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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial
 Main
 Back Cover














Title: Caribbean farming
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101460/00005
 Material Information
Title: Caribbean farming
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Mona, Jamaica
Publication Date: January-March 1970
Copyright Date: 1969
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101460
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 3116219

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Editorial
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Main
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Back Cover
        Page 37
        Page 38
Full Text










JAN UA RYI-MA1T~CH 'TO





L ~ "~~~
















8s~s


14






























I you've go t

worms...we ve


goheammor~n


With'Nilverm' from ICI you control all
major worms including Lungworm with
practically loo% efficiency. 'Nilverm
will control worms swiftly and without
risk. Wormy sheep and cattle can cost
you plenty. 'Nilverm' will save your
stock and your money.


It is a wide-spectrum, ready-to-use
golden drench. 'Nilverm' is easy to use
and flows freely through any gun. You'll
see rapid improvement in the condition
of your stock after drenching with
'Nilverm'. Get in your ammo and start
shooting.


Supplies available from your
usual agricultural stockist.
~5Imperial Chemical Industries Limited
rC Adare eacri Maa ef eld
\ Cheshire England


Make war on worms


he


























5
9
18
20
Crops 23
25


Livesteelc


Notes FPor
Contributors


Sucbscriptions








Cr~eeits


SUGAR CANE VARIETIES FOR CARIBBEAN FARMERS
BANANA COSTING OBSERVATIONS ON A SMALL PLOT
THE SCARABEE A MAJOR PEST OF SWEET POTATO
LETTE R 'FROM A FARMER
DRIFTING, A PROBLEM TO BEEKEEPERS
U.W. I. AG R ICULTU RAL R ESEAR CH


CROP BY-PRODUCTS FOR FEEDING LIVESTOCK
F LO RIDA R ESTR ICTS USE O F TOX IC PESTICID ES
CROSSBREEDING WORK AT KARNAL
FARM LIVESTOCK PERFORMANCE RECORDS
SOR E MOUTH IN GOATS



Thle editor will be glad to hlear from farmers, research workers, extension officers
anld o others who would like to offer articles o r phlotographzs fo r pu blication in
CA R1BBEAN FA RMING.
P'referenzce is given7 to articles of a practical nature which will help to puct thle
resullts of research~ anzd experiment into thle farmer's hanzds. W~there possible, good
drawings or diagrams should accomlpanry articles. Good quality photographs of not less
thlan 5" x 7" are welcome they should relate to farming in? the region.
Payment will be malcde (on2 publication) for all material accepted.


Rates for 4 Issues
Jamaica $1.67 Eastern Caribbean E.C. $4.00, U.S.A. and other Countries $2.00.


PRODUCTION OF FLUE--CURED TOBACCO IN TRINIDAD
TEXACO FARM AND CHAROLAIS CATTLE
UREA FOR FEEDING CATTLE.
CONTROLLING CHRONIC RESPIRATORY DISEASE IN POULTRY.

cover photograph by courtesy of West Indies Sugar Co. Ltd.
Other photographs by contributors


Published in association with the Faculty of Agriculture, University of the West Indies.
Edited by CAROL RECKORD. Caribbean Farming welcomes suggestions, articles. Address
all correspondence to Caribbean Farming, P.O. Box 174, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica, W.I.


Jan.-blarcrh 1970


Vol. 2 No. 1


















































THERMO-PLASTICS JAMAICA LIMITED


NOW


THERE ARE I,

EVEN MORE


DEALERS FOR~


PVC PIP ES!


ANNOTTO BAY
Brown's X LCR Variety Store
BLACK RIVER
Dor's (Mr. Lyn)
BROWN'S TOWN
Charley's Windsor House
DISCOVERY BAY
Rose Brothers
FALMOUTH
Chin See Brothers
GRANGE HILL
Israil Williams
HIGHGATE
Spotlight ~Stort
LINSTEAD & OCHO RIOS
P.E. Stanigar & Sons
MANDEVILLE
V.M. Bromfield Limited


MAY PEN
Stork Deroux
MONTEGO BAY
Crichton Brothers
PORT IMARIA
Ebony House
PORT ANTONIO
Adrian Lee (Cheapside Store)
RUNAWAY BAY
Rose Brothers
SAVANNA-LA-MAR
Jackson Williams & Sons
Reg. J. Lyn
SA1\TA CRUZ
L.A. Beadle
ST. ANN'S BAY
Clarke's Hardware


KINGSTON
Carby's Hardware
55 Slipe Road
Carib Hardware
71 Slipe Road
A.S. Cambridge
East Street
Hardware & Lumber
Spanish Town Road
W.L. Johnson
Waltham Park Road


Here's where you can buy Thermoco PVC pipes

Pressure Fittings and Solvent Cement





wide area and over succeeding years. Very often it is to the
farmer's advantage to read about this sort of research with
some of the 'technical details' included rather than wait for
the reports to be digested and summarized in popular
magazines. This makes it desirable for the progressive farmer
to spend a little time and effort learning the talk of the trade.
After all, it's HIS trade.

CHEMICALS AND THE FARMER

On page 29 of this issue, there is a story about restrictions
on the use of a number of chemicals widely used by farmers.
This sort of action has been taken by many government
agencies and follows in the wake of scientific investigation and
recommendations.
.While farmers and other people must remain deeply
interested in scientific study of possible harmful results arismng
from use of powerful chemicals, there are at least two or three
points to be remembered.
Firstly, some of these chemicals notably DDT have
done a lifetime of service in controlling the malaria mosquito
and other insect pests in many parts of the world under
conditions where less powerful and more expensive chemicals
would probably not have succeeded. While wealthier com-
munities can probably, in the light of recent knowledge, ban
the use of DDT and its associates, it may be for developing and
under-developed countries rather to emphasise care in the use
of dangerous chemicals.
The second consideration arises from the first. Sophisti-
cated agriculture, like sophisticated medicine, sometimes
requires the use of powerful chemicals and meputable manufac-
turers take care to instruct the user as to the precautions
necessary with such materials. In many cases, the indictment
against a chemical relates to tests of overdose conditions and
very often the reports indicate more drama than danger
provided reasonable precautions are always taken.
AII this is not to say that we can continue to use all the
chemicals that have served us in the past. Some of them have
been clearly shown to be dangerous and it is for governments
to ban them or impose restrictions on their use.


From time to time farmers complain and very often with
good reason that some of the information they read or hear
is phrased in language that is just too scientific for non-
academics to follow. From this has arisen the insistence that
the agricultural scientist should be careful to "talk the farmers'
language" and explain his message~in "simple terms." Gqodness
knows this request is reasonable and often necessary. What
is equally necessary, however, is that farmers be reminded that
commercial farming nowadays is not the simple thing it used
to be and it is not possible for all the recommendations and
reports to be presented to the farmer in the simplest, most
basic language
One or two examples may serve to illustrate the point.
Many farmers have accepted that there are quality differences
between various concentrate feeds. They will go as far as to
recognize varying levels of protein value in these feeds. But the
idea of investigating the digestibility value of protein as
between one feed and another is a step that some farmers
hesitate to take. And in most farming circles the livestock
nutritionist who begins to talk about amino acids will be met
with blank stares. The fact is that most of us can manage
without knowing much about amino acids but when a farmer
buys feed he is paying for the digestible nutrients in it and
the tag on the feed-bag seldom tells the whole story of what's
inside. There are other examples the vegetable grower who
shies away from trying to understand the 'big names' that
describe various disease and afflictions that beset his crops -
and the man who knows that his pigs may have wormsn' but
balks at the idea of identifying the different kinds of worms
because of the long Latin names.
In every case, the more the farmer knowns about his
business the better he can apply his money -whether for feed,
chemicals, medicines or wages.
The story goes further than that. One livestock manager
said recently: "Theret's more to raising beef cattle than putting
a bull and some cows into a pasture and locking the gate."
Anytime farming gets past the simple processes of traditional
practice-it begins to involve the scientific worker. These people
have a jargon which they developed not to 'fool the public'
but to make themselves clearly understood one with another.
This is necessary if their research is to be carried out over a


TROPICAL WEED CONTROL HANDBOOK.

Extract from PANS (Pest Articles & News
Summaries) Vol. 15, No. 2 June 1969


Mr. L. Kasasian, until recently Herbicide Agronomist
at the University of the West Indies, has recently
joined the Weed Research Organization on! an O.D.M.
Fellowship to write a handbook on weed control in the
tropics. The book will be primarily concerned with
those treatments which (1) are in current use and
(2) have been tested widely enough to be re-
commended. These two are not necessarily the same and
while (2) can be found in the literature, (1) can only
be discovered by personal experience. The author
Would be most grateful for any information, not re-


ported in the literature, on accepted methods of weed
control (cultural, biological, chemical, flaming etc.)
from any part of the tropics and for any relevant re-
prmnts or other publications.
Please send t~o:-
Mr. L. Kasasian
Weed Research Organization
Begbroke Hill
Yarnton
Oxford, OX5 1PF
ENGLAND


Caribbean Farming Jan./March 1970


E DITOREIA L

TALK OF THE TRADE








































FOOT OF HANOVER STREET, PHONE: 23641



4


Caribbean Farming October 196


ALBATROS

F ER TILIZER

"The fertilizer with the bird on the bag"














Pioneers of better farming in Jamaica. Wise farmers all
over Jamaica have relied on Albatros fertilizer year after
year for healthier crops and bountiful yields.
They know that Albatros fertilizers work quickly and
efficiently.
They know that they get superior physical and chemi-
cal qualities.
And they remember Albatros fertilizers are always
neatly packed in jute bags.
Ask your Agricultural dealer for Albatros "the fertilizer
with the bird on the bag".








































TABLE I
SUGAR CAN E VARIETY RECOMMENDATIONS (BARBADOS)
(Figures are percentages of crop acreage)
SOILTYPE 41227 4744 52107 55304 57150 6160 59162 60267 58114 61208 62163
10's Shallow 40 30 15 10 5
Deep 40 25 1 0 20 5
Bottoms Low Rainfall 100
30's Shallow ( less than 40 35 20 5
Deep !45" /year) 40 15 20 20 5
Bottoms/ 100
30's Shallow 20 30 30 ?0
Deep 10 20 20 20 30
Bottoms Intermediate 100
20's Bulkeley Valley Rainfall 10 10 30 50
40's Shallow 35 60 5
Deep (45"-60" 20 10 20 50
Bottoms /year) 100
46-48+70's (Sands 50 30 20
50's Shallow 20 20 25 30 5
Deep 20 25 20 15 15 5
60's 40 30 25 5
65's St. John Valley 40 10 30 10 10
SCOTLAND CHALKY High 100
SANDS Rainfall 50 20 30
CLAYS (over 60" 30 10 30 30
WET ALLUVIAL /year) 25 50 25
DRY ALLUVIAL 100


In a previous article (CARIBBEAN FARMING, January 1969) agerl description of
sugar cane varieties and their management was gwren. In this arilwe wish to
consider specific recommendations which we hope might aid farmers in extending
newer commercial varieties or in improving the allocation or choice of varieties
on their farms.
SUGAR CANE VARIETIES Farmr hoftsn wntn0o

FOR CARIBBEAN FARMERS "ite lhe lhdirhhv

by MICHAEL SHAW of been searing them well. Why replace them? The only reasonable answer is that the
,new variety might prove more profitable. This may in turn be due to one or more
The ugarManuactuers' of several factors such as better yield in itself, resistance to pests or
Association, Jamaica. diseases, easier handling in reaping or transport, or to greater tolerance to
inflexible conditions on the farm.
In this article, varieties for Barbados, Trinidad, Jamaica and Guyana are
considered. A similar presentation for the other territories will be given in
a future article.


