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Title: Caribbean farming
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101460/00004
 Material Information
Title: Caribbean farming
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Mona, Jamaica
Publication Date: October 1969
Copyright Date: 1969
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101460
Volume ID: VID00004
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 3116219

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Editorial
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Main
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Back Cover
        Page 37
        Page 38
Full Text



















SPECIAL FOOD CROPS ISSUE


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1 OCTOBER 1969




~aribbean RITIll



C RCULATION
B HAMAS BARBADOS .BRITISH HONDURAS .COSTA RICA DOMINICAN REPUBLIC FRENCH ANTILLES GUYANA HAITI HONDURAS
JA\MAICA LEEWARD ISLANDS MEXfCO NETHERLANDS ANTILLES NICARAGUA, PANAMAA PUERTO RICO SURINAM TRINIDAD
*R GIN ISLANDS. WINDWARD ISLANDS.


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ALBERT TOWN TRELAWNY
Grant's Tip Top Enterprise
ANNOTTO BAY
Brown's X LCR Variety Store
BLACK RIVER
Dor's (Mr. Lyn)
BROWN'S TOWN
Charley's Windsor House
FALMOUTH
Chin See Brothers
GRANGE HILL
Isreal Williams
HIGHGATE
Spotlight
LINSTEAD & OCHO RIOS
P.E. Stanigar & Sons
MANDEVILLE
V.M. Bromfield Limited


MAY PEN
Stork Deroux
MONTEGO BAY
Crichton Brothers
PORUS
Edgar Barnett's Emporium
PORT MARIA
Ebony House
PORT ANTONIO
Adrian Lee (Cheapside Store)
RUNAWAY BAY
Rose Brothers
SAVANNA-LA-MAR
Jackson Williams & Sons
Reg. J. Lyn
SANTA CRUZ
L.A. Beadle
ST. ANN'S BAY
Clarke's Hardware


KINGSTON
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61 Slipe Road
Carib Hardware
77 Slipe Road
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NOTES FOR CONTRIBUTORS


CROP SECTION
ONIONS IN TH E WEST INDIES ............................................5
R ICE IN TH REE CAR IBBEAN COU NTR IES ........................... 6
COCONUTS NOW AND IN THE FUTURE...........................11
CR OPS FOR AC ID SOI LS............................................... 13
CFCS SYMPOSIUM ON MAI ZE............................................4
MAIZE IN TH E CAR IBBEAN .............................................15
CORN CULTURAL PRACTI CES.........................................6
SPACING PINEAPPLE PLANTS.........................................2
VARIABILITY IN YAMS...............................................2
BOOK REVI EW S..................................... ................22
COMMODITIES & PRICES.............................................2
FOOD CROPS INFLUENCE OF PLANTING SEASON.......24




LIVESTOCK SECTION
MANAGEMENT & FERTILITY IN CATTLE 3....................27
CROP BY PRODUCTS FOR LIVESTOCK............................... 32
JAMAICA LIVESTOCK ASSOCIATION NOTES.....................33
HE NS IN CAGE S.....................................................3


The editor will be glad to hear from
farmers, research workers, extension officers
and others who would like to offer articles
or photographs for publication in
CA RIBBEAN FAR MI NG.
Preference is given to articles of a
practical nature which will help to put the
results of research and experiment into the
farmer's hands. Where possible, good
drawings or diagrams should accompany
articles. Good quality photographs of not
less than 5" x 7" are welcome they should
relate to farming in the region.
Payment will be made (on publication)
for all material accepted.





Cover photograph by courtesy
of Antilles Chemical Company

Other photographs by contributors.


SUBSCRIPTION RATES FOR 4 ISSUES
JAMAICA...~ 1.67. EASTERN CARIBBEAN ...E.C.84.00 U.S.A. & other countries 8 2.00

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EDITORIAL


It seems a pity that the lead in research, development
and innovation mn farming matters comes from the
research scientist rather than the farmer but prob-
ably it is wishful thinking to imagine a state of affairs
where the farmers were encouragmg and even pressing
their research scientists to develop new varieties, new
techniques and new materials to meet the needs of a
dynanuc farming economy.



r~ OUIR

~~SUGAR



Norman Girwar
Delegates from cane-growing countries of the Carib-
bean met in Jamaica in August of this year and during
the meeting Mr. Norman Girwar, manager of the
Trinidad Cane Farmers' Association presented a timely
and thoughtful paper on the pros and cons of
Caribbean reliance on sugar cane as the dominant crop.
The case for keeping sugar in its present leading
position has been made often and ably but generally
by those who very clearly stand to gain by the success
of the industry and to lose (or at least suffer
embarrassment and inconvenience) if Caribbean people
found alternative uses for the best lands of the region.
On the other hand, those who urged the Caribbean to
abandon sugar have generally had insufficiently inti-
mate knowledge of the modern sugar industry and its
position in the life of the Caribbean. Also, they more
often than not appear to be motivated very strongly by
the prejudice against the plantation system con-
dition of mind which is natural for West Indians who
know the history of these countries. A less important
consideration is that few, perhaps none, of those who
pointed out the disabilities of a sugar-ridden commun-
ity have -found themselves in the grim position of
farmers who have to decide what to do to occupy
themselves, their workers and their land if and when
they give up growing sugar.
Mr. Girwar's study is the more interesting because it
was made by a man with a heavy commitment and
strong attachment to the sugar industry. He chose to
offer no judgement of the case but has collected his
facts meticulously and presented them (on both sides)
without bias or prejudice.
In Mr. Girwar's paper there are some points that stand
out as strong indictment of the people who have
controlled the industry down the years. One such
point is the .low rating of the industry as an innovator
in land use and, Mr. Girwar might have added, in its
use of labour and of materials. For many generations
the owners of the industry were satisfied to make rum
and raw sugar and certainly one of the weaknesses of
the industry in the producing countries is that it has
not been able to develop any wide range of useful and
valuable products in comparison with the petroleum
industry or the lumber industry of other parts of the
world.


Caribbean Farming October 1969


CARIBBEAN FOOD CROPS SOCIETY
This society held its seventh annual general meeting in
Martinique in July last and this issue of CARIBBEAN
FARMING is devoted to the crops that are the port-
folio of the CFCS. There were so many papers
presented at the meeting that it was impossible to
ummarize all of them m the pages of one issue.
aldeed, it has not been possible even to mention all of
ae interesting papers read in Martinique.
however, during the months between now and the
Jciety's next meeting, the publishers of CARIBBEAN
ARMING hope to make mention of the papers read
the 1969 meeting mn as great detail as conditions
ill allow.
e take this opportunity of thanking those research
workers who sent us copies or summaries of their
ipers and photographs to illustrate them.




.EDING OURSELVES

Hiring the past few years tropical food crops have
own some improvements mn yields, mn what
lentists know about them and in their profitability to
a grower.
!Ee Caribbean Food Crops Society, the 1967 Inter-
~tional Symposium on Tropical Root Crops and the
tivity of research workers have all helped bring
.ditional Caribbean food crops into greater promi-
nce.
the same time the export crops which have
stained and dominated our economy for many
nerations are facing difficulties. We are not alone in
is many countries which have depended down the
ars on exports of primary foodstuffs are finding that
year succeeds year this export trade becomes less
ofitable and less reliable.
lis decline in profitability of export crops and the
2r-rising cost of imported food are only two of the
iators which make it important that the countries of
i o Caribbean should become more self-sufficient in
f od. Unfortunately our farmers have more than their
i arue of the disease which most affects agriculture a
strong resistance to change*

This is unfortunate because the future of these
countries will largely depend on how quickly farmers
accept even embrace change. Bigger crops of
maize mean change from the custom of saving seed
from one crop to plant the next. Bigger markets for
sweet potatoes mean changing from the varieties that
are easy to grow in favour of the varieties that
consumers will find more tasty. Better prices for
tomatoes mean growing them under irrigation to meet
the out-of-season market.










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J Rolz II1 /









mend that growers in Barbados
plant at least one-half of their
acreage in Red Creole or Tropicana
for future crops. This is because of
poor storage characteristics of the
Granex and Grano varieties; in
Jamaica also there has been a
storage problem.
Donaldson has noted that Red
Creole (as well as Granex Hybrid)
bulbs tend to divide and multiply
under wet conditions. He also notes
that Red Creole is slower maturing
(by about four weeks) than Texas
Early Grano.
Growing Season
Day length and temperature are
evidently critical requirements for
successful onion production. In
both countries best results seem to
come from crops planted in Octo-
ber to December. All research
reports suggest that it is important
that the crop be reaped during the
dry season of the year. The varieties
grown mn Barbados were ready for
harvest 140--150 days after seed-
mng.
The Barbados team recommend
that there be a three-year 'rest
period' between successive onion
crops in any field as a precaution
against build-up of nematodes and
disease' orgamisms.
Soil Types and Locations
According to Eavis and Jeffers,
"In Barbados the black mont-
morillionite clays (soil types
mapped as 10, and 30) and the
mo ntmoril~lioni~te/kaolinite mix-
tures' ('40) are best suited to onion
production. Of the soil types tried,
those least suited are the red sands
(70) in St. Peter and St. James and
the chalk and alluvial soils of the
Scotland District. The sands and
chalk soils require almost daily
irrigation in dry weather whereas
the black soils will produce fair
crops without any irrigation from
October plantings. The alluvial soils
of St. Andrew produce a surface
cap especially after irrigation,






Tractor mounted Spray Rig
used for insect and disease
control


which tends to prevent germina-
tron.
A level site which does not
become waterlogged is most suit-
able. An area not susceptible to
erosion should be selected."
The same workers make it clear
that for large scale production,
seeding must be mechanised and
transplanting and thinning opera-
tions must be eliminated. These
considerations will help dictate the
locations selected for this crop.
Yields and Costs
It is gathered from the paper by
Eavis and Jeffers that they regard
9-10 tons per acre as a reasonable
commercial yield when the neces-
sary materials and equipment are
available and when workers are
trained to handle the crop expedi-
tiously and economically. In their
own trials, one ten-acre field yield-
ed 10 tons per acre in spite of
insect attacks and the other mis-
adventures normal for a first crop
on this scale.
.On one ten-acre field which
yielded 46 tons, the total variable
incostpe acre was EC)'/27, includ-
m 24 for harvesting (largely
zmanua labour) anad $22e a rd ed
of commercial weed-control chem-
icals with unsatisfactory results in
aHl cases.
Donaldson in Jamaica recom-
mends EPTAM for nut grass control
and Tok E25 for general weed
control. It is clear that where
chemicals can be successfully used,
a combination of chemicals and
mechanical weeding can substan-
tially reduce production costs.
Pest control on the Barbadian
trial plot cost on the average EC
$132 per acre; here again costs were
high because a tractor-mounted
boom spray could not be used for
all application of chemicals (due to
wet field conditions) and knapsack
sprayers had to be used.


InThe



A number of Caribbean countries
have become interested in onion
growing during the past few years -
probably because the crop offers a
promilsing area for reducing the
area's enormous bill for imported
food.
In a detailed and interesting
paper presented at the 1969 meet-
ing of the Caribbean Food Crops
Society, Dr. B.W. Eavis and Mr. W.
de C. Jeffers reported on onion
growing trials in Barbados. The
summary below contains the
recommendations of Dr. Eavis and
Mr. Jeffers of the Barbados Minis-
try of Agriculture. They relate to
Barbadian conditions and it seems
useful to report also on recom-
mendations from Jamaica an-
other Caribbean area where some
onion production trials have been
carried out during recent years.
Where there are differences in the
recommendations from the two
areas, they seem to arise from the
differences in latitude, rainy season
and, possibly, soils.
The information on Jamaican
experience was provided by Mr.
James Donaldson, Vegetable Agron-
omist of the Ministry of Agricul-
ture,.Jamaica.
Vari tie
Granex (Fig. 1) Hybrid and
Texas Early Grano have been the
varieties chosen in Barbados al-
though Eavis and Jeffers recom-
WEED CONTROL IN ONIONS
The following summary is of a
report by research scientist Simon
Colmenares C. of the Shell Agricul-
tural Redearch Unit in Venezuela:-
Onion seedlings growing in seed-
beds during 45 to 50 days previous
to transplanting face the problem
of weed competition. Manual weed
control is a difficult, time con-
summng, and expensive work.
Several herbicides have been
tested trying to find a .solution to
the problem. Recent trials were
made with post-emergepce applica-
tions of Tok E 25. This chemical at
rates of 2%-25 pints dissolved in 88
gallons water per acre (4--8 litres in
400 litres water per ha). applied
when the weeds were in the two or
three-leaved stage, gave good weed
control without damaging the
onion seedlings.

