Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Back Cover

Title: Caribbean farming
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101460/00008
 Material Information
Title: Caribbean farming
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Mona, Jamaica
Publication Date: January-March 1971
Copyright Date: 1969
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101460
Volume ID: VID00008
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 3116219

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Back Cover
        Page 33
        Page 34
Full Text


aribbean ai


,' rf.

~~~~ it;,~l~/~


"The fertilizer with the bird on the bag"

12.:14 -4+30

Pioneers of better farming in Jamaica. Wise farmers all
over Jamaica have relied on Albatros fertilizer year after
year for healthier crops and bountiful yields.
They know that Albatros fertilizers work quickly and
They know that they get superior physical and chemi-
cal qualities.
And they remember Albatros fertilizers are always
neatly packed in jute bags.
Ask your Agricultural dealer for Albatros "the fertilizer
with the bird on the bag".


Caribbean rmilg

Published in association with the Faculty of Agriculture, University of the West Indies. Edited
by CAROL RECKORD. Caribbean Farming welcomes suggestions, articles. Address all
correspondence to CARIBBEAN FARMING, P.O. Box 174, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica, W.I.

January-March 1971 Vol. 3 No. 1

Editorial 3




The editor will be glad to hear from farmers, research workers, extension officers
and others who would like to offer articles or photographs for publication in
Preference is given to articles of a practical nature which will help to put the
results of research and experiment into the farmer's hands. Where possible, good
drawings or diagrams should accompany articles. Good quality photographs of not less
than 5" x 7" are welcome they should relate to farming in the region.
Payment will be made (on publication) for all material accepted.

Rates for 4 Issues
Jamaica $1.67 Eastern Caribbean E.C. $4.00, U.S.A. and other Countries $2.00.

To simplify technical terminology,
commercial names may be used. This
is not intended as an endorsement of
products named, nor as criticism of
similar products not named.

The opinions expressed in articles do not necessarily represent
the views of the publishers

Be on target VC

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January- March 1971


Caribbean Farming



As a result of enthusiastic research in the Caribbean
and elsewhere in the Tropics, grass production for
cattle has become a favourite and reasonably profit-
able activity for many thousands of farmers in this
region. This is all to the good on much of our land
where little but grass could profitably be produced.
.ut we do find that there are acres which can pro-
:ce arable crops -- but are being put into grass
-cause cattle fetch good prices and because farmers
these parts have had limited experience in grow-
any arable crop other than sugar cane.

is situation suggests that there is need for comm-
ial -scale study of a number of arable crops. This
te of CARIBBEAN FARMING has several pages
oted to arable crops which seem to hold out
ie promise of profitable development. There are
.r crops too --the two symposia on tropical
Crops held during the past few years brought
information on sweet potato production and
possibilities for the Caribbean.

se crops are needed for as much for use as live-
k and poultry feed as for human consumption.
we go to press, Sir Arthur Lewis, President of the
ibbean Development Bank, is reported as saying:
)n examining the livestock projects presented
us, the most frequent obstacle is the high cost of
I ; it it takes seven lb. of imported feed to pro-
e one lb. of meat, it is often cheaper in foreign
change to import the meat than to import the
We have to learn to produce our own animal
ds. This is partly a matter of improving our grass-
ds and partly a matter of productivity in cereals."

V.-. suggest that the matter is one of urgency for a
r tmnber of reasons; once land has been fenced, put
Suwn to permanent improved grass and stocked it
wil take more than gentle persuasion to have it
again put under the plough. Unless these countries
are resigned to import ever growing quantities of
concentrate feeds, we will find that while the grass
is growing the pigs and poultry (and people) will be

If you want to import or export
any of the items listed below,


is the place to advertise:-

eggs, poultry meat,

oranges, grapefruit

hides and skins

hams, bacon, sausages

mangoes, avocado pears



pedigreed livestock

charcoal, lime




yams, dasheen

pumpkins, cucumbers


flowers and ornamental plants

beef, mutton pork

Rates per Column inch

E. C. $54. 00

Jam. $18. 00

U. S. $22. 50


In the next issue of CARIBBEAN FARMING Dr. Nazir Ahmad,
Professor of Soil Science of the University of the West Indies
discusses the adequacy of the University's Faculty of Agricult-
ure in the West Indies today.

Caribbean Farming

January- March 1971

Sorghum in Central America

By Victor E. Green, Jr.
During the 8th Annual Reunion of the Co-operative
Central American Corn Improvement Project in San
Jose, Costa Rica, in March 1962, a group interested
primarily in black beans met simultaneously with the
"maiceros". These "frijoleros" issued their own
proceedings that year. The two groups met again in
San Salvador, El Salvador, in March 1963. One of
the resolutions at the 9th Reunion was to change
the name to the "Co-operative Central American
Program for the Improvement of Food Crops" (Pro-
grama Co-operativo Centroamericano Para el
Mejoramiento de Cultivos Alimenticios, or PCCMCA).
In addition to improvement in the culture of corn
and beans, other important food crops of Mexico,
Central America, and Panama, chiefly sorghum,
rice, white potatoes, wheat and cassava, will now
receive added attention.

Much education will be necessary before populations
will switch from corn and beans to sorghum as a
dietary item, although sorghum could be cultured easier
than corn in many of the drier areas of Latin
America. In fact, some countries there will use only
white corn while other countries will use only yellow
corn, at present. It might be easier to grow sorghum
for feed than for food in these cases. This should
be no reason for scorn or pity, since diets contain
no appreciable sorghum in this enlightened era in the
United States of America.

The problem of human consumption of sorghum
will be especially challenging in such countries as
Guatemala, where corn has been used for so long that
it is deeply engrained in the diet, mores, art, sculpture,
jewellery, decorative designs in furniture, and even
religion of the Maya who comprise about 65 percent
of the population. The fact that sorghum can grow with
much less water than corn might fit it well as a catch
crop during the dry six months when most of the land
stands idle.

The 10th Reunion of PCCMCA was held in Antigua,
Guatemala, from 1-5 March 1964, and the 11th Re-
union in Panama, from 16-19 March 1965. The 12th
annual meeting of the PCCMCA was held in Managua,
Nicaragua, between March 29 and April 1, 1966. A
great milestone was reached at the reunion, sponsored
by the Rockefeller Foundation, in that sorghum was
added to the programme and given equal time with the
time-honoured food crops of corn, rice and beans.

It has become evident that corn production has only
stayed abreast of the tremendous population increase
in Mexico, Panama, and Central America, precluding
the use of corn for feeding livestock or for industrial
purposes. It is hoped that sorghum will furnish a
4 Caribbean F

Dr. Victor Green was Agricultural Advisor to the Government of Costa
Rica between May 1965 and July 1968 on a contract between the
University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences and
the U.S. Department of State Agency for International Development,
with headquarters in San Jose. Presently he is Professor (Agronomist),
in the University's Agronomy Department of I FAS. In October 1970
he advised the Jamaica School of Agriculture in curriculum development
and in preparing course outlines for field and forage crop courses.

suitable substitute, especially in the drier areas in
Central America.

Papers presented at the conference included those on
improvement of the crop, mechanization possibilities,
variety tests, diseases and insects, the Co-operative
Central American Program, plans for 1966, recommen-
dations and resolutions to the co-operating Ministries
of Agriculture. Country reports on progress were
given for each nation represented at the sessions.

The PCCMCA met in San Jose, February 28 March ,
1967. Workers in sorghum convened for 2 entire days
of sessions and workshops to plan next year's work.
The lead paper was given by Dr. Elmer C. Johnson,
Chief of Sorghum Research at CIMMYT (Centro
International para el Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo)
or International Centre for the Improvement of Corn
and Wheat at Chapingo, Mexico. Papers were also give
from each of the five central American countries and
Panama. These included reports on variety tests,
spacing and population, fertilizer requirements, corre-
lation between panicle characters and yield, market
requirements, varietal variability, advances in the
sorghum programmes in each participating country,
and discussions of work plans for 1967-68.

While sorghum itself is not an important basic food
crop in Central America, its potential value in
livestock feeding programmes to increase the supply
of animal protein for human consumption in the
form of beef, poultry, eggs,milk, pork, etc. is great,
especially during the dry season. The world collection
of sorghum cultivars at Chapingo would seem to.pro-
vide a very useful reservoir for improvement of
sorghum in Latin America.

Sorghum workers from Mexico, Central America, and
Panama met at Tegucigalpa, Honduras, February 27
to March 1, to discuss recent results of tests and to
plan for the future. The afternoon of February 29
was devoted to sorghum at the XIV annual meetings
of the PCCMCA in 1968.

Dr. Elmer C. Johnson, Chief of Sorghum Research at
the Centro Internacional para el Mejoramiento de
Maiz y Trigo or CIMMYT at Chapingo, Mexico,
moderated the programme and gave the lead paper
concerning the regional uniform tests at the PCCMCA.
Ing. Navarette of El Salvador gave a paper in absentia
on the effects of planting distances and nitrogen
arming January -March 1971

levels on sorghum in his country. Ing. Franco,
Desarural, Honduras, gave a report on the behaviour
of 63 collections of sorghum planted during the
main season and as a late crop.

These were followed by individual reports of tests
carried out during 1967 in Panama, Costa Rica, El
Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Guatemala.
Also at these meetings, the co-operative plans for
1968 were formulated.

in 1966, sorghum was recognized as a potential food
rop in middle America in that it was added to the
ist of crops to be discussed at the annual meetings of
he PCCMCA. Since then work has progressed in the
o-operating countries until in 1969 sorghum
occupied an important place on the programme. The
meetings were held in San Salvador, El Salvador,
Abruary 24 28, 1969. Eight papers were presented
:porting work in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua,
mama, and the Central American isthmus in general.
his last paper (by Salazer) pointed out the most
Aportant problems of sorghum in that area are
rds, sorghum flies, and marketing.

ad Resistance
s most of us know, bird-resistant varieties work
:st where there are few birds, much like to so-called
isease-resistant varieties that perform best where the
diseases never reach epiphytotic proportions. The
ird problem in Central America is year-round, and
Infects sorghum planted during the main season
-rimera May and June), the secondary or off-
:ason (postera August and September), and during
:e irrigated season (de riego between December
:d February). The problem is caused by a concen-
ation of migrating birds from colder areas at times
hen there is no rice or other grass which birds like
or food, and sorghum takes the brunt of the attack.
)r, in some cases, sorghum is the only grain crop in
he area, and then only in limited acreage. Losses
-re often devastating, and they assume greatest
:nportance in areas where people use sorghums for
:iuman food.