Replacement of the older varieties is due mainly to susceptibility to "leaf
scald" disease, and unsuitability to mechanical reaping. B49119 and B45151
as well as B60191, B60321 and B60125 should bereplaced because of suscepti-
bility to "leaf scald." B49119, B58230 and B54142 are all difficult to handle
mechanically in reaping and are not recommended for new plantings. Other
varieties such as B5809 and B55258 have inferior juice quality and should be
replaced by better varieties.
A comprehensive recommendation schedule is given in Table 1 and notes on special
features are appended.


BARBADOS


Caribbean Farming Jan./IMarch 1970










~ When the going is rough, long, fast...


VOU CAN DEPEND ON


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Varieties which must be reaped at a particular time are causing concern. This
is due to the frequent fires of unknown origin which disrupt reaping schedules.
B4362 is one such cane it gives good results when reaped in January or
early February but deteriorates rapidly thereafter.

GUYANA In Guyana, a number of proven newer commercial varieties are available.
Among them, DB 5/55, D38/57 and B5780 are most-widely recommended. The
comprehensive list of specific recommendations is given in Table II.
TABLE II
SUGAR CAN E VARIETY RECOMMENDATIONS (GUYANA)
SOIL TYPE
Reaping Season Heavy Saline Clay ]Intermediate Clays 1Pegasse Sandy Loam
(Non-Saline)
Early D.38/57 B.5780 D.B.5/55 D.B.5/55
B.51116
Spring
Late D.38/57 B.5780 D.38/57 B.41227 D.B.5/55 D.B.5/55
B.5780 D.B.414/60 B.51116

Early D.37/45 D.38/57 D.B.5/55 D.37/45 D.37/45
SpringD.158/41 D.141/46 B.52107

Late D.38/57 B.5780 D.38/57 B.51116 B.520
B.5780 B.59212


NOTES:
1. B. 52107
2.- B.62163
3. B. 41211
4. B. 4744
5. 8. 6160
6. B. 59162


Should not be reaped before April in the high rainfall area.
Available in small quantities for multiplication from Ridgeway,
Nonrwood, Henley & Graeme Hall.
Unreliable yielder replaced by better varieties.
Area reduced because of poor ratoons after fire.
Increased due to reasonable yields. Good leaf quality. Leaf
Scald resistant.
and B. 60267 Increased because upright for easier mechanical
hand cutting. Select planting material carefully as both may and Leaf Scald
susceptible.


Although the records show large differences in environmental conditions in
different parts of the cane area, varieties especially suited to specific
ecological zones have not yet been selected. However, this vital area of
development is receiving concentrated effort by the Caroni Research Station
and the outlook is reasonably good.
At present, B41227 occupies some 60% of the cane. area while B49119 -
the other major variety Occupies 26%. B50112 and B4362 occupy small areas.
B49119 is not recommended for extension because of its susceptibility to "leaf
scald" even though the disease has not been found in Trinidad.


TRINIDAD


JAMAICA


At present, B4362 is the most widely grown variety, occupying 42% of
estate land. B41227 occupies 18% but is grown mainly in Vere. B49119 is
planted on 7% chiefly in the dry months when vigorous growth is a prime
requisite, and B42231 (6%) mainly on the more saline areas under
irrigation. Eros, B51410 and B51415 continue to occupy small acreages and
B51129, HJ5741 and UCW5465 occupy around 2 3% each.
Planting of B42231 and B41227 is no longer recommended as both HJ5741 and
UCW5465 are capable of higher and more profitable yields wherever B42231


Caribbean Farming Jan./March 1970


























































for weed control in sugar cane


KEY
1. 851129
2. HJ5741
3. UCW54/65
4. BJ5814
5. BJ5927
6. D37/45
7. BJ5924


Acknowledgements


and B41227 have been previously recommended. B4362 has been consistently
surpassed by both HJ5741 and UCW5465, as well as by B51129 which is
favoured in the wetter areas.

B5924 and BJ5927 are two new varieties of much promise and their
recommendation can be seen in Table III which gives a comprehensive
schedule for guiding the farmer in his choice of varieties.

TABLE III
RECOMMENDATIONS* FOR NEWER VARIETIES

Ecological Reaping Soil "Typ s" Soil Condition
Area Season Heavy Medium Light Sandy Calcannous Saline Acid
Early -1.4.5 1.4.5 1.5. 3.5 3.2 2
Mid 2 1.2.4.5 1.4.5.2.1 1.2.5. 5.6.3.7 3.2.6 2
WET EAST Late 2 1.2.4.5 1.4.5.2 1.2.5. 5.7.6. 2.6 2

Early 2.1 1.2.5 1.2.5 2.1 5 1.2.3 2
WET WEST Mid 2.1 1.2.5 1.2.5 2.1 5 1.2.3.6 2
Late 2.1 1.2.5 1.2.5 2.1 5 1.2.6 2
Early -1.5 1.5 1- 3 -2
CENTRAL Mid 2.7 1.2.7 1.2.7.5 1- 7.3.5 -2
Late 2.7 1.2.7.5 1.7.5.2 7.5 -
Early -1 1 1 3 3.2
IRRIGATED Mid 2.7 1.2.7 1.7.2 1.7 7.3.6 2.3.6
Late 2.7 1.2.7 1.7.2 1.7 7.6 2.6
Early 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.7
DRY NORTH Mid 3.2 7.3.2 7.3.2 7.3-
Late 7.3.2. 7.2 7.2 1- 7-

*Varieties are listed in likely order of prefer nce


The data for the Barbados recommendations was contributed by Mr. Michael Clark of the
Barbados Variety Testing Station. Mr. V.M. Young Kong of Booker's Sugar Estates was the
Guyanese contributor while Dr. F. Haworth of Caroni Research Station prepared the section
on Trinidad. The author acknowledges these contributions with thanks.


how does Gesapax 50 work?
Gesapax 50 Is a wettable powder cor tain-
ing Geigy ametryne. It is of low solublillty
in water and persists in the top scl to
give many weeks weed control withl one
appllication Gesapax 50 as a pre-emer
gen~ce treatment acts by being taken up
through the roots of weed seedlings. Soon
;Ifter emergence the seedlings turn yellow
anid die.
Gesapax 50 gives equally effective weed
control applied after the cane and weeds
h~ave emerged, since it kills weeds by foliar
contact.
When Gesapax 50 is sprayed on weed
foliage,. some of th~e herbicide falls on the
soil, where it controls subsequent gerrn
inuting weeds.


Gesapax 50
give prolonged weed
control at low annual cost
controls both broad-leaved and grass weeds
increases yields and simplifies cultural op-
erations.
is very safe to both crop and user when
applied correctly.
is easily applied with normal spray equip.
ment.
is non corrosive, non volatile and non
inflamable
is used either pre-emergence or post-emer.
gence as a directed spray.


G BACE AGRICULTURAL & INOUSTRIAL CO..LIMITED.
*OFFICE 7b5a Harbour Street Phone27972 WAREHOUSE: 185 Harbour Street Kingston, Jamaica

Caribbean Farming Jan./Niarch 1970









In 1966, banana plots were established in order to carry out ratoon fertilizer trials
later on. For two complete years, and perhaps longer, these plots were to be run as
ordinary banana cultivations, using the best available techniques, after which
different fertilizer treatments would be superimposed. In order to use the two
BANANA COSTING yare "e 'r" "s, to go akpuopfose,
all costs and revenues to examme the
OBSE RVATION S economics of small scale banana growing
under intensive management
ON A SM1LALL PLOT conditions. It was felt that a
study of the yields and revenues
by possible under good management would give some idea of the potential of the large
I.T Twyford numbers of small growers, if they had the knowledge and the capital or credit as in the
and R. Mark Replanting Incentive Scheme. Such plots would also give an idea of the problems of
Winban practical application of research findings.
Research
Scheme This report deals with the economics of banana cultivation for two years on a plot
at Mirabeau Agricultural Station, St. Andrews, Grenada.
The land was lent to the WINBAN Research Scheme at no rent by the Grenada
Agriculture Department and the plot was 1.211 acres in size, equivalent to that of
many small farms in the Windward Islands. The soil was Belmont clay
loam (red variant), of good structure and drainage but very low in phosphate and
potash. Calcium and magnesium were adequate however. The climate at Mirabeau usually
experiences three to four dry months in the year, quite enough to restrict banana
growth severely.
Methods of The land was made available to WINBAN in two adjacent portions, one of 0.8899 acre
cultivation in December, 1966, and the other of 0.3211 acre (total 1.211 acres) in May, 1967. At
Used the start, the vegetation was poor bush and weeds after an earlier citrus nursery.
The land was cleared by hand labour, lined out and root drains dug to reduce inter-
ference from a bordering line of large trees. Spacing of bananas was 8 ft. x 5 ft.
(1,090 mats per acre) in pure stand and Robusta plants were bought for planting at
10c each. They were transported to the site at a cost borne by the plot.
After planting, the following fertilizer applications were made:-
at 4 weeks (first showing through the soil) %/ lb. 11:11:33 per mat
at 8 % zlb. 11:11:33 per mat
at 14 %/ ") ") "
at 5 months3/lb." "
at 10 % l1b. " "
and thereafter every three months,% l/ b. 11:11:33 per mat. The total application
was therefore 3 lb. per mat per year.
When the plants began to grow they were infested with weeds and one cutlassing round
the young plants was given. Thereafter only herbicide (Gramoxone) was used for weed
control: sprayed at 2 pints per acre at first; later, when the banana canopy had
closed in, at 1 pint per acre. Rapid growth of the plants reduced the necessity
for weed control and towards the end of the second year was virtually unnecessary.
The standard of weed control achieved was no weeds whatsoever.
Pruning, carried out with the Australian desuckering tool, was maintained at a high
standard, only one follower being allowed and all unwanted suckers pruned when small.
When bunches had shot, they were regularly inspected and kept cleared of leaves by
pulling, breaking and even cutting if necessary but no sheathing was carried out,
neither were male flowers broken off. Extensive propping was carried out in the
second year by cutting and using bamboos but in the first year, only minor propping
was done.
During the severe dry season of 1967, as no irrigation was available, grass mulch was
cut and spread round the plants. In 1968 only minor mulching was required.