Caribbean Farming October 1969
























Surinam: Surinam is a relatively
new rice exporting country, al-
though since about 1900 the crop
was cultivated to some extent. The
country became self-sufficient in
about 1928 and from then on small
quantities were available for export.
From about 1953, production
increased sharply with the intro-
duction of mechanisation and ac-
celerated research in rice breeding
as a result of the activities of SML
(Foundation for the Development
of Mechanical Agriculture in
Surinam) at the Wageningen Project
and Prince Bernhard Polder in the
Nickerie Distict. Although there
was also some increase in land area
of small-holders' farms, increase in
production from small farmers was
largely due to the adoption of
improved cultivation techniques
and better varieties that became
available. A noteworthy feature of
the development of the industry in
Surinam is the important part
research has played from the
inception, particularly in plant
breeding and mechanisation. Rice
varieties bred in Surinam are
well-known in many rice growing
co nrs Ida th ol. e prsn

classified as long-grained. They are
specially bred for mechanisation
with stiff straw, and respond weH
to nitrogen fertilization. The
present breeding policy is aimed at
producing a variety with greater
tion but swlh simlr lo drainc a-
teristics and plant vigour as the
current SML lines. With such
varieties two crops per year could
be easily taken and the crop
mechamised more efficiently.
Rice is cultivated in Surinam on
the coastal plain, Surinam has huge
undeveloped land resources that are
suitable for rice growing and the
prospects for future expansion
seem very good indeed. At present
there are only about 30,000 hec-


tares of rice in the country, with an
average national yield of about
3,000 kg/ha (roughly 3,000 lb./ac.)
highest yield in Latin America. Pro-
blems facing increased development
are the high costs of land reclamation
and the small population who
would consider rice farming as a
way of life. For obvious reasons,
land reclamation is planned in large
blocks polderss). The new develop-
ment of settling farmers on
medium-sized farms with limited
and controlled mechanisation is
significant for it offers the prospect
of a good living to the cultivators
and satisfactory returns for the
labour input.
There is an expanding market for
Surmnam's rice. The country
produces a quality product and at
present the bulk of the export goes
to Europe particularly to the
Netherlands, and the Netherlands
West Indies. The crop is processed
as white rice and consequently it
would have oply limited prospects
in the rest of the West Indies where
a shorter grain processed by par-
boiling is traditionally consumed.

ricG iman oldemp xporo cro amy
traditionally grown by small
farmers. The total area in rice is
presently estimated at over 300,000
acres, producing 180,000 tons of
milled rice. This is equivalent to an
average yield of paddy of about
20 g hor abo t w -thd t e

Although Guyana produces most
of the race consumed in the
Commonwealth Caribbean, the
industry is facing a number of
problems.
(a) Varieties: The varieties cul-
tivated at present are low yielding
Indica types with low grain to straw
ratio and negative-responsiveness to
nitrogen fertilization. They general-
ly lodge shortly after flowering,
resulting in lower yield as a result


of excessive mutual shading at d
making mechanical harvesting g
difficult; they are also very susce >
tible to blast disease (Pyriculalla
oryzae) Work on breeding of bett 3r
varieties has been carried out for a
number of years but the pecul at
qualities of a desirable variety far
Guyana proved difficult to achie e.
A few of the more promisi ig
varieties are being cultivated or a
limited scale and as a stopg Ap
measure the American varis by
'Bluebelle' is now being introduce d.
This variety which was bred : ar
mechanisation matures in about )0
days under Guyanese conditic as
and responds to nitrogen but it is
susceptible to blast disease. 2 xe
plant also appears to lack the vige Jr
of the other varieties grown a id
requires improved agronomic co a-
ditions for satisfactory perform 1-
ance. In parts of the country who :e
some degree of water control is
available and blast is not prevalel t,
at least two crops per year may le
grown.
(b) Water control* Less th n
one-third of the present area und 11r
rice has adequate water control at d.

aderbe yk affect e b oflpooedmng
drought in any one year. Due c$
lack of adequate drainage at f
irrigation cultivation o erations asl
not done under idea condition s
consequently cannot be readit,
controlled.
() Dieases and P sts:t Indisomci
already mentioned is an important
factor against rice production. Thiri
disease can result mn total loss 01l
crop or in reduced yields and aut
inferior product. Varietal resistance
is the only effective control for thill
disease and, until such varieties arti
available, areas otherwise suitabkt
for the crop cannot be cultivated
The padi bug (Oebalus poecila) is a
destructive insect; pest and water
weevil (Lissorhoptrusspp) is im-
Caribbean Farming October 1969


Growoing Bice in

Three Caribbtean

Countries



Dr. Nasir Ahmad
Faculty of Agriculture U.W.I.










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Caribbean Farming October 1969


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about 6,000 hectares. The crop is
grown in holdings mostly less than
one acre mn size scattered in
depressions and on the verges of the
swamps mn the country. The varie-
ties are low-yieldmng Indica types
more suited to transplanting and
hand-harvestmng than to mechanis-
ation and similar in many
respects to the varieties grown in
Guyana. The crop is usually grown
in rotation with vegetables and, for
this and other reasons, it is usually
transplanted too late in the year for
maximum yields. Wide spacing also
contributes to low yields. Because
of the nature of the rainy season,
the cultivation of a more profitable
dry-season vegetable crop and lacJk
of water control, it is unlikely tl at
more than one crop per year wot Id
ever be grown. The average yield is
about 2,500 kg/ha of paddy.
The crop is affected by simi at
conditions as in Guyana but in
addition there is smallness of scale pf operations. Nevertheless it
has a place in the agricultt cal
pattern of the country since he
time of high labour requireme its
coincide with periods of low label ur
demand mn the sugar industry ald
so help to create fuller empbly-
ment. It is estimated that there ze
at least 30,000 ha of undeveloy ed
land that would be reason :ly
suitable for rice in Trinidad. Whe h-
er it would be in the natio al
interest to develop such areas or
other crops or rice is outside i se
scope of this Article but I see a cl at
case for development of the preset at
industry beginning with higl er
yielding varieties, better cultivati m
methods, storage and processing. ;o
far, there are no major diseases or
insect pests of rice in Trkinids d,
which is encouraging.


portant in some areas. Both are
controllable by chemicals.
(d) Use of fertilizers: Traditional-
ly little fertilizer is used in rice
cultivation although recently this
appears to be increasing. With the
predominance of varieties that are
negatively nitrogen-responsive and
the incidence of lodging, there is
little incentive for fertilizer use in
any case
(e) Storage, processing and
marketing: Not enough attention is
bemng paid to moisture content of
the grain before storage with the
result that there is often a heavy
mnfestation of mnsect pests. There
are still many small rice mills which
depend on weather conditions for
drying after parboiling.
With a population having the
tradition of rice cultivation and
with the suitable climate and soil,
rice production in Guyana could be
greatly increased. Increased pro-
duction should come not neces-
sarily from increased acreage, but
from increased yield since the
present national average yield is
much below the potential of the
soils. A suitable variety in terms of
responsiveness to fertilization, suit-
ability for mechanisation, accept-
able grain quality, disease resist-
ance, duration of crop and plant
vigour is not available. The
varieties present available from
the International Rice Research
Institute could be used only as


sources of breeding material be-
cause of undesirable grain charac-
teristics and length of cropping
time. Adequate drainage and irriga-
tion facilities would have to be
provided in many areas. Much more
research should be done on cultural
operations, fertilizer response and
pest and disease control. Harvesting
of the crop would have to be done
when the grain has the optimum
moisture content and the crop must
be properly dried, stored and
processed. Red rice has to be more
effectively controlled. Farmers are
already mechanisation conscious
and in fact it is generally regarded
that the industry is at present
over-mechanised. With increased
production this over-capitalisation
would not be so obvious. It should
also be possible to cultivate at least
two crops of rice per year with
adequate water control and a varf-
ety of short duration. Agricultural
extension services should be made
more effective and there should be
greater availability of credit to the
small farmer since improved vari-
eties and greater productivity would
require greater inputs. The proposed
Rice Research Centre to be estab-
lished at the Mabaicony Albary Rice
development Scheme is a step in
this direction.

~Trinidad: Trinidad's rice pro-
duction is estimated at 7,000 tons
per year or .one-fifth of the
country's needs, harvested from


NEWS IN BRIEF
Recently we heard that...
The Bahamas joined the list of
new countries entering sugar cane
production.
30 Holstein and Brown Swiss
were imported into the Cayman Is.
to begin the first dairy farm.
Guyana and U.S. AID have
signed a contract worth
$G.291,000 to investigate whether
the intermediate savannahs will
grow vegetables, sorghum and soya
bean.
Dominica is shipping vegetables
to Bermuda, Canada and the U.K.
Caribbean Farming October 1969





A Farmer

needs a bank

whose ideas

are not

cut and dried
Because agriculture requires a very involved kind of financing,
A farmer needs a bank that has a listening ear,
: That understands the process as well as the ideas behind it,
And that can even think like a farmer.
Citizens Bank believes in finding new ways to help get your ideas going.
So if you're talking food,
And you have a good case,
We'll listen.
Because feeding our nation is serious business.
Get in touch with Hugh Miller, our Agribusiness Officer.
SHe's got a lot of suggestions,

CITIZENS
BANK
4 King St. Kingston, Jamaica Premrier Plaza
Cross Roads Lane Plaza Palisadoes Alb


Caribbean Farming October 1969










ALBATROS

FERTILIZER

"The fertilizer with the bird on the bag"













Pioneers of better forming in Jamaica. Wise farmers all
over Jamaica have relied on Albatros fertilizer year after
year for healthier crops and bountiful yields.
They know that Albatros fertilizers work quickly and
efficiently.
They know that they get superior physical and chemi-
cal qualities.
And they remember Albotros fertilizers are always
neatly packed in jute bags.
Ask your Agricultural dealer for Albatros "the fertilizer
with the bird on the bag".



FOOT OF HANOVER STREET, PHONE: 23641



Caribbean Farming October 1969













of Panama. Poor fertility, on the
other hand, can be corrected with a
fertilizer bag. In Jamaica, coconuts
on the red St. Ann's clay loam over
hard white limestone respond very
well to potash while the crumbly
brown Belfield clay in St. Mary and
Hanover responds only to nitrogen.
In St. Lucia and Dominica, coco-
nuts grow very much better when
inter-planted with fertilised bana-
nas: leaf analyses would pin-point
the precise deficiencies. Incidental-
ly, coconuts seldom respond to
phosphate even where other crops
show severe deficiency. The only
phosphate response that I know in
coconuts is on the acid compact
'broken ridge' soils in lower Stann
Creek Valley, British Honduras.
Coconut Varieties Available
The common Tall coconuts in all
the Caribbean islands, and on the
Atlantic coast of the mainland from
Venezuela to Yucatan ,are of the
Jamaica Tall or 'Tres Picos' type,
and are crozss-fertilised. Selection of
high-yielding mother-palms results
in little improvement because the
mother-palms are not progeny-
tested and the sources of pollen are
not controlled at all. In fact, much
of the planting in Jamaica, Gren-
ada, Tobago, Dominica and British
Honduras was done after hurricanes
using any old seed that could be
scraped up. So we have virtually
'wild' coconut plants our coco-
nut 'lierd' has all the 'bulls' running
with it and the 'calves' are -not
culled because nobody wants gaps
in his coconut field.
Malayan Dwarfs occur in con-
siderable numbers in St. Lucia (an


estimated 20,000) and Jamaica
(about 1 million) and as scattered
palms in Dominica, Panama, St.
Vincent, Grenada, Mexrico, Nicar-
agua, Colombia and Barbados. In
Trinidad there are several fields of
Malayan Dwarfs. British Honduras
imported about 20,000 Dwarfs
after the 1955 hurricane and they
were planted mainly in Corozal,
Ambergris Cay and Cay Caulker
Although Malayan Dwarfs have
small nuts and are rather suscept-
ible to grey leaf spot, they are
precocious, more uniform in yield
than Talls and less competitive
(allowing far more palms per acre).
In Jamaica, Cayman and Haiti,
Dwarfs are invaluable by virtue of
their high resistance to Lethal
Yellowing disease
For countries where farmers are
not satisfied with the Malayan
Dwarf as an improved variety, the
quickest single step in improvement
is likely to be the first-cross hybrid
between M~alaan Dwarf and
Jamaica Tall. (Modern oil-palms of
commerce are first-cross hybrids.)
Production of reliable seed needs
the attention of skilled agricultural-
ists, however, preferably in the
employ of growers.
Pests and Diseases
Bud Rot, Grey Leaf Spot, Scale
and Strataegus are universal in the
Caribbean and Central America:
Ischmia occurs in Panama and
Cholus in St. Lucia: none is of
more than minor consequence. But
Red Ring and Palm Weevil are
serious enough to dissuade farmers
from planting coconuts in some
parts of St. Vincent, Grenada,


By
Dave Romney
(Director of Research, Coconut
Industry Board, Jamaica)
Coconuts are synonymous with
the tropics in most nunds, and on
many Caribbean farms are a major
source of income. But how do our
coconuts measure up as a crop in
modern agriculture, with terms
such as net-profit-per-acre, man-
days per ton, etc. on our hips every
moment? Let's do a brief stock-
taking of our resources for coconut
croppmng. We have a tropical
temperature for a tropical crop. But
coconuts thrive on rainfall -
Preferably 80" per annum and
areas such as Antigua or the
southern plains of Jamaica are too
dry to grow coconuts. In Grenada,
too, most coconuts have been
pushed on to the very dry east
coast by pressure frompnutmegs and
cocoa, and it is doubtful whether
coconuts can be grown there
orofitably, except perhaps with
speciall dry-farming techniques. The
intense dry season experienced
from February to April mn Orange
Walk and Corozal districts of
British Honduras or in southern St.
Lucia and again in St. Mary in
Jamaica from July to September -
may not affect bearing trees pro-
vided that the soil permits deep
rooting: young palms may suffer
temporarily but use of Gramoxone
and Karmex (or Atrazmne) to
maintain a weed-free circle will
reduce competition by weeds for
moisture (and give quicker growth
for less cost as experiments mn
Jamaica have shown).
What about Soils?
Of course, coconuts will grow
best in deep, loose, fertile soils,
such as those in St. Vincent. Soils
in St. Lucia are a little less fertile
but: generally also allow deep
rooting. 'Shoal' soils which occur in
parts of St. Vincent, St. Lucia,
Grenada and Dominica are general-
ly too shallow and compact for
coconuts although the terracing of
shoal soils at Marquis estate in St.
Lucia has resulted in some very
healthy bananas: these are the soils
which sometimes show boron
deficiency e.g. on limes at Dennery
in St. Lucia. The 'pine ridge' or
Puletan soils of British Honduras
and Nicaragua or the Piarco silty
clays in Trinidad are too compact
for coconuts as also are many areas
Caribbean Farming October 1969


Ischmia Caterpillar Damage Panama


j


COCONUTS NOWli ANDI IN THE~ FUTURE



































Coconuts too far apart waste land and make Jamaica Tall or Tres Picos has triangular fruits ,LI
maintenance costly. with a high husk content St. Lucia.


