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Title: Caribbean farming
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101460/00003
 Material Information
Title: Caribbean farming
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Mona, Jamaica
Publication Date: July 1969
Copyright Date: 1969
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101460
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 3116219

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Editorial
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Main
        Page 5
        Page 5a
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 12a
        Page 12b
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 16a
        Page 16b
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Back Cover
        Page 29
        Page 30
Full Text

JULY 1969



arilbean ar i


CIRCULATION:
BAHAMAS BARBADOS COSTA RICA DOMINICAN REPUBLIC FRENCH ANTILLES GUYANA JAMAICA LEEWARD ISLANDS
NETHERLANDS ANTILLES PANAMA PUERTO RICO SURINAM TRINIDAD VIRGIN ISLANDS WINDWARD ISLANDS





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NOW

THERE ARE

EVEN MORE

DEALERS FOR

PVC PIPES!

Here's where you can buy Thermoco PVC pipes
Pressure Fittings and Solvent Cement


ANNOTTO BAY
Drake's Hardware
BLACK RIVER
Dor's (Mr. Lyn)
FALMOUTH
Chin See Brothers
LUCEA
Hanover Agencies
MAY PEN
Stork Deroux
MANDEVILLE
V.M.Bromfield Limited


MONTEGO BAY
Creighton Brothers
OCHO RIOS
B.E.Stanigar
PORT ANTONIO
Graham Edwards Hardware
PORT MARIA
Ebony House
RUNAWAY BAY
Rose Brothers
SANTA CRUZ
L.E.Beadle


SAVANNA-LA-MAR
Jackson Williams & Sons
ST. ANN'S BAY
Clarke's Hardware
KINGSTON
Facey Commodity Co.Ltd.
3 West Street
Antilles Trading Co.Ltd.
2 Ashenheim Road
Croydon Limited
10 Gold St


or direct from .. .
THERMO-PLASTICS JAMAICA LIMITED
45 Elma Crescent, Washington Boulevard, Kingston 10. Telephone: 38747, 38841, 38842.















0 0




Car*i*be .n I*


JUL 196 VO 1 NO 3
S.. S' if..


NOTES FOR CONTRIBUTORS

The editor will be glad to hear from
farmers, research workers, extension officers
and others who would like to offer articles
or photographs for publication in CARIB-
BEAN FARMING
Preference is given to articles of a practi-
cal nature which will help to put the
results of research and experiment into the
farmer's hands. Where possible, good draw-
ings or diagrams should accompany articles.
Good quality photographs of not less than
5" x 7" are welcome they should relate to
farming in the region.
Payment will be made (on publication)
for all material accepted.

CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS ISSUE
James Kelly is a soil scientist working with
the research department.
Hugh Miller is head of the agri-business
department of Jamaica Citizens Bank.
Franz Alexander is a veterinarian with the
Jamaica government Ministry of Agricul-
ture.


CONTENTS

FRUIT SIZE & BANANA PROFITS . . . . .
MANAGEMENT & FERTILITY IN CATTLE PART 2
HOW MUCH WATER DOES SUGAR CANE NEED .
GROWING BLACK-EYE PEAS ...........
ONION GROWING ...................
CARIBBEAN FOOD CROPS SOCIETY ........
SELF-POWERED SPRAYERS ...... ....
FARM LOANS AND THE BANKER ..........
IDEAS ON BEES ..... ........ .....
LAND PREPARATION FOR RICE .. .......



DEPARTMENTS


READERS' LETTERS .. ......
LETTER FROM A FARMER ..
CARIBBEAN COOKING ........
BOOK REVIEW . ....


Cover photograph by courtesy of Antilles Chemical Company


Caribbean Farming July 1969


. . 7
. .8
. . 13
. . 17
S. 17
S. 17
. 18
S. 21
. . 24
S. 27


SUBSCRIPTION RATES FOR 4 ISSUES
JAMAICA... 16/8d. EASTERN CARIBBEAN ... E.C. t4.00 U.S.A. & other countries $2.00










The success maker


There's a basic ingredient in every field of
endeavour which ensures success. The success
maker.
For you, the farmer, it's the quality of your
land. Successful yields can only come from fast-
growing plants on soil supplied with essential
nutrients. E NO
ENGRO has a complex grade of NPK fertilizer
that can help you produce abundant crops on
any type of soil under any local climatic
conditions.
Make good profit from your land. Fertilize for
O successful farming with ENGRO.
The success maker.


CHEMICALS ANTILLES CHEMICAL COMPANY
96 MARCUS GARVEY DRIVE. KINGSTON 15. TELEPHONE: 37035
Manufacturing in Jamaica and Marketing in: SURINAM BRITISH HONDURAS ST. LUCIA GUYANA ANTIGUA HAITI
* TRINIDAD BARBADOS ST. VINCENT MONTSERRAT MARTINIQUE GUADELOUPE GRENADA DOMINICA
Caribbean Farming July 1969











EDITORIAL JOINT VENTURE

On most farms in the Caribbean, the farmer confines his operations to those crops and processes which he can
carry out with his own equipment and his own workers. The notable exceptions are preparation of land, for which
in most areas the farmer can hire tractors, harrows, ploughs and the necessary paraphernalia. In a few places
combine harvesters for rice are also available; cane loaders have begun to appear in the spread of a few contract
operators.

These examples suggest that only the traditional crops are served by contract equipment while farmers are being
encouraged to begin growing the pulses, maize, vegetables and other crops which would replace expensive imports
and improve dietary standards. While farmers are not unwilling to produce these crops (assuming they can be grown
at a profit) it is evident that someone must make available the equipment needed to harvest them and prepare them
for market.

The plant breeders, plant physiologists and pest and weed control specialists are working steadily to bring to the
farmers varieties and techniques that will make for profitable production of some of these 'new' crops and from
what the equipment supply people say their principals overseas have all or most of the equipment the farmer needs
to produce these crops. How can we get the machines to the fields?

A device being increasingly used in some countries is that of ownership by syndicates of farmers; a syndicate
may own and/or manage property ranging from a single piece of equipment a corn picker perhaps up to a
group of farms. It seems that the most successful syndicates are those which leave the management to the manager
- after making sure that he has the capacity for management and the knowledge to do his job.

Group ownership projects have been tried in this part of the world generally under the name of 'co-operative'.
There are numerous instances where these co-operatives have failed and the most common causes of failure have
been the unwillingness to pay good managers well and a tendency for directors to seek special privileges and to
usurp the functions of day-to-day management.

Some syndicate managers have protected themselves and the project by constituting their syndicate as a series
of contracts between the manager and each member in turn. It should not be beyond the wit of farmers ( and their
lawyers) to devise forms of agreement that will reduce humbug and time-wasting in their projects.

Credit to farmers will always be inadequate in our part of the world; it will always be expensive, too. Farmers -
especially those who don't have broad acres will be well advised to continue to explore the possibilities of group
ownership and group management of their resources. These have been proven devices for reducing costs and
opening up new development opportunities in farming.



.................................................................................................................................................................................... cu t h ere

SUBSCRIPTION FORM
Please Forward CARIBBEAN FARMING Magazine to:

N A M E ....................................................... ... .. ........... ....................... ............