Caribbean Farming Jan./March 1970












Grove of
Caribbean pine trees
at Port Royal Mountain
in Manchester with
stacked timber
ready for sale.
This was the first
reaping of 82 acres
planted at the site ten
years ago, as part of
Alcan's reafforestation
programme.











Alcan Jamaica Limited, pioneer of the Bauxite
and Alumina industries in Jamaica has been
contributing to the economy of the island
during the past 27 years. Although primarily
engaged in the manufacture of Alumina, the
company maintains a beef herd of 5.000 head
of cattle, runs a modern dairy, operates 375
acres of citrus orchards, and carries out a
continuing reafforestation programme. In add-
ition to its own farmina activities, the company
rents over 21,000 acres of land to more than
4,400 tenant farmers who produce an est-
imated 10,000 tons of foodstuffs annually.
These enterprises are contributing significantly
to the island's agricultural output.

SALCAN
,|IJAMAICA
ALCAd' LIMITED









After one year, in January, 1968,Aldrin dust for borer control was bought
and spread round the mats at the rate of 2 oz. of 2% per mat. In April, 1968, it
was decided to inject Nemagon around each mat at the rate of 2 gal per acre to control
nematodes.
Harvesting was carried out as usual and the bunches were wrapped in a shed
constructed for the purpose and charged to the plot. Bunches were transported to St.
George's by hired truck at a cost of 15c each.
Costs and As stated above, the land was made available on'two occasions so that about %/ of the
Revenuesarea was planted in December, 1966, and the remaining %/ only in May 1967. For
Revenuesaccountmg purposes, the financial year has been taken to be the anniversary of the
date of planting the first part of the area.
Thus in 1967, the first part of the area produced its plant crop but the plants of
the second part were only seven months old at the end of the year. Costs therefore
cover the full area (as most costs in the first year are incurred in the first few
months) but revenue came from only %/ of it, thus apparently worsening the
financial situation. In 1968, the first 3/ of the plot produced its first ratoon
crop and part of the second ratoon but the other 5/ of the area produced its plant
crop and part of the first ratoon crop.
Thus for both years, costs should be fairly accurate for the whole 1.2 acre area but
revenues are on the low side, particularly in the first year (Tables 1, 2, 3). To
overcome this problem, a separate account was kept of costs and yields from the two
parts of the plot and the figures for the first %/ portion only are presented
separately later in this report (Table 6)

DiscusionsConsidering the financial results based on the whole area, it is clear that even in
Discusionsthe first most expensive year, under the conditions of the plot, the total cost of
establishment was covered, even though only about %/ of the area yielded any fruit.
The yield per acre based on the whole planted area war 9.1 tons and the average sale
price at 4.13c per lb. was slightly lower than usual.
On the cost side, considering the whole area, overall cost per lb. was 4.26c,
slightly higher than the mean sale price (excluding quality incentive bonus). The total
cost per acre was $883.92, proportioned in the following way:- labour 55%, materials
29%, transport 10% and capital 6%
In the second year, based on the whole area, costs dropped slightly but revenue rose
very substantially, resulting in a high profit. There was a fall in costs, at the.
same labour wage rates, of just under 5% to $842.79 per acre, made up as labour 40%,
materials 33%, transport 20% and capital 7%. Thus, in comparison with the first year,
labour costs fell, mainly due to the absence of planting; materials rose, chiefly on
account of Nemagon injection and transport doubled in proportion, due of course to
much higher yields. Cost per lb. of bananas produced was as low as 2.20c.
On the revenue side, the mean sale price was 5.27c per lb. i.e. above the
first year mean price. The high increase in revenue, however, from $E890.28 per
acre in the first year to $2,136.41 in the second, was mainly due to the increase
in yield, which was from 9.1 to 17.1 tons per acre. At exactly the same price
(4.13c) as in the first year, gross proceeds per acre would have been about $;1,699,
still far above the first year total.
In the event, profit per acre stood at $1,293.62, a very satisfactory result. If
the mean price in the second year had been the same as in the first, profit per
acre would have been about $E856, still handsome.
Costs of individual complete operations are given in Table 4.
In both years, the most expensive single operation was fertilizing;, which amounted
to over a quarter of the total cost per acre. This would however, be reduced in
subsequent years since the level of fertilizer application would be cut down. In
this plot, the high rate of 1V2L CODS 11:11:33 per acre was applied in both the first
Caribbeen Farming Jan./March 1970 11





there's
no smoke
without fire
By the time you smell or
see the smoke it's usually
too late! The fire is well on
its way.
It takes so little to start a
fire .. just one moment's
carelessness, and years of
hard work and savings can be
destroyed. Fire insurance is
something to which you


16A Half Way Tree Road, Kingston


ought to give really serious
thought now.
Be sure your home is pro-
tected against fire hazard. I
And for fullest coverage a-
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hurricane, burglary and acci-
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MOTOR OWNERS MUTUAL INSURANCE
AISSOCIATIION LIMITD
5. Phone 67541 (5 lines)


SUPPORTING FARMERS' YEAR 1970









and second years but thereafter this was to be cut to V2 -3/ ton per year, depending on
how far the level of nutrients had been built up in the soil and the plants as
shown by soil and leaf analysis. Of course, the high cost of fertilizer was rewarded
by a good yield in the first year and an excellent yield in the second and on
results, as usual, fertilizer can be regarded as a first-rate investment in banana
cultivation.
In the first year, planting was costly, almost a quarter of the total per acre cost.
In a sense, however, this is an investment as it only has to be done every few
years and no doubt one could justifiably spread the cost over two or three years.
At the same time, any means of avoiding replanting as long as possible would clearly
be welcome provided that yields could be kept up. Herein lies the importance of the
use of nematicides, as the chief reason for the necessity of replanting is the
ravages of nematodes. In the plot under discussion, Nemagon was injected at 2 gal
per acre early in the second year and it would be expected to apply this material
once a year thereafter, perhaps at a somewhat higher rate (3 gal per acre). The cost
of the actual application in the second year was only 7% of total cost per acre,
not so fearsome as many farmers think. At the new lower prices for D.B.C.P., nematicide
injection at 3 gal per acre would cost about $65 per acre, equivalent to only
somewhat less than 3% ton bananas at usual prices.
The cost of weed control was reduced markedly from the first year to the second
and in the third would likely be even less. With modern herbicides, complete weed
control is possible at very low cost, particularly in ratoon years.
Harvesting and wrapping are not cheap in Grenada and the cost of course rises with
the number of bunches. Transport was at 15c per bunch but the costs shown are
somewhat higher than this because of rejects at the reception depot, the
transport cost of which had to be added to that of the accepted bunches.
Of the miscellaneous other costs, the chief in the first year was for mulching
and in the second was for propping.
The high proportion of labour costs in total expenditure is perhaps somewhat
unrealistic. If the plot had really been part of a large estate, labour costs
per acre would have been reduced. This is because it is often necessary to pay
a whole day's wages for a part-day job in a small area whereas in a large estate,
the worker would have moved during the day from one field to another~for his
day's wages. On the other hand, if the actual plot used had been a whole farm or
a large proportion of one, then almost certainly hired labour would have been much
less than it actually was. A small farmer would have used a great deal of his
own labour, which either would not be costed, or if it was, then it would be
much more efficient than hired labour because the farmer would not stop work
at the completion of an artificial day's "task" but would move on to another
job. Iri either case, therefore, labour costs actually incurred are somewhat high.
As against that however, no fee has been included for supervision but it is hard to
estimate what this might be as it would depend entirely on circumstances.
On the production and revenue side, it should be noted that in the first year,
over the whole area, (i.e. including those mats still young at the end of the year)
55.7% of the mats pr-oduced a bunch and 53.5% of the total number of mats produced a
bunch which was sold, i.e. virtually half a bunch per mat. In the second year, 103.3%
of the mats produced a bunch (i.e. some fruited twice and 97.0% of the mats produced
a bunch which was sold, i.e. virtually one bunch per mat. Rejected bunches were as
shown in Table 5. Field rejects were high in the second year, due mainly to damage
caused by insects, particularly in the rainy: season. Rejection at the reception
depot howeirer in both years was satisfactory.
All figures given so far for production, especially in the first year, are
artificially low because of the late planting of about '/ of the area. Separate
sets of records, however, were kept for each part of the plot and production
figures for the %/ of the area first planted are more realistic in judging performance.


Caribbean Farming Jan./March 1970








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And you are robbing your country of the opportunity to earn
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REMEMBER that Coffee is our only Agricultural Industry, which
has, over the past EigIht Years, mainltained a steady increase
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So why are you sitting there cheating yourself and your country.
Do something about it for your own sake.
Get in touch with your local Coffee Officer or write for full
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/SLAND-WIDE SA LES AND SER VICE









From Table 6, it can be seen that costs per acre on the first part of the
area were higher than in the whole plot for both years but revenues were also
higher. There was thus a profit margin of nearly $200 per acre in the first year
from a yield of 12.4 tons per acre which is considered very good. In the second year,
revenues and profits were very high from a yield of 18.6 tons per acre. In the first
year, about %/ of the plants fruited and in the second, there was more than one
bunch sold per mat.