The economic= wnay to fertilize .

more acreage
fasterNowI Crop Cuolture
fasteo r.fe ...,,.....,.,,, .
~-- ~r -?ly-''4_stUr~~;~ service to Jamaican farmers!I
Aerial Fertilization. Already pro-
ven in Australia and New Zealand (yields
have increased by as much as 300%). Thi
~f valuable service is offered here at very com-
petitive rates. It will often prove far cheaper
O;: uand more effective than conventional methods.
P; Already Crop Culture plays an
~~ important role in keeping Jamaica agriculture
r lh _Ihealthy by spraying one and a quarter million
acres of bananas annually. Some 100,000
c t C ~ '''acres of cane are also sprayed each yegr.
Banana growers and cane planters
~I~r~i~ ~r -~alike are aware of the tremendous benefits
spraying has bought, not only to agriculture
ib but directly to the Jamaican economy.
s, r ,$:With operations covering the Car-
0 ibbeans Central and South America Crop
cc Culture is an experienced and growing com-


0.1__ i~CROP CULTURE (Overseas) LTD.
2 SOUTH ODEON AVE. KINGSTON 10
.. PHONE: 65611


Guyana, Panama, Colombia, British
Honduras and Trinidad. Research in
Trinidad has made great progress
and it is hoped that good (although
not complete) control will soon be
possible. Lethal Yellowing disease is
very serious in Jamaica, Cayman,
Cuba and Haiti but fortunately the
Malayan Dwarf is highly resistant.
Only Dwarfs are planted in Jamaica
now: the Dwarf is mainly selfing
and mother-palm selection is in the
hands of the Coconut Industry
Board.
Low Management Level.
General management of coconuts
in the Caribbean is poor. Realping is
not done cleanly (surveys in
Jamaica showed up to 23% of
mature nuts left on the trees afler
reaping and up to 10% sprouting m
the ground). Brush control is
difficult because of the extrelae


Caribbean Farming October 1969
















SOILS



By Wesley Hewitt
Acting Director of Crops & i
Ministry of Agriculture, Jam

Trhe reaction of the soil
is, whether it is acid, ne~
alkaline is perhaps one
most important chemical pre
in considering the soil as a
for the growth of plants. A
greater when the ratio of h~
ions to calcium ions absorb
the soil particles increase~
availability to the plant of
chemical elements held on
particles decreases when th
acid.
Work carried out at th
Agricultural Experimental
in 1938 on various crops g
following relative yield of C
Soya Beans grown at varic
reactions '
pH. 4.7 5.0 5.7
Corn 34 73 83
Soya Beans 65 79 80
One need hardly stress
portance of a knowledge
reaction (pH) of the soil
selection of crops after see
evidence '


Extremely acid Availability of most plan
Gos than pH e peci umyphos hateo lo
plant species thrive
Very strongly Slightly better availability
acid pH14.5 nutrients. Availability of
5.0 and pho ph ted l.s im

Strongly acid More favourable availabil
pH 5.1-5.5 nutrients. Suits a wide ra
Medium acid Good nutrient availability~
pH 5.5-6.0 most crops.

Slght 6aeid ) Best nutrient availability.
Neutral ) uiort a smrqe o
pH 6.6-7.3 )
Midl a4- Oine rviaiiyof ome nutr
low. Range of crops limit
of ac dlovin ecrp se r
bananas and coconuts thu
Strongly Availability of some nutr
alkaline especially phosphate and
pH 8.1-9.0 minor elements. Very limr
of crops

MViery to 9y Vrery po nutrient avails
and higher


sensitivity of coconuts to 2,4-D and
2,4,5-T. Rats are very serious in St.
Lucia, St. Vincent, Jamaica, north-
ern Grenada and parts of Donlrinica
but are seldom controlled despite
the cheapness and effectiveness of
Rat Blocks (Caribbean Farming No.
1). Fertiliser is seldom used directly
on coconuts although experiments
in Jamaica and Trinidad have
shown highly economic yield re-
sponses. I believe that maintenance
is poor because many coconut trees
are genetically poor-yielders and are
spaced too far apart to encourage
intensive management. In Jamaica,
and probably in other countries, it
is difficult to get young, active,
knowledgeable men as overseers,
headmen, drivers, etc.
Good Land Use
In Dominica and St. Lucia
coconuts are displacing bananas on
flat land because coconuts are less
labour-intensive and do not have
nematode and wind-damage prob-
lems. This, however, is not using
mechpnisable land to 'the best
advantage. Coconuts can be grown
d'n sloping second-class land where
sugar, maize, beans and root crops
cannot be grown economically.
Coconuts conserve the soil much
better than the sweet potatoes and
cow-peas currently grown~ on slopes
in St. Vincent and on the granitic
soils of central Jamaica (although
contour ridging is fortunately prac-
tised in both these areas). Under-
cropping coconuts with cocoa (as m
parts of Domimica, St. Lucia and
Jamaica), coffee or limes (Jamaica
and St. Vmncent) intensifies use of
sloping land. In Jamaica, terracing
is becoming popular. CoconutS
should certainly be intercropped in
the early years to bring in some
cash and also because most Carib-
bean farmers do not tend coconuts
planted in pure stand. However,
coconuts in bananas suffer very
much from competition fpr light
unless crafty spacing configurationS
are used.
The Future
There is a steady market for
copra in the world and mn the
Caribbean area, and prices are more
stable than for most crops. Coco-
nuts are low-labour-mntensive and a
good long-term investment. But
coconuts need to be planted as azz
improved variety and properly
managed if they are to compete as a
crop in 1(>-20 years time. Only
research with continuity can give
factual data on different varieties or
agronomic techniques. We have
entered an era when a coconut
farmer must grow the crop, not
allow it to groW.
Caribbean Farming October 1969


Soil Reaction (pH) is usually
interpreted according to the scale
in the table.
All things considered, most
plants do best mn soils that are
neutral to slightly acid, pH 6.5-6.8.
The use of lime to neutralise
acidity, to improve the physical
properties of the soil and to supply
calcium and magnesium to crops is
well known. Lime, whether mn the
form of ground limestone (Calcium
Carbonate) marl or burnt or hydra-
ted lime is sometimes not available
to the small farmer, and if the
accessibility of his holding is a
problem the transport of this
belativell bulky material may be
beyond is means.


ave theThe Agronomist or extension
orn and worker is often faced with the
ous soH problem of advising on crops
suitable for acid land and it Is
hoped that this article may give
6.8 7.5 some pointers for their selection.
100 85 The first crop that comes to
100 93 mind, which seems to do best on
the im- Very acid soils, is Pineapples, and
of thework carried out mn Puerto Rico
in the indicates that soils which have a pH
ing thisvalue of 5.0 or less is best suited for
this crop. It has also been recorded
that the size of the fruit bears a
direct relation to the acidity of the
land and some authorities state
t nutrients that, if all other factors are equal,
~I nand One pound increase in the weight of
each fruit may be obtained by
y of decreasing the soil reaction 1.0 in
calcium the pH scale. Cocoa Coffee and
ted~range CitruS also do best on acid land
ity although they will not tolerate soils
nge oferops which are very strongly acid.
y. Sits Calcium and magnesium tend to be
Y. Suts 1miting fRCtOrS mn the nutrition of
these crops if they are grown in
.Suitable SOils below a pH value of 5.0 which
op is the accepted minimum for citrus
and coffee..
he ts low. The Irish Potato is one of the
ed. Growth food crops grown in the West Indies
e ples that appears to be the most tolerant
rive. Of high acidity and it has been
ienslwrepOrted that Irish Potato yields are
m~ost" nOt influenced very much by soil
i'ted range reactiOns within the range of
4.8-6.0. There appears to be a
definite tendency for decreased
'bilit. Few yields if the reaction of the soil falls
below 4.8 or goes above 6.0. The
13


Soils
laica

l that
utral or
Sof the
operties
medium
cidity is
ydrogen
rbed on
es. The
Small the
the soH
.e soil is

re Ohio
Station











SYMIPOSIUMR ONY 1MAIZE


(5) To reduce imports, there is
an interest on the part of all
the countries to increase
domestic production.
(6) Experimental results by
several researchers show that
high yields (up to 5,000 lb.
per acre) are possible with
the use of modern adapted
hybrids and that even higher
yields may be possible if


varieties could be evolved
which are adapted to the
specific conditions of each
country. To accomplish this,
it was suggested that a
cooperative variety trial pro-
gramme be organized on the
pattern of the Central Ameri-
can Co-operative Programme
lant the Improvement of
Plns.


As a result of the increased
interest and possibilities in maize
production in the Caribbean, the
Caribbean Food Crops Society
decided to hold a special sym-
posium on maize and maize produc-
tron at their annual meeting held m
Martinique in the first week in July.
The following conclusions<*an be
drawn from the reports which were
presented.
(1) The present status of produc-
tion and research in all the
countries is just about the
same.
(2) There is an. increasing de-
mand for corn throughout
the Caribbean.
(3) To meet their domestic
demands, almost all the coun-
tries pf the Caribbean (except
Haiti and the Dominican
Republic) import huge quan-
tities of corn year after year.
(4) The present average yield of
corn in most countries is
extremely low 600 to 800
lb. of grain per acre.
(Crops for Acid Soils (Cont.)
incidence of scab on potatoes is
much less if potatoes are planted in
soil with reactions of less than 5.5
and any increase aoove this figure
increases the likelihood of scab
infection. Sweet Potatoes do best in
a slightly acid soil pH 5.5-6.5, as
also Corn, Tobacco, Peanuts and
Soya Beans

Among the lawn grasses, Zoysia
grass has the widest range of
tolerance to soil reaction and this
grass will grow well in the range of
soil pH 4.5-7.5. Bermuda and St.
Augustine grass prefer an acid
reaction and do best between
5.0-7.0. Very little work has been
done on pasture grasses, but it is
well known that Guinea grass,

Pangola grass and Coastal Bermuda
all prefer soils that have a reason-
able content of lime and do not do
well on acid land. The problem of
finding forage grasses for acid soils
is one worthy of investigation.

Ed. Note With soil acidity, the
modern tendency to 'use something
out of a bag' in this case, lime -
is usually too expensive an answer.
We must use our farming skill and
experience to select a suitable crop
for the land.


Caribbean Farming October 1969


CARIBBEAN FOOD CReOPS SOCIETY

















PERFORMANCE HYBRID CORN V/S LOCAL CORN IN THE CARIBBEAN
(YIELD SHOWN IN BUSHELS PER ACRE AT 15.5% MOISTURE)
Jamaica Haiti Dominican Grenada Barbados Trinidad Guyana
Republic
Pioneer
X306 87.1 95.0 101.0 62.5 48.7 72.0
Pioneer
X304 89.6 70.3 89.1 56.1 64.4 86.4 76.0
PT66 54.5 61.1 61.3 ---
1 2 3 4 5 .6 7
Local
Variety 39.7 52.4 62.0 27.2 30.4 44.4 48.0


Maize in the Caribbean is now
nainly grown as a subsistence crop
ni mixed stand with yams, sweet
potatoes, pigeon peas, and pump-
ins. The yields, as a rule, are
:sappointingly low. A comparison
t' country after country reveals
:at average yields of about 10-15
ushels are usual. At this produc-
on level, it is uneconomic to grow
re crop. The question naturally
rises: Can maize be grown profit-
bly in the Caribbean? The answer
YES. It is based upon our
experience with this crop mn this
rea during the last several years.
Hybrid Corn Performance
Fig. 1 gives the performance of
ybrid corn v/s local corn in several
'aribbean countries. A cursory
lance at this Fig. reveals that in
very country, hybrid corn out-
erformed the local variety by as
luch as or more than 1~00% in
ome instances. When we consider
~hat the national average yield of
:orn in most countries is hardly 15
,ushels, a yield of 100 bushels per
Icre represents over 600% increase
,ver the national average. In
additionn to hybrid seed, the above
lields were obtained by the applica-
ion of a 'package' of practices
vhich include proper planting and
fertilization and good mnsect and
weed control. It appears. therefore,
that by planting hybrid corn and by
employing good field management,
the present yields can be signifi-
cantly raised, making corn produc-
tion a profitable enterprise-
Economics of Production
The cost of production varies
considerably depending upon the
acreage devoted to corn, location of
the farm, cost of applying water if
crop is irrigated, and the degree of
mechanization. On irrigated lands,
mechanized maize production cost
in Jamaica is around J$50 or $60*
inldsmachinery~trig depreciation, hi
overheads, land preparation, cost
hybrid seed, pesticides, fertilizer,
etc. On small holdings where
minimum inputs (improved seed,
no mechanization except imple-
mental tillage, very little fertilizer,
no pesticides) are used, the produc-
tion cost is around J $25 or 30**.
The c.i.f. price, or cost of imported
Caribbean Farming October 1969


1. Jamaica Selected Yellow
2. Jeremie
3. Frances
4. Grenada Corn


5. Barbados Corn
6. Economic Botany Selection
7. Charity


of the planting material. Reference
to Fig. 1 shows that a much higher
yield than two bushels per acre can
be obtained by planting hybrid seed
and combining it with other inputs.
The money spent on ~ood quality
seed of adapted high yielding
varieties or hybrids is, therefore,
one of the farmers' most rewarding
investments.

i based 0n 200plac es, totah m sh
ing and drying. The cost is likely to
decrease with increase in acreage as
the machines employed are capable
of handling up to 1,000 acres.
** based on 1 to 5 acres. Wages of
the farmer are not included. As the
acreage goes up, the cost of
production is likely to increase
unless one resorts to mechaniza-
tion.


grain in most of the Caribbean
countries is around three J cents
per pound. This means that on large
highly mechanized farms, a yield of
over 40 bushels p~er acre is required
to make the venture a profitable
enterprise. On small farms, on the
other hand, the break-even point is
at around 20 bushels per acre, and
yield above this figure represents a
net profit.
With hybrid corn, in Jamaica,
average yields of over 60 bushels
per acre on mechanized farms, and
40 bushels per acre on small farms
are not uncommon. At both levels,
farmers can expect to make a profit
of around J $40 per acre per
season. Maize is a four month crop,
two crops per year can be obtained
if moisture is available. This means
a net profit of around J $80 per
acre per year. Profits can be further
increased, if some green corn is sold
for boiling or roasting, or if corn
production is tied up with livestock
or pig rearmng.
Economics Of Using Hybrid Seed
Oftentimes one hears the
comments about the high cost of
hybrid seed. No doubt hybrid seed,
as compared with the seed of local
varieties, is expensive, but it is
worth the high cost because of its
high yield potential. The seed cost
is around 26 J cents per pound, To
plant one acre, one needs about 14
pounds of seed. In other words, the
planting material costs around J
$3.64 per acre. One has to get a
lttle over two bushels more yield
per acre to pay for the entire cost


Caterpillars are an ever-present problem.


Can iMaize bre Grown Profitably in

the Caribbean?

By Dr. Surinder M. Sehgal
Pioneer Hi-Bred Corn Co.
















Productivity per unit of land area
is dependent on a variety of factors
- the three most important ones
are: seed, soil and season. The seed
should have built-in genetic poten-
tial for high yields; the soil should
bhe n tilh frtlty nhulrd e prk e 1
brought mnto bal re by thesapapo ~
should be neither too dry nor too
wet, if it is dry there should be
provision for irrigation, if it is wet
there should be means to drain off
excess water. Even with proper
seed, adequate fertility and ample
moisture, it still takes 'farming
know-how' to achieve maximized
crop production and optimum
returns. The outline given below is
based upon several years' exper-
ience in growing corn in Jamaica
and some other Caribbean coun-
tries. It can be modified and
tailored to meet specific conditions
existing in other areas.

