668
to 50% Leaf
Dr. Victor Green was Agricultural Advisor to the Government of Costa
Rica between May 1965 and July 1968 on a contract between the
University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences and
the U.S. Department of State Agency for International Development,
with headquarters in San Jose. Presently he Is Professor (Agronomist),
in the University's Agronomy Department of IFAS. In October 1970
he advised the Jamaica School of Agriculture in curriculum development
and in preparing course outlines for field and forage crop courses.
used to calculate grain yields at 12% moisture as
Test 1 consisted of 30 commercial varieties. Days
required for 50% flower varied from 47 for early
Hegari to 66 for later Northrup-King 210, The
worst disease was gray leaf spot caused by
Cercospara sorghi Ell. & Ev. The yield data were
subjected to the Duncan multiple range test at
the 5% level of significance. Yields varied from
5586 kg/ha for NK-300 to 1900 kg/ha for
DeKalb S-40 (See Table 1).
Test 2 consisted of 27 entries from the World Collection
at Chapingo plus Hegari and AMAK R-10 as control
varieties Group numbers are those of Murty and
Govil2/. During heavy rains, the plots were inundated,
causing erratic yield data. Therefore, the data were
not analyzed statistically. Of the varieties measured
for yield, Framida 1 gave 3800 kg/ha for the high anc
BA 19 Nigeria gave 820 kg/ha for the low. Flowering
date was 52 days after planting for the highest yielde;
and 76 days for 1 Nandyal 6438 which yielded only
886 kg/ha. Some of the lines in the test showed good
disease resistance (See Table 2)
Days to flower, resistance to diseases, and yields of sorghum varieties.
Tobago Experiment Station. Test 2. 1967-68.
LEAF DISEASE INDEX
to 50% Lea
Blackhull Kaf 59
Framida 1 52
Kafir Corn 52
1 Debbs 58
1 Nandyal 6399 73
1 Nandyal 6406 72
FC8995 Pearl K. 62
ZA 110 Nigeria 63
67 Nigeria 74
1 Nandyal 6398 56
Durra 4404 64
Durra 4488 56
Durra 5843 64
KO 39 Nigeria 61
BA 19 Nigeria 64
1 Nandyal 6438 76
Local orange seeded 60
Hegari Check 48
Amak R-10 Check 56
April- June 1971
Circular 1009 of the Co-operative Extension Service,
University of Illinois College of Agriculture deals with
practices and commercial applications of organic and
The circular was prepared by J.W. Courter, Assistant
Professor of Horticulture, H.J. Hopen, Assistant Pro-
fessor of Vegetable Crops and J.S. Vandemark,
Professor of Horticulture.
\bout one-half of the 23-page circular is devoted to
discussion on synthetic mulches. The writers say that
luminium foil on paper reduces soil temperature by
)5F. while black polyethylene increases soil
temperature by 11.30F. Although aluminium foil-
paper mulch will cost about US$200 an acre, it may
be that crops such as cucumbers for export and
tomatoes for canning may be attempted by skilled
;and experienced growers in the Caribbean. This in
,;ew of the many purposes served by this kind of
reduction of soil temperature
retention of soil moisture
protection of fruit from ground contact
Some research workers think that aluminium foil
mulch also helps to keep down the numbers of
some aphids which transmit crop disease*
Leaf rust Puccinia purpurea Cke.; Zonate leaf spot Gloeocercospera
sorghi D. Bain & Edg.; Target spot Helminthosporium sorghicola
Lefebvre & Sherwin; Gray leaf spot Cercospera sorghi Ell. & Ev.
Ratings I-light infection to 5-severe infection.
The distributors in Jamaica for DuPont agricultural
chemicals have announced that BENLATE has been
cleared in the United States and in Jamaica for use as
a fungicide for food crops as well as ornamentals.
BENLATE (active ingredient Benomyl) is described
as a systemic fungicide absorbed through the sur-
face of leaves to which it is applied and carried within
their tissues. It is also claimed to have activity against
the eggs of plant-destructive mites.
BENLATE is claimed to be very effective against
Black Spot Diplocarpon, Mildew- Oidium,
Scab Elsinoe, Cercospora Leaf Spot, FusariumWilts,
Mycosphaerella Leaf Spot and Anthracnose Organisms.
BENLATE is not effective against Phytophthora,
Alternaria and the organisms that cause Downy Mildew
AGRICULTURAL PLASTICS CONFERENCE
The tenth U.S. National Agricultural Plastics Conference
will be held in Chicago, Illinois, USA from November
1-5, 1971. Chairman of the conference will be Pro-
fessor J.W. Courter of Illinois University College of
Agriculture. Sessions will be as follows:-
November 2 Plastics for irrigation,
mulch and drainage.
- Fiberglass-reinforced plastic
panels for greenhouse coverings.
Mean yields connected by the same Duncan 5% range line are not
significantly different from each other
Murty, B.R. and J.N. Govil. 1967. Description of 70 groups in genus
Sorghum Based on a modified Snowden's Classification. PI-480
Project A7-CR70. Cataloging and Classifying Genetic Stocks of
Sorghum. USDA-ARS-CRD. CR-29-1967. Washington, D.C.
Plastics for greenhouses and
November 4 Using plastics in agriculture.
CARIBBEAN FARMING will supply on request the
titles of papers to be presented at the. conference.
April- June 1971
At the turn of the century when the Spanish
pseudonym "pepa de oro" was really significant
riany a fortune in Trinidad was founded on cocoa.
Disease, together with failing and unstable prices,
largely due to competition from West Africa, changed
the situation radically in the twenties and thirties.
So much so that according to the most recent statistics
only 114,000 of the peak figure of 209,000 acres of
cocoa are now under regular cultivation.
To many farmers and others cocoa has been written
off as a major crop in Trinidad and Tobago.
There are, however, a few well-managed estates which
provide some promise for the future of cocoa. Such a
farm is owned by Mr. Esau Khan, a 50 year old farmer
of Biche in East Trinidad.
Mr. Khan had the distinction of being named
Trinidad and Tobago "Farmer of the year," during
Agricultural Year 1969.
In 1968 he swept the board at the Rio Claro Agri
cultural Show. These successes are the result of nine
years hard work allied with the application of
modern cultural and management practices. Over
this period Mr. Khan raised the yield from 100 acres
of cocoa from 15,000 to a peak of nearly 50,000 lb.
of dry cocoa "all of it first grade" he states
proudly. In round figures Mr. Khan's peak yields are
equivalent to an average of 500 lb./acre.
This account of Mr. Esau Khan was contributed
by Mr. W.S. Chalmers of the UWI., St. Augus-
In 1960 Mr. Khan purchased the 145-acreDos
Hermanos estate where he had worked as a young
man. At that time the estate had 7 employees and
was in a run-down condition, the crop for 1960
being 15,000 lb. of dry cocoa. Today it has 20 full-
time employees, with an additional 10 during the
Mr. Khan recalls quite vividly the steps he took to
bring the estate gradually up to its present excellent
condition. In 1961 the entire estate was cutlassed
to get rid of the heavy bush and weedgrowth. This
simple expedient Mr. Khan believes was responsible
for his yield reaching 18,500 lb. in the first year.
Table 1 shows the spectacular increase in yield that
has been achieved in 9 years. Mr. Khan pinpoints
spraying against black pod (Phytophthora
palmivora) and the application of fertilisers, started
as routine operations in 1964 and 1965 respect-
ively, as the critical factors in achieving these high
Table 1: Dos Hermanos Estate yield of dry cocoa (lb.