The figures and comments given above indicate what could be done on a small farm
given the technical knowledge, the capital or credit for materials and the money for
hiring labour or alternatively, the will to work hard and at the correct times. It is
doubtful if many small farmers are at present achieving the yields and
profits shown but the point is that they are possible. Bananas greatly respond to
such intensive management as given in the Mirabeau plot and therefore the small size
of many Windward Islands' banana farms is, or at least could be, an advantage rather
than a disadvantage because small size considerably facilitates intensive management.
This is of crucial importance in considering the potential of the current Replanting
Incentive Scheme in which advice and credit are made available at adequate levels.
There is no obvious reason why high yields and profits should not become commonplace
instead of virtually unknown as at present.
It may be objected that the figures shown above are unrealistic or produced in
above average circumstances. It is true that the soil at Mirabeau does not need
extensive drainage works but on the other hand, its nutrient status in the natural
state is below average. It is also true that the weather was favourable over the
two years in that there were no wind losses. On the other hand, money had to be
spent on mulching to overcome the effects of the dry season. It was indeed
fortunate that the mean sale price in the second year was above average but in
the first year, it was below. Summing up, it is fair to say that perhaps the Mirabeau
plot was not operating under adverse conditions but when the profits shown are
examined for comparison with others from elsewhere, discounts can easily be made for
known extra costs. In any case, the yields, revenues and costs are certainly factual
as far as sales of fruit, payment receipts and payment vouchers are concerned. They
are not estimates.
On the other hand, it must be admitted that the figures stop short at the end
of the second year. The third year might not produce as well as the second; there
might be a windstorm; management levels might drop. All such factors could lower the
profit of subsequent years and thus the annual average profit. Only further data
could elucidate later behaviour but at least high levels were achieved over an
actual period of two years. It must not be thought however that such levels of
profit as in the second year could be maintained indefinitely.
One additional cost that should perhaps be considered is an annual sum for the
cost of purchase or rent of land. Clearly this will vary greatly from place to place
but it is obvious that on a rental basis, an amount of $100 per acre per year could
have be borne at the actual plot.
The main conclusion from this work is that even in the most expensive early years of
a banana field, high levels of input (intensive management) result in high yields and
profits. Many farmers invest much less than $800 per acre per year, often less than
$400 but yields of bananas at even half the levels achieved at Mirabeau, particularly
in the second year, are rare in the Windward Islands and profits are correspondingly
much smaller.
The following tables are condensations of the originals.


Conclusions


Caribbean Farming Jan./March 1970









The eonoomico wnay to fertilize.


TRS CRV TO24 COLLINS GREEN AVE.,
KINGSTON 5, JAMAICA, W.I.
WATE SER ICES LT a Telephone 66852
Socialists in

IRRIGATION PUMPING DRAINAGE


Representing






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Consultations Sales Service


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and more effective than conventional methods.
Already Crop Culture plays an
important role in keeping Jamaica agriculture
healthy by spraying one and a quarter million
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acres of cane are also sprayed each year.
Banana growers and cane planters
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With operations covering the Car-
ibbean, Central and South America Crop
Culture is an experienced and growing com-
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more acreage















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Sweet potato is grown in almost every West Indian island and to some is a major
export crop. However, this crop, and in particular the tubers, are attacked by
several pests insects, millipedes and rodents. Some of the insect pests include
the white grubs, mole-crickets, the Scarabee also called Jacob's (Euscepes sp.),

THE SCARABEE Cycl' 'p "-eei) ""'te gad "2is
small beetles. Of these Iby far the mos

A M A JO R P E ST th: W:: ::.hsis te cabeimotn h se po .gower in

of SWTEET POTATO So fa Uatshs beenrpte n fo
Trinidad and Tobago of
IN T~HE WS~EST INDIES the West Indian islands. The Scarabee has been recorded from every
West Indian island from Jamaica to Trinidad.


by S. Parasram,
Entomologist.
Dept. oftCrop Sin"*
Trinidad, W.i.






-Fbo


Damage and Life Cycle
The adults make depressions on the base of the stems at soil level or in the
developing roots or tubers where they lay the eggs. The eggs hatch in a week
and the larvae bore into the plant and feed for about a month when they pupate
and the adults emerge in a week's time and remain in the tuber for some time
before coming out. The adult is dull brown about (1/6 inch)10ng.
The feeding of the larva causes complete break down of the contents and seve-al
larvae, pupae and adults may be found in an infested tuber. Even a slight
attack causes the tuber to rot and give out a foul smell making it unsuitable
for human and even animal consumption. Slight infestation can, therefore, ca Ise
tremendous losses to the grower.
Spread
The adult possesses wmngs but is a very poor flier and so the pest is spread
from one area to another or from one crop to another
(a) by using infested slips i.e. pieces of stems having eggs or even immature
stages;
(b) by scattering of infested tubers;
(c) by mixing some infested tubers with others in storage. This practice also
causes severe losses in storage.
(d) by replanting in infested areas.
Control Practices
A. In some areas cuttings are dipped in a mixture of kerosene and fusel oil, or
in some contact insecticide e.g. Dieldrin. However, experiments have shown tl It
such methods alone have not given adequate control.
B. Fertilizer mixed with insecticide dust is used in some islands and experime Ltal
work seems to indicate that this method does give some control e.g. Aldrin*,
Dieldrin*, Chlordane*, at 2 lbs/acre, i.e. 100 lbs. 2% Dust or 40 lbs. of 5%
Dust applied at planting time.
C. Spraying of the foliage 3 times or 5 times per crop life with 2 lbs. of actua
insecticide has given control using Aldrin*, DDT*, Chlordane* and Toxapher e* ,
D. In some countries it is recommended that all vines in infested areas be
destroyed and all 'culls' and infested tubers in the field gathered and left for
a few days to serve as possible bait. These are then treated with chemicals sucil
as Aldrin*, Dieldrin*, Chlordane*, Toxaphene* so that all the stages are killed.
E. There is a suggestion from workers in pest control that some varieties may: be
less susceptible.
F. While several parasites have been reported from this insect, detailed work on
the biological control has not been done.


"i


1. Vine cut to show feeding tunnel. O
indicates egg deposit and feeding positions.


~aW L
2. Whole tuber (left) and two cut tubers
showing Scarabee damage. L indicates
larva in tunnel.


Caribbean Farming Jan./March 1970










Recommended Control and Discussion
1. Application of insecticide dust with fertilizer is relatively safe. Care must
be taken to use chemicals that do not affect the flavour.
2. Dips are not recommended.
3. Where foliage sprays are used the following consideration is absolutely
necessary:
In the West Indies we use the slips to feed our animals also and so many chemicals
that stay for long periods on the plant should not be used. e.g. DDT", Toxaphene*-,
Dieldrin *
4.~ The method most suitable to our needs until other effective biological and
chemical methods are developed is, however, cultural control outlined below:-
(a) For sweet potato like many crops we must establish a nursery.
(b) Vines (on which it is difficult for the layman to find beetle eggs) should not
a~~ibac-nbe used to establish a nursery.
ri:. (c) Pieces of healthy tubers free from holes or marks (infested tubers are easier
i: to detect than infested vines) must be used for establishing a nursery.
(d) Soil in nursery should be treated with soil insecticides. The foliage in the
1 nursery can be sprayed occasionally to keep it free from mites and leaf-eating
pests.
--I (e) All plant remains from infested fields should be destroyed by burning or
with insecticide and herbicides.
(f) Planting should be in weevil-free soil.
'y (N.B. If proper cultural practices as stated above are followed it will not be
Stem with two tubers heavily attacked. necessary after some time to implement suggestion (f)).
Early Stage
1- Advanced Entire tuber has rotted. 5. Sweet potato growing should be discouraged for at least a few years in areas
where there has been a continuous history of infestation and replaced temporarily by
other crops. Such areas should be kept free of weeds such as the 'goat foot'
(Ipomoea pes caprae) in which the insect can continue to survive.
It is true that such cultural practices are not carried out in West Indian islands
and may sound quite difficult or impracticable but are in fact neither.
Such a me thod would ensure:-
(a) a less infested and ultimately Scarabee-free crop;
(b) a crop free from possible taint and residue problems;
rC~S~(c) minimal risks from use of pesticides.
a Though the author has seen heavy infestations in drier parts of some islands as
.i, against very little in wetter parts (Barbados), in Trinidad heavy infestations have
been noticed during rainy months, in areas with rainfall of around 120" per annum.
It is not generally true, therefore that heavy infestations are limited to dry areas
~ C~P~4s5~i~or dry periods in the year.
The author is aware that in many sweet potato growing areas, other pest problems are
present but by cultural methods we can easily control Cylas, the Scarabee, and
many of the beetles associated with sweet potato. Occasional sprays may no doubt be
necessary to control some caterpillars and at such times less lasting insecticides
4 Sterns and tubers attacked by Scarabee like Sevin* and Dipterex* may be used. One must also bear in mind that the sweet
a~dMegastes. Megastes larva shown in potato like so many plants can tolerate a certain amount of leal-loss without any
ed~: away. tue. opltl effect on yield and therefore it is not economical to keep your crop absolutely
"insect-free".

N.B. All pesticides are toxic and dangerous if misused. The instructions on the
label should be read carefully.

Trade names.


Caribbean Farming Jan./March 1970 19






















both local and imported stock and now have over 120
cows, most of which are black and white. This makes us
by far the largest private dairy farm in the island.
In the 3 years since 1966 there have been many change!:
and not a few difficulties. To start with, after only
One year of operation the milk plant forced us
to accept a quota on pro auction because they co ldn't
sell all the milk. This couldn't have come at a worse
time for us, as production was building up each month
and was far above the base period on which the quotas
were calculated. As we had no alternative market for
the milk, we had to cut down on the level of concentre e
feeding, and of course this caused the cows to lose
condition. Even then, we had too much milk and at on
stage even resorted to making butter in an attempt to
get rid of the surplus. Being a big company we were
in a much better position to stand this sort of set-
back, but it must have Been hard for the smaller
farmers. There is no doubt that imposing quotas
destroyed the initial enthusiasm for dairying which hac
developed in the island and since this time we have
been the only private dairy to continue expanding.
Up to July 1968 the dairy was only one of the enter-
prises on the estate as we-were still~ growing more than
200 acres of sugar. In the crop season this created a
real problem for me as manager, trying to reap over
5,000 tons of cane while at the same time looking
after the dairy. Now, however, things are much improve (1
as the remaining sugar land has been transferred to