Salazar suggests that while noisemakers and poisons
offer some assistance, ultimately we must depend
upon plant improvement to form varieties that
will be distasteful in the milk and soft dough stages,
but which will lose this character as the seed matures.
This system would work best for grain, since immature
plants used for silage might also be distasteful to
livestock. The partial bird resistance of Plantation
Pride variety in south Florida results from its geni-
culated awns. This is useful against attacks by red-
wing or other blackbirds, dickcissels, sparrows,
grackles, and bobolinks, which constitute the main
predatory species of Central America. But when
feed supply is short, no variety of either sorghum or
corn has proved resistant.

Recommendations of the sorghum workgroup
were to try to interest the Organizacion Internacional
Regional para Sanidad Animal (OIRSA) in studying
the bird problem; to conduct regional uniform tests
in the following series: commercial and experimental
varieties, with each company having the option of
including four entries; to group varieties in the
uniform tests for earliness or lateness, plant size,
and potential use; and to have the committee deliver
to each co-operating country two tests of each series
to be planted in the main and off-season.

The author in a field of young sorghum

From 25 January through the 30th, 1970, research
workers from Mexico, Central America, Panama, and
northern South America met at Antigua, Guatemala
to discuss their results with basic food crop studies at
the XVI meetings of the PCCMCA. The round table
discussions on corn and sorghum were led by Ing.
Agro. Adolfo Fuentes and the report of the co-ordin-
ator of the regional programmes for sorghum was
given by Dr. Elmer C. Johnson, co-ordinator,
CIMMYT, Chapingo. Workers from Panama, Nicaragua,
the Dominican Republic, and Guatemala gave papers
on the results of their work on varieties, weed control,
wet-season plantings, and sorghum culture. Resolutions
and recommendations of the sorghum round-table
included the following points of general interest. Rows
in tests of early varieties should be 30 cm. apart and
those with late varieties should be in rows of 60 cm.
separation. Owing to the great interest expressed
for testing varieties with white grains, the regional
tests in the future will contain such sorghums. It
was decided to take field weights of the panicles
as a basis for calculating grain yields. The average
varieties under test that year could be assumed to
contain grain weights 80 per cent of the panicle
weights, including the rachises. Henceforth, the
seed packets for the regional sorghum tests will be
prepared in Managua, Nicaragua, under the direction
of Ing. Humberto Tapia B., Escuela Nacional de
Agriculture, Apartado 453, Km. 12, Carretara Norte,
Managua, Nic., America Central. Seedsmen having
varieties for inclusion in these regional tests should
have the seed to Mr. Tapia annually by March 30.
Seed arriving after that date will not qualify for
inclusion. Five kg. of each variety are needed to
make sufficient packets.

January -March 1971

Caribbean Farming

A paper by Ing. Angel Salazar of Nicaragua, who for
many years was technical co-ordinator for the
PCCMCA, should be of more than just passing
interest for everyone in the western hemisphere
interested in sorghum, especially those who can
envision a grain readily accessible for bread making
or for other dishes in human nutrition in a large area
where the corn crop is uncertain and usually in short
supply in many local areas due to no other reason than
poor transport facilities to the short areas. In the
area known as the Central American isthmus, there
are about 353,000 ha. of sorghum grown for grain.
Of this, about 305,000 ha. are the native white grains
and about 48,000 are coloured hybrids. Costa Rica
and Panama do not grow white sorghum grain to eat.
In fact, they grow hardly any sorghum at all. Guate-
mala grows about 43,500 ha.; Nicaragua about
62,000; Honduras about 80,000; and El Salvador
about 119,000 ha. of the native whites. Of the
coloured hybrids, Panama grows about 300 ha.;
Honduras 740; Costa Rica 5,075; El Salvador
7,400; Guatemala 14,800; and Nicaragua 20,200 ha.
it is estimated. Although most sorghum in the
Isthmus is used to feed livestock, Honduras 50%;
El Salvador 60%; Nicaragua 65% Guatemala 75%;
Costa Rica 95%; and Panama 100%; a large amount
is used for human nutrition: 16.7% in Guatemala;
25% in Nicaragua; 30% in El Salvador; and 40% of
that grown in Honduras. As seen by the data,
Panamanians and Costa Ricans do not eat sorghum.
Production Prospects
It is the opinion of many that sufficient feedgrains or
even foodgrains cannot be produced under traditional
agriculture by smallholders due to difficulties of
mechanizing the crops and obtaining the credit for
purchasing the means of production. Sorghum offers
itself as the ideal grain for vast expanses of Latin
America during the last days of the rainy seasons
and the first days of the dry seasons in countries
having areas subject to such weather. Silage, hay and
grain made from sorghum maturing during the dry
season may offer the only solution to feed short-
ages until rains begin once more in such climates
toward eliminating the perennial protein shortage
in countries from Mexico to Argentina.
Sorghum offers much promise for forage and
grain production in Costa Rica. However, not much
research is being carried out with this important
crop. The transfer of research specialists from the
Ministry of Agriculture and the University of Costa
Rica, College of Agriculture, to other positions left
a gap which was filled in 1967 by the USA Peace
Corps Volunteer stationed at the Ministry Experiment
Station in the Dry Pacific Area of Guanacaste. He
was concerned only with grain sorghum variety
testing, as sorghum for forage is handled by an
agrostology section of the Ministry, which at
present is doing very little with it. The emphasis is
on tropical legumes.

At present, the only sorghum seed stock regularly
in Costa Rica is for sale by the National Production
Council, a semi-autonomous organ of government.
The seed consists of AMAK R-10 and NK-300 of
Mexican Source. Sorghum grain is used in feed mixes,
but it has not assumed sufficient importance yet to
cause its importation. The Council will buy all the
clean dry sorghum grain that is produced in the
dry season for prices published prior to harvest. Prices
were established for white-seeded grain during the
1955-56 crop and for red-yellow varieties in 1958-59.
Prices paid farmers differed, according to colour
only during 1958-61, in favour of the red-yellow
by only U.S. $0.15 0.30. Prices paid have varied
from 1955 to.1967, from about U.S. $2.70 3.60
per quintal disregarding colour devaluation. These
prices have been only about U.S. $0.30 0.60 less
than corn. Almost all of the trade in sorghum in Costa
Rica is reflected in purchase of this grain by the

Bird damage to sorghum
The governmental agency of Costa Rica, responsible
for price supports and a supply of sorghum in the silos
of that country, issued orders to personnel at its
buying stations located throughout the country not to
purchase sorghum grain that matured during the rainy
season. The order was issued because of the possibility
of the presence of aflatoxins. Its mixing plant for grain
for poultry, swine, and beef and dairy cattle will no
longer use sorghum that matured during rainy weather.
or which has a moisture content above 12 percent.
Dr. George T. Edds, Jr., Chairman, Department of
Veterinary Science, University of Florida, made an
emergency trip to Costa Rica under the US AID/UF
Contract at the request of the Ministry of Agriculture
Veterinary Department and the UCR Animal Nutrition
Laboratory to investigate the cause of a series of swine
deaths. The disease was tentatively diagnosed as caused
by the formation of toxic substances in certain types o
feed, which, after mixing and being placed in storage
either at mixing plants or on farms and ranches,
acquired additional moisture and, thus, had conditions
favourable to the formation of toxic substances. Further
tests are being made by the Ministry Veterinary Depart-
ment. In addition, sealed samples of various types of
feed were sent to the University of Florida where
supplemental laboratory and feeding tests are being
made. Results of these tests have not been released
to date.

January- March 1971

Caribbean Fanning

Dr. Edds emphasized that molds are ubiquitous and
form compounds which are transformed into aflatoxins,
but require proper conditions of temperature and
moisture to develop into carcinogenic agents. Once
developed, aflatoxins continue to maintain their
poisonous properties. Thus, aflatoxins may develop
on grains or peanuts prior to purchase for feed
manufacturer, or in storage after purchase by farmers.
Different lots of feed may have different properties
with respect to aflatoxins.
Dr. Edds recommended that the serious problem of
certain batches of feed contaminated with mycotoxins
deserves the most concentrated effort by research
workers in Costa Rica and co-operative efforts by
those at the University of Florida. This would include:
(1) sampling and analysing of representative feed
ingredients (for example, sorghum grain) and for the
S-esence of aflatoxins or related toxins, (2) the
e tablishment of a minimal acceptance tolerance level
r the protection of animal and human health, (3) the
s rage time and conditions permissible in mixed feed
c : the farm before significant levels of mycotoxins
v )uld develop, and (4) whether the addition of
f agistats to feed-batches released for processing would
I effective and economically feasible for preventing
t 2 development of poisons. The presence of these
< cinogens assumes maximum importance in areas

where sorghum is ingested directly by human beings
as ground grain.
In a 1965 forage sorghum test. Francisco Fernandez
(Alejuela) found that the variety Sordan from
Northrup-King yielded 46.4 tons/ha while Silo King
from Asgrow gave 44.8 tons/ha as totals from six
successive harvests. Near Orotina, collections of both
forage and grain sorghums were grown as well as
demonstration parcels with the best varieties for this
area in the extreme southern end of Alajuela Province
near the Central Pacific Coast.
In El Alto, on the Continental Divide at about
6000 feet altitude, the best forage varieties were Silo
King and Goldmaker. Similar tests were conducted at
Pasto Ancho, Coris, and Orosi. A fertilizer trial was
conducted at Cartago with the native variety usually
grown in that region. Near Parrita, in the South
Pacific area, an adaptability trial of 42 hybrids and
varieties of grain sorghum was conducted.
Space limitations preclude presentation of results.
Those interested in details may correspond with the
Faculty of Agriculture of the University.

NOTE: Dr. Green's report on tests of Sorghum will appear in the next




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Caibamamn aur-Mrh17

Caribbean Farming

January- March 1971






Here's where you can buyThermoco PVC pipes

Pressure Fittings and Solvent Cement

Brown's XLCR Variety Store
Dor's (Mr. Lyn)
Charley's Windsor House
Rose Brothers
Chin See Brothers
Israel Williams
Spotlight Store
P.E. Stanigar & Sons
V.M. Bromfield Limited

Stork Deroux
Crichton Brothers
Ebony House
Adrian Lee (Cheapside Store)
Rose Brothers
Jackson Williams & Sons
Reg. J. Lyn
L.A. Beadle
Clarke's Hardware

Carby's Hardware
55 Slipe Road
Carib Hardware
71 Slipe Road
A.S. Cambridge
East Street
Hardware & Lumber
Spanish Town Road
W.L. Johnson
Waltham Park Road

Manufactured by:

45 Elma Crescent, Washington Boulevard,. Kingston 10. Telephone: 38747, 38841, 38842.

January- March 1971

Caribbean Farming

Tanier Research Notes

George Samuels and Antonio Velez

University of Puerto Rico.
from a paper presented to the
1969 meeting of the
Caribbean Food Crops Society.