Soil Requirements

.Maize will grow in almost any
kmnd of soil. However, for maxi-
mum Hyields,6 sils are needed witd
(a) IH f ogoo abro i.9 ( g
should be treated with lime in
advance of seeding. Lime should be
applied 3--6 months before plant-
ing to allow time to be effective.
Preparation of Soil

Proper seedbed preparation be-
gins with a good job of ploughing
Either disc or mould board plough
can be used. Ploughing should be
followed by harrowing or rotavating
to break up lumps and close air
spaces.
Ploughing and harrowing have
good and bad effects. The good
effects are: (a) Preparation of
desirable seedbed; (b) destruction
of weeds and weed seeds, as well as
soil insects, their eggs, larvae, and
breeding places. The bad effects
are: (a) Stirring and shearing the
soil stimulate microbial activity
which accelerates the loss of organ-
ic matter; (b) destruction of soil
structure.


Varieties and Hybrids
Maize is sensitive to changes in
day length and temperature. Varie-
tie also d s esmi their rspsons t

normally attack them. For these

hem ,d wh ch or advparedietso t
local conditions should be planted.
Local Varieties: Almost every is-
land in the Caribbean has one or
more local varieties which are
commonly planted by the farmers.
These are gradually being replaced
by hybrid corn X304 and X306
- bred in Jamaica by the Pioneer
Hi-Bred Corn Company.

Hybrids: The two hybrids Pio-
neer X304 and Pioneer X306 are
extremely well adapted to the
Caribbean conditions. Furthermore,
these have strong roots and stalks,
shorter plant height, low placement
of the ear on the stalk, good husk
cover, and high resistance to various
corn diseases. X304 silks in about
55 days, X306 in 57-59 days. The
ears are 14--16 rawed with straight
rows of yellow kernels.
H b 'd sed isepnie
compared tseseed of l al areticas
butis ort td extra cot beause
of five dollars or more per dollar
are common when the 'package'
approach of combmmig several
inputs is used.
Caution: (a) Hybrid seed must be
purchased fresh every year. The
grain harvested from a hybrid corn
field should not be used for


replanting. If re-seeded, a hybrid
starts to degenerate and reverts
back to low yielding lines from
which it was developed.
(b) Hybrids are adapted to im-
proved cultural practices, without
these, thy may not yield as high as

(c) Hybrid seed commercially avail-
able is treated with both insecticide
and fungicide and should be used
for planting only.

Fertilizer Requirements
Soil tests sh uld be ud to
dete mie thte sam unb and 11 of
soil tests are not available, use the
following rates as a rough guide:


N P205 K2!
30 15 2' i
60 30 4 *
120+ 60+ 8 1+


Low Rate/acre
Medium Rate/acre
High Rate/acre


The fertilizer should preferably be
applied in 2--3 applications (split
application). Aim for applying 1/3
of the N and all P and K before or
at planting time. Side dress with
rmabmmtg n trge when the plants

Planting
(1) Adequate plant population is
a must, too heavy, too light, or
irregular stand is undesirable. If
moisture and fertility are ~limiting,
about 13,500 plants per acre are
recommended. If moisture and


Hybrid corn (Left) compared with unimproved types.


Caribbean Farming October 1969


Cultural Practices

For Growing Corn


By S.M. SEHGAL








fertility are adequate, 15,500
plants/acre is a reasonable stand.
(2) Select row or furrow width
(30 "or 36"or 40 ") in line with the
machinery available at the farm,
and then choose kernel spacing
within the row or furrow which wil
give the plant population suggested
above. For example, to get approx-
imately 15,500 plants per acre, one
plant every 10" or two plants every
20" in 40" rows or furrows should
be obtained.
(3) Plant the seed at a depth of
approximately 2 inches.
Weed Control
Weeds can be controlled either
chemically by the application of
herbicides, or mechanically by
using proper cultivating equipment.
Both methods should be used if
necessary.
Atrazine (Gesaprim 80W or
A-Atrex) is one of the most
effective herbicides available for
corn. It may be applied as a spray
at planting time, immediately after
planting but before irrigation, or
after the corn has emerged at the
rate 2--3 lb. per acre. Mix atrazine
in enough water for spraymng so
that the chemcial is uniformly
distributed over the sprayed area.
Caution:
(1) Atrazine should not be used
if corn is to be followed by any
broad-leaved crop, or if mixed
farming is practised.
(2) Weeds can be controlled by
hand or mechanically and, there-
fore, if capital is limited, it can be
used for other inputs, especially
hybrid seed, fertilizer and insect-
icides.
Irrigation
(1) Since moisture is absolutely
essential for the germination of the
seed, if soil moisture is inadequate,
arrangements must be made to
irrigate the field immediately after
planting.
(2) The leaves should not be
allowed to wilt at any stage of the
plant growth, adeut irrigation,
at the tasseling-silking stage is
extremely important if rainfall is
lacking.
Insect and Disease Control
The most important soil insects
are white grubs, rootworms, wire-
worms and cutworms. The most
effective way to control these is by
ploughing under any of the soil
insecticides like aldrin, heptachlor
or chlordane.
The fall armyworm is the most
serious pest of corn. This insect


Spraying corn to control insect damage.


The Howard Rotavator has been widely
used as a land-preparation tool.
The Company has adapted this model for
inter-row cultivation.


Caribbean Farming October 1969





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1 Essential vitamins and minerals to
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Recommended For Use in Stress Conditions; Promotes
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NOTHING ELSE CAN!


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Effective against the organisms that cause
Leukosis, Marek's Disease, as well as PPLO,
Paracolons, E. Coli, Salmonellas and a
variety of other organisms.
Low in cost--one pound treats 5000 cu. ft.,
easy to use.

ACVET THE VETERINARY DIVISION
OF~ LASCELLES LABORATORIES LIMITED.
2 TORRINGTON AVENUE, KINGSTON


Caribbean Farming October 19691


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3 H/Duty Differentials for max. Haulage Yraction
Power Steering 8 spd. Dual Range Transmission.
6 cylinder Ford Diesel Eng. 113 BHP 15 x 30 8 ply
Tyres all round.
Heavy Duty Clutch, Gearbox, Differentials and
Hydraulic Lift and Linkage.


COUNTY SUPER FOUR
3 Diffementials for maximum haulage traction
Ford 75 HP O.H.V. Diesel Engine.
Differentialf lock controls all 4 wheels (Standard)
Heavy Duty, Clutch, Gearbox. Axies, Crankcase,
Differentials*
Minimum ground clearance 15.80".
Deluxe seat wide platform fitted with Tropical
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Exceptionally good draw Bar power.


Caribbean Farming October 1969


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Coast, Ports of North and South America
with transhipment at Cristobel, C.Z. Re-
frigerated and chilled Cargo accepted
from New York and New Orleans for
Kingston.
For full information apply to United
Fruit Jamaica Company, 40 Harbour
Street, Kingston, Jamaica, or, United
Fruit Company, Pier 3, North River,
New York, or, 321 St. Charles Avenue,
New Orleans 4, La., or Caribbean Steam-
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\ This versatile machine with its many attachments is capable of bush
cuting, ploughing, refining, sowvins weeding, reaping pumping et.
Yes farmers ask for a demonstration and be convinced how to get the
most from your land.
TWO OF THE MANY OPTIONAL ATTACHMENTS
RIDGING MOTORS MOULDBOARD
.f For ridging special PLOUGH
1 crops with width Turns a perfect
*- IY\V;to suit all types furrow at a
of plants, depth of 4 to
6 In, with a
9 In, wide fur-
row. Adjustable
for depth and
width and fit-
Other attachments are Seeder, Thresher, Potato Lifter, ted with Disc
Rotary Grass Cutter, Triailer, Dorer Blade, Static coul tor &
Ridger, Reversible Plough, P.T.O. and Flexible Drive. Skimmer.


Caribbean Farming October 1969


str


St8P









JOMnS for the family












































Cultural Practices for Growing Corn
Continued from Page 17


Dr. E. Gonzales-Tejera, associate
agronomist of the University of
Puerto Rico, has carried out a study
on spacing of Red Spanish pine-
apples and the effect on yields. He
reported this study in a paper pre-
sented to the 1968 meeting of the
Caribbean Food Crops Society.
Using the conventional system
(in Puerto Rico) of double rows 22
inches apart with 52 inches be-
tween pairs of rows, Dr. Gonzalez
Tiejhra f und t at plants spa ed 8'
18,000 plants per acre gave mean
yields of 28.76 tons/acre while
wider spacing gave correspondingly
I wm% y Ieds. Fri d a ter at th
5%/ inches large enough to meet
the standard for canning. Fruit at
the 8-inch spacing had a mean
weight of 3.28 lb. while at 18-inch
spacing they weighed 3.99 lb.


Production of
Slips & Suckers
Dr. Gonzales-Tejera observed
that close spacing significantly re-
duced the number of slips and
suckers produced per plant. This
would tend to affect the yield of
the ratoon crop.
"The production of planting
material is very important in
pineapple production. Very close
spacing such as 8 inches between
phtnts may result in very low
yield of.slips. This may be partic-
ularly important mn the case of
some varieties which seldom pro-
duce sufficient ships for the next
planting.
Multiple Crowns
The occurrence of multiple tops
occurs particularly in the
Smooth Cayenne variety. In
Hawaii, it is believed that closer
spacing in the row lowers the
incidence of multiple topping
which causes problems in certain
seasons. In this experiment, high-
ly significant differences between
treatments were found. As plant
spacing increased the percent of
multiple crowns also increased.
The higher incidence (1.95%)
was found at the 23-mnch mnterval
between plants. This is the first
time that this observation is re-
corded in the Red Spanish vari-
ety."
Caribbean Farming October 1969


By
Ferguson, Haynes and Springer
Planting-bits of different weights
and from different parts of the
mother yam were used mna large
experiment to find out how much
the number of tubers and weight of
tubers varied in each case. From the
yields measured it is possible to
calculate the production per acre -

a 13 0 on rfor C iee sa bot
without fertilizer. The yams spaced
18 inches apart on banks 36 inches
apart with the object of producing
cmparatively smalldyabms tomsal gf
numbers. The average number of
tubers per plant was 7 for White
Lisbon and 5.6 for the Chmnese
variety, and the average tuber
weights were 1 lb. 14 oz. and 1 lb.
8 oz. respectively.
Variation in a crop may be due
to soil variation or to the attack of
some pest. It may also, however, be
due to genetic variation in the
planting material: if so, selection
may reduce the variation and so
increase the yield per acre.


Gonzales Tejera


Other Findings
In this experiment there were no
weeding problems in the close
plantings but slightly late-
ripening occurred. In the wider
spacings more weeds and abund-
ant lodging were observed. These
conditions are detrimental to
pineapple growing.
The behaviour of the ratoon crop
mn regard to yield, quality and
fruit size is under observation in
order to find out which spacings
will aford higher farm profits."


effectively controlled with mala-
thion.
There are numerous corn diseases
such as northern leaf blight, south-
ern leaf blight, African rust and
virus diseases including sugar cane
mosaic and corn stunt. No chemical
control measures are economically
feasible.
Harvesting and Storing
Harvest corn when it is dry. For
safe storage, the moisture content
of the shelled corn should be
12-14%. The shelled corn is stored
in bins. Ear corn can be stored at a
much higher moisture content in
ventilated cribs.
Storage insects can be a problem,
but damage can be reduced by
storing in clean, airtight bins.
Control can be achieved by fumiga-
tion. Several fumigants are,available
for this purpose. Phostoxin which
comes in the form of tablets is very
effective and easy to handle. One
tablet per 200-400 lb. of grain is
recommended .


attacks a wide range of grasses and
the moths are on the wing through-
out the year. The young larvae feed
in the spiralled leaf whor1 where
they are most destructive. With the
appearance of tassels, the larvae
feed mn the tassels and on the
surrounding leaves. Later the silks
are attacked and considerable
damage can be caused by the
prevention of normal pollination.
Next, the worms penetrate gradual-
ly to the developing ear and feed on
the developing kernels.

To control armyworms, spray a
suspension containing 11% lb. sevm
or Dipterex 95W per acre. It is
extremely important that the spray
is directed into the leaf whorl for
effective insect control-
Dipterex granular 2'/% applied at
the rate of 12 lb. per acre also gives
very effective control.
The corn earworm, corn-silk fly,
the stalk borers, lesser cornstalk
borer and leaf aphids can all be


Spacingd Pineapple Plants -
Effect On1 Yields.


A STUDY OF
VARIABILITY
IN AMaSs


ri.
Pc r~ y*




SC~,~L












BOOB


J~REVIEW I


Mixing new and old was even more
unfortunate:-
'Indeed the the big landlord in
South Asia often managed to
enjoy the prerogatives of a
capitalist landlord without giving
up the privileges of a feudal chief.
At -the same time, he avoided
nearly all the obligations of both'.
Myrdal shares one difficulty with
nmatnhaviy rl ablensatamt sict adaok
about peasant income, expenditure,
assets and liabilities. What does
happen really to all the money
invested in rural amenities? It
would be instructive to know.
Perhaps the most revealing part
of the book is the section on the
co-existence of idle hands and idle
lands which for India alone is a
problem of the most daunting kind.
The answer involves a realistic and
dedicated system of primary educa-
tion, using new techniques mn
agriculture, new and more produc-
tive varieties of crops and (with the
right safeguards) some redistribu-
tion ofiland.
Somebody remarked once, not
perhaps very tactfully, that he did
not see how there was room in one
of the Caribbean islands for 'big'
problems. He may not have been
altogether wrong and reading about
India, Pakistan and Burma makes
me feel that the West Indies'
agricultural problems are small in
comparison small enough in fact
to stand a chance of bemng solved.
G.P.C.

Grasses
'A first book of grasses'
By
Agnes Chase.
Published by the Snuthsonian
Insti ution, Washington. 1964

Most people who work with
plants put all the grasses mnto one
mental box and secretly wish they
weren't so complicated. It may help
to tell somebody and find they feel
just the same way. It helps eve
more to find a book that begins to
explain, illustrate and inform about
gr se.
This publication is in no sense
new since it first appeared in 1922,
was revised in 1937 and printed
again in 1959 and 1964. However
continued presence in this instance
means it is a very good book and
even in Jamaica costs only $J2.39.
Definitely recommended for the
perplexed student, teacher, farmer
and extension officer. G.P.C.