Like every other estate in Barbados, the Hope has for
generations grown sugar and little else. However, situ-
ated as it is at the northern-most tip of the island,
with a constant breeze off the Atlantic drying out the
meagre rainfall of less than 50 inches, cane yields are
never higher-than 29 tons and in 1965 were only 21 tons
- very much less in some fields.
Recently the estate has lost money nearly every year,
and was only kept in sugar to ensure a high intake of
cane for the owner's nearby factory Spring Hall. Even-
tually it was decided that losses on the estate out-
weighed the benefits to the factory, so what we needed
was an alternative to cane, which even if it couldn't
make big profits would at least pay the land taxes.
In the early sixties Government was promoting the
development of beef and so we took out 50 acres of the
poorest cane and planted pangola grass, and imported a
small herd of Senepols from St. Croix. These are said
to be dual-purpose animals, but they show mainly beef
characteristics. The grass was irrigated, as we had
orgn ally put in an irrigation system for cane, only
to find that there was no response in yield. However,
the grass did respond to the irrigation, and the early
results with the beef herd were encouraging the cows
bred readily and the growth rate of the young calves
was good. But after weaning, the growth rate was poor
for we couldn't go in for much concentrate feeding since
the local butchers refused to pay a premium for our high
quality beef.
CHANGE TO MILK
It soon became apparent that beef farming was not the
answer to our problems, and the decision was taken to
start a dairy herd. Government also switched emphasis
from beef to dairying at about the same time. We already
had an area under grass, but this was still being used
by the beef herd, so more land was taken out of cane
and planted with pangola. Since there weren't many good
local cows available at the time and since Holsteins
were very much in favour, we followed the trend and
bought a number of yearling Canadian Holstein heifers
which the Government had imported. These started to
calve in 1966 soon after the island's first milk plant -
the Pine Hill Dairy was opened, and from that time
production has increased rapidly. Not only have we
reared all our own heifers, but we have continued to buy


Caribbean Farming Jan./March 1970


LETTERS FRtOM/



Keith Allen, manager of Hope Estates, Barbados writes
of his experience in transforming an unprofitable sugar
plantation mnto one of the most interesting examples
of diversification in Barbados today.










buy a lot to try to get enough dry matter into the cows
they were zero-grazing on elphant grass.
We have tried both elephant grass and sorghum hybrids,
and got good initial results with both when they
were irrigated. However, the sorghum died out in less
than two years and so we have decided to go ahead and
plant a few acres in elephant grass to try to help
out the fodder situation in the dry season.
The cows normally graze both day and night but when
fodder is short they graze only at night and have
access to cut grass and hay during the day.
Cow performance has not been spectacular, and we know
that we haven't yet broken~any records, but after
only 3 years in dairying we feel that with a herd
which is still fairly young, an average daily
yield of 23-25 lb. per cow in milk is reasonable. To
achieve this we are feeding according to production at
the rate of 1 lb. of concentrate per 2 lb. of milk -
but assuming in our calculation that the first 10 lb.
of milk comes from grass. The cows also have access to
mo asses.

ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION
Although we have fared much better than some farmers in
the island, our experience with artificial insemination
has not been wholly satisfactory and we regularly use
our two home-reared bulls. But it's possible that some
of our troubles stemmed from the delayed breeding of
the animals. After the milk plant imposed quotas, they
suggested that if farmers altered the breeding pattern
of their herds, so that the main supply of milk came
during winter tourist season, that there was less
likely to be a need for quotas. Having been so badly
hit by the quotas previously, we tried to do what the
milk plant suggested but with less success than we
would have liked. It seems that cows which are not bred
for several months after calving get progressively
harder to hold and we suffered as a result of this.
For some time we had a high proportion of the herd still
in early pregnancy but yielding less than 15 pounds per
day; even now I'n not sure that our distribution of
calving is much better.
In spite of these various problems, the prospects for
the dairy seem promising although we haven't yet
succeeded in making a profit. However, as we are all
the time increasing the herd and expanding production
wi usmng basic ly the same overheads, the situation
should slow y improve .
As a big company there has been no problem about
supporting the dairy during these fist few years, but
without a very co-operative bank manager or a rich
uncle there are few farmers who could afford to go in
for dairying on such a large scale in such a short space
of time.


adjoining estates belonging to the same company and I
am left with 230 acres of grassland and the dairy herd.
We sold the beef cows in 1968. Six men and I look after
the whole herd as well as doing all the work on the
pastures.
Two men do the milking in a 4-unit parlour built to our
ow~n design and, although we don't have a pipeline system,
a milk transporter to the bulk tank takes most of the
ba:rd work out of moving the milk. Our other labour-saving
cievice is a spray race.

IRRIGATION
T:?ere are two wells on the farm and from these we
o ,erate two sets of sprinklers which keeps two men
w >rking full time. Because we are short of water the
v role grassland acreage can't be irrigated and we con-
c Nitrate the water on about 120 acres which is normally
a! :d by the cows and heifers. Even on this acreage,
o ly about 1 inch of water can be applied each month,
4I have demonstrated what could be done with more water
c t 2-acre field which has been treated separately.
\\ er has been applied every 10-12 days to make up any
c] .cit in rainfall below 2 inches, and the area has
h ai grazed every 3 weeks for 3 or 4 gratings followed
In application of one cwt. of Sulphate of Ammonia.
Grass growth has been tremendous and, if we had been
11to treat a sufficient area like this, we would
had a stocking rate of about 2.5 animal units per
S, which is more than twice as high as under the
: nt system. We also found that the individual milk
S's regularly increased by about 2 lb. per day when-
:ithe cows moved on to this fresh young grass.

HAY MAKING
n >r anxiety to get out of cane, grassland planting
ta one ahead too fast, and we are using only about half
": e area in pangola for grazing the cows. The rest
i e grass is treated much less intensively and
oof it is only cut once or twice a year. This might
ord illogical to use one area intensively and the
es hardly at all but many of the fields are far from
he am buildings and are not fenced. In the dry season,
h e we are short of grass, we cut these fields with
h orage harvester and cart the grass to the cows.
I ohorer times, when we can get the use of the Govern-
netay-m king equipment, we make hay. Just to show
potential of what could be done: we once fertilized
field the day after it had been cut with 2 cprt. of
uphate of Amonia per acre. The following day 2 inches
rain fell, and only 6 weeks later without any more
falling we made about 3 tons per acre of beautiful
ay. Unfortunately, we have had to restrict our hay
naigbecause of the limited demand, although at one
aneth Agricultural Development Corporation had to


Caribbean Farming Jan./March 1970











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In the July 1969 issue of CARIBB3EAN FARMING we referred to 'drifting'. One
beekeeper to whom we spoke was skeptical about its occurrence in Jamaica. In this
brief article Professor S. Cameron Jay demonstrates how it can occur here and
what needs to be done to prevent it.
DRIFTING Professor Jay is a Canadian entomologist from the University of Manitoba
who recently visited the Faculty of Agriculture at Mona.
ARB E rp When drifting of honey bees takes place in apiaries of
1 five or more hives it can result in losses to the

BE E K EE PE RS beekeeper due to an increase in management problems and
a decrease in honey production. Simple procedures which
prevent drifting and thus reduce such losses can be easily integrated with
any management programme.
Drifting of honey bees produces population imbalances between hives of an apiary in
definite patterns and therefore the beekeeper must either equalize the hive popula-
tions within an apiary (by redistribution of bees and/or brood), or he can expect
swarming problems and early "supering" at certain times of the year in the mo st
populous hives; these operations require additional visits to the apiary, labour
input, and management techniques. If disease should occur in certain hives it can
spread easily to other hives by drifting bes.
Drifting is usually serious in apiaries where hives of the same colour and facing the
same direction are arranged in straight rows with no landmarks nearby. Many of the
bees tend to move from the middle hives of the row toward the end hives rather than
vice versa. Thus the hives at or near the ends of the rows gain bees at the expense
of the more central ones; this population distribution is reflected in the honey
yields of the various hives depending on their positions within the row i.e. the
middle hives usually produce the least amount of honey and the end hives produce the
most. Where two rows of hives are arranged close together near a windbreak the bees
move within the rows, as outlined above, but in addition many bees move from the
back to the front row.


Experiments were conducted on the Mona Campus of the University of the West Indies
during August of 1969 to demonstrate the seriousness of drifting to Jamaican
beekeepers. Two groups of twenty hives each were arranged in squares with five hives
to a side; the hives were painted white and placed three feet apart. All surrounding


Caribbean Farming Jan./March 1970










vegetation was cut short and landmarks removed. (see Figure 1) Worker bees less than
one day old, were marked with paint (see Figure 2) introduced to the centre hive of
each row, and each week thereafter their distribution along the rows was determined
by examining all of the hives in the groups before the bees flew in the morning. When
the marked bees were 7 days old 35% of them had drifted from their own centre hive
to one of the other four hives in the row. When the marked bees were 14 days old
60% of them had drifted, and when they were 21 days old 70% had drifted.
In Manitoba, Canada, several commercial beekeepers, in co-operation with the University
of Manitoba personnel, demonstrated the effect of drifting on honey production; an
average of 24 pounds more honey was produced per hive from 15 groups of hives in
which drifting was reduced by arranging the hives in irregular patterns compared
to that produced from 15 groups of hives arranged in rows within the same apiaries.
It also appears that there can be a substantial reduction in the labour required to
manage apiaries in which drifting is reduced. This is because hives in low-drift
apiaries tend to build up their populations at a relatively even rate and thus
management problems are reduced. This is only true, of course, when no other serious
problems relating to queen losses, food shortages, disease, etc. exist within the
apiary.

Three methods can be used to reduce drifting between hives in apiaries:
1. The use of small irregular or non-repetitive layouts with hive entrances facing
different directions e.g. circles. (8-10 hives), horseshoes (8-10 hives),
snakes (8-10 hives in each loop), squares (using 4-8 hives, 2 to a side) etc.
2. The use of landmarks near the hives, e.g. trees, bushes, fences, etc.
3. The use of coloured hives or coloured strips above the hive entrances. Although
all three methods work well either separately, or in combination with each other,
probably the easiest and most effective method for the beekeeper to use is the
"layout" method. A mixed series of the smaller layouts (Horseshoes, circles,
etc. See figure 3) can be used effectively either near windbreaks or in open field
sites. If any of these layouts are used no consideration need be given to either the
colour of the hives or the nearness of landmarks.



TREES TREES TREES










(Fig. 3)

The accompanying diagram shows several layouts in which the hives are placed at
least 3-4 feet apart or in such a way that the beekeeper can move easily between them.
*Drifting is a term used by beekeepers to describe the movement of bees from one hive
to another.


Caribbean Farming Jan./March 1970















The imp ortance of food crops in the research
programme of the Faculty of the Faculty of Agriculture
of the U.W.I. can be judged from the fact that 84
pages of this report (involving 26 research workers)
are devoted to root crops and 27 pages (22 workers)
to pigeon pea (gungo pea) and field beans. The work
in pro ress includes both basic research and a plied
field research.