Dr. George Samuels
Taniers ( yantia, tannia or coco, Xanthosoma
sp.) are one of the most important basic root crops
eaten in Puerto Rico. Farm values for this crop in
1965 amounted to US$1,714,000. Despite such
high value for this crop, not very much is known
concerning its agronomic requirements for Puerto

An experiment was therefore conducted at the
Korozal Substation, University of Puerto Rico. The
;oil was Lares Clay, a very acid (pH 4.6) lateritic soil
if the humid mountain terraces in the interior of
'uerto Rico.
n the experiment there were 64 plots, each con-
isting of 5 rows 3 feet apart and 15 feet long.
'he distance between plants in the row was 1V feet.
'he rows were mounded up and holes made.
"ertilizer was added to each hole followed by the
planting bit. Where lime was used, it was applied on
he surface at the rate of two tons per acre, worked
ito the upper 6 to 8 inches of the soil with hoes,
ad then the rows mounded up. Mother corm slices
f the tanier variety Morada were used .

he fertilizer and lime treatments used are given in
ie table. The experiment was planted June 26, 1967,
ad harvested 9 months later on April 15, 1968.
eaf samples were taken at 4, 5, 6, and 8 months.
-t harvest, only the inner 3 rows of each plot were
weighed to avoid border effects. Twenty corms
,ere taken at random from each plot for determina-
ion of the average weight per corm. Five plants at
andom were also weighed for determination of
lant weight.

Nitrogen ammonium sulphate dressings ranging
from zero to approx. 1,000 lb. per acre increased
the weight of tops, but the differences in yield of
corms were due mainly to variations from plot to
plot. However, ammonium sulphate at approx. 250
lb. per acre was found to give consistently better
yields of corms than equivalent applications of
urea or calcium ammonium nitrate.
Phosphate neither triple superphosphate nor
diammonium phosphate resulted in consistently
better yields than no phosphate.
Potash potash did not affect yields consistently at
the rate used.
Lime although the soil was so acid, every source of
lime used caused marked reduction in yield; the soil
pH increased only to 5.0 5.1.
Magnesium sugar cane and plantain responded to
magnesium on Lares clay, but the taniers in this
experiment were not affected.

In most plots it was found that greater weights of
corms were obtained where leaf growth was best.

January- March 1971

This Canadian vehicle may find use in the
Caribbean's sugar industry for hauling loads
of sugar cane under difficult conditions.

Caribbean Farming

- PART 2 by H.K.M. Augsburger, Eastern Caribbean Institute of Agriculture, Centeno, Trinidad.
Forage Harvesting Unfortunately, the in-line mounted harvested
Different Eastern Caribbean countries are making satisfactorily cut the material behind the whi
efforts to reduce their food imports by increasing treads of the tractor in certain crops, particu
the local production. Here, livestock production will the humidity percentage rises above certain 1
play an important role in helping to satisfy the In such situations, the crop in the tractor wh
increased demand for high protein food for the paths contains considerable amounts of mud
local population as well as providing livestock stalks which have been pushed down have a
products for the steadily increasing tourist to lift themselves up again before cutting. U
industry. The climate in these countries varies, but the described conditions, the in-line operator
there is often a pronounced dry season and a pro- harvester would not be the most suitable typ
longed wet season with some dry spells. In order to three-point linkage off-set type flail harvested
maintain constant, good quality livestock production, avoid the problem of damage to and losses ot
some kind of local fodder conservation (silage, pressed down by the tractor wheels, but the
hay) is necessary to keep production prices low and manoeuvring difficulties arising from camber
to reduce the need for use of expensive imported feed- which are often small would be even worse.
ing materials. The yield from the fields and the problem with the in-line harvester with a trai
number of livestock on individual farms grow behind the harvester is that the total length
continually. Better forage quality necessitating machine combination is considerable and dif
optimum harvesting timing is required. This in turn arising in its operation on cambered beds and
will result in shorter cutting intervals. The number of fields are accentuated.
farm labourers available in the future may well be
reduced. In spite of this it will be necessary to attain As a general rule, therefore, it is recommend
higher volumes of production. The answer to reduce consideration be given to different drainage s
peak labour demands in forage harvesting is a in place of the customary cambered bed syst
reasonable degree of mechanization. fore a pasture is laid down, in order to facial
The type of machine, forage harvesting systems and subsequent pasture establishment, maintenar
preservation procedures which are subject to change fodder harvesting operations. It should be re
and to technological improvements, should be selected membered that most flail type harvesters are
carefully for tropical conditions. The general low adapted for row crop or window pickup wo:
monetary value of forage and the losses in food value most flail machines, particularly the direct cu
appearing during the different harvesting and preser- throw machines have a poor control over len
vation processes, set narrow limits for profitable cut. This tends to make the cut material uns
mechanization. for mechanical handling systems, where the 1
In this section, some harvesting machines are discussed of cut has to be reduced to 5.6 milli-metres (
which can assist in the harvesting process of locally less. However, the above mentioned harvest
grown fodder of tropical countries, used satisfactorily for harvesting tropical pasi
Flail Type Forage Harveters such as Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum,
The flail type forage harvester, in the direct cut- others for direct back feeding or silage making
and-throw version or in the chopper type version trench or bunker silos. They may also be use
with a separate recutter and blower, must be pasture topping.
considered the most suitable type of harvesting If the flail harvester is equipped with a double
machine for tropical conditions. These harvesters transmission pulleys in order to reduce the fl
are simple in design and robust in construction. speed to about 900 r.p.m. it may be used as
The purchase, maintenance and repair costs are mower for fodder conservation. Dry matter
normally within satisfactory limits, must be expected to be higher than with con

r will not
larly when
e. A
r would
f material

ed beds
of the

ed that
em be-
Ice and

not well
rk and
gth of
Y") or
;rs can be
) and
d for

e set of
ail shaft
a flail

The cambered bed system used in tropical
countries in many cases limits the use of above
mentioned harvesters to the in-line operating cut-and-
throw type with a coupled trailer behind, because of
the uneven and rapidly changing ground conditions.
If the harvester is attached to the three-point
linkage from the tractor or the height adjustment
is done by means of a remote control hydraulic
cylinder, the field operation of the equipment will be
much easier than with a mechanical (hand)
adjusted type.

ventional machinery, but the period required for dry-
ing should be shorter, as shown in many trials under
different climatic conditions.

Drum Type Forage Harvester
For row crop harvesting such as Indian corn, it is
considered convenient to try under tropical condi-
tions a recently developed field drum chopper
harvester, designed specifically for small acreages. It
originated in West Germany (Weihenstephan) and
has been in field use to date for over two years. It is

January- March 1971

Caribbean Farming


Your programme may call for pasture improvement-
establishing improved varieties of grass, sub-divisions, or
providing continuous water supply to your dairy cattle to
increase milk production and earn you higher income.
Perhaps you wish to purchase additional cattle to
expand and improve your herd. Or you may wish to build
new stalls for your feedlot operations and grow more
choice meat for markets that pay premium prices for
highgrade beef.
You may even be thinking of getting into, or increas-

ing your acreage of citrus or coconuts to cash in later, on
stable domestic and export markets for these two crops.
Whatever your plans may be for Beef, Dairy, Citrus
or Coconut expansion, the JAMAICA DEVELOPMENT
BANK, with assistance from World Bank Loan Funds, is
now able to assist with long-term financing and expert
advice from our well trained staff.
We will be happy to work out a programme with you-
right out there on your farm.



January- March 1971

Caribbean Farming

a three-point linkage machine, harvesting one single
row next to the tractor. It is a design for European
farms with small acreages, but with certain modifica-
tions (strengthening) it may result in a suitable
machine for the tropics.

Rotary Grass Mowers
For cutting pastures, the new rotary grass mower,
system ZWEEGERS, has been accepted in Europe
during the last few years. It has replaced rapidly the
conventional sickle bar mower due to its increased
efficiency. This type of mower can travel at a rate of
up to 10 km/h (6.2 miles/hour) and above all,
operates considerably free of trouble for long
periods. Actually, there are three main types avail-
able on the market:

a. Machines with two or four drum type mowing
elements, driven from above, having two or more
hinge type cutting knives attached to the lower
part of the drum. The cutting elements
rotate in pairs in an opposite direction. The
speed of rotation of the knives is between 60 to
70 metres per second (197 to 230 feet per
second) for most types. The working width
varies between 1.20 and 1.60 metre (approx. 4
to 5 feet).

b. Machines with two, four or six disc type mow-
ing elements, driven from underneath, having
two or more hinge type cutting knives. The
cutting elements rotate in pairs in opposite direc-
tions. Speeds are as mentioned under 'a' above.
The cut material is carried off above the cutting
elements to the rear. The working width of this
type is about 1.60 metre.

c. A combined machine which cuts and conditions
simultaneously. Each of the two mowing
elements has two knives and is driven from
above. The grass, after cutting, is immediately
carried up and back by a horizontally mounted
reel and from a second reel it is taken over and
spread in a broad swath behind the machine.
The mowing components and the reels are
completely covered by a cap. The working width
is 1.60 metre.

The power requirements for the above mentioned
rotary grass mowers are dependent on the working
speed, density and condition of crop (i.e. upright or
flattened crop) and distance between drums.
Detailed examinations by WIJK give information
about the quality of the mowing, the form of the
windows, the length of the stubble and the possible
output of different models of rotary grass mowers.
In order to operate the above mentioned mowers
with good efficiency, WIJK found a tractor capacity
of at least 40 50 h.p. advisable. In these Dutch ex-
aminations, no greater stubble length nor higher

rates of loss were determined in comparison with
sickle-bar mowers. However, on irregular terrain and
slopes in Switzerland the above mentioned travel
speeds are not attainable, output is less and losses
may be considerable.

The rotary grass cutter must be equipped with a
good safety protection in order to prevent stones
which may be lifted and thrown from damaging the
equipment and injuring the driver or nearby workers.

Based on existing experience, it seems to be advisable
in the first instance to carry out some field trials in
the tropics with rotary grass mowers of the type
described above 'b' before final recommendations
could be made for their use.

Bamfords 'Wizzler' Drum Mower

Flail Mowers
Flail mowers seem to have a more robust construc-
tion than rotary mowers and, therefore, appear to be
more suitable for tropical conditions. Under
European conditions,flail mowers are capable of pro-
ducing swaths that will dry faster than those cut by a
reciprocating mower followed by a forward acting
tedder, but the flail-mown swaths dry slightly more
slowly than those cut by a reciprocating mower
followed by a crimper. Flail-mown swaths are
also more susceptible to deterioration by extended
periods of wet weather than those produced by a re-
ciprocating mower.