Dos Hermanos consists of 145 acres comprising approx
imately: 100 acres cocoa, 15 acres tonka beans
(Diptoryx odorata)15 acres of natural forest wind-
breaks and 10 acres lagoon land, with the remainder
in buildings and roads. Access to all parts of the estate
Rainfall records have been kept at the nearby New-
lands Estate for many years, the 30-year monthly
means (inches) being:
J F M A M J J
6.3 4.2 2.9 4.4 8.0 14.0 15.8
A S 0
11.6 9.8 9.8
N D TOTAL
12.2 12.0 111.0
April- June 1971
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Pioneers of better farming in Jamaica. Wise farmers all
over Jamaica have relied on Albatros fertilizer year after
year for healthier crops and bountiful yields.
They know that Albatros fertilizers work quickly and
They know that they get superior physical and chemi-
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With an imperfectly drained soil in a high rainfall area,
drainage is of paramount importance. There seems
little doubt that the extremely extensive network of
deep main drains and side drains, regularly maintained,
have also played an important role in increasing yields
at Dos Hermanos.
The main soil type is L'Ebranche silty clay to clay
derived from non-calcareous alluvial deposits with a
pH of 5-6.5 and possessing a well defined dark brown
humic clay topsoil. Available potash is low to
medium. It has been graded as a 'b class' soil for cocoa
(yields 165-330 lb. dry cocoa/acre) and these soils
were among the more important cocoa growingsoils
in Trinidad before the advent of Witches' broom and
low prices, when large areas were abandoned.
A remarkable feature of Dos Hermanos is the high
yield being obtained from trees Mr. Khan remembers
as "big trees" forty years ago, which now must be
60-70 years old. This probably reflects careful selec-
tion in the process of partial rehabilitation that has
been effected under the Cocoa Board Rehabilitation
and Subsidy Scheme. Annually over the past nine
years at least 1,000 seedlings have been planted,
though Mr. Khan admits to a fairly high death rate.
These are the guarantee for the future since
approximately half the trees have been replaced.
Until 1968, because of the cost involved, Mr. Khan
had been reluctant to undertake any clear felling
and replanting though he states a preference for
this, combined with the use of high yielding clones.
In both 1968 and 1969 he planted 400 Cocoa
Board clones on clear felled sites. Ground preparation
and temporary shade were excellent and the 1968
planting is already producing.
There is no mistaking Mr. Khan's favourite plant
material IMC 67 and seeing the laden 20 year-old
trees one can appreciate why. At the U.W.I. Las
Hermanas Experiment Station this clone is yielding up
to 1,500 lb./acre at 10 years of age, with effective
control of black pod disease.
Light annual pruning and removal of chupons must
be carried out annually insists Mr. Khan.
DISEASE AND PEST CONTROL
As a result of extension work, Mr. Khan began to
tackle disease control. His major problem is black
pod, with witches' broom (Marasmius perniciosus) and
cocoa wilt (Ceratocystis fimbriata) less important. In
1964 he started spraying with Perenox to control
Black Pod. Using 2 lb. in 6-8 gallons of water/acre
with Shell Tenec as a sticker the spraying commences
with the onset of the rains in June on a 3-week spray-
ing cycle. In November and December (high rainfall/
heavy crop) this is reduced to 2 weeks. Most fields are
sprayed at least 10 times during the year. More
recently Mr. Khan is using both Perenox and Kocide
and now feels that with his annual spraying programme
he can keep on top of the Black Pod problem.
Further, like many other cocoa farmers, he has
noticed that the copper sprays keep the trees free of
epiphytes and appear to give a boost to yield over and
above their role in checking black pod.
Witches' brooms are removed regularly during pruning
operations and Mr. Khan states that the incidence of the
disease has been reduced considerably as a result. In
addition there is little doubt that the material re-
leased by the Cocoa Board in recent years has con-
siderably more resistance to witches' broom and has
resulted in lower levels of infection.
Losses from Ceratocystis amount to about 20 trees a
year, mainly amongst the old cocoa and ICS 1. In-
fected trees are cut immediately and burnt on the spot.
The major insect pest at Dos Hermanos is Thrips and
Mr. Khan has found that for his estate the best control
is to spray with dieldrin (1 gallon to 50-60 gallons
water) in July and November at 6-8 gallons/acre. Un-
like a number of other estates the dieldrin is applied
on its own, not in combination with a fungicide and
SHADE AND FERTILIZERS
The original shade trees at Dos Hermanos comprised
about 90% water immortelle (Erythrinaglauca) and
10% mountain immortelle (E.poeppigiana). Disease has
seriously depleted both species, the latter particularly.
During the long years of neglect bois cannot (Cecropia
peltata) invaded the area and in some parts remains
for lack of any other shade tree. Water immortelle is
gradually being replanted but overall Mr. Khan esti-
mates that he has only 15-20 shade trees per acre.
This reduced shade is beneficial from the point of
view of getting maximum benefit from the fertilizers
In 1965 Mr. Khan started applying Calnitro to some of
his fields at the annual rate of V 1V2 lb./tree de-
pending on the age and size. In view of the acid nature
of the soil Calnitro was a wiser choice than Sulphate of
Ammonia with its tendency to increase soil acidity.
April- June 1971
Since then he has gradually increased the number of
fields receiving fertilizer, though only about half the
estate is regularly so treated. In some instances the
heavier bearing fields have received two applications a
year. In 1969 in addition to Calnitro on some fields,
Mr. Khan has started to apply a 12-12-17 NPK
mixture on others.
In addition four times a year (July, September,
October and November) urea (/2 lb. to every 2 lb. of
perenox) is incorporated in the black pod spraying
mixture. It is interesting to note Mr. Khan's dictum
that "it is no use fertilizing without spraying forblack
Each field is usually cutlassed three times a year. Mr.
Khan has never used herbicides on the estate, though
he is prepared to give them a trial on a small scale.
HANDLING THE CROP
The pods are cracked 2-3 days after picking (this Mr.
Khan insists ensures better fermentation) and the
sweatboxes are filled in one day. His standard fermen-
tation is 7-8 days, with the cocoa being turned every
second day. Drying time depends on the weather but
this usually takes 5-6 days to be ready for dancing.
Dancing is always done before noon and this operation
has Mr. Khan's personal attention. With a final day's
drying the crop is ready for bagging and dispatch to
the Cocoa Planters Association (C.P.A.) in Port-of-
Taking two typical fields from the estate (Table 3)
gives a clear picture of the results of Mr. Khan's in-
tensive management and supervision over the past
Table 3: Yield of cocoa and total revenue from 2
FIELD ACRES LB. $
#1 5 2540 1486
#5 3 1620 948
At a cocoa price of 58V2c/pound this represents an
average yearly income of T.T.$419 per acre which
leaves a very clear margin of profit considering that
maintenance costs of $150 $200/acre would be con-
sidered reasonable in Trinidad.
Rear view of strip mulch applicator small discs cover the plastic
mulch and the fertilizer band. Hopper in centre contains banded
fertilizer for season's supply of nutrients and side-mounted fertili r
hopper on left applies starter fetiliser.
Arrow in side view of strip mulch applicator points to roll of plastic
used to cover fertilizer bands. The versatility of the equipment
permits growers to shape the bed, distribute fertilizer and apply the
mulch in one operation.