A D D RESS....................................................................................... .........................................................

C O U N T R Y ...... .. .....................................................................
enclose payment (cheque payable to Caribbean Farming) For 4 Issues....................................
Amount

RATES for 4 Issues Jamaica 16/8d or JS 1.67 Eastern Caribbean EC$ 4.00 U.S.A. & other countries S 2.00

Send to: "Caribbean Farming", c/o Faculty of Agriculture, U.W.I., Mona, Jamaica or St. Augustine, Trinidad.
3
0











We have
broadened
our
participation in

agricultural development


Believing that the further development of Agriculture is essential to the
future progress of the Caribbean, we have recently appointed Dr. Keith Roache
to the important post of Agricultural Officer and already, with his expert techni-
cal knowledge and supervision, Barclays have been able to increase the level of
loans made for agricultural projects.
If you are a progressive farmer with sound plans for development or in-
creasing the output of your present holdings, we invite you to discuss these with
your nearest Barclays Bank Manager. Not only will you obtain sound advice -
you will also be able to benefit from the expert technical knowledge Dr. Roache
will be able to put at your disposal.
Let Barclays Bank participate with you in producing more food for the
future and well-being of all the Caribbean Territories in which we operate.


Dr. Keith Roache
Barclays Agricultural Officer
for the Commonwealth Caribbean


9


You're welcome at
BARCLAYS BANK
76 Branches in the East Caribbean
40 Branches throughout Jamaica


Caribbean Farming July 1969


\










2 17m, 7 w .

Z JV
196 _9 "



CARIBBEAN FARMING
C/6 Faculty of Agriculture
University of .the Weet Indies
ramona, Jamaica. VIA An m mftmu

^ Articles in the April issue of CARIBBEAN FARMING drew welcome comments from two friends of ours.


Mr. L. Kasasian, a contributor
on herbicide topics, writes...
"In his interesting article on
sweet potatoes Mr. Payne recom-
mends the use of a mixture of
amiben and TCA to prevent weed
growth. This mixture gave excellent
results in the early trials that the
Herbicide Research Unit carried out
and, as Mr. Payne says, was recom-
mended by them in the 1967 edi-
tion of 'Weedkillers for Caribbean
Agriculture' However, there have
been two or three cases of yield
reductions and the recommended
treatments per acre are now 2 lb.
diphenamid (equal to 21/ lb. Dymid
or 4 lb. Enide) + 4-8 pints amiben
on heavy soils or 21b. diphenamid +
2 lb. chlorthal (equal to 21/ lb.
Dacthal) on light soils, and these
are the recommended treatments in
the 1968 edition of Weedkillers
for Caribbean Agriculture In the
most recent trials, even more
promising results were given by
Herban at 2% lb. per acre, but not
enough trials have been carried out
to permit recommendation. All the
treatments should be applied as
overall sprays immediately after
planting the slips and before the
weeds emerge".
Professor David Edwards of the
U.W.I. Department of Agricultural
Economics and Farm Management,
has this to say ...

"I read with interest the article
on 'Trickle Irrigation and Toma-


toes' in the April issue of CARIB-
BEAN FARMING. I feel that read-
ers should be warned about the
possibility of misinterpreting the
information on the cost of the
system.
Under BUDGET the out-of-
pocket costs of producing one crop
of tomatoes are added to the cost
of equipment installation, to give
Total Cost. This is incorrect, be-
cause the equipment installation
will be used for several years and so
should be shared by several crops of
tomatoes. Thus if the equipment
could be reasonably anticipated to
last for, say, four crops the ex-
penses of equipment installation
should be shared between four
crops, giving a cost per crop of
16.0.9d. and not 64.3.0d.
(It should also be noted that
certain costs have not been includ-
ed, such as interest on capital, a
rental value of land, and any main-
tenance costs for the equipment).
Having arrived at a proper cost
per crop using this method, this
cost can be set against the value of
the crop. But in order to see the
economic gain from the use of the
trickle irrigation over the usual
system of tomato production, the
-cost and returns should be com-
pared from both systems. (These
comparisons say nothing about the
advantage or disadvantage of grow-
ing tomatoes rather than some
other product. It is assumed, of
course, that the tomato crop was


selected because it gave better re-
turns to the resources employed
than any alternative crops)."
Mr. Tony Clarke of Savanna-la-
mar, Jamaica, was one of a group of
farmers who attended a Beef Cattle
Short Course at the University of
Florida at Gainesville, Florida, early
in May this year. The group travel-
led by bus from Miami to Gaines-
ville, visiting farms and experiment
stations en route. In a letter des-
cribing the trip, Mr. Clarke writes ..

"By far the most remarkable
stop was at the Duda Ranch at
Cocoa, where we saw some of the
most magnificent Brahman cattle.
There was a trophy room that was
full of cups and prizes. We were
fortunate enough to arrive in time
to see one of the most spectacular
operations going on. There was the
heat of a gas furnace for branding
irons and de-horners, the smell of
burning hair and the bellowing of
the calves as we entered the 'ring'.
Calves were prodded through a race
into a cradle which was immedi-
ately turned horizontal and simul-
taneously four men, two at the
head and two at the hind, de-
horned, drenched, branded, inocu-
lated and castrated, before one
could say "Jack Robinson". We
actually timed the operation, when
the number of animals was about
one-third they way through, and
the five operations took just 25
seconds per calf."


Caribbean Farming July 1969


I-





pages


7-8,


11


12,


13-


16,


19-20


contain blank
spaces in the
original








The feed that produces
the best results PUINA
means more profit CHOWS
for you.


I


I


Only Purina Chows, with high quality control achieved by the special method
of micro-mixing developed in Purina research laboratories can produce
the best results from your livestock. Broilers that go to market
7 days sooner. Layers that give 240 or more eggs a year.
Sows that wean up to 10 pigs per litter. Hogs that reach
market a month earlier. Cows that give 1,000 lb.
more milk and Steers that produce more and .
better beef. It stands to reason that the feed
that produces the best results, means more profit
for you. It pays to buy PURINA CHOWS
because it pays to buy Quality at the red and white
checkerboard sign of your Jamaica Feeds dealer.


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JAMAICA AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY
DOMESTIC SALES LTD. SHELL CO. (W.I.) LTD.


Uri


Working together in Jamaica to produce better food at lower cost.


Caribbean Farming July 1969


~IP~W








Management


in Cattle -PART 2





In our April issue, Dr. Franz Alexand
fertility. Part two of the series sets out som
Herd management systems vary
with the size of farm and herd,
quality of worker and the type of
product (milk, fat stock, store
cattle) but whatever the system,
the farm manager must continue to
study and revise it to see that it
produces the best results
He may use -
(1) artificial insemination only
(2) artificial insemination with a
"clean-up" bull
(3) hand-mating as cows come on
heat
(4) a bull with the herd.
Among his chief objectives must
be -
(a) high breeding efficiency with
90% or better as his target
(b) disease control
(c) keeping records that will enable
him to know the breeding effic-
iency of each male and each
female animal in the herd.
In order to obtain good herd
breeding, cows and heifers must be
presented in good condition. Ade-
quate nutrition is of prime import-
ance. Concern begins with the calf
because improperly handled, dis-
eased calves grow into unprofitable
heifers and cows. It is well estab-
lished that underfed 'poorly' calves
suffer from delayed puberty and
impaired reproductive performance.