There are off-set models for three-point linkage and
trailed, p.t.o. driven machines on the market. A
common working width is 1.50 and 1.80 metres (5' and
6'). The rate of work is normally limited by the
power available at the tractor p.t.o. and a minimum
of 35 h.p. would be required for the above mentioned
working widths. The rate of work varies also accord-
ing to crop conditions and type of work and is
between 0.5 to 1.5 hectares per hour (1.2 to 3.6
acre per hour).

However, in order to obtain good rates of work it is
necessary to have a well levelled and drained field
without mole or ant hills and firm enough to support
the equipment without leaving tracks behind.

January- March 1971

Caribbean Farming

Flail mowers are most suitable for meadow pastures
with a dense, unbroken sod. On defective pastures
with bare patches and dry weather, too much dust
will be lifted up. The maintenance of flail mowers is
generally simple and easy to carry out. The mower,
obviously can be used very well or pasture topping.

Grass Mower Conditioners
Equipment for grass mowing and mechanical prepa-
ration of the stems of the plants (mower-crusher,
mower-crusher-tedder, etc.) which originate in the
U.S.A., are designed to work primarily in alfalfa and
clover-grass mixtures. As a special machine, it
would be limited in the tropics to big farms with well
levelled fields, growing mainly legume crops for
fodder conservation.
Hay Wafering
Efforts in the development of pressing forage into
riquettes are in progress in the U.S.A. and
european countries. Forage briquettes would reduce
he volume to be transported and stored and the
ulk material produced would permit some further
mechanization. Hay briquettes weigh about 500 kg/ms
11 lb/cu. ft) and hay bales up to 140 kg/m3
i.7 lb/cu. ft). At the moment it is difficult to fore-
,e when there would be a suitable system available
which can be used economically in the tropics. Kidd 'Rotaflail' Forage Harvester

More POWER on your farm


90 HP MF 1080

Perkins 4-cylinder 318 cubic inch
Diesel Engine.
M A S S E Y F R C U S 0 N Rugged 6-speed transmission
83 horse power at the power take-off
Choice of 540 RPM or 1000 RPM P.T.O.
SWorld famous Ferguson System hydraulics.
Pressure Control weight transfer for
trailed implements
23.4/18 x 30 rear tyres for traction.

S^, A I C A
A division of Reginald Aitken Ltd.
437 Spanish Town Rd., Kgn. 11, Tel: 38411

January- March 1971

Caribbean Farming


The number of chemical compounds of proved or
potential usefulness as active components of
pesticides grows apace and the collection of basic
data on them has become a task requiring the
collaboration of the industrial laboratories in which
they were developed. Accordingly the British Crop
Protection Council assigned to its Recommendations
Committees the preparation of a Pesticide Manual
giving basic information on standard chemicals and
those which have reached the stage of field evaluation.
In order that each chemical should receive, as far as
possible, a uniform coverage, the Committee prepared
a standard questionnaire on the items of information
sought. The particulars requested included:
Nomenclature: including common names, chemical
names, trade marks and code numbers.
History: the discovering firm, date of introduction,
first scientific reference and controlling patents;
Manufacture: a general indication of synthetic routes;
Physical properties of the pure and technical product;
Chemical properties affecting stability, compatibility,
corrosive properties and formulation;

Biological properties: including a brief statement of
major uses with effective doses, phytotoxicity
mammaliantoxicity, wild life hazards, persistence
and known metabolic reactions;
Formulations available;
Analysis including qualitative tests, references to
suitable methods for both product and residue
The intention was to cover all chemicals currently
used as the active components of pesticides used in
agriculture, excluding those solely of veterinary use.
Manufacturers were asked to include those new
compounds which have reached the stage of
submission to outside authorities for field test.
Compounds now only of historical interest or which,
though still under patent protection, have been super-
seded by compounds of greater potential, are named
in an appendix.
The co-operation of the manufacturers has enabled
over 460 compounds to be included in the Manual, the
index of which contains over 2,250 names, whether
common, chemical, trade or code numbers.
Hubert Martin Editor


Se It E NOWt K.II. e 1


tre pulling

you need!

Caribbean Farming

January- March 1971

P &

Pillsbury Animal Feeds are famous throughout the world for the highest quality
at the most economical prices.
Why not put Pillsbury Feeds to work in producing healthier, more profitable
cattle, pigs, chickens and other farm animals for you?



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Pillsbury Feeds... for bigger, healthier, more productive animals on farms throughout Jamaica.

"Caneboy" Cane Loader

The Jamaican Reaction:
"The Caneboy is a saviour" says cane farmer Eric
Chung. "Without it I would have had to go out of
cane production this year." Mr. Chung, one of four
Jamaican cane farmers operating this small loader for
the first time this crop, has traditionally suffered
from an irregular and ever diminishing supply of
handloaders for his 107 acres of cane in St. Thomas.
The situation became really critical last year when
despite the provision of daily transportation for
loaders, the farm was falling seriously behind its quota
to Serge Island Factory. Now, Mr. Chung is sending
up to 32 tons per day to the factory with far
fewer headaches.

Art Fulford of Caribbean Chemicals and Services,
the local agents, feels the Caneboy is more than a
stopgap; "Naturally we are initially cautious about
market acceptance but we at C.C.S. feel this machine
marks a turning point for the 100-399 acre cane
farmer. The Caneboy fills the increasing need
developing for a low cost, medium-production
loader which is versatile and does not tie up a
farmer's tractor indefinitely." The agents point out
that detaching the tractor drawn unit takes only
3 to 5 minutes and that a backhoe among many
other attachments can replace the cane grab for
other work.

But what of the many other medium sized cane
farmers in the island? The impression is they are
watching carefully to see how the "Caneboy" operates
this crop. To them the deciding factors in the final
analysis will not only be the possibility of easier
management through a more reliable harvesting
system, but how the Caneboy's cost per ton compares
with present handloading costs, particularly on diffi-
cult terrain. To help farmers answer these
questions let us take a closer look at the Caneboy
after half a crop of working in Jamaica.

The Machine:
The Caneboy is an adaptation of a light tractor-
mounted and hydraulically-operated slew loader used
originally in Britain for loading sugar beet, manure and
for trench digging. Over the past two years the
Barbados Sugar Producers' Association and the English
manufacturers, F.W. McConnel Ltd., have cooperated
in developing a 2-wheeled trailer-mounted version with
adjustable track width suited for Barbados' hilly

The Caneboy currently marketed in Jamaica has
its track adjustable between 66" and 88"; its flotation
tyres are equipped with air-water valves to allow for
water addition when extra stability is required. Ground
16 Caribbean I

loading is comparable with a 35 h.p. tractor.

The loader has a 1800slew arc and a grab capacity
of 400 lbs. The grab has a hydraulic rotator fitted as
standard to assist in neat cart packing.

The operators' control unit is simple and well
designed from an ergonomic point of view.

A 35 h.p. tractor is adequate for drawing the
loader. In fact any old tractor will suffice so long as it
has a drawbar and P.T.O. shaft on which to fit the
loader's hydraulic pump.

The loader is counter weighted and the manufacturers
claim loading is possible on slopes up to 1220. This
is yet to be borne out in practice in Jamaican
conditions it is a critical factor affecting its future
for the hillside farmers.

The Men:
One of the main criticism levelled at the Caneboy
by Jamaican farmers is that it needs two
operators, one for the loader and one for its hauling
tractor. As far as other personnel requirements go,
only one scrapper who can double as a chainsling man
is required as the grab picks up cane very neatly
compared with the higher production push-piler

It is possible to mount the loader on a tractor
3-Point linkage and at the same time fit a forward
control pillar thus allowing one man to drive and
load. However the tractor mounting limits operations
on steep slopes. Furthermore the loading is extremely
awkward for the driver as he would be sitting
facing forward with the loader arm directly behind
him. This alternative is not considered feasible.
The Maintenance:
The maintenance is ideal for a medium sized
farmer. The major routine work is topping up with oil
Farming January- March 1971

and complete oil changes at intervals still to be
specified by the agents. The hydraulic system is
easily understandable but like all hydraulic systems,
it requires regular preventive and corrective
maintenance to eliminate worn or broken hoses.
Farmers should note that the P.T.O. should always be
turned off as soon as loading ceases to prevent over-
heating the loader's hydraulic system.

The Performance:
The Caneboy operating in St. Thomas was observed
loading 5 ton capacity gooseneck carts, recently
converted for mechanical loading. The loader operator,
who had previous experience on push-pilers in St.
Catherine, was filling each cart in an average 16
minutes. For comparison, a competent push-piler
operator should load a 5 ton cart in a net time of
bout 7 minutes. It was reported that on average about
* carts are being loaded per day since crop began. The
:iain impediment to higher production is that only one
, actor is used and given enough cane carts the Caneboy
ilould load about 80 tons per 8 hour working day.

le grab picked up relatively little extraneous matter
compared with the push-pilers. One of the problems
as that cutters were not piling canes adequately
wing only recently converted to mechanical loading.
ie loader was consequently not picking up the
)0-400 lbs. grab loads it should be capable of

* thingg Problems:
: me setbacks have been occurring with the
i hydraulic system. For instance, chafing of hoses has
been occurring on the loader arm but has been
cor;:cted by redirecting the hoses. For loading of
trucks, maximum track width has been found im-
practical, and for such cases the loader's nearest wheel
to the truck must be left at a narrow track setting.

The Caneboy can be used for ditch digging and
drain cleaning by pin fitting a backhoe arm in place of
the cane loading arm. This will enable the loader to be
used all year round. Although not immediately avail-
able several specialist attachments are manufactured
for handling manure, corn, sludge and slurry. The
Caribbean Farming January-

ingenuity of local farmers could lead to adaptation for
unique conditions here. It is reported that one farmer
has expressed interest in experimenting with the loader
for handling coconuts!

Of interest to large estates is the optional incorporation
of a "load cell" between the grab and the loader arm.
The Caneboy can then be used in reaping experiments,
weighing the cane and loading in one simple operation.

There is one long shot that could pay off admirably,
given sufficient research and development. An idea
exists to link a trailer with a special short drawbar
behind the Caneboy, which at the same time is
hauled by a tractor. This would mean that only one
tractor would be required for the complete loading
operation. The problem is in designing the cart so
that it can be fully loaded with the Caneboy's present
reach. Complicating the issue, road haulage with short
cane cart drawbars is unsafe. One solution may be the
development of interchangeable lengths drawbars
specifically for the loading operation.