Sweet Potatoes
Among the results report, it is interesting that 33
varieties of sweet potatoes yielded less when given
nigtrogen fertilizer, 17 varieties yields more and 12
of these latter increased yields by more than 25%.
The differences seem to be associated with different
types of foliage and physiological studies on these
are in progress. One of the experiments suggested that
perhaps nitrogen increased yield only when the potatoes
were harvested early, and that yields even out as time
went on. A good deal of basic research is proceeding,
on the initiation of tubers in sweet potatoes, but
this has not reached the point where farmers can
benefit.
A series of.experiments showed that inadequate
weeding reduced potato yield and that too much
weeding probably caused some damage to the crop.
It was concluded that weeding at 3 weeks and
again at 8 weeks after planting was sufficient
if harvesting was done at 16 weeks, but weeding was
necessary on the 3rd, 6th and 11th week if harvesting
was not done until 20 weeks. Paraquat is recommended,
directed carefully at the weeds.
In Jamaica, it was found that Norea or Dacthal (4 lb.
per acre) controlled weeks and increased yield
appreciably, while Diphenamid gave good weed control
also. In Trinidad, Amiben (1 lb. per acre) plus
Dpenamid (2 lbs. per acre) or Maloran 2 lb.
pr acre) were found safe for use in sweet potatoes.
number of lines of work have begun on the control
ofinsects on sweet potatoes, especially Megastes
which is serious in most parts of the Caribbean.
ams
nemethod of spreading the yam crop appears to be
break the dormancy of the setts, and a quick dip in
-chloroethanol was found to be effective. It was
ahro found that heads germinated more quickly than
diPdles although the eventual yields were not very
dferent. Setts weighing 3 ozs. appeared to be large
enough
Veed control experiments showed that weeding in


yams is necessary approximately every 4 weeks, but
not after 12 weeks provided that the yam-banks
are not more than 3 ft. apart. Atrazine at 1.5 lb.
per acre is recommended pre-emergence, and Paraquat
for post-emergent work. Diuron sometimes causes
damage to the yams.
Survey in Grenada, St. Vincent and Barbados
A Root Crop Agronomist from the University of the
West Indies carried out this survey to assess the
problems of the farmer.
In Grenada, he found that sweet potatoes and yams
were grown on very poor land. Sweet potatoes were
almost all planted in August and yams in May. No
special fertilizer is in use. He concluded that both
crops require a screening of the available varieties
to find those with the best yield, and also that an
organised marketing system would stimulate
production.
In St. Vincent, on the other hand, the soils are much
better, good farming practices are observed, a
marketing organisation exists and yields are fairly
high. Sweet potatoes are planted on contour ridges 3
ft. apart using terminal cuttings planted 6 to 8
inches apart: planting is done around May and again
from September to December. The Marketing Board re-
quires that harvesting be done 16 weeks after planting.
Portugese yams were planted in January and white Lisbon
in May. Either 12-4-30 or 16-4-6 fertilizer is used,
and there is a need for fertilizer experiments on both
yams and sweet potatoes.
In Barbados, where by law 12% of the sugar estate land
is planted in food crops, much research has been done
already by the Sugar Producers' Assocation, but the
visiting Agronomist felt that many of the findings had
yet to be put to use. There are good opportunities for
mechanized planting and harvesting in Barbados.
Mechanization
The mechanical harvester developed in Trinidad for
yams and sweet potatoes has been further improved and
will now be tried under Barbados conditions.
Processing
Farm storage of yams and sweet potatoes can be
done for a limited time only and even then with some
loss. Research is described on processing these root
crops into flour or chips, or canning either raw or
cooked. With yrams, various chemical methods of peeling
have been tried. It was found that peehing of sweet
potatoes did not improve the colour, texture or taste
of the products. One variety of sweet potato was
found to yield a fairly good flour as judged by
bread-tasting panels.


Caribbean Farming Jan./March 1970


U.W~. I. AGRII C ULTURAt~L ~RE SEAC H.
Report of the Faculty of Agriculture U.W.I.
January to June, 1969





_


Diphenamid increased yields by 50%0 or more. The U.W.I.
agricultural economist pointed out the high~ risk factor
in growing red peas, including the high cost of harvest.
He advocated development of a rotation with corn and
red peas. (May planting of corn followed by November
planting of beans has been the custom in British
Honduras for some years Editor) In this respect it
is interesting to note that .3 lb. per acre of
Atrazine used pre-emergent on corn does not damage a
subsequent bean crop.
Farmers will be glad to know that our University is
tackling this work, even though their report is some-
what complex. Doubtless, the Department of Agriculture
in each territory will bring the relevant practical
advice to farmers. D.R.


Pigeon Peas
Work is continuing on the breeding, multiplication
and assessment of new pigeon pea lines. There are also
a number of results from weed control experiments with
pigeon peas. However, a U.W.I. agricultural
economist considers that mechanical harvesting is
necessary, even with the high-yielding and dwarf
varieties now available, if the crop is to be
profitable and expand materially.
Field Beans
This group of which red kidney beans (red peas) are
the most important in Jamaica is grown and consumed
in most territories. Leaf diseases are the main problem
and Manzate D at 2 lb. per acre was found to be the
best fungicide. Herbicide experiments in Jamaica showed
that Preforan, Maloran or a combination of Dacthal and


The Centre for Agricultural Research in Surinam
reports investigations into mechanical transport of
sugar cane from th~e field to, in this case, the railway
wagon. Cane in Surinam is grown on flat heavy clay
soil and yields an average of 95 tons per hectare
(38 tons per acre). The cane is planted on beds 6-8
yards wide at right angles to semi-permanent rail-
ways. Loading, which is done by hand entails an
average "carry" of 38 yards, and two men can handle
an average of only 4.6 tons per day.
Use of a cane-grab mounted-on a wheeled tractorrwas
possible for only 25% of the 42-week harvest period
due to rain and the sticky soil. Measurements on the


spot showed that the wheeled tractor and grab
(12,813 lb.) produced a wheel rut 2-3 times deepe
than a crawler tractor weighing 27,500 lb. since th
weight of the latter was spread over a much great
contact area.
Plans have been made to try the use of a Canadiar
terrain vehicle having flexible tracks with con-
ventional tyres as r lers: the vehicle can carry
5 tons, has a ground contact area of 7 square yart
and could be fitted with a crane. Calculations she
hand cutting~followed by mechanical transport w
cost as much as hand transport but may reduce tF-
labour force by 40%.


This magazine printed in its October 1969 issue a review of
the paper "Variability in Yams" presented at the 1969
Caribbean Food Crops Conference at the U.W.I. Faculty of
Agriculture, Trinidad, by T.U. Ferguson P.H. Haynes, and
B.G.F. Springer. The authors have subsequently pointed out
errors which we would like to correct.
The paper was concerned mainly with assessing the
variation in weights and numbers of yams reaped particu-
larly when planted using pieces of the same weight but from
mother tubers of different weights. The 'copious results
obtained were for the use of researchers working on yams,


although our reviewer extracted only agronomic data for t; ?
benefit of our farming readers.
Now, here are the big errors. The average number of tube: s
per plant was in fact 2.8 for White Lisbon and 19.0 f r
Chinese yams (not 7 and 5.6 respectively as we reported) ar d
the average weight of the tubers was 11 Ib. 7 oz. for Whiie
Lisbon and 2.5 oz. For Chinese (not 1 1 Ib.14 oz. and 11 Ib. 8 oz )
it seems that our reviewer summarised the wrong table, but
we should have realized that Chinese yams just don't comre
that big. We bow our heads in shame and thank the authors of
the paper fcir correcting us.


Caribbean Farming Jan./March 1970


M~E3CHANICAL

SU~GAREE CANI1E~E TRANV S PO~RT'I


VARIABILITY IN YAMS, A Correction














by
B. I. Gohl
(F.A.O. Regional
Associate Expert,
Trinidad)


and
C. Devendra
(Faculty of Agriculture,
University of the West Indies,
St. Augustine, Trinidad)


BANANAS
In most of the West Indian islands bananas are grown
for export and because of stringent gi~rading soeix
per cent are rejected and are availablet h
growers at little or no cost. The rejects have for
many years been fed to pigs and often in big
quantities. A few points on the use of bananas are
worth considering:-
(i) Four-fifths of the green bananas are water,
which means that if two cents per lb. is paid for
green bananas, the cost for the dry matter is ten
cents per lb. which may be higher than the cost of
commercial hog ration.
(ii) Digestibility is higher in ripe bananas
than in green fruit.
(iii) Cooking does not improve the feeding value.
(iv) Bananas can be used for cattle and pigs but
hardly for poultry. They can also be chopped up and
ensiled.
(v) Bananas are poor in protein and the
animals must be fed a suitable concentrate in addition.
For pigs, 2.5 3 lb. a day of the following
concentrate may be useful:-
Fish meal 12 lb. Minerals &
Coconut meal 45 lb. vitamins 1 lb.
Wheat middlings 42 lb.
It may be of interest to note that banana leaves are
rich in-protein (19%/).

CITRUS MEAL
Citrus meal is produced from waste, i.e. skins,
seeds and pulp from the manufacture of juice; these
are ground, mixed with limestone and dried.
The meal is a good cattle feed, rich in energy
and calcium, but low in phosphorous and protein.
For these reasons, it is necessary to mix it with
protein-rich feed-stuffs when included in a balanced
dairy ration. The cattle also must have access to
grean leafy roughage cut grass, pasture, green hay
or silage to ensure an adequate intake of vitamins.
A suggested citrus meal concentrate mixture is to
nux equal amounts (by weight) of it with wheat
middlings, and coconut meal as a source of protein.
This concentrate will have between 14% and 15% crude
protein and between 70% and 75% TDN (total digestible
nutrients). If half of the coconut meal is replaced with
cottonseed meal the crude protein content is increased
by 3% while the TDN remains about the same.
A third article in this series will appear in the next issue of CARIBBEAN
FARMING.