REPORT ON CANE--FIELD
BURNING
The Barbados Sugar Producers'
Association has published a mimeo-
graphed report on the effects of
pre-harvest burning of cane-fields.
The 11-page report was written by
J.C. Hudson and there are five
appendices on post-harvest deter-
ioration of burnt and unburnt cane,
the effect of rain and wind on
controlled burning, reaping speeds
in burnt and unburnt cane, mechan-
ical reaping of unburnt cane, and
jumping borer. The report has
drawn on experience and practice
in many sugar-growing countries. It
disposes quickly with the allegation
that the heat of burning kils large
numbers of roots and underground
buds in the cane-field. According to
Mr. Hudson this is not true because
the fire passes very quickly over the
field and the temperature of the
soil even 1/" below the surface i!
raised very little by the fire.
The report lists other losses fol
lowing the burning of cane. Aftel
harvesting, the burnt cane loser
weight about twice as fast as greer
cane, Burnt cane loses quality ver3
rapidly if it gets wet. The burning
of the trash mulch results in losses
of about %z ton of sugar per acre it.
the following crop. There is evi-
dence that insect attacks increase in
burnt cane fields and there is alsc
the possibility that weed control is
less effective after fire.
Other pages of the report are
devoted to the beneficial effects of
burning, steps that may be taken to
reduce yield losses following burn-
ing, control of fires set by malice or
accident and long term agronomic
effects of controlled burning.
The short appendix on mechan-
ical reaping of unburnt cane deals
with a subject of particular interest
at this time in this part of the
world. It may be that the Caribbean
(following the lead of Cuba, where
some work is being done along this
line) will pioneer the development
of machines and techniques for
harvesting green cane with the help
of machines with the object of
reducing field losses caused by
burning and also to preserve useful
fodder and mulch. c.R.
Caribbean Farming October 1969


But where to begin?
'Asian Drama' by Gunner Myrdal
sponsored by the 20th Century Fund
Published by Pantheon, New York.
Anyone who takes three volumes
or 2284 pages to put his views
across hais a fair measure of
confidence in his readers or some-
thing to say his publisher thought
important. In 'Asian Drama' Myrdal
enquires into the poverty of eastern
countries. Only an economist could
do justice to this book but it is one
for many of us to struggle with,
It was organized from outside
Asia and unlike the efforts of
F.A.O. cannot be filed away by
embarrassed governments. Consider
this for example:-
'Although corruption is very
much an issue in the public
debate in all South East Asian
countries it is almost taboo as a
research topic and is rarely
mentioned in the scholarly discus-
sions of government planning'.
Earlier in the book he coins the
phrase 'diplomacy in research' by
which embarrassing questions are
avoided. Of the university degree in
Asia so sought after by students he
says that it is
'. . the object pursued rather
than the knowledge and skills to
which the degree should testify .
This is not so much an outspoken
book as an honest one and
throughout is a refreshing tendency
to call things by the correct names.
In this book it seems that almost
every problem or topic that con-
cerns national development comes
up for discussion independence
population, trade planning, social-
ism, public and private sectors,
employment, agriculture, industry,
health, education and more beside.
The way most people could profit-
ably use this book is to see what
Myrdal says about their particular
field knowing that he has sought to
relate it to all the other areas of
study. In agriculture there is an
interesting discussion on the inter-
action of imperial views and mndi-
genous ones about land tenure and
Myrdal is concerned to point out
that the latter were not always
those that best served the tenant.





IMPROVING THE EQUALITY
OF POTATOES IN STORAGEE
Two scientists of the Shell
.agricultural research team in Venlez-
uela Simon Colmenares C. and
Giuseppe Chico R. reported to
last year's meeting of the American
Society for Horticultural Science
on work done to improve the
storage characteristics of Irish pota-

toetato tubers stored during rela-
tively long periods of time, with or
without refrigeration, are not easy
to maintain in good conditions.
Cool storage is very expensive yet
under environmental conditions the
tubers decay quickly and the
commercial value decreases.
B-2,2 isopropyll N -phenyl
carbamate) and CIPC isopropyll -N
-(3 chlorophenyl) carbamate)
were tested as sprout inhibitors in a
10-second dip treatment.
Tubers 'treated with the inhibi-
tors were stored under environ-
mental conditions with average
temperatures of 540 F (minimum)
and 640 F (maximum) during the
period of the experiment.
After five months of storage, the
tubers treated with CIPC 0.75% and
1.00% solutions, showed excellent
sprout inhibition and good com-
mercial appearance.


setc..... .5, 6, 7c ealel'
Limes . .. .. . c. each
Marrow .. ... .. ... .12c. per lb.
Melons .. .. .... .. 8, 10c. each
Marjoram .. .. .. . .. 50c. per lb.
Onions. .. .. ..8, 9, 10c. per lb.
Oranges .. .. .. .. .5, 6, 7c. each
Okras .. .. ... 75c. 100 30c. lb.
Parsley. .. .. .. ... .50c. per lb.
Papar s 12......c &, d
Peppers (Hot). .. .. ..30c. per lb.
Peppers (Sweet) . ... .25c. per lb.
Pumpkins (Belly) ... .18c. per lb.
Pumpkins (Garden) ..25c. per lb.
Plantains . .. ... .. .16c. per lb.
Potatoes (sweet) ... .. .6c. per lb.
Potatoes (white) .. .9, 10c. per lb.
Seasoning. .. .. .. .. .80c. per lb.
Shaddocks .. ... .. .. ..9c. each
Baby Squash. .. .. ..40c. per lb.
Luccini.. .. . .... ..18c. per lb.
Spinach. .. .. .. .. .14c. per lb.
Thyme .. .. .. .. ... 80c. per lb.
Tomatoes. .. .. .. .. .65c. per lb.
Yams.. ... .. . .. .. .6c. per lb.
Cabbage .. .. .. ... .36c. per lb.
Mangoes . .. .. .4, 5, 6c. each
Horse Radish .. .. . .1,00 per lb.










Average farm
gate price
per lb.
8d.
1/--
3d.
6d.
3%/d.
5d.
4d.
1/6
1/-
1/6
2/-
9d.
5d.
5%/d.
6d.
4d.
1/-
9d. 5
8d.
7d.
5d.
4d. -
7d. LA


over.
Crops


Production
Short Tons


Cabbage
Carrot
Cassava, Bitter
Coco (Tannia)
Corn (Maize)
Cucumber
Dasheen
Escallion
Lettuce
Pea, Gtmgo (Dry)
Pea, Red
Pineapple
Plantain, Horse
Potato, Irish
Potato, Sweet
Pumpkin
Tomato
Watermelon
Yam, Lucea
Yam, Negro
Yam, Renta
Yam, Tau
Yam, Yellow


7,437
5,389
6,606
5,187
3,868
4,831
6,320
667
1,105
2,752
2,564
1,730
7,282
7,766
11,839
9,566
5,836
1,357
5,894
17,979
11,636
4,369
26,909


Source:Jamaica Ministry of Agriculture


Commodities & Prices

Caribbean Farming is undertaking for the
information of farmers and dealers a
study of commodity supplies, movement
and prices.

BARBADOS MARKETING
CORPORATION
Prices paid to Farmers
Delivered Bridgetown
10/8/69

Beans.. .. .. ... ..15c. per lb.
Beets. .. .. .. .. .. .. 32c. per lb.
Carrots .. . ...36c &r 30c. per lb.
Coconut Dry . ... .. ...6c each
Cucumbers .. ... .. 25c per lb.
Cauliflower .. .. .. ..40c. per lb.
Christophines .. . ... 36c per lb.
Lima Beans .. ... ...40c. per lb.
Celery. .. .. .. .. .. .40c. per lb.
Bananas ... .. ... .. .6c. per lb.
Eddoes . .. .... .. .. .8c. per lb.
Egg Plant . .. .. ... .10c. per lb.
Grapefruit .... .. . .c. each
Green Nuts .. .. .. ..45c. per lb.
Ginger .. .. .. .. .. ..45c. per lb.



The list below is from an
estimate of food crop production in
Jamaica in 1968. The list represents
items with a farm gate value of
JS200,000 (EC S480,000) and


















variety is adopted results in earlier
flowering and decreased leaf area
and more ears. The reverse of this
feature can be made use of when
choosing corn varieties for use as
fodder or silage, by using short
daylength varieties in longer day-
length areas to obtain excess leaf.
age.
Cucumbers and Tomatoes
Cucumbers and tomatoes res-
ponded rather similarly mn ret-ards
to time of planting on yields vith
highest yields obtained with -ct-
ober-December plantings and ow-
est with summer plantings (f Sure
2). Tomatoes tended to sh narrower range for response han
did cucumbers. WGinter planting j of
cuubr ashad tomatoes m lud
editions of shorter dye gth, 1 wer
rainfall, and lower tempera res.
These conditions appear to be .ore
conducive to higher yields I Ider
local conditions
*n .(6) has shown thni the
tomato is photoperiodically : dif-
ferent, but sensitive to variatic s in
day and night temperatures. For
best growth and fruit set, th~e lay
temperature should be 78.F. ind
the night temperature 5 650 ?he
cool period for optimum der o~p
ment is effective only mn dar ess
ora lat, angetyreue
72.F., toomatoes do not bear ait
tdurin hot spells in summer en
thuhday temperatres mare wun
the rather wide range of pot ole
growth of 59-95.F. Breeders an
and are developing varieties the set
fruit with higher night ten r er-
atures.
It can be seen that low t~or xto
yields in summer for Puero R co,
are due in part to the poor set
caused by high night t~em~peratz;es
over 760F. f6rom June to Septe'm-
ber, Hlowever, rainfall munst also be
considered.. The heavy summer
rains attimes cause~ physical
damage to the young seedhnrgs.
A~lso the high mo~i~sltPJn and ~temnper-
ataxe are conducive to Iroany dis-
ease problems% for both tomatoes
and cucumbers, Thles~e sbamme prob-
lems are not as prevalent for the
drier winter planting mnonths.


Far~kp reug Octbe f1969


The possible hours of sunshine or
daylength varies from a low of T11
hours and 3 minutes in December
to a high of 13 hours and 12
minutes in June or a difference of 2
hours and 9 minutes.
Rainfall is highest in the summer
months writh a peak of 9 inches m
Aug~us~t decreasing to the lowest
value of 2.6 inches mn Miarch with
the drier months from January to
April. There is usually a sharp
mecrease mn rainfall mn May.
Temperatures are at their highest
from June to October where aver-
age daily temperatures range from
7J9. to 800 F. and then a drop to a
low of 73" in February. Minimum
daily temperatures reach a low of
63.10 in February, and a high of
71.30 in July. Maximum daily tem-
peralture is also lowest mn February
wPrith 82.90 and highest in August
with 88.90 F.
These climatic factors combine
to produce a rather dry and slightly
cool winter with shorter daylength
followed by still dry spring until
May. The summer is highest in
rainfall as well as temperature and
daylength. The fall still has good
rains and high temperatures, but
daylength begins to shorten.
RESULTS
Com
Highest $ields of~aypoobela field
corn were obtained with planting
dates in A~pril with lowest yields in
June to December (figure 2). April
plantings allowed the corn to grow
through the longer days as well as
receive good rainfall and yet, not
the highest temperatures. Mc6~lel-
land (3) noted that native corn
exposed to 15 hours of daylight
instead of 10 tasseled quite late
with consequential increases in reg-
etative growth and less number and
sizEe of ears. W~hte~ (7P) cites the
ap~proximate clunatic require~me~nt
for high yields of corn are summer
temperaure of 75."F. with night
temperatures of 580 and a ro~wm~g
season of 140 days.

hoped to ~adjust to the day~length
tudes. In general, the shortening of
dplaylnt from that to which a


Introduction
To the tourist visiting Puerto
Rico from temperate climates, it
seems rather mnconceivable that
with our mild tropical climate wIe
should nrot be able to produce high
yields of food crops all the year
round, In temperate climates, food
crop production is limited in most
places by the freezig w~inter temp-
eratures, wherea in Puerto Rico,
our mean daily temperature varies
from about 7P3.2* F. in February to
80.0* in Au6ust~. Yeti, this small
difference in temperature plus small
differences in daylength are suffi-
cient to cause large variations in
yields of food crops du~ring the
year.
The Puerto Rican farmer is not
necessarily concerned wi'th tmper-
ature nor dalengzlth differences
wkhe he plants his food croeps. He
has learned from experience to
plant his crops at various times of
the year. Many of the planting
dates used are based on sound
practical reasons of both climate
and economics. However, data are
not always available for the influ-
ene of planting dates on yields
~when irrigation or ag3ronomlic teh-
niques, can be brought into use. The
knto~wledg of variation of yield
wpith planting season is alsp needed
for planning in the cannmng or
g o ood poucts as wIell as

This paper on the influence of
time of planting on food crop
yields has made use of data from
the Seed Farms Division of the
Agricultura Exp~teriment Stations
University of Puerto Rico as pell as
from specific exnperiments done by
the Station on time of plantm8-

Cklimate
The climati picture associated
With the~ various seasons is prsent-
ed in figure 1 to help in the
interpretation of the vaiaio of
yield wsit time of planting. The
climatic data used are from the R~io
Piers~ area of Puerto Rico which is
located on the norH~th-eta coast
and is rather representative of the
areas wphere the food crops were
planted,


Thae Inrflnuece of Timre of Plantingr

Onr Food Crop Production In Puerto Rico



Dr. George Samuels Agronomist Agricultural Experiment Station University of Puerto Rico


.: prp























































YIYYLaOr Puerrra
I~g. 2. The influene of time of planting on yields of corn,
cuubeors, and tomatoe


Fig. 1. Climatic data for Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico


19



18




200








S0


14



iS11
lo


;.DrffH OF PIArYln

lilg. 3. The influence of time of planting on yields of pigeon
peas, soybeans, and white beans


.D~i TH 04 HAD1'

)ig. 4. The influence of tire of planting on yields of pineaples,
white potatoes, and surcet potatoes


Caribbean Farming October 1969










ion, Uruversity of Puerto Rico (1)
showed that as daylength increased
from 7 to 18 hours, dry weight of
the total plant increased. Daylength
above 11 hours produced poor
flowering with no pods. The res-
pose of soybeans to differences in
dallength permits the farmer to
time his planting. For forage use,
plantings are made so that growth
occurs during the longer days of
summer; for grain, the soybeans can
be planted during the summer to
make use of the shorter winter days
for highest grain yields.
Whyte (7) reports experiments in
which the oil content of soybeans
as substantially increased by in-
creasing day temperatures from 70
to 850 F.
White Beans
The yield of white beans.(Phase-
olus vulgaris) is highest when plant-
ed in February-April, then it de-
creased sharply with May-July
plantings (figure 3). The response
to time of planting, for white beans
and pigeon peas is similar for high-
est yields. Whyte (7) states that
peas respond to a long daylength
period for highest yields.
Pineapples
Pineapple yields varied with the
planting season giving highest yields
when planted in January and April-
June (figure 4). However, in Feb-
ruary and March plantings low
yields were obtained sinular to
those made from October-
December. Van Oberbeek' (5) in his
studies of flowering in pineapple
found that floral initiation occurs
in November which correspotids
with shortest daylength. Experi-
ments with the Red Spanish variety
also revealed that flowering could
be initiated earlier by low night
temperatures similar to the winter
temperatures of 60-620 F. Pineapple
growers use chermeal methods to
control flowering of pineapples on
a commercial scale. Initially, acety-
lene and ethylene were used, now
naphthaleneacetic acid, 2, 4-D, and
BOH can be used to force flower
initiation.
White Potatoes

were fhune sitho wnte pa tgsk
December-February and lowest
yields with summer plantings (fig-
ure 4) McClelland (3) studied the
effect of daylength on several varie-
ties of white potatoes in Puerto
Rico and found that 10 hours of
daylight gave significant increases in
yield as compared to 15 hours for
all but one variety, Red Bliss.