April- June 1971
From SUNSHINE STATE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH REPORT University of Florida
'Raincoat' Slows Nutrient Leaching,
Boosts Crop Yields
An economical, easy, and ef-
fective way to stop fertilizer from
washing away from plant beds
during heavy rainfall has been
unveiled by two University of
The new strip mulch system,
consisting of protective plastic or
sealed paper "raincoats" ap-
plied over bands of fertilizer,
can boost crop yields by as much
Existing equipment can be
modified for attachment of the
strip applicator. In one tractor
operation, growers can prepare
the beds, seed them, and apply
both the fertilizer and protective
strips, explains Professor Nor-
man C. Hayslip of the Agricul-
tural Research Center, Ft. Pierce.
He and William Deen, as-
sistant professor at the Agricul-
tural Research and Education
Center, Belle Glade, developed
the system to solve some of the
serious problems facing Florida
vegetable growers, especially
those who farm on sandy soils.
Basically, the new system con-
sists of an inexpensive machine
that applies and secures an 8-
to 10-inch-wide sealed paper or
plastic strip in an inverted "U"
position over banded fertilizer.
The strip mulch applicator is
attached to a modified commer-
cial bed press. The covered fer-
tilizer band is located in or near
the center of the elevated beds
at a depth of 1 or 2 inches below
the surface. Crops can be planted
on one or both sides of the fer-
tilizer band. The mulch keeps
the rainwater away from the
fertilizer, thereby reducing nu-
The machinery can be adjusted
to vary the depth of fertilizer,
number of rows per bed, and the
spacing between the rows. A
side mounted fertilizer hopper
makes possible the application of
precision placed starter fertilizer
in addition to the center banded
season's supply of nutrients.
Either paper or plastic mulch
strips can be used. Paper has
the advantage of being biode-
gradable, while the plastic mulch
must be removed from the field
before the next planting.
The strip mulch system will
allow vegetable growers to great-
ly reduce leaching of nitrogen,
potassium, and certain secondary
and trace elements on sandy
soils. Correct amounts and ratios
of fertilizer will be easier to
maintain. And the strip mulch
system will reduce nutrient run-
off which contributes to the
larger problem of lake and
stream eutrophication or pollu-
tion, Hayslip said.
Because of this reduction in
leaching, especially during heavy
rainfall, yield increases on toma-
toes, onions, and cabbages in-
creased dramatically in Experi-
ment Station tests. So promising
were the results that Dr. James
Montelaro, vegetable crops spe-
cialist with the Florida Coopera-
tive Extension Service, is rec-
ommending that growers try the
strip mulch system this year.
An important consideration, he
said, is to locate the banded fer-
tilizer deep enough in the plant
bed to insure adequate moisture
at all times, but high enough to
prevent free water from coming
in contact with the fertilizer
bands. This would generally be
in the center of the bed at a
depth of 1 to 3 inches below the
bed surface. A slight crown in
the bed would aid in run-off of
water away from the banded fer-
tilizer during heavy rainfall,
Advantages of the new strip
mulch system versus those that
cover the entire plant bed include
(1) lower material costs, (2)
ability of strip to endure high
winds, (3) ability of the bed to
absorb rainfall and overhead ir-
rigation, and (4) the ease by
which supplementary fertilizer
can be applied outside the strip
However, full bed mulch has
advantages beyond reducing fer-
tilizer leaching. It can improve
fumigation, provide weed con-
trol, reduce bed erosion, and give
protection against certain fruit
rots. Therefore, growers should
investigate the advantages and
disadvantages of both methods in
determining which would best
serve their needs.
This new technique of cover-
ing just the fertilizer with plastic
or paper "raincoats" is an out-
growth of earlier tests with plas-
tic mulches over the entire plant
Those interested in trying the
strip mulch system are invited to
contact Professor Norman C.
Hayslip at the Agricultural Re-
search Center (Indian River
Field Laboratory), Ft. Pierce,
Florida for more details.
April- June 1971
NEMAGON for banana
Banana Nematodes are very small worms invisible to
the naked eye. They feed on banana roots and in so do-
ing cause the root tissue to rot thus adversely affect-
ing water and nutrient uptake as well as plant anchor-
age. As a result fruit quality is adversely affected and
plants topple easily even in the absence of winds.
Microscopic examination of soil and root samples in-
dicate the presence of high populations of parasitic ne-
matodes (e.g. Rotylenchulus reniformis, Radopholus
similis, Moloidogyne spp.) in most Jamaican banana
cultivations and constitute a limiting factor to pro-
Experiments indicate increases from two to six and
from four to fifteen tons per acre from Nemagon treat-
ment. Average bunch weights increased by three to six
pounds within three to six months of treatment,
while toppling has been reduced from 40% to 1% in
some fields. Nematode control can therefore lengthen
the life of a field by cutting down on expensive re-
Treatment should be made four to six weeks after
planting at the rate of one gallon Nemagon 75% vol/
vol E.C. and repeated once every six months there-
after. A mixture of Nemagon and water (see table
for dilution ratio) is applied at the rate of 5 ml per
injection at a depth of six inches at eight injection
points per plant for heavy soils, or alternatively at a
depth of eight inches at six injection points per plant
in light soils. The injections should be made in a circle
eighteen to twenty four inches from the pseudo stem.
Work rate varies from Y2 to 1.2 acres per man day de-
pending on population density, terrain and soil
From a SHELL CHEMICALS
Instructions for use of Shell Injector
The best injector for hand application is the Shell Soil
Fumigant Injector gun model H1. It must however be
properly used and cared for as instructed in the man-
Helpful Hints Check the exact volume delivered
by the injector by a graduated measuring cylinder.
All filling should be done in the open air.
Always use the filter when filling in order to pre-
vent dirt from entering tank.
Use a 11/2" adjustable spanner to tighten joints
on the injector which tend to loosen regularly.
To minimise spillage and shorten filling time,
attach a /% inch tap to a five gallon pail or 30 g 11-
on drum and fill injectors from this tap.
Wash and wipe off spilled liquid from the surf :e
of the injector.
Push the Injector into the soil in a vertical posi
tion ( not at an angle) to attain correct depth c
Push down the injection knob with a sharp
stroke. Each stroke will discharge the quantity f
fumigant for which the regulator is set.
On removal of the injector from the treated hol
close the hole by pushing the soil with the heel
This prevents loss of valuable fumigant.
DILUTION TABLE- NEMAGON:WATER MIXTURES FOR SOIL
15' x 6'
9' x 9'
8' x 8' or 9' x7'
9' x 6' or 8' x7'
8' x 6' or 7' x7'
7' x 6' or 8' x5' etc.
680 or 691
807 or 780
907 or 890
HEAVY SOILS -8 LIGHT SOILS-6
INJ. OF 5 ML/MAT INJ. OF 5 ML/MAT.
* 1:3 means 1 volume Nemagon to 3 volume water
April- June 1971
The marriage that benefits
160,000 farmers in Jamaica
ew strength from the unity of large
in( strial families always result in added
be fits to the consumer.
he partnership of W. R. Grace &
Co ipany, huge international manufacturers
of agricultural chemicals, and Jamaica's
An illes Chemical Company is providing
inc eased assistance for the improvement of
farmers crops in Jamaica and the develop-
ment of the island's agricultural potential.