The first article in this series was published in
our October 1969 issue. It discussed the by
products of the cane sugar industry.
LIMES
After the limes have been crushed and the juice and
oil have been squeezed out, the skins are discarded
from the factory. The amount of skins so produced is
usually too small to justify a drying plant but they
are a good cattle feed either fresh or sundried.
They can also be made into excellent silage for use
during the dry season. The production of lime
silage however will be dependent on the quantity
of skins produced and also the relative economics
of making it. The seeds are usually collected
separately in the factory. They are rich in fat
(11.4%) and protein (19.0%) and may be mixed with
the skins and fed to ruminants (cows, buffaloes, sheep
and goats). However, the seeds contain elements that
are poisonous to pigs and poultry.
CHICKEN LIT-TER
The litter from poultry houses has a high nitrogen
content and cattle find the litter palatable. It is.
difficult to give an exactfgueof the composition
as it varies with the type of poultry, age and poultry
feed. In general -the litter~is high in moisture, crude
protein and fiber but low in energy, vitamins and
available phosphorous. The litter from laying houses
averages about 15-20% crude protein, while broiler
litter can have up to 30% crude protein. The litter
must be perfectly dried in gentle heat and preferably
pulverized in a hammermil Also, it should be
run over a magnet to remove stray metal scraps. The
prepared chicken litter should be stored in plastic
bags or covered drums to keep it dry. When fed it
must be mixed with feed containing adequate energy.
A formula that may be useful as a concentrate is:-

Poultry litter 65 lb.
Citrus meal 25 lb.
SMolasses 8 lb.
SDicalciumphosphate 1 lb.
STrace minerals & vitamins I lb.

When mixed in the feed however, chicken litter has
the disadvantage of not being able to keep for an
indefinite period of time so that it has to be used
up quickly.


Caribbean Farming Jan./March 1970


CREO P BY- PRODUC TS
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Regular sailing by modern CARGO steam-
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Orleans, Cristobal, Costa Rica, Colombia,
Guatemala, Honduras as also to Pacific
Coast, Ports of North and South America
with transhipment at Cristobel, C.Z. Re-
frigerated and chilled Cargo accepted
from New York and New Orleans for
Kingston.
For full information apply to United
Fruit Jamaica Company, 40 Harbour
Street, Kingston, Jamaica, or, United
Fruit Company, Pier 3, North River,
New York, or, 321 St. Charles Avenue,
New Orleans 4, La., or Caribbean Steam-
ship Agency Limited, 421-427 Mil/brook
Rd., Southampton S. 09 2 GF, England.

AGENTS:
MOORE-McCORMACK LINES, INC.
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FARMERS' YEAR

PURINA FEEDS for
Dairy, Hog, Poultry, Beef, Rabbits, Dogs and other annimals
GENERALFARM SUPPLIES:
Wheelbrrows Shovels Fokrk Barbed Wire Hog Fencing
Wire Mesh Wire Staples Harness and imported Riding saddles
Spayesn Blooms and brushes Bulk Feding Equipment
Poultry Equipment Scales.
MEDICATION:
Vaccines for Poultry, Cattle, Pigs Dogs and other Animals
Antibiotics
Wormers
Medication for Livestck and Poultry
Veterinary supplies and equipment
DAY-OLD CHICKS:
Hyline, Sex Links and Vantress.

Contact:
SThe Juaaica Livestock Association Ltd
50 EAST STREET-KI NGSTON -PHONE:26737-9
Branches Mandeville Phone: 2489* My Pen Phone: 492
& Depots: Montego Bay- Phone: 2270 Savanna-le-Mar Phone: 821
Christiana Phone: 365









The following article appeared in the December 15 issue of MARKET
BULLETIN a publication of the Florida (USA) Dept. of Agriculture.
Commissioner of Agriculture Doyle Conner moved this month to restrict DDT
and 34 other persistent and highly toxic pesticides in Florida and asked his

FLORIDA RE STRICTS Pes indeaa Tecphncath onuct
the use of DDT as soon
U1S EOF TOX IC as possible. The technical council had proposed restricting
the pesticides under a new law, requiring licenses of sellers
PE STICIDE S and permits of buyers of the pesticides, and establishing which
crop certain pesticides could be used on. Conner went further
than the technical council recommendation and will allow DDT to be used only on
cabbage, cotton, corn, peanuts, soybeans and sweet potatoes.
DDT may also be used in public health programs and by licensed pest control operators.
The technical council had recommended permission for DDT to be used on grain
sorghum, wheat, gladioli and chrysanthemums, but Conner deleted those crops be-
cause adequate substitute pesticides are available.
Conner wrote to Dr. John Sites, chairman of the Pesticide Technical Council
and dean of research in agriculture at the University of Florida, Gainesville,
that he also was deleting two recommended uses of Dieldrin, another chlorinated
hydrocarbon, for mangoes and plums. This will permit the use of Dieldrin only on
peaches and sweet potatoes.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture presently permits the use of DDT on 218
crops, according to Dr. Vincent E. Stewart, state chemist. Under the new regula-
tions, Florida will permit use of DDT on only six crops. Dr. Stewart added that
DDT is permitted on cabbage only in the seedling stage and not after the cabbage
head begins to form.
Conner called on the Pesticide Technical Council "to find a way to phase out
the use of DDT here in Florida except for emergency health purposes and pending
crop disasters as rapidly as possible. I know there are substitutes that can be
used for some of the crops mentioned in your recommendations and I am hopeful
that research will provide other acceptable substitutes to insure a wholesome food
supply."

Chemicals Needed Conner called attention to a remark made recently by Dr. Emil M. Mrak, chairman
of the National Commission on Pesticides, in reporting to Secretary Robert H. Finch
of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare: "CHemicals, including
pesticides used to increase food production, are of such importance in modern life
that we must learn to live with them."
He advised Dr. Sites also that he concurred with the statement by the commission
that these pesticides should be restricted "to such specific essential uses which
create no known hazard to human health or to the quality of the environment."
Conner said his action in further limiting the uses of DDT is in line with the
thinking of the commission at the national level.


Restrictions The new regulations will specifically name each of the 35 pesticides to be
restricted. Included are A~ldrin, Endrin, Heptachor, Parathion, Toxaphene, the
arsenic compounds and cyanides.
Specific uses for Aldrin will be on pine seedlings, as seed treatment, soil
treatment for fruit trees, and by licensed pest control operators. DDsT will be
permitted on corn, cotton, peanuts, soybeans, tomatoes, tobacco, chrysan-
themums, gladioli and as soil treatment for vegetables.
Endrin will be permitted only for use on cotton, sugar cane, curcurbit seed and
Caribbean Farming Jan./March 1970 2!











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RATTEX is a ready prepared, ready to use Warfarin Rat Bait.
It contains a high percentage of Paraffin that protects the
active ingredient from being washed out by water, or rainfall,
and makes it ideal for agricultural protection against rodents
in Tropical countries.
Warfarin prevents the formation of Prothrombin; without
Prothrombin no Thrombin is produced to combine with
fibrinogen to form fibrin or blood clots. The rats thus
develop leakage from internal blood vessels, leading to
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without feeling any ill effects, and thus do not develop "Bait
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Rattex Agents in Carifta Countries.


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pine seed. Heptachlor will be permitted only as soil treatment for fruit trees,
turf, flower, foliage, fern and woody ornamentals.

Conner pointed out one of the important aspects of the regulations is that they
will remove the highly-toxic pesticides such as parathion from the shelves of
stores where they are readily available to unquliid users.
The commissioner commended the Pesticide Technical Council for an "outstanding
job" in implementing the new law which permits regulation of pesticide usage.


FLORIDA RESTRICTS USE
OF TOXIC PESTICIDES -
Continued from page 29


Caribbean Farming Jan./March 1970










The National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, embarked on a crossbreeding
project in 1963. Frozen semen from Brown Swiss bulls having: progeny tests varying
from 11,100 to 14,400 lb. was imported from the U.S.A. and used for inseminating
Sahiwal and Red Sindhi cows with a herd average of 4,600 5,300 lb. In spite of
CROSSBRE EDING te sub tanta ddH rnc ain size between

WTORK AT KARNAL obere wai no si 01 ant inr ee in cases
the Sahiwal or Red Sindhi dams which produced crossbred calves. A total of 144
calves was produced in the first stage, of which 75 were females.
From ivewsiener ivo. 62 The crossbred calves were 10 to 12 lb. heavier than their zebu herdmates. This
ofAia Bedn difference increased as the animals grew older, the rate of growth of the cross-o'llabfea
senetis breds being at least four oz. more per day than that of the purebreds.
Edinurg. ~io~lnd.Observations on the physiological reactions (pulse rate, respiration rate and
teinperature) of crossbred animals of different age groups showed that while
pulse and respiration rates tended to be higher in crossbred calves under 6
months of (:e (e.g. 104 and 21 v 84 and 17 for purebied resp.) all were within
the normal range.
Studies on water metabolism in crossbred and Sahiwal bull calves under
sheltered and exposed conditions during different seasons showed that intake
of water was as much as 1.51 gall. per 100 lb. body weight in crossbreds
compared to 1.28 gall. in Sahiwals in the exposed conditions. This difference
was more marked in summer than in winter. The sweating rate measured over
different regions of the body surface was invariably found to be higher
in Sahiwals when measured in terms of colour change of cobalt chloride discs.
Further investigations are to be made to ascertain whether this was due to
differences in the number of functional sweat glands of in the relative
surface area in the Sahiwals as compared with the crossbreds.
Feed utilisation was studied under both sheltered and unsheltered conditions,
in summer and winter, in Sahiwals and crossbreds. It was observed that extreme
heat during the summer (when ambient temperature was 91.00 to 111.40 F.
and vapour pressure 15 -25 mm Hg) caused a significant depression in feed intake
and utilisation. There was a reduction in feed intake at the height of summer
(temperatures up to 111.80 F) without a compensatory increase in disgesti-
bility. The critical temperature for crossbreds was around 90aF, whereas for
zebus it was around 1000F.
Details of the performance of crossbreds is given in the table below:
Performance of crossbreds v Sahiwals ac Sindhis

Character Crossbreds Sahiwals Sindhis
Age at 1st calving (mth) 30.25 (60) 38 42
yield in 305 days (lb) 6,602 (52) 3,753 3,766
length of lactation (days) 338 (49) --
calving interval (days) 392 (37) 437 418
Mortality among the F1 crossbreds was, if anything, slightly lower than that of
purebreds.

Crossbred steers have proved to be just as efficient as zebus for farm work, a
point of considerable importance where strong working animals are so much
sought after.
The information set out above was supplied by Dr. D. Sundaresan, Dean of Post-Graduate
Studies at the Punjab Agricultural University.