Driver and Hawkes (2) state that
the best conditions for maximum
vegetative activity are long, warm
days of moderate light intensity-
whereas for stolon growth suited
for production of tubers, short-day
conditions are best. As daylength
decreases, ability to utilize the pro-
ducts of photosynthesis for growth
decreases more rapidly than de-
crease in photosynthetic activity.
There is thus a large surplus of
available carbohydrates, and tuber
formation is consequently much
increased. Total yield, however, de-
pends on total available carbohy-
drates; it may happen that highest
yields are obtained under long-day
conditions in which, although the
proportion of available carbohy-
drate is low, the plants are so large
that the total carbohydrate avajl-
able may be greater than from the
smaller though more efficient shor~t-
day plants.
Sweet Potatoes
.The sweet potato gave higl est
yields when planted from ab ut
July through February. Low yir ds
were obtamed only mn March to
June plantings (figure 4). The t ne
of planting for low yields places ale
growt of the plant during re
lowe raifallandtemperal re
months as well as longer daylenr h.
SUMMARY
The time of the year a crol is
planted affects not only the gerr !I-
ation of the plant, but its grove h,
maturity, and quality. Cucumb s,
tomatoes, and white potatoes E ~e
lowest yields when planted fi n
March to August, and highest wl n
planted in the cooler and drier : e
fall and winter months. Corn i ,-
duced lowest yields in May
November plantings with highest 1
April plantings. Unlike white po;
oes, sweet potatoes had low t
yields in March to June plantir.
White beans were similar mn 1
ponse with lowest yields in May
September.
Pigeon peas and soybeans w e
somewhat opposite in their resp< I-
ses to timeplanting with the forn !r
having a peak yield with Mat h
plantings while the latter did best n
June to August plantings.

raineallm aeedi cusd lan factora -
influencing the response of tht-e
crops to time of planting mn Puerto
Rico.
Dr. Samuels presented this paper
at the 1967 meeting of the Carib-
bean Food Crops Society mn Suri-
nam. The article has been published
in Vohalne 5, pp. 128-33, 1967
Proceedings of the Society.
Caribbean Farming October 1969


Pigeon Peas
Highest yields of pigeon peas
(Cajan cajan) were obtained with
April plants gs (figure 3). Riollano
et al. (4) o tained 45 hundred-
weights per planting. The pigeon
pea is photopeniodic and generally
blooms and produces a crop during
the months of December to Febru-
ary regardless of season of planting.
Thus planting in April when rairs
are adequate allow sufficient time
for the plant to grow before flower-
ing occurs and higher yields can be
obtained. The height of the plant
can be controlled by time of plant-
ing. This fact may be of advantage
for more efficient picking of the
crop by hand or mac mne.
Soybeans
Soybeans planted in June-August
gave highest yields figuree3; where-
as, winter plantings produced low-
est yields.
Experiment on influence of day-
length on soybean production by
the Agnicultural Experimental Stat-


LITERA TURE CITED
1. Anonymous, Annual report 1943-44, Purerto
Rico Agr. Exp. Sta., p. 48, 1944.


2. Driver, CM. and Hawkes, J.G.
Photoperiodism int the potato. Cambridge
Imperial Bureau of Plant Breeding and
Genletics. Communications No. 10, 36 pp.,
1943.


3. Mc~lelland, T.B., Studies ofphrotoperiodismn
of some economic plants. J. Agr. Research
37 (10) 603-28, 1928.

4. Riollan2o, A., Perez, A., and Ramos, C'
Efect tr ploantil de, vrety danelpdlan
pigeon peas, J. Agr. Ulniv. P. R. 46 (2)
127-34, 1962.


5. Van Oberbeek and Cruzado, H.J., Note on
flower formation in th~e pineapple induced
by low nzighlt temperatures. Plant Physiology
23:282-85, 1948.


6. Wenlt, F.W., The Experimental Control of
Plant Growvth, Chronica Botanica Co.,
Waltham, Mass. 343 pp., 1958.


7. Whyte, R. O., Crop Production and
Environment. Forber and Farber, London
392 pp., 1960.




















Bulls
The bull is half the herd. This
maxim is obviously true because
the male contributes 50% of the
genetic make-up of all the calves
born to the herd. It is most
important, therefore, that careful
sire selection be made for desirable
genes to be transmitted and so for
most rapid herd improvement it is
imperative that the selected bull
should possess a high level of
setliyand Go ooun f re etdng

(a) Sire Selection
(b) Breeding Soundness Evalua-
tion
(c) Maintenance of the Breeding
Life of the Bull
(a) Sire Selection will be depen-
dent upon a number of factors
including genetic worth, need and
resources. The farmer assists him-
self considerably if only the off-
spring of top performing sires and
lams are chosen for herd replace-
inents. These parents must possess
ligh levels of fertility and be as far
ais possible free from genetic de-
fects. The farmer must be a good
audge of 'maleness' and select bulls
with normal genitalia and well-
3eveloped secondary sexual charac-
:eristics. These include testes of
adequate and equal size carried
:!venly in the scrotum. The scrotum
shouldd have a well-defined neck and
,e free from excessive deposits of
'at. It should not be excessively
long or the testes will be exposed to
asy injury. The bull should have a
wrell-developed crest, appropriate
diark colour markings on the head,
shoulders and rump (depending on
breed), paunchiness, preputial tuft,
with good development of sheath
and penis. The sheaths of bulls of
certain breeds may be excessively
pendulous and these become too
easily subject to injury.
(b) Breeding Soundness Evalua-
tion has now become an important
part of veterinary preventive medi-
cine. Development of artificial
mnsemination, improved methods of
semen collection, increased know-
ledge of the characteristics and
Caribbean Farming October 1969


physiology of semen, improved
quality and value of animals the
economics of cattle production -
have all contributed to the need
and recognized value of prophylac-
tic exanunation of the bull before
he joins the herd or commences the
breeding season. The evaluation
includes:-
(i) A physical examination
concerned with the general
health and conditions of the

(ii) An eterna ansa internal

tion
(iii) Tests for infectious diseases
including tuberculosis
Johne's, Brucellosis, Leptos'
pirosis, Vibriosis and Tricho-
momiasis'
(iv) History with regard to un-
desirable genetic defects. The
integrity of the genital sys-
tem is obviously important.
Of several thousands of bulls
examined for breeding soundness
10% 15% failed to qualify. A
certain percentage of bulls will be
considered borderline cases and
reservations will have to be made
concerning them. As always. 'the
proof of the pudding will be in the
pasture.' Certain factors such as
transportation, change of climate
and environment, and vices such as
masturbation can seriously affect
the fertility status of the male.
(c) Maintenance of the Breeding
Life of the Bull. Puberty is achieved
at an average age of about 10
months being chiefly influenced
by genetic factors and nutrition.
Sexual maturity is reached at 3 to 4
years of age but nearly full use as a
sire my be permitted from 2 years
of age. The danger of over-use is
highly acute during the second year
of age or the first year of service. If
hand-bred, no more than 25 fe-
males should be allowed for the
year and there should be a gradual
mecrease mn the frequency of ser-
vices. If pasture-bred, a total of 10
to 15 females is considered maxi-
mal. During the second year of
service, use may approach full
capacity which varies from 30 to 75


females if hand-bred and 25 to 40
females if pasture-bred. At artificial
insemination centres, the present
practice is to collect 2 to 3
ejaculates once or twice per week.
Collections may be increased if
required as there is much dispute as
to the optimal frequency of ser-
vices; but there is great variation in
effect on individual bulls.
Fertility Examination Programmes
Fertility examination program-

me shl dbe fderae on v ry
farmer in obtammig the highest
economic return by keeping the
calving mnterval to a muuimum or
achieving as near as possible 100%
breeding efficiency. Infertility
results in considerable losses to the
farmer; the common causes can be
detected and eliminated if diag-
nosed in time. The programmes are
based on the ability to ascertain the
fertility status of each member of
the herd. This depends considerably
on the proper identification of each
animal and the maintenance -of
simple, comprehensive records
which lend themselves to easy
evaluation. The details of the
programmes will vary depending
upon whether production is beef or
dairy.
Beef Production Programme
(i) Breeding Soundness Evalua-
tion of Bulls before Breeding
Season
(ii) Pregnancy Testing of Females
at End of Season
(i) Before the start of the
breeding season, the bulls should
undergo breeding soundness evalua-
tions so that a prognosis of their
fertility can be made. The results
should group bulls as satisfactory or
unsatisfactory and only satisfactory
bulls should be used for breeding.
There will be reservations about
some animals. Their use will depend
upon such factors as the nature of
the reservations, the value of the
bulls and the availability of replace-
ments. If they are used, the
subsequent breeding season should
evaluate the fertility of these bulls.
Ideally, therefore, each bull should
27


Management and Fertility

inl Cattle PART 3
This is the third of a series of three articles by Dr. Franz Alexander of
the Veterinary Division of the Jamaica Government Ministry of Agriculture.
Part I of the series dealt with factors affecting herd fertility. Part II set
out some routine requirements for maintaining herd fertility.






















































ss*ol a~/ s~ `x,.,, LI













a .
-- o., s ss m


be allowed his own herd of females.
This is desirable not only because
of fertility evaluation and disease
control but also in the interest of
planned breeding for herd improve-
ment. Often this is not practical
however and large herds in many
cases have three or four working
sires. Careful observation for bull
activity or returns to heat of
unusually large numbers of females
may indicate an infertility problem.
Systems of management may be
devised and discussed. In herds
where hand-breeding or artificial
insemination are practised, concep-
tion figures will be available and
accurate, if adequate records are
kept. Cows returning to heat should
be serviced by the same bull or by
artificial insemination. Cows should
never be passed from bull to bull.
(ii) Pregnancy testing of all
females may be done some five or
six weeks after the bulls have been
taken off the herds. Percentage
conception figures may readily be
calculated. Non-pregnant females
may be culled early or held over for
another season if desired. Open
cows will ordinarily not be in
contact with bulls until the start of
the next season. This provides
sufficient time for the development
of immunity against such self
limiting diseases as Vibriosis and
Trichomoniasis.

Dairy Herd Programme
(i) Initial Examination
(ii) Subsequent Examinations
(i) At the start, the entire herd
should undergo examination to
establish the breeding status of each
female. Each female may then be
categorized as:-
(a) Pregnant
(b) Bred too recently for preg-
nancy diagnosis
(c) Bred -non-pregnant -
normal
(d) Bred non-pregnant -
abnormal
(e) Virgin heifer or post-parturi-
ent (recently-calved) cow -
normal
(f) Virgin heifer or post-parturi-
ent (recently-calved) cow -
abnormal.
Pregnancy can be diagnosed by
rectal palpation from 28 to 35 days
after service. During the first three
months of pregnancy, accurate
determinations of the duration of
pregnancy can be made. This
knowledge is useful in confirming
service dates and calculating the
correct dates for drying off the
lactating cow. A small percentage


of cows contmue to cycle even
though pregnant; in such cases the
successful sire service may be
ascertained and after that the cow
should not be served if noticed in
heat unless a thorough genital
exanunation is done. This proce-
dure is to avoid the risk of
abortion.
The economical importance of
early pregnancy diagnosis however
is to show which cows are non-
pregnant in order that these may be
(a) served at the next heat period
if normal,
(b) treated as early as possible if
abnormal ,
(c) advised for slaughter as early
as possible, if desired.
This group of animals constitutes
females showing post-service anoes-
trus. A skilled operator may be able


to predict the time of the next
'heat' and so assist the farmer in his
'heat' detection in order to get the
animals served with the least
possible delay.
Heifers of breedable g
should be examined for normal ye
Post-parturient cows usually con-
stitute the largest group in which
treatment may be required.
Delayed uterine involution, evi-
dence of infection and cystic
ovaries are conditions usually met
with at this time. It is important in
all cases to start treatment as early
as possible to obtain successful
results as well as to prevent delayed
conception following the next
breeding.
At this initial examination, also,
all herd stres should be examined. If
an infertility problem exists, the


Fig. 1


Bmdin Recod


- Grrsu


Fig. 2


Fig. 3
Caribbean Farming October 1969















































Now exporting

to NEWV ZEALAND

CANADA and all

CARIFTA countries.


















Twickenham Pk., Spanish Town, Jamaica.
SCaribbean Farming October 1969


QUALITY
MILK PRODUCTION

BEGINS ON

THE FARM
By Following Good Sanitary Practice

Good sanitary practice begins with the wise selection and use of cleansing and sanitiring
chmicals designed for the job.
Diversy offesn you the products and methods especially developed for MILK HOUSE
SANITATION
DIVERSOL CX the penetrating quick-acting bactericidbdisinfectant.
PEPTEX the soapless cleanser that floats away milk and grease reidues.
DILAC removes milktnone deposit rapidly and thoroughly
RUB-R-KLEEN specially founulated to keep rubber inflastions and tubing clean.