T. GEDDES GRANT (DIST.) LTD.,
109 Marcus Garvey Drive,
P.O. Box 417,
Antilles technical services, now backed
by Grace's long experience, skill and
research offer a soil and crop programme
that will result in improved yields and
profits for the 160,000 farmers in Jamaica.
Now more than ever, you can depend on
Antilles to be the reliable source of quality
agricultural products and technical service
for the farmer.
GRACE AGRICULTURAL &
INDUSTRIAL CO. LTD.,
75Y2 Harbour Street,
P.O. Box 86,
"GRACE KEEPS CROPPING UP"
Caibba Famn Api-Jue17
April- June 1971
The second Annual Conference of the Association for
Cooperation in Banana Research in the Caribbean and
Tropical America (ACORBAT) was held in Jamaica at
the Sheraton Kingston Hotel from 12-16th July, 1971.
The conference was sponsored by the Jamaica Banana
Board and was attended by about 100 delegates 60 of
them being from overseas. Delegates were from many
of the major banana producing countries in the region -
Surinam, the Windward Islands, the French West Indies,
Costa Rica, Honduras and so on and included re-
search workers, growers, extension personnel and in-
terested commercial groups.
The papers presented were:-
1. Re-organisation of the Jamaica Banana In-
dustry D. Pixley, (Jamaica).
The Banana Breeding Research Scheme -
T. Menendez, (Jamaica)
Control of Cosmopolites sordidus by Primicid -
G. W. Allen ( United Kingdom)
Borer control in the French West Indies -
J. Guillemot (Martinique)
Red Rust Thrips Control with Polythene Bags -
J. Lachenad (Martinique)
Response to Sulphur in Windward Islands soils -
J. Messing ( Winban)
Boron Nutrition of Banana Suckers L. Coke
& D. Boland (Jamaica)
Care and Maintenance of Injectors
On completing fumigation lift out the filter and empty
fumigant from the tank. Do not empty in the river.
Rinse out the injectors thoroughly and eject any remain-
ing fumigant in the lance by depressing the injection
knob several times.
Negamon is highly corrosive hence injectors must be
cleaned at the end of each day's operation.
Always store injector with approximately 1 pint of a
50/50 mixture of Lubricating oil and kerosene ordiesel
oil in the tank.
Thoroughly agitate the mixture and depress the injec-
tion knob several times until the injector is clean.
Wipe down the outside of the injector with a similar
mixture before final storage.
The injector costs money. Its efficiency and long life
will depend on how much care you give it.
Windward Islands delegation at ACORBAT conference
Forms of Nitrogen and Glucosides in Bananas -
J. Guillemot & C. Teisson (Martinique)
Effect of Polythene Bunch Covers on Growth
and quality of Robusta Bananas --C.A. Phillips
Fruit Quality and Composition in Relation to
Fertilizer Levels D.E. Boland (Jamaica)
Banana Varietal Studies D. C. Stanford
Erwinia Head Rot of Bananas D.S. Lacy
Some Features of Mechanisation in the French
West Indies J. Guillemot (Martinique)
Black Leaf Streak I. Twyford (Winban)
Effects of Planting Material and Follower -
Setting on Robusta Banana Production C.J.
Banana Soils of Jamaica Hugh Payne (Jamaic
Retardation of Ripening in Bananas L. Coke
& C. Perkins (Jamaica).
Preliminary Results on the Response of Baanana,
to a Systemic Nematicide P.L. Coates
Economics of Banana Nematode Control -
J. E. Edmunds (Winban)
Leaf Spots Forecasting- J.P. Meyer & J. Ganny
Crown Rot Control C. A. Shillingford
Properties of Banana Spray Oil in Relation to
Sigatoka Disease Control and Phytotoxicity
L. A. Walker (Jamaica)
Role of the Small Research Station in Increasing
Farm Productivity in the Caribbean Horace
Payne ( U. W. I.)
April- June 1971
Sometimes the fertilizer
1I sa crop needs is money
To grow crops or livestock you need more than
good farming techniques and skills. You need
money to purchase seed, fertilizer, livestock
equipment, buildings and fences. For many
years, Barclays agricultural policy has given
priority to financing the production of
foods for domestic needs. Projects receiv-
ing financial assistance from Barclays Bank
or Barclays Overseas Development Corporation
include the farming of bananas, sugar cane,
coffee, citrus, potato, mixed crops and forestry.
Assistance to livestock production includes beef cattle,
dairy. poultry and pig farming. If you have an agricultural
or livestock farming project which needs financial assistance,
why not talk it over with the Manager of the branch of Barclays
nearest you ? You will find Barclays most convenient.
convenient banking the BARCLAYS way
April- June 1971
We got good
by getting dirty.
Many oil company engineers and s ies-
men love to fiddle around with slide rules,
calculators and flow-charts.
Not Esso Men.
They also like monkey wrenches, grease
guns and hammers.
In our book, that makes sense. Because
when you've got a problem, you don't need
a man with a headful of theories.
You need somebody who takes off his
jacket, rolls up his sleeves, spits on his
h ads, and gets to work. All the theories in
the world won't replace that.
Certainly there's a time for slide rules.
Esso Men are handy with those, too. But
not until after they've had a good, hard,
intelligent look at the job.
And an Esso Man wouldn't dream of
recommending one of our greases or oils or
solvents or waxes unless he knew it was just
right for your problem.
When an Esso product does fix it, they're
And when an Esso product doesn't fix it,
they'll start digging to find out why.
And sooner or later they'll get an answer.
That's why they're Esso Men.
Next time you have a petroleum-product
problem, ask your Esso Man to have
a look at it.
And if the machinery hap-
pens to be at the bottom of a
mine shaft, covered with
muck and sludge, don't worry.
He'll probably love it.
control of ticks
Use Bercotox and eliminate the risk of big losses in your livestock. All ticks,
including those resistant to other insecticides, can be efficiently and
economically destroyed with Bercotox 1-400.
Field trials have shown that 2 engorged ticks can reduce the annual weight
gain of an animal by 1 to 2 kilos.
Bercotox has the great advantage of being a
liquid dip with a very high residual power. It can
be used with the Cooper Cattle Spray Race, in
immersion dips or with hand sprayers.
For further information contact T Geddes Grant in Jamaica
Trinidad Barbados or. .
Depl C 1 Cooper McDougall E Robertson ,
Berkharsled. Herls England.
What Are Other Farmers
Thinking and Doing?
I 1. -L
. .. .. ,,
t k -f
. : ,, -" ,. -
,,,r.,. i',L--_ ,.. L'- :a " .- "
ij- r: "")
citrus tae-fo pc
;'." .. ...., ,
.3X:. n ',
c:itrus, take forspae
The monthly Newsletter for February 1971 from the
Division of Agriculture in Dominica contains the
f. 11i,)mg item on sleeping of banana bunches.
"ALL BANANA BUNCHES MUST BE SLEEVED
TO OBTAIN TOP QUALITY FRUIT
To obtain TOP quality fruit, all developing bunches
must be sleeved with diothene tubing. The Windward
Islands can only compete with other countries by
producing TOP QUALITY FRUIT.
The advantages of sleeping are:-
1. IMPROVED QUALITY: The general appearance
of the fruit is greatly improved due to:-
(a) the protection the diothene tubing gives
the bunch against leaf scarring and in-
sect damage; sleeved bunches are free
from bruises, scars and other blemishes
and there should be no rejected bunches
from these causes.