Supplementary Feeding
We know quite definitely that
adequate rations of moderate to
high energy levels improve the re-
productive ability of cows and
heifers in beef herds. We also know
that there are dangers in keeping
bulls for long periods on rations
that are high in TDN (total digest-
ible nutrients). This problem has


duction. Quite often first-calf
heifers giving heavy milk yields are
found to have ovaries that are
atrophic, static or non-functioning.
In such animals, the normal ovarian
cycle will generally re-commence
after supplemental protein feeding
and/or if there is a fall in milk
production.

Vitamins and Minerals
Vitamins A, D and E are neces-
sary for reproductive efficiency in
animals. It may be necessary or
beneficial to supply these vitamins.
It is generally advisable to feed
mineral supplements especially to
cattle which get most of their feed
from pasture.

When To Breed
Heifers may be bred earlier but
best results generally come from
breeding at around eighteen months
of age. Age and weight are two
factors chiefly considered. Recent
data suggest that calving down at
27 months leads to the highest
heifer production and longest pro-
ducing lifetime of the animal. Un-
der normal development 16-18
months of age coincided with the
time when animals are of the cor-
rect weight in most breeds pro-
vided they have been adequately
fed.


81 100
161 180
201 -


1.73
1.96
2.16


58%
51%
46.3%


The figures show that there is an
optimal time for breeding cows
after normal calving. It has been
argued that earlier breeding will
only lower first service conception
figures but will ensure a fair per-
centage of cows becoming preg-
nant.
However, there is evidence that
it takes about 30 47 days after
calving to bring the cow's uterus
back to a condition normal for
service. During this period, if the
animal comes on heat, it has the
beneficial effect of flushing out the
uterus rather than the effect of
inviting conception again. Experi-
mental data also shows that there is
a higher incidence of retained pla-
centas, metritis and subsequent in-
fertility in cattle bred before 60
days. Veterinarians have suggested
that a delay of 50 days may be
allowed if the cow had calved nor-
mally and the animal had at least
one normal heat cycle before. If the
cow had calved abnormally or
showed evidence of infection, that
animal should not be bred before
90 days and possibly only after the
genital organs have been considered
normal on examination.
Caribbean Farming July 1969



























Detection of Heat

The average duration of oestrus
(heat) in cattle is 18-19 hours for
heifers and cows respectively. Ovu-
lation occurs 12 hours after the end
should be served in the morning of
the following day. It has been
shown that most cows ovulate be-
tween 4.00 p.m. and 4.00 a.m.
There is also the fact that sperma-
tozoa require at least 6 hours in the
female tract to undergo capaci-
tation before they are capable of
fertilisation. Where artificial in-
semination is used and heat detect-
ion is delayed there may be a
tendency for animals to be bred a
little too late if the above formu-
la is used.

Heat detection is of paramount
importance with programmes in-
volving artificial insemination and
hand breeding. Every effort should
be made to impress upon those who
are concerned with heat detection
the magnitude of their task and
what to look for. Observation for
heat should take place at least twice
per day for about 15 to 20 minutes
preferably when the animals are not
under stress when they are at rest
rather than when they are being
milked or have just been driven.
The cow in heat stands to be
mounted. A drop in appetite or in
milk production may be noticed.
Restlessness may be observed. Bel-
lowing may be heard. Vulval slime
which adheres to the tail may be
Caribbean Farming July 1969


seen. The cow when she is coming
on (pro-oestrus) may be very inter-
ested in mounting other cows in
heat.

Ab, dance of Heat
Mention should be made of a
source of great economic loss to the
farmer. This is the problem of
anoestrum or absence of heat. This
is the farmer's diagnosis when par-
ticular animals have not been ob-
served on heat. In about 10 per
cent of cases, examination shows
that these animals did not exhibit
signs of heat. Such cases include
some that are pregnant (services not
recorded or known) and various
pathological states of the uterus or
ovaries. In other cases, the animals
are found to be normal, having
functional ovaries, and therefore
the conclusion is drawn that they
have gone through silent heat or the
heat periods have not been ob-
served. Two recent studies in the
United States have shown that if
the daily observation periods were
increased from two to four, then
the problem of anoestrum largely
disappears. This minimizes the im-
portance of silent heat and stresses
the importance of heat observation.
The veterinarian should be called in
to examine 'anoestrous' cases be-
cause of the ten percent of diag-
nosable conditions. Expected heat
dates may be predicted in other
cases in order to assist the farmer.
Animals may be brought on heat


with various treatments. The im-
portant thing to remember however
is that the heat still has to be
observed.



d--




Abortions
Evidence of miscarriage or abor-
tions should be taken seriously.
Aborted animals should be isolated
immediately, being allowed to re-
join the herd only after the possi-
bility of important infectious dis-
eases is ruled out, retained placen-
tas are successfully. treated and
genital discharges cease. All sanitary
precautions must be taken always
because it is important that the
problem of the individual animal
does not become the problem of
the herd. The aborted foetus should
be looked for, found and reserved
for the veterinarian. If immediate
veterinary examination is not poss-
ible, the foetus is best placed in a
sealed container and sent to the
laboratory without delay. If the
foetus is too large it maybe cut
open and the stomach with its
contents tied off, removed and sup-
plied for laboratory examination.
Part 3 of this series will cover
EVALUATION OF BULLS.
RECORDS.
FERTILITY PROGRAMMES.


























i. I' '
*'~ ;~.~


Detection of Heat


The average duration of oestrus
(heat) in cattle is 18-19 hours for
heifers and cows respectively. Ovu-
lation occurs 12 hours after the end

DISBUDDING BANANAS
In our April issue there was a
report on the beneficial effect of
removing the bud or 'navel' and the
false hand from 3 to 4 week-old
stems of bananas on the tree.
The Director of Research of the
Jamaica Banana Board has pub-
lished a release which gives further
information on the subject. In addi-
tion to the advantages mentioned in
our April story, the release points
out that the early disbudding pro-
cess has the effect of reducing the
problem of latex stain at harvest
time. Also, research workers say
that they observe less damage from
thrips in early-disbudded stems

Economics
According to the research re-
port, a field worker can remove
false hands and navels from up to
1,000 stems a day. This would
mean a conservatively-estimated in-
creased return of 8.15/- .for the
cost of one day's pay if the
average stem weighs no more than
30 lb. At 34 lb. average weight, the
extra income from 1,000 stems will
be more than 11 and at 46 lb.
average the extra income will be
15.
Caribbean Farming July 1969


seen. The cow when she is coming
on (pro-oestrus) may be very inter-
ested in mounting other cows in
heat.

Ab' ence of Heat
ACTUAL FRUIT SIZES


A: Up to 64% of fruit measured
was of not more than this 11/8"
diameter!


B: Experimental shipment of
'second-hand' fingers was of this
minimum diameter 13/16 ".