A CORPORATION (JMA~ICA) LIMITED
8 BELL ROAD EAST, P.O. BOX230,.KINGSTON1 I(PHONF3868)
55 ST. JAMES STREET, PHONE329Bs


role of the male must be evaluated
before proceeding.
(ii) Subsequent examinations are
repeated at suitable intervals to
include amimals:-
(a) for pregnancy examination.
These are females that have
been bred 30 to 35 days
previously and have not
returned to heat.
(b) that are repeat breeders.
These are females that have
taken three or more services
an have not been declared in
c l.
(c) that are virgin heifers of
breedable age and cows that
have calved two weeks or
more before the examination.
(d) that are animals with irreg-
ular returns to oestrus or
animals showing abnormal
discharges.
(e) that were treated at previous
examinations and require re-
examination.
Records
To maintain an efficient herd
'ertility programme without proper
identification and records is impos-
;.ble. Any attempt to do so is
loomed to failure and sure to end
a the mutual dissatisfaction of the
erdsman and the veterinarian.
contrary to popular opinion, I


maintain that herdsmen do keep
records. What is important is the
type of records being kept because
these must lend themselves to
evaluation and 'fulfill certain re-
quiraments. The daily diary is
uns tsfactory because any request
for breeding details concerning any
particular female in the herd will
completely depend upon the
memory of the herdsman as to the
time they occurred or else result in
prolonged and tedious searching.
Keeping both a daily diary and
special records for fertility require
copying from one to the other with
notorious attendant errors and
often the busy herdsman may even
forget to copy them. Invariably, the
result is that the records are never
up-to-date. Most progressive herds
have two sets of records. One is the
permanent herd book. The other
record system will be a milk-room
record (usually supplied by the
artificial insemination) or the daily
diary. A system of individual cow
card records properly identified has
definite advantages and may replace
the milk-room record. Two types of
cards are going to be recommended.
The first type is a card divided into
six columns, three on each side.
(Fig. 1). The events, findings and
eventual treatments are recorded in
chronological order. A column is
used for each individual reproduc-


tive cycle which begins in the case
of heifers with first recorded
oestrus or service. In the adult cow,
it begins with calving date. The
entries end with the diagnosis of
pregnancy or indication of other
result. The cards are placed in a
suitable file-holder commercially
available or homemade. One type
may be hung on the milk room
wall. Movable multi-coloured
plastic ribbons may be used to
satisfy whatever code is desirable so
that the fertility status of the herd
may be seen at a glance.
The second type is shown in(Fig
.2)This is an individual cow card
which is best stored in a box or in
loose leaf binders. One side consists
of columns which are prepared
according to years. Each square
represents the month in which
observed heat and service dates may
be recorded including the name of
the sire. Provision is made for
recording expected calving dates,
actual calving may also be recorded.
The back of the card (Fig. 3) is
concerned with examination find-
ings and treatment.

Each card obviously requires but
one entry at a time and records the
lifelong fertility record of each
female in the herd.






