(b) Pinspots Disease prevalent in many areas
is successfully controlled by sleeping.
Bunches with Pinspots are rejected.
Sleeving saves these rejects.
(c) Damage causes by the Rust Thrip,
which takes the form of unsightly brown
freckling on the faces between the fingers
and in severe cases the skin on the fruit
becomes rough and fissured like tree bark,
is eliminated. Fruit affected by Rust
Thrip damage is rejected. Sleeving will
save these rejects.
II. INCREASED PRODUCTION: Bunches in-
creased in weight between 10% to 20% when
sleeved. On an average weight of 30 lbs. sleeping
would give an increase of 3 to 6 lbs. At an aver-
age price of 4c per lb, this means an extra 12c to
24c per bunch for the farmer.
III. EARLIER MATURATION: The sleeved bunches
will develop to the required cutting grade one to
two weeks earlier.
IV. MORE CASH TO THE FARMER: Sleeved bunch-
es will, therefore, earn the farmer more cash than
bunches not sleeved.
The advantages gained by Sleeving:-
LESS REJECTS, INCREASED BUNCH WEIGHT,
EARLIER MATURATION -
Will not only pay for the cost of sleeping but
will also put more money in the farmer's pocket.
Get Your Diothene Tubing Now for Sleeving Your
Bunches From Your Banana Association".
The same Newsletter also reports on an address by
J.B. Yankey at an agricultural field day. One of his
"On the subject of diversification the main
theme of his talk he pointed out the poten-
tial of the Coconut Industry and emphasised the
stable and growing markets which presently exist
in the area and the positive marketing steps which are
being pursued, by Dominica Coconut Products Ltd. and
other buying agencies. He appealed to the farmers to
give a serious thought to the planting of coconut to
act now in areas definitely unsuitable for profitable
banana production. These he pointed out were the
valleys and slopes of the Eastern District."
Aprfl- June 1971
Nigel Harvey summarizes the lesson of experience on this method
of reducing costs by sharing equipment
Reprinted from "Agriculture", published by U.K. Ministry of Food
Agriculture and Fisheries.
The basic problem is old and familiar. So is the
simplest method of dealing with it, for farmers
have long been accustomed to lend and borrow
implements on a generous scale. Some local studies,
for instance, include maps showing the movements
of loaned implements and the limits of accepted
'borrowing circles'. In the years after the war,
however, the steadily increasing burden of invest-
ment in machinery inspired the development of the
Farm Machinery Syndicate which continues in a
new form this tradition of neighbourly co-operation.
Essentially, such a syndicate is a partnership, based
on clearly specified rules, of two or more farmers
which owns and runs a certain item, or certain
items, of equipment. The first of these syndicates
was established in Hampshire in 1955 and by 1968
their number had risen to 1,100. In-the last four
years some six hundred have been formed in England
and Wales, owning between them machinery worth
over 1,500,000 which ranges from grain drying
and storage plants and milling and mixing equip-
ment via combines, balers, root-harvesters and drills
to cement mixers and power saws.
For and against
In principle, the arguments in favour of this method
of reducing individual investment and enabling
machinery to be used to capacity are considerable,
and the practical problems of forming syndicates
are greatly reduced by the system which has been
created to encourage and finance them. On the
other hand, there are obvious difficulties inherent in
any such co-operation. The development of the
movement shows that many farmers in many different
areas with many different sizes and types of farm
regard the balance of advantage as favourable. But the
existence on a substantial scale of informal
machinery-sharing arrangements outside the
movement shows that many others do not.
Little systematic information is available on this
informal machinery shared. But the practice
seems pretty widespread. Sometimes, it takes the
form of the straightforward sharing of cost and us,
sometimes of co-operation between relatives in
buying machines for previously agreed periods of
use on different holdings run by members of the
same family, sometimes of 'cross purchase' in which h
two farmers buy a different machine each and
exchange them when required, sometimes of the
purchase of a machine by a farmer who has
arranged to loan it to others at a set cost.
The reasons why these farmers prefer such arrange
ments to the syndicate system vary greatly. So do
the reasons why others make no use of machinery
sharing at all. But surveys have found three specific
reasons why many are not convinced that the
advantages of syndication outweigh its disadvantage s
What are these reasons and what light does experi .(
throw on them?
Machines for seasonal use
The first problem mentioned is the availability of
machines for seasonal work. The savings to be
secured by spreading the cost of specialized
equipment required only for limited periods every
year among as many farmers as is practicable are
obvious. But will not everybody want the machine
at once? The difficulty is real, but experience sug-
gests that it is considerably less of a hazard than ex
pected, provided, of course, that workload and
membership have been properly assessed at the
beginning. For certain types of seasonal
machinery, for example, one report regarded a syn-
dicate of four as maximum, two as optimum.
Further, difficulties are sometimes reduced by the
encouragement which the syndicate system gives to
more general co-operation, so that members
share labour and private equipment to provide bal-
anced work teams which can move from farm to
farm for particular jobs.
April- June 1971
Let CROP CULTURE
protect your crops
with the use of their Aircraft, fitted with the
Micronair AU 3000 Rotary Atomiser multi-
purpose Aerial Spraying System, used in over
60 countries in applications of insecticides and
OUR AIRCRAFT FEATURE:
SAdjustable flow control for very high to
ultra-low volume spraying.
4 Controlled droplet size from coarse to
IN USE ON OVER '4 MILLION
ACRES of BANANAS and
SUGAR CANE in JAMAICA
CROP CULTURE (Overseas) LTD.
SOUTH ODEON AVE. KINGSTON10, PHONE:936-1730
the pulling '
THE COUNTY MODEL754 SUPER TRACTOR
"EQUIPPIEDW FOl D 77H.PENGINE MADEUTO1EHE AVCANELOADRS IDEALFOR HEAVHIIAULA ANDINDIELDWOK
See It NOWat K.I.JL &
GO BACK TO TIE LAND, YOUR ECONOMY NEEDS YOU.
April- June 1971
A number of syndicates have successfully operated
such highly seasonal machinery as balers and combines
for years and a detailed study of three silage machin-
ery syndicates in Devon, where the climate has a
painful habit of accentuating peak periods at
silage-time, found that little difficulty arose in
practice. Some syndicates prepare agreements on
the order in which members can use machinery,
but these are seldom invoked. The common sense
of reasonable men working together generally prevails.
Of course, sometimes machinery is not available
when wanted and production suffers. In one survey,
27 per cent of the syndicate members questioned
said that such losses occurred 'sometimes'. But none
said that they occurred 'often' and some pointed out
that such difficulties were not unknown on farms
using their own equipment. More generally, the
same survey showed that most members regarded this
risk as a small price to set against the benefits
received. Only 4 per cent of the farmers questioned
found any difficulty in the working of their
syndicate, and then only 'sometimes', while 58 per
cent felt that membership had reduced the pressure
on their labour force at peak times.
The second is maintenance. We all know that every-
body's business is nobody's business. The syndicates
know it too and guard against its implications by
allocating this responsibility in detail in their agree-
ments. For example, they make one particular mem-
ber primarily responsible for each machine's
maintenance and repair. The other members inform
him when the need arises and he makes the necessary
arrangements and checks that the work has been
done satisfactorily. When practicable, too, many
syndicates specify that the operation and mainte-
nance of the larger syndicated machines are the
business of only one man whose skill is increased by
this degree of specialization and whose sense of
responsibility can be encouraged by a bonus system.