The Cost:
The Caneboy is currently selling in Jamaica at about
J$2,300. Its presently constituted loading operation
seems to be costing in the region of 60c. per ton,
including tractor costs. This does not compare favour-
ably with the present hafid loading costs or with the
push-pile loader. Nevertheless, increased utilisation
if achievable will drop the cost per ton loaded to some
extent. The relatively low capital cost should be
appealing to the medium sized farmer who can neither
afford a $12,000 tractor mounted push-pile loader nor
fully utilise it except by entering the contracting
business. The proving of the Caneboy's versatility
outside of cane production as an all-year round
machine will critically affect its general acceptability.
The one man who will find the machine particularly
attractive is the farmer torn between ploughing his
cane into the ground or continued cajoling of
disappearing handloaders. By next year we should
have an answer to whether the Caneboy will be a
market leader in our agricultural mechanization.

Douglas Orane
March 1971 17

'Caneboy' cannot be compared dollar-for-dollar with heavier, pricier

The seventy-two cows and calves in the breeding herd in
this photograph represent only 1.2% of Alcan's total beef
herd of 6,000 head. Progress in beef production by Alcan
can be measured by a liveweight production increase from
175,000 Ibs. in 1946 to 1,400,000 Ibs. in 1968, the result
of careful cattle breeding and selection and pasture
management improvement programmes.
Beef is only one way in which Alcan contributes to the
country's agricultural sector. The Company also produces
citrus, milk and forest products and its 4,600 tenant
farmers make a substantial contribution to Jamaica's food
crop production from the 20,000 acres of Alcan land
which they are farming.
Alcan, Alumina and Agriculture are three A's which mean
a lot to Jamaica's economy.


Dwarf Pigeon Peas as a Row Crop

By S.J.A. Williams & J.A. Spence

Faculty of Agriculture. The U.W.I. St. Augustine Trinidad.

Traditionally pigeon peas Cajanus cajan are planted
in May/June and harvested from large shrubs as the days
grow shorter, at the end of the year. In this system the
plant density is 2904/acre at spacing of about 3 ft. x 5 ft.

Flowering and fruiting of pigeon peas during the short
days combined with late planting (December) of
dwarf cultivars (developed by research workers at
the University of the West Indies) induces early flower-
ng on as small a plant as possible. This means that row-
copping at high population densities can be considered,
id that mechanization can greatly reduce harvest cost,
ie major item hampering large scale production.

h'is theoretical concept has now been put into practice
the St. Augustine campus of the U.W.I. A trial
anted in December 1969 has indicated that growth of
geon peas as a row crop is feasible. Planting was at
population density of 66,800 plants to the acre,
id harvesting was carried out mechanically by a
ciprocating mower. While yields from this preliminary
al are about half that of the conventional system
240 lb. as compared to 4000 lb./ac.) mechanical
rvesting costs were reduced to 20% the cost of
nd harvesting with a crop duration of 111 days as
,posed to the traditional system which has a crop
.ration of about 210 days. Full details of this trial
1 be published shortly.

te importance of this development has been
:ognised by International Foods Limited of
inidad, who after seeing the results of this first trial
ve donated funds for further experimentation on the
velopment of a row cropping system for dwarf
geon peas.

Siat there is a market for pigeon peas can be
i;ustrated by the fact that two companies in Trinidad
bly green peas for canning, and as a result, con-
s.mption in Trinidad has almost quadrupled from 0.44
lb. per person in 1963 to 1.63 lb. in 1967. The present
value of canned peas in Trinidad is approximately
$750,000. TT and in addition consumption of
canned pigeon peas increases annually by 10% in the
U.K. This expanding market will be well served by
a system which allows for extensive mechanized
cultivation of this crop.

Pigeon peas have always been a favourite among the
peoples of the Caribbean, and a row-cropping

system throughout the region should, because of
reduced production costs, stimulate consumption
even further. Their importance nutritionally has
also been recognized by the Caribbean Food and Nu-
trition Institute (CFNI) who, in their campaign for
increased protein in human diet, have placed great
emphasis on this crop; indeed it is significant, that
the C.F.N.I. Journal is titled 'Cajanus', the Latin
name for pigeon peas.

Investigations envisaged at St. Augustine, and follow-
up work in Jamaica should widen the season of product-
ion appreciably and hence spread employment over a
longer period of the year while at least maintaining the
present yield levels.

If this new system of growing pigeon peas holds its
early promise, then there is every likelihood that the
production of this crop will be revolutionised.

Regular sailing by modern CARGO steam-
ers between Jamaica, New York and New
Orleans, Cristobal, Costa Rica, Colombia,
Guatemala, Honduras as also to Pacific
Coast, Ports of North and South America
with transhipment at Cristobel, C.Z. Re-
frigerated and chilled Cargo accepted
from New York and New Orleans for
For full information apply to United
Fruit Jamaica Company, 40 Harbour
Street, Kingston, Jamaica, or, United
Fruit Company, Pier 3, North River,
New York, or, 321 St. Charles Avenue,
New Orleans 4, La., or Caribbean Steam-
ship Agency Limited, 421-427 Millbrook
Rd., Southampton S. 09 2 GF, England.



Caribbean Farming

January- March 1971

Integrated Research on Grain


By R.E. Pierre (Leader, Grain Legume Programme).

The grain legume programme is one of the major
programmes of agricultural research currently being
carried out by the Faculty of Agriculture of the
University of the West Indies. Although certain
aspects of Grain Legume Research were in progress
prior to April 1967, it is from that date that the
programme was expanded and organised into its present
form. This was made possible by a generous grant from
the Rockefeller Foundation for research on grain
legumes and root crops. This paper will be concerned
solely with grain legume research. The programme
is unprecedented in the Faculty from the viewpoint
of its multi-disciplinary approach to problems of
crop production.

Efficient and profitable crop production depends on
the synthesis of many of the agricultural sciences.
It is for this reason that the multi-disciplinary approach
to agricultural research is more likely to provide the
farmer with answers than the individual scientist
working in his own area of specialization.

Crops Selected
The crops which were selected for intensive study in
the programme were pigeon pea or gungo pea
(Cajanus cajan) dry bean or 'red pea' (Phaseolus
vulgaris) and soyabean (Glycine max). The reasons
for selection of pigeon pea and 'red pea' are
obvious. Pigeon pea is a traditional crop throughout
the Caribbean. Red pea is most important in Jamaica
where about 8,000 tons are consumed annually.
Annual local production is only about 25% of this
quantity. The case of soyabean is different. This
crop has not been grown to any extent in the
Commonwealth Caribbean. Besides being an
important source of vegetable protein both for
human beings and livestock, it is a very good source
of vegetable oil. With the current devastation of the
coconut palm by diseases in the Caribbean (lethal
yellowing and red ring) it seemed logical to
investigate other sources of vegetable oil. In fact,
the FAO Yearbook 1969 shows that some 4,300 and
3,500 tons of soyabean oil were imported into Jamaica
at a cost of $J1,085,640 and $J913,000 in 1967
and 1968, respectively. Assuming an optimistic
average yield of 1450 lb. per acre (equivalent to
average yield in U.S.A., 1966), some 33,000 acres will
be required to produce the quantity of soyabean oil
imported in 1967.

Have you renewed your subscription P

Pigeon Pea (Gungo Pea)
The broad objectives of the pigeon pea programme
were outlined as follows:-
1. The production of improved varieties.
2. The development of efficient agronomic practices.
3. The control of pests and diseases.

Improved Varieties
It is generally agreed that the old West Indian varieties
which are tall, late, indeterminate types which required
several harvests per crop, are unsuitable for large scale
commercial production. The efforts of our plant
breeders, therefore, were channelled into developing
varieties that are dwarf, early maturing and determin-
ate in form and cropping. Of some seventeen lines



Dear Sir,
I view with some alarm the statement on weed
control in "Letter from a Farmer" of the
October December 1970 issue of Caribbean
Farming. Mr. Humphrey seems to be unaware
of the work done by the Herbicide Research
Unit of the Faculty of Agriculture of the U.W.I.
or of the publications put out by the same Unit,
the latest of which, "Weedkillers for Caribbean
Agriculture" 1968 Edition, was advertised in
the July 1969 issue of Caribbean Farming. This
publication contains herbicide recommendations
for all the crops mentioned by Mr. Humphrey
except beet and okra. However, for the latter
crop, the latest findings were that prometryne
up to 4 lb. active ingredient per acre and 2 lb.
diphenamid + 2 lb. dacthal per acre were
safe as pre-emergence treatments. Not enough
trials were carried out in beets to make
recommendations, but in the few that were
carried out, lenacil (Venzar) at 1-2 lb. a.i. per
acre was promising.
I would be glad if you would publish a short note
in your next issue to clarify the position.

Yours sincerely,

Windward Islands Banana Growers' Association

January- March 1971

Caribbean Farming

which have been developed, eight are classified as
dwarf, five as intermediate and four as tall. Our
research has been concentrated on five of the
dwarf varieties.
Agronomic Practices
This necessitates work on several aspects of crop
growth. These include studies on the growth and
fruiting characteristics of selected varieties; the
effect of plant density and time of planting on
Shield and yield distribution, the effect of fertilizers
;-d growth regulators on yield. In Trinidad, we
w ve examined the feasibility of harvesting the
c op mechanically and evaluated methods for
.proving the quality of the canned product. Our
I-dies indicate that it is quite possible to grow
geon pea as a row crop (Fig.l) which is a
ntastic deviation from the traditional system of

ie row crop system coupled with the determinacy
the new varieties make it possible to mechanically
rvest this crop. It should be noted that mechanical
llers for mature green pigeon pea are available and
: currently being used by processors in Trinidad.
ts and Diseases
veral herbicides, insecticides and fungicides have
en evaluated for the control of weeds, insect pests

and diseases, particularly rust. Attention also has
been given to the timing and frequency of application
of the insecticides and fungicides and some varieties
and breeding lines have been screened for resistance
to rust. Of the varieties tested only No. 17 is resistant
to rust. This is very important because so far, it
has not been possible to satisfactorily control this
disease by chemical means.
Prometryne (1 lb/ac.) and maloran (4 lb/ac.) were the
most effective pre-emergence herbicides. Post-
emergence weed control can be effected by shielded
sprays of gramoxone (1 pint/ac.). The most import-
ant pests are the pod borers. Three sprays of either
DDT (2 lb/ac.),Dipterex (1.5 lb/ac) or Gardona
(1.5 lb/ac.) at 3-day intervals from peak flowering
have given good control of these pests in the deter-
minate varieties. Because of the extended period of
flowering in the indeterminate varieties, control will
be much more difficult. Leaf hoppers sometimes
cause significant damage but this pest is easily con-
trolled by malathion (1 lb/ac.) and several other
insecticides. Farmers should not use sevin on pigeon
pea. Although this is a very excellent insecticide, it
causes tremendous damage to the pigeon pea plant.