C: ... and of maximum diameter 1/4"


Fruit Size and

Banana Profits
From as far back as June 1967,
research workers of Jamaica's Bana-
na Board have been taking measure-
ments. of the fruit that growers reap
for export. The standard procedure
for the study is to measure the
diameter of fingers of the next-to-
smallest hand on each stem -
measurement being made just be-
fore or just after reaping.
The study has shown that up to
64% of the fruit measured has been
not more than 11/8" diameter and
that contrary to what has been
often said only a small percent-
age of fruit was harvested in over-
full condition.

Stage Two
Beginning January this year, the
research men started taking mea-
surements at boxing plants using
the same standard procedure men-
tioned and they decided to make
experimental shipments of fruit
with a 'second-hand' finger di-
ameter of 13 16" Six lots of fruit
were selected from a fifteen acre
field of Lacatan 'plant' bananas and
harvested at the caliper grade of
13 16" this being the minimum.
not the average value. Most of the
stems harvested had seven or eight
hands per stem and each 100 stems
filled 101 boxes (average) excluding
rejected fruit. Net weight of fruit
per carton was 28.5 lb. to 30.5 lb.
The 'out-turn' reports on the
fruit as it reached the United King-
dom suggest that fruit of this grade
is satisfactory for the market.
Although the Banana Board has
not published final recommend-
ations, the indications are that far-
mers are reaping under-grade fruit
in the majority of fields and that
farmers should begin to caliper-
measure their fruit to accustom
their eyes and minds to the stand-
ards now suggested. Corresponding
to the minimum diameter of
13/16" the research workers sug-
gest a maximum of 114" for fingers
of the next-to-smallest hand on
each stem.








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Caribbean Farming July 1969



















between cattle and coconuts. The
:and rises sea level to 250' above,
with a good amount of flat land
before rising in easy undulations to
some high ground. About 80 acres
of the flat land is under Pangola
grass, and the rest in native Savan-
nah or Crab grass. At present I have
1 herd of 270 head all told, and
readers may be interested to know
the background to where we are
now.
In 1950 I started with a herd of
some 'Tobago cows' the 'Tobago
cow' being a hodge-podge resulting
from many breeds of bulls which
had passed through the government
farm in Tobago during the course
of many years. My selection of the
cows to form the basis of my herd
was simply any animal which had
good beef conformation. On these
cows I used a series of purebred
Sahiwal bulls borrowed from the
government farm in Tobago. Hard-
hearted culling was the order of the
day from the very beginning; I sent
to the butcher any cow which did
not breed regularly or was unable
to feed its calf.

Charolais Introduction
After some time the need arose
for a change of bulls and, in order
to prevent in-breeding at this stage,
I used a Jamaica Red bull on the
herd. The birth-weight of the calves
from the Sahiwal cross ranged from
50 to 65 lb. and the birth-weight
from the Jamaica Red cross was
only slightly better. Around this
time I visited Puerto Rico and saw
Caribbean Farming July 1969


Charolais cross were up in the high
90 lb. range and at 24 months
would give a carcass weight that
normally took me about 30 to 36
months to attain from the Sahiwal
or Jamaica Red cross under similar
conditions.

In 1962 I was the first person to
bring Charolais into Tobago a
bull and a heifer; and the impact
which the Charolais has made on
the herd is easily seen. At present I
use four Charolais, one Charbray,
one white Zebu and one Sahiwal
bull in my breeding programme.
The Sahiwal and Zebu are used on
selected cows to keep up my supply
of heifers with Indian blood for
crossing with the Charolais bulls.
We have averaged around 450
lb. carcass weight at 24 to 26
months old but for the past couple
years which had hard and pro-
longed dry seasons the weights have
fallen even in spite of supplemental
feeding, and in spite of the cattle
having a good outward appearance.
There is no carcass grading taking
place in Trinidad and Tobago to my
knowledge.
Prior to introducing the Charo-
lais into my herd, I had heard much
about calving problems associated
with Charolais crosses. I can defin-
itely say that any problems that
might exist elsewhere in the use of
Charolais have not entered into my
experience.

Dry Weather Feeding
At Diamond the rainfall is


on the range is almost non-existent.
At that time I feed molasses (free
choice) and citrus meal to make up
for the lack of grass. The cattle also
have free supply of mineral licks
with an adequate water supply.

Herd Management
On Diamond we are in the
process of expanding our cattle
programme to include planting Pan-
gola grass under mature coconuts.
Both coconuts and Pangola benefit
from the fertilizing programme.

At birth each calf is tattooed on
the inside of the ear with coded
numbers and letters to indicate the
parents from which it came, and
date of birth. There is a page in the
stock records allocated to each ani-
mal, and all information connected
with the animal during its lifetime
is recorded, but analysis of these
records is far from complete. I
would like to add my voice to those
who think we should be able to call
upon up-to-date management guid-
ance.
The calving rate averages around
85%. With increasing use of supple-
mental feed during the dry season
we are able to make full use of
what used to be excess in the wet
season by carrying more cattle year
round and by so doing increase the
carrying capacity of the land. With-
out irrigation and with increasing
Pangola acreage the carrying capa-
city could be in excess of one
animal per acre.
Continued overleaf


















Looking ahead
Plans for the future include the
development of a market for qual-
ity beef to supply the growing
tourist trade through the hotels,
and this will include the ageing of
beef.
Looking further ahead I can see
Tobago with its almost non-existent
animal disease problems becoming


the breeding unit for the supply of
all tropical types of cattle with its
markets assured in Central and
South America. The South Ameri-
can ranchers would give anything to
get a supply of tropicalised breed-
ing cattle of purebred stock resist-
ant to tick-borne diseases, but free
from the cattle diseases which one
comes to accept in other parts of


the world as part and parcel of
cattle breeding.
Because of the small acreage
(500 acres) beef cattle as the only
crop would not be economical -
but run in conjunction with coco-
nuts it becomes possible. I don't
consider that a beef cattle project
should be less than 2,000 to 2,500
acres if it is to carry itself. E


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Already Crop Culture plays an
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acres of cane are also sprayed each year.
Banana growers and cane planters
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Jamaica Livestock Association Notes

High-tensile Wire putting up fences has also some b
Tony Bishop of Diamond Estate in Tobago (see situation.
LETTER FROM A FARMER this issue) has written High-tensile wire used to be availa
to give some of his experience with Australian barbed from time to time and maybe there a
wire made from high tensile steel. He says that the wire experience in using this material and wi
weighs about 45 lb. to the 1/-mile roll, has a breaking on its performance and economics. We
strain of 1,000 lb. or more and is landed in Tobago at hear from these people.
$TT23.00 a roll.
It may be mounted on steel posts (black varnished Research
and galvanised) set 40-60 feet apart, with droppers at A member has written to suggest th;
10 feet apart. The posts are driven eliminating the the livestock industry in Jamaica to sti
cost of digging holes and ramming posts. A gadget is setting up its own researchorganisation.
available to secure the barbed wire to the posts. that the sugar, banana and coconut i
The standard wire assembled and sold in Jamaica done just this they seem to be reapir
works out at about the same price per yard as the high After all, he says, government directs its
tensile wire but there have been some complaints as the lines that the politicians or th
to its lack of strength. Also, it is about 21/2 times as scientists favour not necessarily in th(
heavy per yard. the farmers regard as needing urgent atte
It would be interesting to know if the machines Research costs money but well-di
used in the local factory can be adapted to turn out by competent workers very often results
the high-tensile wire at a price comparable with the greatly exceed its cost.
Australian product. Supplies of good fence posts are Any comments from our members?
running low and the possibility of using posts at These notes are pu
40-foot spacing instead of our customary 6 feet is an Jamaica Livestock A
attractive one. The rising cost of hand labour for service to its membe
Caribbean Farming July 1969


hearing on the

ble in Jamaica
re readers with
th information
would like to



at it is time for
art thinking of
He points out
industries have
ig good results.
research along
e civil service
Direction that
nation .
erected research
in savings that


blished by the
association as a
rs.