Further, the county Syndicate Credit Companies
which administer the loans available require the
periodical inspection of each machine by an inde-
pendent qualified engineer, which sometimes brings
the incidental benefit of better trade-in prices when
the time comes. They also specify new machinery
which reduces the maintenance problem and the
breakdown hazard and also ensures that members
get the benefit of both new developments and
income tax allowances. Farmers accustomed to
secondhand machinery prices should remember that
investment in a share of a new machine may be no
greater, and possibly more profitable, than invest-
ment in a privately-owned second-hand machine.
In practice, the danger of poor maintenance does
not appear very great. Thus, a survey in 1964
found that 22 per cent of syndicate members felt
that syndicate machines were 'sometimes' less well
maintained, a further 7 per cent that they were
'often' less well maintained, than those they owned
individually. This suggests that most syndicate mach-
ines were as well maintained, and some possibly
better maintained, than those in individual hands.
Even so, the investigator was right to conclude that
'the future success of the movement must in part
depend on its establishing a reputation for standards
of maintenance as high or even higher than those
of individual farmers'. A later report commented that
the very real concern of farmers on this issue may
well bring its own solution. A problem realized is a
problem already part-solved.
In the Caribbean, this Massey-Ferguson/Broussard cane loader is the
sort of machine that might well be owned and operated by a syndicate.
The third is finding suitable partners. The impor-
tance of such partners is, of course, crucial in so
close and intimate a business relationship and the
task of the pioneer in finding, in a practicable
radius, the right men with the right needs at the
right time and stating the case for a syndicate
convincingly can be considerable, particularly in
areas where examples of syndication are few. But the
difficulties can be over-emphasized, for the choice
is fairly wide. The needs of farms with different
systems can be complementary; so can those of
large and small farms. Further, the number of
members in many syndicates is small. Grain
storage or ditching machine syndicates may have
up to twenty members, but for many types of
equipment two or three may be sufficient. In
fact, the average size of a syndicate, excluding grain
storage syndicates, is between two and three
members. So in most cases the number of partners
required is small.
April- June 1971
os pfaea ,
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26 Caribbean Farming April- June 1971
Advantage and conviction
A generation ago, the impossibility of such co-oper-
ation was a familiar maxim of conventional wisdom.
Today, machinery syndicates are an accepted part
of the farming system and fifteen years of experience
have shown their value to those who join them.
Obviously, they reduce capital costs substantially.
They also offer a source of credit not open to those.
who are not members of syndicates on terms which
commonly compare favourable with those
available to individual borrowers. Less obviously,
they provide an introduction to further forms of
mutual assistance. The importance of the develop-
ment of such co-operation between farmers surely
needs no emphasis nowadays.
Experience has also shown that the apparent disad-
vantages of the system are not so considerable as
they appear at first sight and that they can be
minimized by care and common sense. Clearly,
syndicates are both practicable and profitable.
Equally clearly, the future of the movement depends
on the conviction that they are practicable and
profitable. Where this conviction is strong, syndicates
spread. Where it is weak, they increase at best
slowly. In other words, the movement depends on
farmers convincing their neighbours of its value. The
moral of the story is obvious.
Nigel Harvey, M.A., Q.A.L.A.S., was on the staff of the Ministry
from 1946 to 1958 and of the Agricultural Research Council from
1958 to 1969.
in your subscription today for CARIBBEAN FARMING
the magazine that farmers read
DON'T STOP YOUR CROP!
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Caribbean Farming April- June 1971
April- June 1971
f -i a broadcast by a government veterinarian
L us first consider some of the causes of diarrhoea
o. course as it is commonly called. Diarrhoea may be
a ciated with certain bacteria and viruses, may be
c ,ed by a disease called coccidiosis, or may be due to
v in or fluke infestation. Certain mineral deficiencies
i cause diarrhoea, as can certain poisons. Occasion-
o theirr factors are responsible, as for example when
) g cattle are turned out to lush green pasture they
n have diarrhoea for a day or two.
P:, bly the commonest disorder of young calves, and
tl ne most worrying to farmers, is an acute, frequent-
ly al form of diarrhoea occurring in calves from a few
hi ; after birth to about 3 -4 weeks of age. The faeces
fr such animals are usually a whitish colour hence
th ame 'white scours', commonly given to this dis-
T!, rype of diarrhoea is usually associated with bacteria
ca 1 E. Coli. These bacteria are normal inhabitants of
th .,testine of healthy calves, but sometimes, for
re;: ,s which are only partly understood, something
up, ts the bacteria causing them to multiply very rapid-
ly. :hen this happens the intestine becomes irritated
with the result that diarrhoea occurs and death of the
young calf frequently follows.
Importance of Colostrum
As I said, we do not fully understand why this form
of diarrhoea occurs, but we do know some of the things
that can help to prevent it. The primary consideration
here is the practice of good animal management, with
particular attention to the nutrition of the young calf.
This should begin before the calf is born, by seeing
that the mother is well cared and fed and has received
ample green food which is a rich source of Vitamin A.
Cows should not be milked immediately before calving
as their calves seem more prone to scour. All calves
should receive colostrum that is the first milk from
their mothers. It is extremely important to suck their
mothers within an hour or two after birth and that
they suck for at least two days. The calf at birth has
within its body no protection against disease; the
mother has protection against certain of the infections
that she has encountered and this protection is passed
on to the calf if it receives colostrum within a few hours
after birth. The time factor here is very important, be-
cause we know that the lining of the calves intestine is
only permeable for the first 24 to 36 hours. After that
time the protective factors in the mothers' colostrum
cannot be absorbed by the calf. Colostrum is rich also
in vitamins, which enables the calf to grow properly,
provided the mother has been fed with food rich in vita-
Housing Dairy Calves
Proper hygienic procedures should be observed with
the buckets from which calves are fed. Ideally each
calf should have its own bucket which should be
thoroughly cleaned and sterilised or disinfected before
The housing of the young calf is very important in the
prevention of sickness. Young calves should be kept
in clean, dry, draught-free well ventilated pens, and if
possible the calves should be raised off the ground by
the use of slatted floors. It is unwise to mix calves of
different ages together. To illustrate how important
this housing business is, I can describe the situation on
a farm that I visited recently. This farm was in one of
the colder, damper parts of the island, and had been
having a problem of severe scours in their 2 weeks old
calves. Management practices on this farm, were, as
far as I could tell, excellent. These people knew all
April- June 1971
about the importance of the nutrition of the dam, of
colostrum, and the nutrition of the calf, proper hygiene
etc. But the calves were being kept in a large high roof-
ed shed attached to one side of the house. This shed
had a concrete floor and concrete walls. Two opposite
sides of the shed were partially open. It was quite
obvious that in damp weather such as they had ex-
perienced at the time the calves were sick, this was a
cold damp house, and I feel certain that the environ-
mental conditions experienced by the calves in this
house had somehow lowered their resistance and
caused the bacteria in their intestines to multiply
very rapidly with the resultant diarrhoea. The calves
are no longer being kept in this house, and since then
the farm has had no problem with diarrhoea.