Dry Bean (Red Pea).
The specific objectives of the work on this crop were
set out as follows:

give high yields. You are not earning all you could.

And you are robbing your country of the opportunity to
substantial sums in foreign exchange so much needed to
chase machinery and other equipment necessary for our
tinued economic growth.


REMEMBER that Coffee is our only Agricultural Industry, which
has, over the past Eight Years, maintained a steady increase
in price to growers. And we can sell Ten Times the present
production at equally attractive prices.

So why are you sitting there cheating yourself and your country.
Do something about it for your own sake.

Get in touch with your local Coffee Officer or write for full



Caribbean Farming

January- March 1971

1. Identification of aspects of the traditional system
of cultivation which, with improvements, are likely to
result in increased yields. (The average yield per
acre in Jamaica is 700 lbs.)
2. Development of an economic system of production
for large, preferably flat areas. (It is recognized that
some improvements would be applicable to either
Several points related to production of this crop are
worth noting. These are summarised as follows:
a. Red pea is grown predominantly by small farmers
on small plots scattered throughout the island of
Jamaica. Many of these plots are on very steep hill-
b. Few farmers use fertilizers or apply crop
protection chemicals
c. Seeds used generally are unselected and often
consist of a mixture of local lines. (This is an
important limiting factor since many bean diseases
are seed-borne).
d. Dry bean is regarded by farmers as a 'high risk'
crop because it is adversely affected by drought,
waterlogging and excessive rainfall during the
flowering and maturing period.

There are a few aspects of the traditional system
which can be improved. However, the limitations
presented by the small plot size, the steep terrain

and dependence on rainfall cannot be easily overcome
by research. Under these conditions, dry bean will
remain a 'high risk' crop, although attention to
variety selection, spacing, fertilizers and control
diseases and pests are likely to increase profitability
when weather conditions are not too adverse.

Undoubtedly, the high incidence of plant diseases
is the most important limiting factor to dry bean
production in Jamaica. Our main work on this crop
has been directed towards variety evaluation, both from
the viewpoint of yield potential at different times of
the year and disease resistance. Fifty-seven varieties
have been introduced and tested along with what
appear to be five local types. In addition, the
effects on yield of fertilizers, growth regulators and
plant density have been studied and several
herbicides, insecticides and fungicides have been
evaluated for the control of weeds, insect pests
and diseases, respectively.

With good management, some varieties, both
introduced and local,have yielded up to 3,200 lb/ac.
(Pinto UI 114) and 2,800 lb/ac. (Miss Kelly) in
experimental plots. Pre-emergence application of a
mixture of dacthal and diphenamid (2 lb/ac. each)
has given reasonable weed control. Shielded sprays
of gramoxone can be used for post-emergence weed


A recent issue of POULTRY TRIBUNE magazine
describes the production system used by Bronson
Farms -- an egg marketing organisation operating in
central Florida. Bronson Farms collect eggs from 14
contract layer farms with a total capacity of 350,000
layers the range is from 25,000 to 40,000 birds.
Standard layer house is an open-sided structure
350 x 14 feet with a double row of cages down the
centre and a single row down each side. Two concrete
walkways extend the length of each house. The
houses have styrofoam-insulated ceilings as Bronson
has found that birds definitely perform better under
insulated roofs.
Layers are fed three times a day roughly at 7 a.m.,
11 a.m., 4 p.m. Feed is stirred and eggs collected
also three times a day.
Bronson Farms contracts are for the life of the
flock roughly 12 to 13 months. Flocks are
moved all-in all-out. In some cases pullets are
moved into the laying cages at 14 weeks; these pullets
are raised to that age in deep litter houses on
separate farms. When the 14-week-old pullets go
into the laying house, the farmer is paid pullet-
maintenance rate until egg production reaches 50%
when he starts getting paid per dozen eggs with a
feed conversion bonus that can earn him as much
22 Caribt

as 12 cents a bird.
Bronson Farms contractors provide building,
equipment, labour and utilities and they make
about 18% return on their investment. Most of the
contract farms are located within a 15-mile radius
of the Company's feed mill, which turns out
80 tons of feed a day. One man runs the mill and
a bulk feed truck (driven by another man) delivers
feed to pullet flocks and layer farms.


in your subscription today


the magazine

that farmers read

lean Fanning January- March 2971

bean Farming

January- March 2971

The main insect pests are beetles and leaf-webbing
caterpillars. These are easily controlled by sevin
(1 lb/ac.) and dipterex (1.5 lb/ac.) respectively.
Red pea is susceptible to a large number of diseases.
In Jamaica, the main diseases are bacterial blights,
anthracnose, powdery mildew, rust, angular leafspot
and golden mosaic. Methods for the control of these
diseases will be dealt with in another paper.
Soybean The main objective of the research work
rn soyabean is to determine the feasibility of pro-
icing this crop in the West Indies. Over 100
rieties have been evaluated in Trinidad and Jamaica,
id satisfactory yields, in the order of up to one and
5 ton per acre have been obtained from experimental
ots in Trinidad and Jamaica, respectively. Here again
2 have studied the effects of time of planting,
acing, herbicides, fertilizers and micronutrients on
is crop and have evaluated various insecticides for
st control. We do not think that the herbicides
ted have given sufficiently good weed control
d work is continuing in this area. The main pests
Sleaf webbing caterpillars and these can be con-
t lled with dipterex (1.5 lb/ac.). For the present
use of sevin on soyabean is not recommended.
is insecticide gives excellent control of several
sts in Florida and other parts of the U.S.A. but
Damages the crop both in Trinidad and Jamaica,

when applied at recommended rates. So far,
we have had no disease problems.
The Future
Research is a continuous process and this is
particularly so with agricultural research. New
plant protection chemicals are constantly being pro-
duced and new varieties being developed. It behoves the
the agricultural scientist to evaluate them. New
races of disease-causing agents also develop so that
varieties which are resistant today may become
quite susceptible in a few years. There are
various areas of deficiency in our research. That we
do know. For example, we have not yet started any
work on nitrogen-fixing bacteria an area of tremen-
dous importance in any legume research programme.
In short, we do not have all the answers, but we are
now in a position to answer several questions which
could not have been answered four years ago.
The author wishes to thank the many participants,
past and present, in the grain legume research pro-
gramme for their contributions. A list of all partici-
pants is published in the 1968/69 Half-Yearly Report
of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of the
West Indies. The assistance of the several technicians
and other workers is also acknowledged.




Shaver + Starcross 585. She's changing
the rules of the brown egg business,
because she produces better eggs and
does it more efficiently than any other
brown egger.
A layer that produces in the 250-280
range that hits 90% in her 32nd week
and stays there for a month that lays
80% or more large eggs that needs only
about 42 Ibs. of feed a dozen eggs a
layer like this has to be something special.
If you're serious about the brown egg
business, talk to us about Shaver 585.
She'll change the rules in your favour.

Jamaica Eggs Ltd.
15 Hope Road,
Kingston 10.
Tel: 65526-8


Caribbean Farming January- March 1971

10 Theway to grow

Caribbean Farming

January- March 1971


T.R. Preston and M.B. Willis

This book is a comprehensive survey and
analysis of all aspects of intensive beef
production. It discusses the world
market for meat, covering quality, genetic
improvement, nutrition, management
and disease, reproduction and fattening
together with an examination of problems
and development, with particular
reference to economic aspects. The book
is based on an integrated interdisciplinary
approach which treats beef production
as an industrial operation; this approach
is on a world-wide basis and particular
attention is given to the potential of the
tropics. The aim throughout the work has
been to maintain a critical technique
without sacrificing scientific
All major advances in the field are
included, plus the authors' own recent
work, much of which was previously
unpublished. This latter comprises a new
approach to genetic improvement through
performance testing and crossbreeding,
and the development of an intensive
system of beef production based on the
use of sugar cane which could well

This book could well become a standard
text on beef production. It will prove to
be of value to research workers,
post-graduate students, senior
undergraduates, University teachers in
agricultural faculties and progressive
farmers, and will find a place in all farm
institute and college libraries. Certain
sections will be suitable for courses in
applied genetics and animal nutrition.

T.R. Preston, Ph.D.,D.Sc. is Director
of the Instituto de Ciencia Animal,
Havana, Cuba. He is well known as the
originator of the early weaning system of
calf rearing in general use in the UK and
of the intensive "barley beef system for
fattening beef cattle, which accounts for
some 10 per cent of all cattle fattened in
the U.K. In 1965 he was appointed as
Director to establish a research institute in
animal science in Cuba. His subsequent
work at the Institute has been mainly
concerned with the development of
feeding systems for cattle, pigs and
poultry based on sugar cane by-products.
With M.B. Willis he collaborated on the

revolutionize beef production in tropical areas, development of performance testing and

breeding systems in beef cattle.
Dr. Preston has published over a hundred
papers in some 20 scientific journals
together with over 50 research
communications presented at scientific

M.B. Willis, B.Sc.,Ph.D. is Head of the
Division of Animal Science at the
Institute de Ciencia Animal, Havana. His
main field of interest lies in the
development of testing systems and
breeding methods in a wide variety of
domestic livestock and he has worked in
collaboration with T.R.Preston on
molasses feeding systems. In 1965 he
was appointed Head of the Animal
Science Division at the Institute, where:
he played a major role in establishing
post-graduate teaching programme.
Dr. Willis is the author of some 40
scientific papers and has had some 20
communications presented at scientific

Intensive Beef Production
is published by Pergamon
Press, Oxford, England.

Typical terracing on Highgate clay, St. F
Jamaica. Terraces are exactly on the cor
but have a 10% slope towards the inner ea
hold storm water. For tree crops plant
done near the edge of the terrace where
best soil occurs. Weed control is done rr
on the terrace, the visers being left. A
tracks angle up the hillside across the ten

- '4

January- March 1971

Caribbean Farming

blist by the Agricultural Experiment
atior ouisiana State University.

.ESEARCH has indicated that in most
.s beef cows require supplemental
4 during the winter months. Sup-
m!nents should contain both energy
I protein since available forages
< n do not supply enough of these
maintenance and growth. A mo-
i-ses and urea mixture can be useful
as a beef cattle supplement. In South-
vwest Louisiana molasses is generally a
cheap source of energy, while urea
serves as an indirect source of protein.
Molasses purchased directly from
sugar mills usually has a higher sugar
content than molasses that has been
standardized to 79.5 brix. The sugar
content affects the feed value. The to-
tal digestible nutrient (TDN) con-
tent of molasses is about 54.9 percent.