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1HOW MUCH

DOES SUGA





If you ask a cane-planter how
much irrigation water he needs in
Clarendon or Saint Catherine, in
Jamaica, he will probably tell you
that he would like to have two
cubic yards per hour per acre (5.6
Imperial gallons per minute per
acre), but that he might be able to
grow a crop with about three-
quarters of this. You would be
assured that any quantity of water
less than 1V2 cubic yards per hour
per acre would be a privation level,
except perhaps if it was for sprink-
ler irrigation. This is the rate of
flow that the planter considers
necessary to get through the driest
months of the year, which are
March and July in these areas.
When you calculate what 2
"yards" of water is, you find that it
is the equivalent of 132 inches of
water per year. Rainfall is normally
about 35 inches of water per year
so that rainfall and irrigation to-
gether add up to nearly 170 inches
of water. This amount of water falls
as rain in Jamaica only in a small
area near Blue Mountain Peak, be-
tween Kingston and Port Antonio,
and even then the rainfall distri-
bution month by month is not as
even as is the distribution of irri-
gation water with time.
If you ask a scientist what are
the water requirements of sugar
cane in the same area, he will
probably say that if we could add
to the average rainfall there about
40 more inches of water very well
distributed over the year, then the
cane plant would not want from its
lack. He would add that this addit-
ional water is required more in
certain months than others.
The economist, or the intelli-
gent farmer, would ask himself
Caribbean Farming July 1969


planter wants 132 inches of irri-
gation water, while the scientist is
talking about only 40 inches of
water. Much thought was given to
the problem, but in the end only
certain unproven ideas came up to
explain the differences between the
practical man's opinion and the
scientist's. It was thought that sur-
face irrigation efficiency must be
the root of the whole problem. So


that they were made into LULCU
planes, that is, flat surfaces that
were tilted, just as if the book on
your table was supported in one
corner by a match box.
The two Parnassus fields were
tilted so that the slope in the
furrow direction was 0.22 per cent
in one field and 0.05 per cent in the
other. (26 inches per 1,000 feet and
6 inches per 1,000 feet.) Continued
13
































































RESULTS OF IRRIGATION EXPERIMENT AT PARNASSUS
Fall Plants First Ratoons


Tons of cane per acre 63.4
Inches of irrigation water used 49
Peak pumping requirements, including line
losses, in cubic yards per hour per acre 1.0
No. irrigation days per year, using
peak pumping rate 240
Estimated efficiency of irrigation, defined
as water used by plants divided by water pumped 73%


49.2
41

1.2

210

84%


When these fields were levelled.,
furrows were drawn on them, so
that three rather long furrow
lengths were produced. These were
350, 700 and 1050 feet (5.3, 10.6
and 15.9 chains respectively). There
were no twigs or infield drains in
the fields. The area was planted in
the variety B51410, which is one of
the most erect of the canes used in
Jamaica, and irrigations com-
menced.
All water used in this experi-
ment was carefully measured by
using a Parshall Flume, and the
measurements were automatically
recorded, so that a permanent re-
cord was made of every irrigation.
The Research Department calcu-
lated the amount of water that the
soil could hold, and by using what
is called a water budget metho
decided to irrigate when these easy
calculations showed that irrigatio 1
was due.
Different furrow streams we e
obtained by taking the 'branch' of
water and diverting it into differir g
numbers of furrows. The furro v
stream sizes were 70, 120 and 173
U.S. gallons per minute. This is tFe
equivalent of 21, 36 and 50 cub c
yards per hour per furrow .
which is much higher than a norm; 1
stream size in Jamaica. Although
the planter normally likes to put i
less water into any furrow, it
because these normal furrows ai
short, and a large furrow streak
would too quickly get to the end (
the furrow and run out to wasti
But on the long furrows at th
Parnassus experiment we hope'
that the high furrow stream woul'
take sufficiently long to reach th
end of the field that an adequate.
wetting would result. The result:
showed that our hopes were ful
filled.
The Results
This experiment started as fall
plants and continued for over two
years, until the first ratoons were
reaped in February this year. Dur-
ing the whole experimental period
the Parnassus area suffered from
one of the worst droughts in living
memory, so that it was from that
point of view an opportune state of
Caribbean





















in mne oTner nana, tne sueepeL
s; pe used 20% less water, so that
a important result is already
fi nd. It is this. If you have insuf-
ient water to irrigate all the land
Ju want to irrigate, put your
.r.ows on the steeper slope. This,
course, only applies when irri-
,ion of the steeper slope will not
,'ad to soil erosion. On the other
ind, if you are cultivating all the
A.d that you want to, and you are
nore short of land than water, then
it would be better to lead the water
'iown a smaller slope. But, unless
the land surface is smooth, without
depressions and high spots, you
could get into difficulties with soil
drainage by irrigating this slope.
The very high efficiencies ob-
tained are a direct result of the
land-forming and the subsequent
ease of irrigation control. Just as a
motor-car has a surprisingly low
efficiency in burning petrol, the
irrigation on non-uniform surfaces
has inherent problems which res-
trict practical irrigation efficiencies
to low values.
One of the most interesting re-
ults from this experiment was that
n general the longest furrow runs
ere the best. They produced the
highest tons of cane per acre and
he second highest tons of cane per
cre-inch of water. When we calcu-
ate the cost of land and water, the
results show that there is more
profitt in the use of the longest run.
Continued
uly 1969


"- -- . ;-:' -, -. .

After the levelling has been done, the finished job is checked by survey before
the furrows are drawn.

The high furrow stream size used is here shown to be adequately confined by
wellformed banks on the 1050 foot length of run. At the near end of the furrows
the water is about 4 inches deep.




















The measurement of all water used at the Parnassus experiment was by a nine inch Parshall Flume, and the
mear Arements were automatically recorded by the box-like structure on top of the flume.