Let us now consider that form of diarrhoea which is
associated with the disease coccidiosis. Coccidia are
tiny organisms that live within the lining of the intest-
ine of affected calves. When present in large number
they cause much damage to the intestine and the pass-
age of blood stained mucoid faeces. The calves strain
when passing dung, cease to feed, and rapidly lose con-
dition, became anaemic, dehydrated and die. This is a
fairly common condition occurring particularly in
calves or young cattle which are herded together. The
eggs produced by coccidia are passed in the dung and
animals become infected by eating contaminated grass
or feed, or by drinking from contaminated troughs.
Animals which survive an attack develop an immunity
to the disease. A chronic form of the disease also
occurs in which a persistent diarrhoea, without death,
Worms and Fluke
The symptoms of worm infestation are unthriftiness,
leading to emaciation, poor hair coat, diarrhoea, de-
hydration, anaemia and possible death after several
weeks. Badly affected animals may have a swelling of
the tissues of the throat the characteristic 'bottle
neck' of badly parasitised animals.
Young stock should be wormed, and then moved on to
fresh pasture which has not already been contaminated
by worm eggs. Pastures remain infective under most
conditions for 7 8 weeks. It takes 2 4 weeks for a
pasture carrying parasitised animals to become in-
Animals affected with liver fluke show the same symp-
toms as those carrying a heavy worm burden, and
treatment is based on the use of drugs which kill the
fluke, and on management practices which interfere
with the life cycle of the liver fluke.
We have mentioned some of the causes of diarrhoea in
young calves, and now to consider how, we, in the lab,
aided by a knowledge of the clinical signs seen by the
Vet in the field, determine the various causes of dia-
If we suspect that the diarrhoea is caused by worms,
fluke or coccidiosis, a sample of the dung is prepared
using a special technique, and examined under the
microscope for the presence of the typical worm or
fluke eggs or coccidia cysts. An approximation of the
number of eggs per gram of faeces can be made and
this, considered along with the animals condition, may
indicate the degree of parasitism.
If we suspect that bacteria are causing the diarrhoea,
the faecal sample is cultured that is a small quantity
is smeared onto a plate containing a special medium on
which bacteria grow well. The plate is then incubated
for several hours and later examined for the presence of
bacterial colonies. These colonies are further examined
by preparing stained slides which are examined micro-
scopically to see the appearance of the individual bact-
eria. The bacteria may then be grown in different sugar
solutions to examine their biochemical behaviour, and
tested in various other ways to identify them.
Other Causes Of Scours
I mentioned that some diarrhoea may be caused by
viruses. At the moment we are not certain that this
form occurs in Jamaica, though it is very probable. 1
diagnose this form of diarrhoea, virological procedure.
involving animal transmission experiments and tissue
culture techniques are used.
Diarrhoea associated with certain mineral deficiencies
are usually diagnosed by chemical examination of the
blood, urine or tissues of the affected animals, to deter-
mine if an abnormally low amount of the mineral in
question is present.
Diarrhoea caused by poisons is also determined by
Chemical methods, and by finding a possible source of
the poison. So, you see, we have to think about many
different things when we receive dung samples in the
lab, and we have to try and find the cause of the diarr-
hoea as quickly as possible so that the Vet. in the
field can know how best to treat the sick animal.
April- June 1971
Title: Pest Control in Bananas, PANS Manual No. 1
Edited by: Susan D. Feakin, B.Sc.
Published by PANS (Pesticides Articles and News Summaries)
This manual has been re-written and revised and is in-
tended to replace the previous PANS Manual on
bananas "Insect, disease and weed control," published
in 1966. Since there was still a demand for the
manual, the 1st edition copies of which were distri-
buted by 1968, it was decided to re-issue a new edition
with more recent information and a new format.
T'e present manual gives the banana grower, extension
w 3rker and researcher fairly up to date information in
a oncise and simple form. The material has been
c( elected through consultations with the people in-
v. ved in pest control aspects of the industry in dif-
f mnt banana producing countries.
P ,ew feature is the inclusion of a glossary of names
a terms, many of which are specific to banana cul-
I \n the 1st edition, the subject matter of the
n iual is devoted to weeds, diseases due to fungi,
b ;eria, nutritional disorders and viruses together
m i sections on nematodes and insect pests. The
d: ases in the text are listed first by the scientific
n; jie of the casual agent. This is followed by notes on
tl distribution and symptoms and finally a compre-
h, Isive section on methods of control.
Some of the diseases mentioned are either not present
in the Caribbean region or are of little economic
importance. Black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella
fijiensis), Malayan leaf spot (Haplobasidion muse)
and "bunchy top" have not yet been reported in the
region and every care will have to be taken to avoid
their introduction. The manual has distribution maps
of many of these diseases. Also Panama disease is no
longer the problem it used to be because of the substi-
tution of resistant cultivars, Lacatan, Robusta, Valery
etc.) for the susceptible Gros Michel.
With the increasing emphasis on control of fruit
diseases (crown rot, neck rot etc.) and quality, the
manual has appropriately devoted a large section to the
amelioration of these problems by careful handling
and the use of disinfectants and fungicides. No mention
has been made of the fungicide Benlate, a relative to
thiabendazole and recently approved by the Environ-
mental Protection Agency in the U.S.
Many photographs have been included to supplement
the text and to demonstrate symptoms of diseases.
To complete the manual a bibliography of general and
more specific selected references are provided at the
back together with an appendix with summary check
lists of banana diseases and insect pests.
The manual should be of considerable value especially
to extension workers and banana growers and is
available free of charge to agricultural and educational
establishments in countries eligible for British aid or
at a price of 0.42 from:
The Editor, PANS Manuals,
56 Gray's Inn Road,
London W.C.1X 8LU
NEWCASTLE DISEASE OUTBREAKS PROMPT
U.S. IMPORT EMBARGO
WASHINGTON United States Government author-
ities have ordered a halt to the importation of
poultry or eggs for hatching from countries where
outbreaks of Newcastle disease have reached high
This highly contagious disease attacks chickens and
turkeys. Among young chicks, the loss may be as
high as 100 percent. Turkeys are usually less severely
affected by the disease than are chickens, pheasants,
guinea fowl, geese, ducks, pigeons, swans and quail.
Vaccination and sanitary management are needed to
curb the disease.
Newcastle disease is now widespread in Europe, South
America, Central America, Asia and Africa.
Import permits are no longer being issued to shippers
from the following countries: France, Greece, India,
Iran, Israel, Korea, Lebanon, Mexico, the Netherlands,
Poland, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom,
Venezuela, West Germany and Yugoslavia.
Officials of the U.S. Agricultural Research Service said
the disease is not widespread in the United States.
"If Newcastle disease should reach epidemic pro-
portions in the United States, the result could be
disastrous to the multi-million dollar poultry industry
as it is proving in the countries now confronted with
this disease problem," one official said.
April- June 1971
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April- June 1971
Suggestions for Managing Layers
~ - -
r Loren Nichols, Poultry Research Specialist of
C ,ral Soya, a United States company specializing
ii poultry and livestock feed manufacture, spoke re-
c ly to Jamaican poultry farmers at a seminar organ-
i, by the Jamaican subsidiary of his company. Dr.
I ols spoke about commercial egg production and
S mercial broiler production.
L lichols spoke of the necessity to raise pullets that
w 'i no more nor less than the standard weight which
tl, reeders of the bird have fixed. This standard weight
is rmally the weight at which the bird will perform
b Overweight pullets tend to consume more feed to
r 'i maturity; more important is the fact that they
u Ily continue to require more feed as adult birds -
ti means more feed per dozen eggs. Dr. Nichols said
t; overweight pullets that grow into overweight hens
n ally do not produce as many eggs as do their
st: dard weight flock mates.