Approximately 1.6 pounds of molasses
are required to furnish the same
amount of energy as 1 pound of corn.
Cane molasses produced in Louisiana

'Iberia Livestock Experiment Station,
Jeanerette. Authors are, respectively: Re-
search Physiologist, U.S.D.A.; Associate,
Animal Science; Associate Professor, Ani-
mal Science; Associate, Animal Science;
Superintendent, U.S.D.A.
Caribbean Fannrming

is about 4.4 percent crude protein.
Molasses serves as a good source of
calcium but is low in phosphorus.
Urea, available in dry form, con-
tains 42, 45, or 46 percent nitrogen.
The most common type (45 percent
nitrogen) has a protein equivalent of
281 percent (45 X 6.25 = 281). One
pound of urea provides the protein
equivalent of approximately 6 pounds
of 44 percent soybean meal. Feed
grade urea has smaller prills than fer-
tilizer grade urea and should usually
be used in molasses-urea mixes.
Consumption of Molasses-Urea Mix
Research with molasses and urea
has been conducted at the Iberia Live-
stock Experiment Station for several
years. These studies have shown that
the level of urea in the molasses-urea
supplement regulates the consump-
tion. Dry cows fed about 10 pounds
of hay during the winter were placed
on three different levels of urea and
molasses. Cows fed a mixture of 4
pounds of urea per 100 pounds of
molasses consumed 10 pounds of mix.
Cows fed a mixture of 8 pounds of
January- March 1971

urea per 100 pounds of molasses con-
sumed 6.5 pounds of the mix, and
cows fed a mixture of 12 pounds of
urea per 100 pounds of molasses con-
sumed 3.5 pounds of the mix per head
The consumption of molasses and
urea when fed free choice on pasture
is influenced by age, weight, and lac-
tation status of the cattle and by the
supply of forage and supplemental
feed available. Cows that nursed calves
in the previous spring will consume
from 5 to 10 pounds of the supple-
ment during the winter months, de-
pending upon the availability of other
nutrients, such as grass and hay.
Preliminary results at the Iberia
Livestock Station indicate that mature
cows fed urea and molasses (8:100)
and hay during the winter months had
higher calving percentages than cows
fed 10 pounds of hay. Cows consumed
about 6 pounds of the mix per head
daily, in January, February, and March.
The pregnancy rate for the group fed
molasses-urea and hay was 93 percent
and for the group fed hay, 80 per-
cent. Thus, increased intake of energy

and protein during the critical winter
period contributed to a higher preg-
nancy rate for cows fed molasses-urea
Molasses-urea mixes (100:8) have
been fed to weanling heifers. They
consumed about 4.5 pounds of the mix
per head daily. Weanling heifers fed
molasses and urea mix have failed to
gain as rapidly as those wintered on
molasses free choice and 2.0 pounds
of cottonseed meal per head daily.
Steers fed silage rations in dry lot
have also been fed molasses-urea mix
free choice. The type of silage (corn or
sorghum) affects the amount of mo-
lasses and urea consumed. Steers fed
corn silage consumed about 4.5 pounds
molasses-urea mix while steers fed
sorghum silage consumed 5 pounds.

Mixing Molasses and Urea
Caution should be taken in pre-
paring a molasses-urea mix to insure
that all the urea is completely dis-
solved. Table 1 gives directions for
preparing the mixture. Urea does not
dissolve readily in cold molasses. In
cold weather it may be helpful to dis-
solve urea in water before adding it
to the molasses. This also causes the
molasses to flow more freely.
As a precaution, molasses and urea
should be thoroughly mixed and al-
lowed to stand about 12 to 18 hours
before cattle are given access to it.
This requires mixing molasses and
urea in one tank and feeding in other
containers, or mixing directly in feed-

ing containers and closing them over-
Molasses-urea mixtures have been
sampled periodically to determine
whether separation of ingredients has
occurred. Samples taken the day after
mixing and four weeks later contained
practically the same protein equiva-
lent content.

Precautions in Feeding Urea
Urea is a toxic substance. When
livestock consume too much of it, se-
vere digestive disturbances and even
death may result.
There is a danger that hungry cat-
tle may consume toxic amounts of mo-
lasses-urea mix. Therefore, cattle should
be fed a large amount of roughage
before initially being placed on mo-

lasses-urea mix. Water and some
source of roughage such as pasture
grass, hay, rice straw, or silage should
be available at all times.
Livestock producers should supply
a source of calcium and phosphorus,
such as salt and bone meal, to beef
cattle at all times during the year. If
cattle have access to salt and bone
meal, there is little advantage to in-
cluding phosphorus in the mix. How-
ever, phosphoric acid or ammonium
polyphosphate may be added to apply
phosphorus. Phosphoric acid also aids
in control of flies around feeders.
Vitamin and mineral premixes are
available as additives. Other chemi-
cals for control of stomach worms,
horn flies, and foot rot are also manu-
factured for addition to molasses-urea

January- March 1971

Caribbean Farming


out attack


Think of all the worms which eat holes in
your profits. Think of all the important
roundworms, including lungworm, and
liver fluke. Then think of Nilzan. Nilzan
is the only complete anthelmintic. Nilzan
destroys worms which can pull down and
kill your sheep and cattle.

Nilzan works safely at the same dose rate
in all your stock. With Nilzan there is one
gathering, one handling and one drench-
just a few of the reasons why Nilzan saves
you time, money and worry! Nilzan, and
only Nilzan, does all this. Get in your
ammo and start shooting.

Supplies available from your
usual agricultural stockist.
Imperial Chemical Industries Limited
Pharmaceuticals Division
Alderiey Park Macclesfield
Cheshire England

Caribbean Farming January- Mareb 1971

Caribbean Farming

January- March 1971

t pays

to feed Purina
There are over 25 ingredients in
Purina chows, micro-mixed for
controlled quality, working
to make more profit for you.

The essential ingredients in Purina Chows can 4
help you produce the kind of livestock that
makes money for you. Layers that give you
240 or more eggs a year. Broilers that go to /
market 7 days sooner. Sows that wean up to
10 pigs per litter. Hogs that reach market-
weight one month earlier with less feed. Cows
that give you 1000 lbs. more milk and steers
that produce more and better beef. That's
what makes profit for you. Check at the
checkerboard sign of your Jamaica Feeds
dealer for Purina, the feed that pays.





Working together in Jamaica to produce better food at lower cost.

Caribbean Farming January- March 1971

January- March 1971

Caribbean Farming

The Future of Soyabean in the Caribbean
Dr. John L. Hammerton
Agronomist- Faculty of Agriculture U.WI. Mona. Jamaica.

Experiments on soyabean have been in progress in the
Faculty of Agriculture of the University of the West
Indies since 1967, and we have now reached that
difficult stage in the development of any new crop -
the stage between small-plot research and large-scale
commercial planting.
Considerable quantities of soyabean oil and soyabean
mc-l are currently imported by the territories of the
Co,-imonwealth Caribbean, so that the possibility of
red icing importation by local production is attractive.
As n oil-seed crop soyabean is not a crop for the small
faw ier. Economic production of soyabean would have
to e undertaken on relatively large farms and must be
fu mechanised.
SL, factory yields of soyabean, in the order of one
to .5 ton per acre, have been obtained in Trinidad
ar Jamaica respectively from experimental plots.
TI level of yield compares favourably with that
fo id in many parts of U.S.A., the principle soyabean
pi iucing country. Experimental plots however,
r( ive a great deal of care and attention. Yields from
s ll plots are not an accurate guide to the level of
y I of commercial plantings where much less care
c be lavished on the crop and yields are inevitably
1: r.
P iough the agronomic requirements of the crop
i ie Caribbean are by no means fully known,
s icient data on varieties, row spacings, plant
. ullation, sowing dates and fertilizer response are
'a .able to enable sound interim recommendations
t :e made. Research on these and other topics
have to be continued if soyabean is developed
i commercial oil-seed crop.

I formation Needed
I: ormation on the cost of production of soyabean
g: wn on a field scale in the Caribbean is
vi :ually non-existent. So far, very few attempts
a: "non-experimental" production have been made
a!:d in those plantings modern methods of mechanised
pi ,duction were not utilized. Costings from such
plantings are no guide to production costs of a fully
mechanised system. Realistic production costs can
be obtained only by growing relatively large acreages -
a minimum of say 20 acres under commercial
conditions with full mechanisation. Such a study is
an essential pre-requisite in determining the feasibility
of introducing soyabean as an oil seed crop.

Large Areas
If soyabean proves an economical proposition as a
commercial oil-seed crop in the Caribbean, the

question of land availability arises. The area required
will be determined by (a) the production requirements
of a single territory or of the CARIFTA region this
can be estimated from the average yield obtained in
large scale plantings, (b) the minimum quantity
required to justify investment by the local processors
in extraction equipment. For mechanised production
the land must be in large blocks and reasonably level.
Texturally, it should be a well-drained medium to heavy
loam. Any form of surface drainings must be such as
will not impede the operation of machinery particu-
larly combine harvesters. A supply of irrigation water
will be needed to ensure full utilization of the land.
Techniques and regimes of water application will need
to be examined to ensure economical and efficient use
of water. It will be necessary to grow soyabean in
rotation with maize or other crops which can be
mechanised. Because of its relatively long growing
period (4-41/2 months) and the need to mechanise,
soyabean cannot be intercropped with cane or other

Farming Techniques
The modern techniques that will need to be
exploited if production costs are to be kept down
include the following:- (i) Drilling to a stand with
tractor tool-bar mounted precision seeders. (ii)
Chemical weed control with a residual soil-acting
herbicide, probably band sprayed at the time of
drilling. Tractor-hoeing or shielded sprays will be
needed for inter-row weed control, and post-emergence
directed or overall sprays may be necessary to
achieve a sufficient duration of control. (iii) Minimal
insecticide treatments to control leaf-eating and
leaf webbing insects. Since a series of sprays is likely
to be necessary, the crop may need to be grown with
tractor wheel-ways at appropriate intervals to
minimise mechanical damage to established plants.
(iv) Mechanical harvesting by combine harvesters.
The harvesting of crops maturing during wet periods
is likely to pose problems. Planting at such times as
will minimise the likelihood of wet harvests is an
obvious move, and foliar dessicants may be useful in
those cases where harvests are unexpectedly wet.