This is particularly fortunate, be-
cause it means that furrows can run
for the full length of the field,
without interruption, and the irri-
.tion can be done with much less
labour than now. The small farmer
can irrigate by himself, by turning
the water into the furrow ends, and
then going about other business for
from three to six hours before
having to come back to start
another set of furrows. The larger
farmer can lower the work load on
his employed irrigators, and may
well be able to pay them a daily
wage which gives the irrigator more
take-home pay, and at the same
time gives the owner a better irri-
gation at a lower cost per acre.
And in all of this there is one
very great benefit. The system of
long-line irrigation of a graded sur-
face is, it seems, no more demand-
ing of water than sprinkler irri-
gation. On the southern plains of
Jamaica, where water is usually
obtained for irrigation by pumping
ground water, there is an increasing
salinity problem which can only
really be solved by reduced pump-
ing rates, so that government and
intelligent citizens have reason to
be very concerned about how much
longer we can continue to let the
salt-water problem get worse. It has
been argued that sprinkler irrigation
16


was the only solution to the prob-
lem of reducing the ground-water
salt problem without reducing
yields. Now, in round figures, a
semi-permanent irrigation system
costs about 100, per acre for the
equipment, which does not last
indefinitely; and a relatively high
amount per year in labour costs and
power charges. But in spite of this,
sprinkler irrigation might be the
only alternative where lands are too
undulating, or too sandy. Land-
forming might cost from 15. to
50. per acre depending on the
amount of work to be done, and
who does it. But once done, it does
not ever require to be done again,
except for an.inexpensive touching
up with a land plane at replanting.
Nevertheless, the availability of cap-
ital or credit might restrict the rate
at which the farmer can put his
land in the proper form for highly
efficient surface irrigation. The
labour and power charges associ-
ated with irrigation of land-formed
surfaces will be almost always lower
than for sprinkler irrigation. And,
in Jamaica, there is very little land
in the major plains that is suffici-
ently flat to level, but too sandy to
permit long-line irrigation
It is hard to make a specific
recommendation to farmers at this
time. There is little general experi-


ence about land-forming in Jamai-
ca, and the earth moving contrac-
tors themselves are approaching the
job as novices. While there is a very
good argument to level lands that
can be levelled, there is the problem
of finding people who know how to
do it. We expect that in a year or
two the contractors will be better
versed in this operation, for there is
a possibility that areas of sugar
estates will be levelled by them. My
only suggestion for readers in the
Caribbean is that they approach
their Ministries of Agriculture for
the engineering advice that will
necessarily precede any proper
land-forming. If you have a big
enough project, you might be able
to consult civil engineers in the
area. To start with, the operations
will necessarily be slow, but I
would predict that more and more
people will be interested in having
this work done, and others doing it,
and the latter will be affected by
the demand for this work.
Readers who are interested in
detailed results of the two years'
experiment at Parnassus could con-
sult their libraries or The Sugar
Manufacturers' Association (of
Jamaica) Ltd., Sugar Research
Department, Mandeville P.O., for a
copy of the reports in which this
work is completely discussed.
Caribbean Farming July 1969








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Growing Black

Eve Peas

Black Eye Peas are a popular
catch crop throughout the Carib-
bean including British Honduras.
This is partly because they can be
planted at any time of the year
provided that there is enough rain,
partly because they appear to suffer
much less from various diseases
than do Red Kidney Beans (Red
Peas) and partly because they can
be picked green as string beans or
harvested when dry.
In British Honduras in 1957,
Black Eye Peas yielded 4,800 lb.
green beans per acre compared with
3,400 lb. from the best string bean
variety then available. There is also
the advantage that reject Black Eye
Peas are palatable to pigs whereas
R.K. beans are not. On the other
hand, Black Eye Peas need two or
three harvesting whereas R.K.
beans can be reaped by cutting or
uprooting the whole plant.
Mr. Tom Carr at the Central
Experiment Station, Centeno,


Trinidad, has recently written a
leaflet Production of Black Eye
Peas (crop Bulletin 6) for Trini-
dad conditions and we all can get
hints from it.
He points out that peas should
be planted in Trinidad in November
so that they mature in the dry
weather. He recommends the
variety California Blackeye Number
5.
Good drainage is required, if
necessary by preparing raised beds
(about 6 feet wide, he suggests, for
planting 3 rows of peas). A soil tilth
is needed for planting but not a
very fine one. Sow about 1 inch
deep, 6 inches apart in 24 inch
rows, i.e. 43, 560 plants per acre.
Fertilizer requirements will de-
pend on the soil, but he suggests
about 300 lb. per acre of 14-14-14,
applied if possible in a band 3
inches away from the row and 1 2
inches deep: do this within 1 week
of seedling emergence.
Amiben at 4 pints per acre is
recommended as a pre-emergent
spray for application immediately
after sowing. After emergence,


weeds can be controlled only with
Gramoxone (at 1 pint per acre)
using a shield to protect the crop
(see CARIBBEAN FARMING,
April 1969, p. 25).

Spraying with Toxaphene (or
Malathion) should be done every 7 -
14 days to control leaf-eating cater-
pillars and beetles. If Early Blight
occurs, mix Dithane M-45 (or Man-
zate-D) fungicide with the insecti-
cide. Stop spraying 14 days before
harvest.
Harvest of dry pods can begin
about 10 weeks after sowing. Dry
the beans immediately after pick-
ing. Mr. Carr forecasts yields of
900-1,400 lb. dry peas per acre.
Growers in other parts of the
Caribbean will have to adapt these
recommendations to their soil and
climate conditions. Black Eye Peas
are sensitive to phosphate defic-
iency for instance. Some farmers
may find closer spacing desirable if
the plants do not 'close-in' (in
British Honduras 21 inch rows gave
720 lb. dry peas per acre compared
with 570 lb. from 24 inch rows).
D.R.


Onion 4'rowillng

The Trinidad and Tobago Min-
istry of Agriculture has produced a
bulletin giving three pages of in-
structions on growing onions.
Thomas W.A. Carr, Agronomist at
the Central Agricultural Station at
Centeno is the writer . and the
bulletin is Number 7 in its series.

Particulars are given of varieties
suitable for Trinidad and Tobago,
nursery preparation and trans-
planting, pest and disease control,
weed control and harvesting
methods.

According to the bulletin, with
average growing conditions the far-
mer can expect yields of 10,000 lb.
- 12,000 lb. per acre.

The bulletin was prepared for
the Ministry by Texaco Trinidad,
Inc. C.R.


[Caribbean Farming July 1969












e-n u-s ; .
S ,. '.-. '.- .- -.1






The various types of hand-
powered sprayers (see CARIB-
BEAN FARMING, April 1969) find
general use on farms of all sizes;
they are used to apply herbicides in
cane-fields and pastures, insecti-
cides and fungicides in vegetable
plots and for tick control in most
dairy herds and even in some
smaller beef cattle herds.
For some farmers, however, a
sprayer with a capacity of one to
four gallons and the relatively low
pressure of the knapsack or pneu-
matic types is not quite adequate.
Here and there use is made of the
small gasoline-powered rigs such as
the BEAN or the HARDY 99; these
are generally survivors of the days
when Bordeaux mixture used to be
applied to banana fields for Leaf-
spot control. With these machines
the long hoses and high pressure
make them suitable for a much
wider range of uses than the hand
sprayers can manage.
Of course, the farmer who is
fortunate enough to have a tractor
can easily buy a pump which is
driven off the tractor PTO and
this serves very well in fields, groves
or pastures where the tractor can
go.