Dr Nichols mentioned a low-calcium ration to be fed
to pullets between twenty and twenty-four weeks of
age This ration is recommended for pullets at this
age because they do not need the level of calcium re-
quired by slightly older birds which have started to
TEMPERATURE AND FEED
At a laying-house temperature of 700F. hens might
be expected to eat about 21/ lb. of feed per 100
light hybrid hens per day; at 900 the consumption
would go down to about 19 lb. per 100 hens per
day. To adjust rations for this sort of situation the
feed compounder and the farmer would provide rations
of protein levels ranging from 17% for temperature
below 800 to 18% protein at 850 and 19% at higher
temperatures. This device is necessary if hens are to
consume enough nutrients to maintain egg production.
OYSTER SHELL AND GRIT.
Dr. Nichols said that flocks nearing the end of their
laying cycle particularly in hot weather often
benefit by the addition of oyster shell to their ration.
This adds an amount of calcium for birds under con-
ditions where their need for this mineral is greater
than it is at other times. The oyster shell should not be
fed in large quantities.
Dr. Nichols reported that recent research has shown
that grit has beneficial effects in poultry rations -
even if the rations are in the form of meal. Recom-
mendations are half-a-pound of grit per 100 birds
at day-old. No more grit is fed for a month after, then
one pound of grit per 100 birds is fed. Every twenty-
eight days after grit is fed at the rate of two lb. per
hundred birds. Grit is fed once a month throughout
the life of layers increased egg production by 4.8%.
WASTE OF FEED.
Dr. Nichols referred to studies that have been done of
waste of feed because of overloading of troughs. Re-
commendations are that troughs should be no more
than half-full; in the case of chain-type automatic
feeders it is necessary that the chain be covered but
there is no necessity to have much more feed in the
trough. Feed waste is a serious problem because under
normal conditions feed constitutes 60-70% of the total
cost of producing a dozen eggs.
April- June 1971
FOR LIVESTOCK FEEDING
by B.I. Gohl & C. Devendra Th
Flour mills have been built in several of the Caribbean
countries and they produce by-products of consider-
able significance. Some 25 percent of their entire pro-
duction is sold as animal feed. It is a feed rich in protein
and phosphorus and can be given to cattle, pigs and
It is common practice at the mills to mix all by-
products (coarse and fine middlings, wheat germs and
bran) to a combined product sold as "all-in wheat
feed." The product contains B-vitamins and vitamin E.
Research in Trinidad suggests that it can be included in
the diet of pigs up to 45 percent of the ration by re-
placement of the cereal component, but the relatively
low efficiency of food conversion (E.F.C.) of 4.3 lb. of
feed per lb. liveweight increase would imply that
energetically it is not the best. This may suggest that
smaller levels of wheat middlings need to be used. Diets
containing up to 20% wheat middlings are also useful
COCONUT OIL MEAL
Coconut oil meal is a very useful by-product for the
feeding of farm animals and is used extensively in the
Caribbean. It has a useful source of protein (22.4%)
and in addition, often contains a relatively large amount
(4 to 6%) of oil depending on the extent t6 which the
cake is pressed to expel the oil. Where high levels of
oil are present in the cake it is imperative that anti-
oxidants be used to prevent rancidity of the oil. It is
however deficient in lysine and histidine so that other
protein sources need to be added to ensure a balance
of amino acids in diets for pigs and poultry.
e first article in this series in CARIBBEAN FARMING October 1969. Part two
peared in our Jan. March 1970 ussue.
Coconut oil meal has been used widely for rations
for dairy and beef cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, I igs
and poultry. Because it is easily available it has be n
used effectively to supply nutrients to support ad< quate
production during the dry season when feed is
scarce. Thus for example, a ration containing equq
amounts of coconut oil meal and citrus meal has
been found to be suitable for dairy heifers and als(
swamp buffaloes. Work in Trinidad on the use of
coconut oil meal in growing and finishing diets for
swine indicated that rate ofliveweight gain and
efficiency of food conversion were comparable to
standard commercial ration. Carcass quality was nc
adversely affected, and the diet containing 20 per-
cent coconut oil meal was found to be the most
Brewers' grains is a by-product of the breweries in t e
Caribbean and constitutes a useful animal feed. In-
sufficient quantities are currently produced which c o
not meet the increasing demand for the product. The
dried product has been used in dairy feeds quite
extensively largely because of its content of about
18% crude protein. It can be used in small quantities
in rations for non-ruminants and its value in
supporting growth in the diets for pigs awaits in-
Very few of the abattoirs in the West Indies make
maximum use of animal offals. In some other
countries the offals form an important source of in-
come for the abattoir. The value of hides and offal in
the United States is currently U.S. $17.60 per head of
April- June 1971
Dry season supplements, whether concentrates or on the-farm feeds cane tops, quick-stick toppings are conveniently fed in yards.
April- June 1971
This sort of plant is in growing use in the U.S.A. and U.K.
Research in the Caribbean may develop use of bagasse
(in place of straw shown) for similar processes.
There is a need to create facilities for the processing of
slaughter-house by-products and establish slaughter-
houses in regions with livestock industry. To manu-
facture meat meal or meat-and-bone meal or
poultry by-product meal is a fairly big operation. The
farmer or poultry house owner can however collect
the offal, cook it and feed it to his pigs.
One useful by-product found in the abattoir is pork
lard. It is a by-product of pigs slaughtered in the
abattoir, and in Trinidad about 1,500 lb. are pro-
duced every month. Like other types of fat, lard is
a very useful energy source in the diet. The particular
attribute of fats which makes them potentially
attractive as sources of energy in animal feeding is
their high gross energy. In recent years intensive
systems of production and the requirements of farm
livestock for higher levels of dietary energy have led
to the inclusion of high-energy nutrient sources
(fats) which can replace and supplement part of the
carbohydrate of the diet. The chief advantage of in-
cluding fat in the diet is that energetically it provides
about two and a half times more energy in com-
parison to starch. In addition the dustiness of feeds
is reduced, and the presence today of effective anti-
oxidants to arrest rancidity further encourages their
use in practical diets. Fats can be included in the diet
of the ruminant up to 10%, whereas non-ruminants
can tolerate much higher levels of about 15 to 30
percent. The use of fats for animal feeding in the
Caribbean in relatively new and their more widespread
use appears to be limited by the high cost of the
product, which currently is retailed at about 34 cents
This machine is available in a truck-mounted or trailer-mounted forn-
in sizes of 280 and 320 cubic feet. It is used to mix feed ingredients
such as molasses, urea, coconut meal, bagasse and corn offal. It should
serve purpose of many livestock farmers who now hesitate to use molasses
urea because of the difficulty of handling thick, syrupy material. ixing i!
done at high speed, according to the makers, and capacity is 6,000 to
10,000 lb. of ration. The machine can be supplied with an electro, ic
weighing system. Suppliers are Knight Manufacturing Corporation of
Brodhead, Wisconsin, U.S.A.
A dipbath in South Africa. One of the pictures from "Cattle Tick
Control" by members of the Cooper Research Organisation and pub-
lished by Cooper, McDougall & Robertson Limited of Berkhamsted,
England. The book has 68 pages, is available in Spanish and English
and many of the illustrations are in colour.
April- June 1971
WHY WAIT UNTIL DISEASE
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