(v) Artificial drying facilities may be needed, since
soyabean can be safely stored without rapid
deterioration only at a moisture content of 12% or
There is a need to develop suitable and reasonably
profitable crop rotations maize/soyabean
rotations have been proposed for Trinidad (Radley,
1968). Dry beans might be a suitable crop in rotations
in Jamaican and Belize. Soyabeans show limited and

Caribbean Farming

January-March 1971

uncertain responses to direct fertilizer applications,
but applications elsewhere in the rotation may be
effective in improving soyabean yields. Rotations
must take into account expected rainfall patterns
in regard to satisfactory sowing dates, to minimise
the need for irrigation and to avoid excessively wet
harvesting conditions with the dangers of seed
sprouting and seed decay.

The investment in machinery for large commercial
plantings is considerable. Radley (1968) listed the
requirements for 450-500 acres as follows.
1 Combine harvester, self propelled
1 Corn attachment for above
2 Tractors (60 h.p.)
2 Disc ploughs
2 Disc harrows
2 Rotavators
2 Toolbars, each with four (or more) precision
seeder units
2 Sprayers, tractor-mounted.

This equipment could also be -4 for corn, although
a high-clearance tractor for insectic-.- application
might be required. To this list should be added
band spraying equipment for the seeder units, hoe
legs for the toolbars, or separate steerage hoes. On
certain soils a rotavator might not be necessary and
could be replaced by tine harrows. Furrow former
or ridging bodies would be necessary for surface
irrigation. Such an inventory is likely to cost J$30 -
40,000. In addition drying facilities would be
necessary. An important point is that carefully
scheduled staggered plantings would be essential to
ensure proper utilisation of the combine, without
shattering losses, and of the drying facilities. An
investment of J$40,000 per 500 acres is J$80 per
acre. Written off over 5 years, this is a depreciation
charge ofJ$16 per acre per annum.Repairs, mainte-
nance, replacement and running costs would be
additional fixed overhead charges.

For investigational purposes a less extensive machinery
budget would be required. For 20 acres the following
would be sufficient, assuming that basic cultivation
equipment and tractors were available on hire or loan.
The inventory might be as follows:
1, Combine harvester, trailed and P.T.O. driven (about
5ft cut)
1, Toolbar with four precision seeder units
1, Set band spraying equipment
1, Steerage hoe
1, Sprayer, tractor mounted
This would probably cost about J$7,000 and is a
minimum machinery investment.

In the Commonwealth Caribbean, only Belize, Guyana,
Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago have large tracts of
"mechanisable" land. In Belize and Guyana large areas

Cooper Research Organisation on "Cattle Tick Control".

Scientists in Australia have shown that an average
daily infestation of 50 of a certain species of
cattle tick causes an annual loss in growth of nearly
4 tons of beef in a herd of 100 animals.

When the tick eradication campaign in Argentina was
started it was estimated that eradication of the tick
should increase beef production by 300,000 tons

These reports are highlighted in a new 68-page booklet
with colour illustrations, "Cattle Tick Control" pre-
pared by members of the Cooper Research Organisation
and published by Cooper, McDougall & Robertson
Limited of Berkhamsted, England.

The book has been written by Mr. R.D. Shaw of the
Cooper Technical Bureau, Dr. J.A. Thorburn of
Cooper, McDougall & Robertson (C.Af.) Pvt. Ltd.,
and Dr. H.G. Wallace of Cooper, McDougall & Robert-
son (E.Af.) Pvt. Ltd. It is available either in Spanish
or in English from Cooper, McDougall and Robertson
Limited, Ravens Lane, Berkhamsted, Herts, England.

"Of all external parasites" say the authors, "ticks
cause the greatest economic losses in livestock pro-
duction in the world today. An estimate of the milk
loss in Queensland, Australia from the presence of
ticks is 40 gallons per animal or 5,300 tons of butter

of uncropped land are available which, if found suitable
for soyabeans, and if irrigation can be made available,
give these two territories considerable potential for
soyabean production. The Ministries of Agriculture
of these two territories are currently engaged in trials
on soyabeans. In Jamaica and Trinidad, suitable lands
are currently under sugar cane. Soyabean production
on a commercial scale would depend therefore on a
change of land use which involves policy decisions.
Such policy decisions must be based on reliable data
from investigations along the lines outlined above
which should take into account the entire rotation.

Although the above account has considered soyabeans
as an oil-seed, it must be borne in mind that the protein
rich residue after oil extraction is an important feeding-
stuff for livestock. Soyabeans also can be processed
to make attractive protein supplements for young
children and indeed to make nutritious and acceptable
meat substitutes. The value of soya protein in the
Caribbean therefore is an additional factor to be borne
in mind in decision-making on commercial production
of the crop.

Radley, R.W. (1968) The prospects for soyabean production in Trinidad
and Tobago. J. Agricultural Society Trinidad & Tobago.

January- March 1971

Caribbean Farming

annually. The total loss caused by the presence of
ticks in that State was estimated in 1959 to be
nearly $A20 million.

"Losses of this magnitude represent bad farm econo-
mics and bad national economics. The greatest loss
to the farmer comes from poor tick control because
he bears the cost of doing the job badly, which is
no less than doing it well, and gets none of the
returns which good tick control would give him.

It may take years of good tick control to remedy the
effects of poor control in previous years."

The object of every tick control scheme, says the
booklet, should be to prevent the breeding and
:multiplication of ticks within a definite area.
Regular dipping or spraying on a farm that is enclosed
b:y a fence will, within a year or less, significantly
duce the numbers of ticks on the pastures which
ill not have been re-infested with ticks dropped by
,n-dipped stock.

He more cattle there are within any tick-control
ea, the more rapidly will the tick population be
duced by systematic dipping or spraying.
re greater the number of cattle to pick up the
t :ks, the sooner will the ticks be brought in to be
I Ued by the pesticide.

The book describes the species of tick most commonly
infesting cattle and their distribution around the
globe. It lists the types of chemical used against them,
outlines methods of spraying and dipping and
explains methods of avoiding resistance.

The Machakos dipbath used in East Africa is one of
the methods of dipping against cattle tick outlined in
"Cattle Tick Control" -by members of the Cooper Research

helps you produce
more meat . with less feed

BROILERS . Tylan is first choice in Chronic
Respiratory Disease control programs. It kills
PPLO (pleuropneumonia-like organisms), the
primary cause of CRD. Tylan helps you cut
mortality during the critical early growing
period, helps broilers gain faster and make more
efficient use of feed.

HOGS . Tylan combats troubles, helps you grow thriftier hogs
from start to finish. Faster gains... More efficient use of feed ...
Protection against costly infections. It pays to stay with Tylan all
the way to market.
Disease fighter, PPLO controller, gain booster, feed saver-How
should Tylan be serving you?
San Juan Puerto Rico

Caribbean Farming January- March 1971

Caribbean Farming

January- March 1971

The following release has been issued by Elanco Products Company -
distributors of herbicides, veterinary pharmaceuticals and feed

Introduction of Chem
Farm Sprayer

Elanco, as a service to its customers in the Caribbean
is making available a dependable, compact, and
virtually clog proof pesticide applicator.

As we know, one of the biggest obstacles to applying
wettable powders and liquid pesticides is the endless
clogging of the nozzles, short pump life and spray
pattern drift when. 15-30 MPH wind conditions
are present. This unit reduces these common problems,
and is complete except for tanks and tank carriers.

The first outstanding feature are the nozzles
being revolutionary in design. Rather than the con-
ventional type nozzle where pressure forces the
solution through the tip, with the Whirl Chamber
Nozzle, the solution swirls through the orifice
giving a circular pattern. Because of this design, a
much larger orifice opening is possible resulting in
comparable gallonages per acre as with the old flat
spray tips. For instance:

with the revolutionary rugged and
dependable L150

This versatile machine with its
many attachments is capable
of bush cutting, ploughing, re-
fining, sowing, weeding, reap-
ing, pumping etc. Yes farmers
ask for a demonstration and
be convinced how to get the
most from your land.


Chem Farm Tip showing Whirl Chamber

A Chem Farm Tip (NW-5) at 15 PSI and 5 MPH
spraying a 45 inch width will put out 13.5 gallons
per acre.

A Tee Jet Tip (8005) at 30 PSI and 5 MPH will put
out 26 gallons per acre spraying a 20 inch width.

We note that there is a pressure difference in the
comparison; while the flat spray tip requires at
least 30 PSI to give an even spray pattern, the
Whirl Chamber Nozzle will give a complete spray
pattern as low as 5 PSI resulting in less pump wear
and larger droplet size emerging from the tip. While
the Flat Spray Tip (Tee Jet 8005) has an approxi-
mate orifice opening of 0.052 inch, the Whirl Chamb,
NW-5 has an orifice opening of approximately 0.156
which may not seem large, however, it increases the
orifice area by approximately nine times. With the
orifice area nine times larger, the output being
approximately half of the 8005 tips, this allows the
producer to spray wettable powders or liquids withor
the need of screens, provided, of course, his tanks
are reasonably clean.

Referring to the pump: Included is a 6 nylon roller
Ni- resist pump. Rather than utilizing the relatively
inexpensive standard cast iron housing, the Chem
Farm pumps have nickel impregnated into the-
cast iron resulting in roughly three times the life
expectancy of the pump.

Also included is a recalibratable pressure gauge
which allows the producer to reset this gauge if for
any reason the gauge should register an incorrect
reading. Additionally, we include /2 inch pipe
extension which will reach from the bottom of
the tank to the top at the point of intake hose con-
nection eliminating the problem where intake hoses
"curl up" leaving the suction strainer out of the
water when the tank is only partly empty.

January- March 1971

Caribbean Farniing




To destroy bacteria in the drinking SANI-T IZOL
water supply for poultry and livestock SAO I- TIZOL

For treatment of sarcoptic mange, lice,
ticks, mites and foot-rot in cattle, CRESL-400
hogs, horses, dogs and other animals

For general disinfectant purposes SAN -SQUAD
needing a powerful chemical combination O %ff rWTii**At*' use

2 Torrington Avenaue. Kiingtam. Pm 22023, 227, 227..


An efficient and versatile

anthelmintic for all types

of Livestock

LOXON 2 is a unique product designed for easy
control of worms.
Loxon 2 gives highly efficient control of
stomach and intestinal worms in cattle, sheep,
horses and pigs. Furthermore its administration
presents no problem animals which are
normally difficult to dose, such as pigs and
horses, can be treated simply by mixing
Loxon 2 with the feed. '
Regular worming with Loxon 2 is simple,
effective and economical.
For more information on Lpxon 2 and the range of Cooper products, get in touch with
T. Geddes Grant in Jamaica, Trinidad, Barbados or:
Dept. C.2, Cooper McDougall & Robertson, Berkhamstead, Herts, England.

9 -,w..

Lithogr uihic Printers Ltd.

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