Portable Power
On many hundreds of farms in
the Caribbean region, absence of a
tractor or steep slopes still make it
desirable for the farmer to have a
small engine-powered spray rig.
Even where there is a tractor, the
vehicle may not be available when
spraying needs to be done.
On many cattle farms the busi-
ness of spraying regularly to control
ticks is often not done as well as it
should be generally each animal
requires about a gallon of spray
mixture for adequate penetration
down to the skin and workers
will often scamp the job because of
its tediousness. After all, it takes


~-



quite a bit of work to mix eighty or
a hundred gallons of solution, refill
a knapsack sprayer twenty times
and give a herd of a hundred cattle
a good going-over. For this a spray
race is ideal but not every farmer
with a hundred cattle can afford to
buy and install a spray race which is
used only half-a-dozen times a year.

Small Fields
The first type of power sprayer
illustrated here is a commercial
product a wheel barrow type
manufactured by DORMAN of
Great Britain. It is used successfully
in gardens or small fields on level
land and gives good service in
row crops, even when the rows are
spaced more closely than the usual
24 or 30 inches. The engine is of a
make widely used so that spares
and replacements should be easily
available. The two booms fold to
allow the machine to pass through
gates or to be loaded on a truck;
when extended the booms cover a
six-foot spread. The machine sells
for just over 100, which should
make it .an economic proposition
for the five-acre gardener growing
vegetables or flowers.
Home-made Rig
The second unit shown here was
assembled on the farm. The engine
is a four-stroke BRIGGS AND
STRATTON gasolene-powered
engine of about 3 H.P. The pump
may be any suitable make to
deliver five to ten gallons a minute
at a pressure of up to fifty pounds
per square inch. At this volume and
pressure the machine will be able to
do a good range of jobs.
For weed control in pastures,
for instance, the operator may have
(at some times of the year) only an
hour or two in the early morning
before wind introduces the danger
of spray-drift on to nearby trees.
On the other hand, pressures of 25
to 40 pounds per square inch may


f-Powered


9a'ers




be better than higher pressures
because high pressures break up the
spray into fine droplets, which
again are likely :to drift and damage
nearby trees. It will be obvious that
a pressure gauge in the pump dis-
charge line will be of considerable
use.
As to the pump a rotary type
will be less expensive than the
piston type usually recommended
for high-pressure work. The pump
used here is on the market at
something around 30
(EC$140.00).

PVC Pipe and Tubing
The discharge line of this unit is
100 feet of heavy-duty clear P\ C
flexible tubing .2 inch diamet ar
feeding into a T-shaped bo( m
assembled from % inch rigid P' C
pipe. The boom covers a row wic h
of 10 feet with six nozzles. Asse n-
bly of the PVC boom is easy to
dies, vices or wrenches are nec( s-
ary and the makers say the P 'C
pipe is highly resistant to he
chemicals generally found in he oi-
cides and other agricultural che ii-
cals. The plastic is much light er
than galvanised iron pipe.
It is important that the over; )w
line from the pressure regul or
valve be returned to the tank of
solution the returning liquid ill
circulate in the tank and keep i e
chemical from settling out.

Nozzles
Nozzles and strainers should be
selected to suit the application. In
the assembly shown here TEEJET
nozzles type 8004 are used for
herbicide application to pastures.
The same would be used for apply-
ing fungicides and insecticides to
row crops.
For spraying cattle a shorter
hose and a different nozzle are
used. 0
Caribbean Farming July 1969








































Sray boom of PVC tubing has the advantages of
Sht weight and resistance to chemicals.


Pressure gauge and pressure control valve (left) are
important. Note return hose from valve to con-
ar tainer.













It is widely recognized that agri-
culture as an object of lending
which presents certain problems
which are not shared by other
forms of business activity.
These arise mainly from the
heavy dependence on nature which
is still characteristic of agriculture,
though modem science has reduced
this somewhat. They also derive
from the tendency of governments
to afford farmers less consideration
and protection in times of low
prices and to impose more rigorous
measures of control when prices
tend to rise than operators in other
sectors are normally asked to toler-
ate.


Farmers should give as much
care to the selection of a bank as
they give to the selection of a
tractor or an irrigation unit or a
herd sire. Having made their selec-
tion, they should not lightly change
- there are few things more harm-
ful to your credit than jumping
from bank to bank. Before decid-
ing, make sure the bank has what
you need find out its loan policy
regarding expansion, fertilizer,
loans, equipment and so on, also
check its attitude to agricultural
lending. It is difficult for a bank to
be a good partner to you if the
banker has no interest in or little
knowledge of agriculture.


You should also provide him
with a budget or cash flow pro-
jection showing income and ex-
penditure anticipated month by
month and, where appropriate, year
by year.
If possible, you should have
records of past production indi-
cating yields per acre, gain in
weight per lb. of feed, or other
indicators of production efficiency.
In addition, you should have a
long range plan for capital expendi-
ture for farm and home improve-
ments and for equipment.
You should be prepared to fur-
nish this information every year


Farm Loans and the Banker By H.C. Miller


It must also be conceded that
farming has not in the past pro-
vided as favourable opportunities
for easy access to bankers as busi-
nessmen in the city enjoy. Improve-
ment of communications and ex-
pansion of banking services into the
rural areas is rapidly improving this
situation, and farmers and bankers
are showing increasing interest in
each other. This trend is well
worthy of encouragement since in
order that farmers may secure the
type of credit they need, bankers
must be able to understand the
special conditions under which the
business of farming is operated -
the hazards, the opportunities, the
facilities for marketing, the signifi-
cant indicators of managerial effici-
ency and the many factors which
affect decision-making in a pro-
gramme of agricultural lending.
Accordingly, farmers and bank-
ers must be willing to work to-
gether to improve continuously the
credit facilities which are offered,
so that issues and repayment terms
are realistically geared to the needs
of the industry while bankers' risks
are kept to a normal and reasonable
level.

Selection of your Banker

Bankers are always looking
for customers who are willing to
co-operate and there is nothing
wrong with farmers looking for the
same in a banker.
Caribbean Farming July 1969


Having decided on the bank you
want to select as a partner, your
next problem is to know how to
influence the banker to accept your
proposition for association.