G\i~dde~
;f\ts ~Lr~
~neeP
*ir:pl
t3\erln ~~J13~c: pD\I\CE of co\o~rsa\e
tha' CO~-O~:~:D~E~ 'anSe Jarr\
,,~.'nens~:\\le \r\ ta'e .:
ya\;a~\e SovJr\ ~he most cOrnr~;or t~e most S~~\
a\so t~e ad~~ce con
ErPerence psk tor tor \IOLIT
~~~ dblaoi
iot~iV NIUCH _~c.ilODtO~~N~5 \ete\\l FREE L,
cost p~D comP ~SSE
w -,w ,uoo GUDD~N IITnllBFl~ltSIPPIP~75
qheir va\ues are consta
rr\er's assets E~c-s\= u-\(E
?here i5 a ip"id Giidden pa\nt~o' 7~0SE
~ced bY W"~e~that~~O en~ pDV\SORY SERV~C~4he
ns,, a~k~e~m ii ~ob SoN'"r" N~R~ pURPOSE!
tha~d'a~itimuch~on9e~- each i~b hhain'e0arrce *$t~~
~,~ce ,ure C1*`~i
~etter
~t ,, pa~n va\ue- E~4~"eenn~a~, tor tree ad~~ce
aua\ \s, t~~e
:e~smuchhigher a~J~VESSER\I\CO tarm ro~d
No mar~erNher~'~~"
cF.hn Ser~iceat no foYOU'
apP\\catjon,

,,,d ~he word...(-~idd~m) outpaints them all
Manufactured by West Indies Paints Liinited, 229 Marcus Garvey Drive. Tel: 37028-9.
















by
Derick Riley
Industrial Sales Supervisor
Glidden Paints
For an economical and non-toxic
paint system for steel water catch-
tnent and storage drums, chlorin-
ated rubber enamel is recommend-
td tlhi reiree esoanthanticor s
rubber enamel is applied. The
reason for this is that the chlorn-
ated rubber enamel is not an
anti-rust paint, and must depend on
the primer to kill any existing rust
which might be on the drum while
it in turn will seal off the primer
from the water. Cost of the whole
treatment would be approximately
the same as two coats of oil paint
or latex wall paint.


Surface Preparation
There are several methods of
surface prar tion e g. shnddb o t
cleaning, etc. However, for your
drums, hand tool cleaning is a
practical, inexpensive and efficient
method of surface preparation.
Hand tool cleaning employs the use
of solvents and soap and water to
remove dirt, oils, grease, etc.,
followed by wire brushmng, scraping
or sand papering after the surface is
dry. It is important to remove loose
rust and loosely adherent old paint
coating for best results. A properly
cleaned surface when finished and
dusted off will be a brown,


rust-stained colour; if wiped with a
clean piece of cloth, it should only
slightly soil the cloth,
Paint System
The first step is to apply
anti-corrosive metal primer. The
primary function of any anti-
corrosive primer is to arrest cor-
rosion on the metal surface and to
form a good suface for theavtof
able under different brand names -
Glidden's product for this purpose
is called Rustmaster 585 Tank and
Structural primer
Apphication by brush, roller or
spray
Coverage 400 square feet per
gallon
Drying (for recoating) 24 hours
or overnight
After the primer coat has dried,
apply chlorinated rubber enamel.
This is a rubber-based water-resist-
ant paint which is fast drying, hard
and flexible, and is available under
paiu d rn enams The Glidden
Apphication by brush or roller
Coverage 250 square feet per
gallon
Drymng time four hours
After the application of the
chlorinated rubber enamel, allow
the painted drum to stand for 48
hours before filling with water.
You should inspect your drums
say every 3-6 months for spot
rusting; this sort of regular main-
tenance will add years of service to
your drums.


Pig farmers in the parish of
Clarendon have formed an assocla-
tion. Farmers who keep pigs any-
where in the parish are invited to
jon
Contact the Secretary, Mr. C.B.
Ellis, c/o Parish Council, May Pen
for particulars.

BEE FARMERS
IN JAMAICA

Due partly to the article on bees
in our last issue and the talk
Professor Jay gave at U.W.I. Mona
on 22nd September, interest is
growing in a bee farmers' associa-
tion. If you would like further
information write c/o CARIBBEAN
FARMING for details.


TWO PAPERS
ON JAMAICA'S
DAIRY INDUSTRY

Mr. Stephen Y. Atsu, Research
Fellow in Agricultural Economics
at the University of the West Indies,
has written two papers after spend-
mng more than two years studying
Jamaica's dairy industry. The first
paper of 52 pages is on SOME
CHARACTERISTICS OF DAIRY
FARMS AND DAIRY FARM
OPERATORS IN JAMAICA; the
second of 64 pages was published in
July of this year and is a survey of
MILK CONSUMPTION IN JAMAl-
CA. Part I of the second paper deals
with :-
1. The Major Forms of Milk Con-
sumed in Jamaica and their
Sources
2. Trends Consumption of Vari-
ous Forms of Milk
3. Relative Importance of the
Different Forms of Milk

wh ch affect te cons mept oo
milk in Jamaica:--
1. Growth in Total~fopulation
2. Consumers' Income
3. The Price of Milk
4. Availability of Milk
5. Dietary Habits and of Con-
sumers
Part III contains Mr. Atsu's con-
clusions


Caribbean Farming October 1969


How do I paint it?

STEEL DRUMS FOR
WATER STORAGE


PIG GROWERS
SOCIETY IN
JA1MAICA


UNC A AJ S
The Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute's bi-monthly newsletter
CAJANUS is directed to all workers in health, education, community
development and agriculture whose professional concerns relate to
human nutrition or the production in the Caribbean of nutritious
foods. CAJANUS is distributed gratis. Requests for inclusion on the
mailing list should be directed to The Editor, CAJANUS, C.F.N.I.'
U.W.I., P.O. Box 140, Kingston 7, Jamaica.












products in the Caribbean, and also
offers some suggestions on how
They can be fed to farm animals.
Table 1 summarises the chemical
composition of the more important
by-products. In the absence of
pertinent information on the digest-
ibility of many of these feeding-
stuffs, it is emphasised that the
estimates on chemical composition
represent no more than a guide to
the feeding value. It can be seen
that in general, the fibre content is
particularly high in such products
as sugar cane, sugar cane tops and
bagasse. Wheatrmiddlmngs represents
the only commodity that is derived
from cereals and contains a relative-
ly high crude protein content.
Sugar cane
The manufacture of sugar from
sugarcane yields considerable
quantities of by-products. Apart
from the sugarcane itself, sugarcane
tops, bagasse, filter press mud and
blackstrap molasses have been tried
as animal feedingstuffs. In countries
Other than the West Indies whole
sugarcane has been used as an
animal feed. Because of its high
sugar content and high yield,
sugarcane produces a cheap source
of energy. Sugarcane can either be
fed to cattle whole, as cut stalks or
grazed, provided that the sugarcane
field is divided mnto small paddocks
and the cattle shifted to a new
paddock every week. Another
method of feeding sugarcane is to
chop the sugarcane and make
pellets. A plant for manufacturing
such pellets is now in production in
Louisiana in the United States of
America. As sugarcane is primarily
rich in energy, it .must be used


together with protein rich feeds, for
instance coconut oil meal or soya-
bean oil cake meal or urea mixtures.
Sugarcane tops
In some islands in the West
Indies such as Trinidad, Barbados
and Jamaica the tops from sugar
cane are used as cattlefeed. As the
sugarcane is harvested close to the
dry season, this by-product be-
comes a very valuable feedings uff
for feeding cattle and often m:ets
the requirements for maintena .ce.
Since vast quantities of sugar a~ne
tops are produced, it is possible to
ensile them in order to provi~ ea
supply of coarse fodder the ear
round. Its poor protein contenf :an
be increased by sprinkling ure on
the tops when they are ensiled 03.5
- 1 lb. urea per 100 lb. of to 3 is
usually used. The silage is suffit nt
to meet the maintenance req ire-
ment of dry cows, but milkmng < ,ws
will have to be supplied ith
concentrates to meet the req ire-
ments of production
Molasses
Molasses has been widely ust I as
livestock feed particularly in
cattle. In the Caribbean molass 4 is
usually fed to the animal at ow
levels by incorporation in comn er-
cial mixed feeds. Very little me as-
ses is fed in larger quantities ;a
supplement. Cattle find moh ses
very palatable and its inclu on
ensures the intake of a diet w: ch
they otherwise may not tor Ily
accept. Some farmers give moh ;es
directly to their cows and ire
satisfied with the results. Be er
results could however be obtai ed
if the molasses was mixed v th
ordinary fertilizer urea dissolve: in
little water. For this purpose 2 er
cent urea by weight can be ad: d
to undiluted molasses and fbd L ee
choice to grazing cattle. The aver-
age intake of the mixture is abou; 5
lb. a day. There are several
interesting devices for the feeding
of the molasses and although
factory-built equipment can be
bought from several American
firms, it is not too difficult to build
a feeder the 'do-it-yourself-way'.
Just; mount an old tyre on a horiz-
ontal axle over a trough with lid.
Pour molasses in the trough and
spin the wheel so it will be covered
with molasses. The animals will
soon learn to lick the tyre and
make it rotate. The wheel must be
mounted close to the bottom of the
trough so as to ensure that nearly
all the molasses is consumed. Since
the molasses/urea mixture is likely
Caribbean Farming October 5


By
B.I. Gohl
(F.A.O. Regional Associate Expert,
Trinidad)
and
C. Devendra
(Faculty of Agriculture, University
of the West Indies, St. Augustine '
Trinidad).
Considerable attention has been
placed in recent years on the
utilization of agricultural by-
products in the Caribbean. The
reasons for this are two fold: the
high cost of imported feedingstuffs
and the shortage particularly in the
dry season of a source of roughage.
It is natural therefore that farmers
in the West Indies turn their
attention on the availability of local
feedstuffs, and explore possibilities
of mncorporatmng these in the diets
of farm livestock.
One feature about the use of
agricultural by-products in the
Caribbean is that they are very
variable, due to a number of factors
such as their availability, the class
of animal that they are being fed to
and also knowledge on how to best
make use of these by-products
either alone or in suitable mixtures
with imported feedingstuffs. One
essential in this approach is an
understanding of -the chemical
composition and how some of these
by-products are being currently
utilized. This article attempts to
indicate the availability and useful-
ness of the more important by-


Table 1. Chemical composition of the feedingstuffs
(% dry matter basis)
(figures corrected to nearest whole number)


Dry Crude Ether *Crude +Nitrogen
Matter Protein Extract Fibre Free-extract


Feedingstuff
Sugar cane
Sugar cane tops
Molasses
Bagasse, dried pith
Iame waste
Lime waste, silage
Banana, whole, nipe
Banana, whole, green
Banana, skmn, ripe
Citrus meal
Chicken litter, dried
Wheat middlings
Coconut oil meal
Brewers' grains
* or crude fat + o


,r soluble carbohydrates


CHOP BY-lPRODUCTS FOR FEEDING LIVESTOCK
























































Crop By-Products for Feeding Live-
stock.
Cont. from Page 32


Your Association intends to put on the market
around the 26th November, 1969, 300,000 7%% %
:umulative Preference Shares with participating rights.
Participating Rights to the extent of 75% preferential
dividend. Members and debenture holders will be given
>referential allotment and option to convert their
existingg debenture holdings and shareholdings into
hese new 10/- shares within 6 months after the issue.
a the case of present shareholders they will be entitled
Convert each existing 5/- share to 4 units of the new
'Tare.

The purpose of the issue is firstly, to provide the
a.nds necessary to build and equip new premises at
fewport East, Kingston, to serve as the Association's
headquarters thus providing improved facilities for
members and patrons and secondly to give members of
he Association financial status in the business and the
-pportunity to participate in the profits of the
association.

Last Spring and again this year parties of
aImaican livestock farmers visited Florida to attend
,e annual beef cattle short course at the University of
lorida. On each occasion, the Jamaican visitors found
ie course useful and interesting, a great deal of the
alue deriving naturally from the papers presented by
search scientists during the course. The farmers who
attended the courses have copies of most of these
aperss and the JLA here offers brief notes on some of
he papers which seem particularly relevant to Jamai-
an conditions. The purpose of these notes is to allow
interested parties to get in touch either with the
University of Florida or with farmers who attended the
course for copies of the papers.
The 1968 course provided information on beef
battle nutrition. As might be expected there were
Ilany papers dealing with supplementary feeding of
;eef cattle and the place of minerals, vitamins and
hormones in beef cattle nutrition.
Dr. T.J. Cunha, Dr. H.L. Chapman Jr., Dr. D.W.
Beardsley, Dr. W.C. Burns and Dr. C.R. Adams
presented papers on the use of vitamins A and E in
beef cattle nutrition.


to be poor in phosphorus, it is
essential that the mineral mixture
given to the cattle contains enough
phosphorus; if not dicalcium phos-
p ate can be added for this
purpose. The molasses/urea mixture
hs only for the feeding of cows and
giv ifs, xtdcalves must not be
given~~~ thsmxue
Bagasse
Where cane sugar is produced,
large amounts of bagasse accumu-
lates. It has been estimated that for
every pound of sugar produced 1 or
1.5 lb. of bagasse is also produced.
Caribbean Farming October 1969


Despite several years of research on
the use of bagasse as an animal
feedingstuff, the stage has not been
reached where its widespread use
can be recommended such that the
bulk of it is still burned as low
grade fuel in the mills where it is
produced. Bagasse mixed with
molasses either with or without a
protein supplement, has in some
cases been successfully fed to
livestock. However, bagasse has a
low digestibility and its potential
usefulness in a production ration
must await further evaluation


presumably by some chemical
process that would remove a large
fraction of the lignmn and render it
more digestible. Once the product
is rendered more digestible it is
feasible that its place in animal
feeding in the Caribbean would be
considerably increased. Bagasse
used as deep litter bedding for
poultry is much more digestible,
due to its breakdown by micro-
organisms, and giving it a higher
feeding value in addition to the
added manure.
to be continued.


Assoelation Notes


Several papers dealt with the use of molasses and
citrus pulp; they were presented by C.B. Ammerman,
W.G. Hillis, F.S. Baker Jr. and H.L. Chapman Jr.,
A particularly interesting paper titled "Calcium and
Phosphorus Nutrition of Beef Cattle" was submitted
by J.F. Hentges. He said that whereas there is a fairly
adequate content of calcium in improved pasture
forage, hay, silage, dried citrus pulp and the vegetative
parts of most plants, it is usually necessary to provide a
phosphorus supplement to breeding ca te throughout
the year.
Calcium To Phosphorus Ratio
Dr. Hentges' paper said on this subject:
"A common problem in Florida is the formulation
of beef cattle rations with an acceptable ratio of
calcium to phosphorus below 4.1. This problem has
been critical where cattle were fed large quantities
of dried citrus pulp and silage or high moisture grain
to which limestone was added at ensiling time. The
use of high levels of molasses added to the problem.
Research has shown that ratios of calcium to
phosphorus wider than 4.1 may reduce the effici-
ency of conversion of feed to weight gains and may
be a cause of "urinary calculi". Recommendations
for calcium-phosphorus ratios should consider and
state that
1. the minimum requirement for phosphorus be
met
2. an adequate intake of vitamin D. be assured.
Exposure to sunshine normally activates adequate
vitamirr D.
3. the ratio of calcium to phosphorus be kept as
close to 2.1 as is economically possible.
Narrowing the ratio of calcium to phosphorus in
beef cattle rations has always been difficult because,
until recently, the available sources of phosphorus
bonemealss, inorganic phosphates, etc.) contained
more calcium than phosphorus. The recent availability
of diammonium phosphate and sodium phos ~hates at
reasonable prices was welcomed by cattlemen.
These notes are published by the
Jamaica Livestock Association as a
service to its members.


Jamaica Livestock








The feed that produces
the best results PRN

means more profit CHOWS
for yo u. ZC


Only Purina Chows, with high quality control achieved by the special method
of micro-mixing developed in Purina research laboratories can produce
the best results from your livestock. Broilers that go to market
7 days sooner. Layers that give 240 or more eggs a year.
a et that menu rt 10Cp gs per Iit er. Ho~gs that reach
more milk and Steers that produce more and +
better beef. It stands to reason that the feed .J
that produces the best results, means more profit
for you. It pays to buy PURINA CHOWS
because it pays to buy Quality at the red and white
checkerboard sign of your Jamaica Feeds dealer.


~LL""Z~~


1


~PPI~S~


THE JAMAICA LIVESTOCK ASSOCIATION LTD.
JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY
DOMESTIC SALES LTD. SH ELL CO. (W.I.) LTD.
'Working together in Jamaica to produce better food at lower cost.


Caribbean Farming October 1969












































































__ _i~__ ____~_ ~_


Poultry Tople
HENS IN CAGES
CARIBBEAN FARMING asked
Andy Wildish and Arthur Newman
(of the Jamaica Broilers/Jamaica
Eggs group) to answer some quest-
ions about the trend toward Ieep-
ing laying hens in cages.
Wildish: One of the reasons for the
trend toward cages in Jamaica -
which is following the massive
trend in Britain and the United
States is the fact that to maintain
a healthy flock on deep-litter is
much more difficult than in cages.
In deep-litter a constant watch has
to be kept for the signs and
symptoms of disease and unless the
operator is a first-class stockman
he can have a real problem on his
hands before he realizes there is
something wrong. In a cage opera-
tion, the birds can be kept much
freer from internal parasites and
from the bacterial type diseases
which we do get on litter the
Salmonella types, Paratyphoid, E.
aoli.' Another major reason for the
growing popularity of cages is that
a farmer or his worker can look
after many more birds in cages than
h~e could on the floor. I would
think that under normal conditions
without going into the fully auto-
inated c ge operation, a single oper-
ator sho ld be able to look after at
least twice as many birds in cages as
:le could possibly do efficiently on
'he floor.
C.F.: How do costs compare?
NJewman: I would say that the cost
pter hundred birds in the Boor
operation would run about the
;ame as the cost of a cage opera-
tion. We need for Leghorn types
about two square feet per bird on
dleep-litter and we can get birds into
about %/ square foot in the cages.
When you take into account nest
boxes, feeding troughs and lighting,
building costs the two systems
work out at about equal.
C.F.: What about your losses -
cracked eggs, dirty eggs and that
sort of thing?
Newman: I would definitely say
that with regard to good quality
and size, there is a great advantage
in cages. Comparative records on
floor and cage layers indicate that
cage layers produce a higher per-
centage of large and extra large
eggs, cracked and dirty eggs are
fewer, abnormal conditions can be
]readily noted and birds laying de-
formed and soft shell eggs can be
spotted and removed. With regard
to the culls, I think on the whole,
Caribbean Farming October 1969


in a cage layer operation, poor egg
producers can be identified faster
and easier then removed and replac-
ed if necessary, thus at the end of
the laying cycle the entire flock
makes a more attractive package for
contract buyers'
C.F.: For hens to be kept in cages,
do the pullets have to be raised
specially on wire or in cages?
Wildish: We know that well-reared
floor pullets can be adapted either
to the deep litter system of produc-
tion or can go successfully mnto
cages. Most times, with care mn the
initial stages of housing the birds
and getting them adapted to their
new surroundings, they will do
equally well in either. The trend is
however established in cage birds to
grow the pullets on wire or in cages.
This has several advantages both m
adaptmng the bird to its future
environment as well as in the cost
of producing a pullet. Again, we
can eliminate one of the major
problems of floor rearing the
coccidiosis problem which we do
not have to contend with if the
birds are on wire. It makes many of
the other procedures of vaccmnation
and debeakmng of pullets much easi-
er because we are not continually
faced with the possible stress factor
of a coccidiosis build-up. And this
is one reason why the trend defi-
nitely if pullets are going into
cages is to grow them in cages.


However, you cannot take cage-
grown pulldts and put them back
on the floor.
C.F What ab ut I cal eprec
witl disposal oo manr oc d e h d l
problem under tropical conditions?
Newman: Definitely, we have seen
some problem in manure disposal
with the cage operations. Mainly,
the problem Is not so much disposal
of manure but control of flies and
other insects. I think we should
perhaps arrive at some system of
drying manure in the larger opera-
tions because unless removal is fre-
quent there can be with the
temperatures we have birds
drinking more water, troughs be-
coming wetter and with the type of
rainy season we have at times, this
can become a problem. Some
people try cleaning out twice per
week. Others try having a build-up
of the droppings and as long as this
building up effect can be realized,
we can more or less overcome this
fly problem. There are other meth-
ods tried washing under the cages
into pits, this can also be effective.
Mainly, I think we have to consider
(in larger operations) the method of
cleaning out the droppings every
day and mixing it into a slurry and
perhaps spraying it into other plac-
es.
C.F.: Does all this add up to a
good reason for the farmer to
change over to cages?


Ir? Jax wEm*ase
6000 bird house employing 4 rows of cages, 3 birds per cage, automatic feed supply and
egg collection. Feed sacks hung on East and West sides keep out the early and late sun light.





DUTCH MIL K REPLACER F 0R CAL VES
Iniseinct gi esm mr eo inhcri g fo e av... and instinct can do a lot, but
Denkavit Calf-Milk Replacer is scientifically formulated to help calves get off
on the right start by promoting growth, protect health and put on more
pounds faster... You save money too by using DENKAVIT TOPFOK Dutch
Milk Replacer.
4 59/*for 561b. bag
*11 Ib. mix 44rt. milk
a COSt 4d per quart

THE JAMAICA LIVESTOCK( ASSOCIATION LTD.
50 EAST STREET- K(INGSTON- PHONE;26737-9
Branches: Mandemille Chrlstlyna Montego Bay May Pen


Wildish: I would put it this way. If
a relatively small producer with,
let's say, a flock of 500 to 1,000
laying hens has a good deep-litter
house now and equipment that is
not worn out, I think he can do as
good a job if not a better job than a
man with cages. I think he would
be foolish' to think in terms of
throwing that equipment away to
put in cages but the bigger you
get, the more attraction there is to
cage-type operations. The larger a
producer gets, the thinner his per-
sonal supervision becomes and
there is no question about it, you
cannot have lack of supervision in a
floor operation because of the po-
tential health problem that exits.
I think one of the problems we
are facing is that some people are
trying to adapt old deep-litter
houses to cages and this does repre-
sent a real problem in our climate.
If a house is specifically built and
planned for a cage operation, I
believe that there is no disadvantage


as against a floor operation even
though the birds obviously are in a
much smaller area but we do find
that houses any wider than 15 or
20 feet represent a problem with
ventilation and unless some fans or
method of power ventilation is
used, I think there is a potential
hazard here. Among the things we
have to face as well whether it is
on the floor or in cages are our
summer temperatures and humid-
ity. Many farmers do not realize
that our temperatures are not ex-
cessive but it is the combination of
temperature and humidity which
places a tremendous stress on the
bird; these are the reasons why it is
more difficult to get the percentage
of large eggs we would like to get,
or even the percentage of produc-
tion we would like to, during our
hot summer months.
I would like to make a couple of
basic points in terms of the advan-
tages that have been more or less
expected and proven of deep-litter


versus cages and vice versa. I think
it is generally expected that with a
healthy flock we can expect to get
six to twelve more eggs per hen on
the floor operation than we would
in cages. We would also expect with
a healthy flock a lower monthly
mortality than we would expect in
cages. I think a good figure would
be somewhere in the region of 1%
mortality per month. On a cage
operation however, if we can hold
it at 1V/2% with fairly heavy stocking
rates, we are doing fairly well, the
cages lose out a little bit in this
area.
It requires a little more food to
produce a dozen eggs with a floor
operation than it does in cages -
and feeds being the major item of
production cost, this obviously it a
very important consideration. A id
we often find that the bird coming
out of cages is a little bit heav er
than the bird coming off the fro ar.
Now, this is something in which Re
have not yet had too much exp,!ri-


Allied Industries Jamaica Limited, manufacturers in Jamaica of
Pillsbury Feeds, own and operate a specific pathogen-free pig farm at
Christiana, where 150 crossbred sows are kept. The breeds used for this
cross are Landrance, Yorkshire and Hampshire. Sows were brought
from Trippway Corporation of Fort Morgan, Colorado, U.S.A.
Crossbred sows at the farm are mated with purebred Duroc to
produce offspring for fattening. Two-thirds are sold as weaners to
farmers in the area.
Characteristics of these offspring are rapid growth, high carcass
quality, more lean meat and higher percentage of prime cuts. These
animals should weight between 200 to 220 lb. in approximately five
months.
Bob Hanson, the farm manager, is showing a piglet from his herd to
Mr. John Gyles, Minister of Agriculture in Jamaica and officials of his
ministry.
36


Caribbean Farming October 1969












Grove of
Caribbean pine trees
at Port Royal Mountain
in Manchester with
stacked timber
ready for sale.
This was the first
reaping of 82 acres
planted at the site ten
years ago, as part of
Alcan's reafforestation
programme.










Alcan Jamaica Limited, pioneer of the Bauxite
and Alumina industries in Jamaica has been
contributing to the economy of the island
during the past 27 years.
Although primarily engaged in the namu-
facture of Alumina, the company maintains
a beef herd of 5,000 head of cattle, runs a
modern dairy, operates 375 acres of citrus
orchards, and carries out a continuing reafforest-
ation programme. These enterprises are contri-
buting significantly to the island's agricultural
output.
ALCAN
JAMAICA
sm.J't LIMITED





















































































I,
~I3


Y


''



4~6


'tQ


With *Basfapon you won't be troubled by this any more

For further information please contact:


St. Lucia:
J. Q. Charles Ltd.
P. O. Box No. 279
Castries


Jamaica :
Bryden & Evelyn Ltd.
54-56. Church Street
Kingston


Grenada:
Gerald S.W. Smith & Co. J.td.
P. O. Box No. 14
St. George's


Trinidad:
Geo. F. Huggins & Co. Ltd.
P. O. Box No. 179
Port of Spain.

Barbados?:
Da Costa &. Musson Ltd.
P.O. Box No.103
Bridgetown

Dominikanische Republik:
Fr. Hartmann
Apartado 52
Santiago de los Caballeros


Dominica :
T. D. Shillingford
P.O. Box No.12
Roseau


Guyana:
T. Geddes Grant (Guyana) Ltd.
P. O.Box No. 407
Georgetown

Panama:
Cia. Agrocomercial de Panamin S.A.
Apartado 237
David


Costa Rica:
Servicios Centroamericanos S.A.
Apartado 4711
San Jose


LEH 5105


Basfapm




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