Caribbean Farming Jan./March 1970




















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Commercial farmers are well aware of the importance
of accounting records the figures which keep a
businessman informed as to his profit situation and
the improving or worsening state of his enterprise.
This type of record will not be discussed here. The
purpose of this artic e wil be to o fer some
suggestions relating to performance records which
are equally important in that they help the farmer
to assess the quality of his livestock and therefore
to take the steps necessary for improving their
performance.
While many farmers keep records that are too skimpy
or incomplete for real long-term use, there are people
who go to the other extreme and carefully record in-
formation so copious and detailed that it cannot
possibly be used in any simple farm system. The farmer
should give priority to recording characteristics that
are of economic significance. Desirable characteristics
which have a high heritability should also be re-
corded so that animals outstanding in these
characteristics may be selected as parents of the
succeeding generation. This would help to ensure
genetic progress in the performance of animals.
It is desirable that records be kept in terms that
make mesurable comparisons possible; modern ways
of grading livestock on the hoof or as carcasses
soemtimes make use of a system of numbers-
B~elow are examples of some performance records that
are important in beef cattle production and in pig
farming. Neither list attempts to be complete as
individual enterprises may have particular emphases
or specific needs.

BEEF CATTLE
1.BIRTH WEIGHT Birth Weight
Calves that are heavy at birth usually carry this
advantage into maturity.
2. WEANING WEIGHT Weaning Weight
Liveweight gains made before weaning are cheaper
than those made after. Weaning weight of the calf is
an indication of the milking ability of the cow.
3. DAILY RATE OF GAIN FROM WEANING
TO MARKETING
Post weaning growth rate is important because -
(1) it makes for a shorter time in reaching market
weight and condition, thereby effecting a saving of
'labour, allowing for a more rapid turnover in capital
and eventually a more profitable undertaking.


(ii) It is high co-related with efficiency of grain.
4. EFFICIENCY OF FEED UTILIZATION
Where possible, accurate feed records should be
kept, as the most profitable animals are those
which require the least pounds of feed to make 100
pounds of gain,
5. CARCASS GRADE
The evaluation of carcass grade is usually done by
meat processors. High carcass grade is important
because it determines eating and selling qualities.
Carcass grade is also the best possible evaluator
of tpe.
6. HERD FERTILITY
The beef cow that does not produce a calf per year an
uneconomic animal.

PIGS

1. LITTER SIZE AT BIRTH
The average sow would have consumed a total of V/2 to
M ton of feed during the period between breeding and
the date her litter is weaned. If this quantity of feed is
charged against a litter of 4 or 5 pigs, the chance of
eventual profit is small.
2. LITTER SIZE AT WEANING
Although greatly influenced by management, litter
survival to weaning is a measure of the mothering
ability of the sow.
3. WEIGHT PER PIG AT WEANING
This is largely a measure of the nursing ability of
the sow. Heavier pigs at weaning reach market weight
more quickly.
4. LITTER WEIGHT AT WEANING
This is a function of number of pigs weaned and
individual pig weight and as such is a more reliable
measure of the sow's mothering ability than either of
these traits alone.
5. DAILY RATE OF GAIN FROM WEANING
TO MARKETING.
Daily rate of gain from weaning to marketing is highly
co-related with efficiency of gain. It also allows for
a shorter time in reaching market weight and condition.
thus effecting a saving in labour, reducing risk and
allowing for a more rapid turnover in capital.
6. EFFICIENCY OF FEED UTILIZATION
The most profitable animals generally require less
feed to make 100 pounds gain.


Caribbean Farming Jan./March 1970


FAREM_ ~LIVE STOCK(

PERTFORtlMANVCE RE CORtDS

by Dr. K.L. Roach, Agricultural Officer, Barclays Bank.





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given at regular intervals up-to-date information
on the performance of his herd. The speed with which
the farmer receives his information is greatly
facilitated by the use of electronic computers. This
has given rise in certain instances to the mis-
conception that the "computer will give the answer."
A computer is a calculating tool, not a decision
maker, and as such can only do what it is instructed
to do. Biassed information subjected to computer
analysis will give biassed results. In these instances,
it is very important that facts are presented in their
entirety so that interpretation of the results of
analysis will be reasonable.


7. CARCASS GRADE
Carcass characteristics are-more highly hereditary
than other economically important traits. Consumer
preference for carcasses with a high percentage of
lean meat militate against excessively fat carcasses.
This fat is usually trimmed. off the carcass and
represents a waste to both farmer and processor.

The recording of information of dairy cattle pro-
duction is now handled in most dairying countries by
the various Dairy Herd Improvement Associations. Data
.is collected, analysed, interpreted and the farmer is


It requires a little more food to produce a dozen eggs with
a floor operation than it does in cages and feeds being that
major item of production cost, this obviously is a very
important consideration. And we often find that the bird
.coming out of cages is a little bit heavier than the bird coming
off the floor. Now, this is something in which we have not yet
had too much experience in Jamaica in terms of the percent
of carcass weights but this has been fairly well proven in
Britain.


One other point of interest is that we can expect to get
possibly a little longer production life of floor birds than we
can out of cages. I think that if a farmer gets with a hybrid
Leghorn, 13 months good production out of cages before it
becomes uneconomical, he is doing fairly well while with a
good flock on floor he should be able to get 14 months. But
even so, the figures do show that it is more profitable to use
cages than deep-litter when all these factors are taken into
consideration.


Caribbean Farming Jan./IMirch 1970


~HEN1S IN CALG~ES
Omission from Vol. 1. No. 4. Oct. 69 page 36.


If you can find a better layer than the

Shaver Stareross 288

We can afford to make this offer because we know there's no better
profit producer than the Shaver Starcross 288. So also do thousands
of prosperous poultry farmers all over the world. Results prove it-
not only in the field, under a variety of conditions and climates, but
also in the major international random sample tests. Every one
another Shaver success story. These achievements and the
extensive Shaver research and breeding programme are your
guarantee that when you buy Shaver you buy the best!


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Ucomoplis~cated cs wH hedl spo taneoulyo thin
within 3 4 weeks and healing takes place without
the formation of scars. It is these dried scales
which contain the virus and as it is resistant to
heat and cold it can survive for a long time in the
soil. It is possible then for the disease to recur
On premises where it previously existed unless the
new crops of kids are protected by vaccination.
Many deaths may occur if the lesions on the faces
become infested with maggots of the screw-worm fly or
secondary bacterial infection has resulted in deep
ulceration. Fusiformis necrophorus, the necrotising
bacillus is the organism most frequently found in
secondary bacterial infection. The bacterial
infections may result is necrotic lesions in the lung,
liver, stomach and intestines. In animals so infected
mortality may range from 10 50 per cent. Prevention
of screw-worm fly infestation and secondary infection:
are of primary importance in order to avoid
complications. Lesions should be cleansed of maggots
and a fly-repellant applied to avoid further
infestations. Secondary infections can be avoid for
the most part by local antiseptic treatment. Deep-
seated ulcerations and secondary lesions in lung
and gastro-intestinal tract are more difficult to
treat.


There is a live vaccine which can be used
effectively to prevent this disease. It is
applied to the skin in a manner similar to the
technique used in vaccinating against small pox
in man, i.e. by rubbing the vaccine in scratches
made in the skin. The commonest site for vaccinatio
is under the tail where there is absence of hair.
A successful inoculation or 'take' is indicated in
susceptible animals by the formation of a local
wr pustular lesion at the site of inoculation. The
scale that forms will dry and fall off in several
weeks. The immunity conferred lasts up to 2 years c
more. Animals that have recovered from natural in-
fection and those vaccinated can be for practical
purposes considered to be immune for life. Where th I
disease occurs regularly it is advisable to vaccinate
animals before the disease appears, but some
beneficial results may be expected even when
vaccination is done as an outbreak impends the
normal course of the disease in animals showing
vre symptoms is usually shortened.
There is no specific treatment for this disease.
Man is susceptible to the virus of sore mouth, so
attendants should be warned to take precautions when
handling goats or when vaccinating. The lesions in man
consist of one to several large vesicles or blisters
with painful reddening or swelling of the skin. There
may be a slight rise in temperature and some swelling
of the lymph glands in the armpits.


Farmer and Stockbreeder


Normally the disease runs a rather benign course
with hardly any fatalaties unless complications set
in. The greatest loss results from debilitation due
to inability of the affected animals to eat for
long periods, and from starting of growth at the
age when bodily weight gains should be greatest.


Caribbean Farming Jan./March 1970


SO RE MOUTH

IN GOAT
By C.L. Bent,
Veterinary Officer,
Ministry of Agriculture,
Jamaica .


Sore mouth, contagious pustular dermatitis
(orf) or contagious ecthyma is a highly contagious
virus disease of goats and sheep, but as this article
is concerned with the former species, remarks will
be confined to them.
It is more usually seen in kids but lesions can
also be found on the udders of nursing goats. It
is most prevalent among kids when goats have been
congregated under an intensive system of management.
The lesions appear most frequently on the lips
and sometimes on the face and ears and near the eyes.
Vesicles, pustules, ulcers and scales form. The
lesions in severe cases may reach into the mouth where
extensive ulceration of the cheeks, hard palate
and tongue may develop.









The feed that produces
the best results PRN
means more profit CHOWS

for yo u.


Only Purina Chows, with high quality control achieved by the special method
of micro-mixing developed in Purina research laboratories can produce
the best results from your livestock. Broilers that go to market
7 days sooner. Layers that give 240 or more eggs a year.
Sows that wean up to 10 pigs per litter. Hogs that reach
market a month earlier. Cows that give 1,000 lb.
more milk and Steers that produce more and
better beef. It stands to reason that the feed
that produces the best results, means more profit
for you. It pays to buy PURINA CH'OWS
because it pays to buy Quality at the red and white
checkerboard sign of your Jamaica Feeds dealer.


p~""~L~


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1


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JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY '
DOMESTIC SALES LTD. SH ELL CO. (W.I.) LTD.
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Jamaica :
Bryden & Evelyn Ltd.
54-56. Church Street
Kingston


With aU46 yo wont be troubled by this any rnore mU~


For further information please contact:


Grenada:
Gerald S.W. Smith & Co. Ltd.
P. O.Box No. 14
St. George's

Dominica:
T. D. Shillingford
P. O. Box No. 12
Roseau


St. Lucia:
J. Q. Charles Ltd.
P. O. Box No. 279
Castries


Guyana:
T. Geddes Grant (Guyana) Ltd.
P. O. Box No. 407
Georgetown


Trinidad:
Geo. F. Huggins &~ Co. Ltd.
P. O. Box No. 179
Port of Spain

Barbados:
Da Costa & Musson Ltd.
P. O. Box No. 103
Bridgetown


LPS 327e




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