What the Banker Will Expect From You
First of all, you must know how
the banker looks at you and what
he wants and expects from you.
The banker desires your full
co-operation in any form of associ-
ation he enters into with you and
expects from you four major con-
tributions:- information, com-
petence, honesty and repayment of
his loan in due time.
Information
The type and amount of infor-
mation requested will depend upon
your own financial position. Obvi-
ously there is little or no problem if
your financial position is such that,
should you have several set-backs,
you will still be able to repay the
loan. The situation is different if
you want to borrow the maximum
that your financial position war-
rants, be it 1,000 or 100,000.
In such a case you will need to
present your prospective banker
with a financial statement listing all
assets at current market value and
showing all debts and when they
are due. If you are in a position to
present financial statements for the
preceding 2-3 years, this will be
even more welcome.


until your banker feels it is no
longer necessary. Above all, do not
be hesitant about visiting the bank-
er and letting him know how things
are going. This is a good practice
because should you have bad luck,
as farmers so often do have, you
will have prepared the bank for the
fact that some changes in your
repayment schedule may be neces-
sary.
Competence
The wise banker may wish to
visit your farm before deciding to
get close to you and your business.
He will wish to be in a position to
assess your competence as a planner
and as a manager. He will be inter-
ested to note how clean you keep
your pastures, how well you con-
trol weeds, insects and pests, how
well you care for your tractor and
other equipment, how healthy are
your livestock, how adequate are
your provisions for feed ard water
and so on.
Farmers vary in their ability to
plan and to manage as much as any
other group of businessmen. Your
banker wants to know if your
planning is sound in relation to the
physical assets of land, labour and
capital which you can command,
and whether you have the mana-
gerial skill to secure the results
anticipated. He expects you to be
well informed about the enterprises
you are undertaking and that you
will know where to get such sound
technical advice as you may from
21








time to time require. You should be
able to impress him that your mar-
keting arrangements are as secure as
they possibly can be.
He will, in particular, want to
know how successful you have b an'
in the past. He knows that putting
more money at your disposal v ill
not necessarily mean that you v ill
be able to do a better job. The
question you must be able to ar"
wer with conviction is, "Have you
proved that you have the ability to;
obtain the results you say you can,
or are you setting goals for yourself!
which you cannot reach?" He will.
want to know "Have you over.
the years made money and in-
creased your net worth?" After all,
everyone wants to be associated
with success.
Honesty
A banker extends credit because
he believes that the borrower is able
and willing to repay the loan. Bor-
rowers must be scrupulously careful
to list all assets as well as all debts
in their financial statements. Assets
should not be over valued nor
should the borrower attempt to


omit listing assets in order to avoid
pledging them to the bank. These
practices lower your credit rating
with. your banker and encourage
him to avoid doing business with
you.
Loans taken from a bank for
one purpose should not be used for
another your banker, in making a
loan, plans with you its repayment
based on the purpose for which the
advance is intended. If the money is
used for some other purpose, the
chances are that you will be unable
to repay your loan as scheduled and
that you will lose favour with your
banker.
The human factor is all import-
ant in every loan. Your integrity as
a borrower is tested not so much
when everything goes according to
plan and nature smiles at your
efforts rather it is tested when
you need to make sacrifices in
order to live up to your obligations.
Repayment
There should be a clear under-
standing between borrower and
banker as to how .a loan will be re-
paid. This needs to be realistically


planned as your credit rating will
be determined by the way in which
your agreed schedule of repayment
is honoured.
Every banker knows that things
don't always go according to plan
and agricultural bankers in particu-
lar are well aware of the heavy
dependence on nature which is
typical of agricultural enterprises.
Conclusion
To put all this in a nutshell -
Farmers should select their
banking partners with care and
should bear in mind that their suit
will be advanced or hindered in
accordance with the Banker's appr-
aisal of their credit worthiness.
This will be based on:
(1) His assessment of their com-
petence as planners and mana-
gers.
(2) The information on their busi-
ness they are able to supply.
(3) The expectation of honestly
and integrity which they a'e
able to induce, and
(4) Past records of their debt re-
payment performances. [


Caribbean Farming July 1969


Better because its gas


BEST BECAUSE ITS





STHE GAS RANGE WITH THE BURNERS GUARANTEED FOR LIFEr

Efficient, reliable, and so easy to clean because CALORIC
GAS RANGES are equipped with detachable burners, a
removable oven door and oven shelves which slide out.
Available in 4-burner, 20" and 30" models. Cooking is
J .fun when you own a Caloric.



Manufactured in Jamaica by

/ SERV-WEL OF JAMAICA LIMITED
8-10 ASHENHEIM ROAD, KINGSTON 11
and available at better appliance stores in Guyana, Trinidad. Antigua, Barbados, Grenada and Dominica.
























* r
a r


w e .


CARIBBEAN'

"English gentlemen once carried
folding-nutmeg graters of sterling
silver in their waistcoats, as modern
men carry cigarette cases".
This interesting statement, and
the one at the end of this brief
article, are to be found in a delight-
ful leaflet produced especially for
Expo '69 by the Grenada Co-opera-
tive Nutmeg Association. It is called
"Nutmeg and Mace from Grenada".
The leaflet tells us that nutmegs
were brought to Grenada in 1843
from the East Indies by a doctor
who had previously lived in the
Moluccas. When he came to Gren-
ada he sent for some nutmeg trees
and introduced the custom of
sprinkling nutmeg over the already-
popular Planters' Punch.
In addition to a recipe for Rum
Punch, the leaflet also gives recipes
for eleven other nutmeg con-
coctions ranging from Spinach in
Cream (from Norway) to Indian
Cashew Pie. But here are two of the
less exotic recipes that we all can
try.


DANISH MEAT BALLS
2 Ib. lean minced beef
% cup minced onion
2 teaspoons salt
% teaspoon ground nutmeg
/4 teaspoon ground black pepper
2 eggs, beaten
2/3 cup flour
1/4 cup shortening
1 cup of water 1 bay leaf


SWEET POTATO CROQUETTES
(FROM BRAZIL)

3 cups hot mashed sweet potatoes
% cup chopped roasted peanuts
% teaspoon salt
/2 teaspoon ground nutmeg
1/8 teaspoon ground black pepper
3 tablespoons margarine
2 teaspoons grated orange peel
2 eggs (1 beaten)
1 cup fine dry bread crumbs
1 tablespoon milk


CO KING

Combine sweet potatoes, pea-
nuts, salt, nutmeg, pepper, orange
peel, one egg and /2 cup bread
crumbs. Shape into croquettes
(about 6). Roll in bread crumbs.
Dip in beaten egg and milk. Roll in
bread crumbs again. Fry in hot
deep fat (360 degrees Fahrenheit
until brown. Serve with bacon or
ham.


Combine beef, onion, salt, pep-
per, nutmeg and eggs. Shape into 2
inch balls and roll in flour. Brown
on all sides in hot shortening. Add
water and bay leaf. Cover and cook
20 30 minutes. Use remaining
flour to thicken the gravy. Serve
with mashed potatoes.
Other suggested uses of nutmeg
are mixed with melted butter and
poured over snap beans, onions,
squash or potatoes, or mixed with
sugar and sprinkled over hot por-
ridge.
"A whole nutmeg in a filigreed
silver case, on a chain, was a frag-
rant ornament worn by 18th cen-
tury ladies of fashion".


Have you a favourite recipe? Send it to us.


Caribbean Farming July. 1969






















Professor S. Cameron Jay of the Department of Entomology, University of Manitoba, Canada, is currently visiting the Faculty of
Agriculture Mona, and will be working there from June to December. In the Province of Manitoba he runs a collaborative research
and production programme with commercial beekeepers. While in Jamaica he will be looking at local honey production and will be
available to beekeepers for an exchange of views. The following are some of the ideas up for scrutiny.


Being an island, Jamaica is able,
if it chooses, through quarantine
measures to exclude or at ariy rate
delay the entry of plant and animal
diseases. For bees this has meant
that European foul brood and nos-
ema are apparently unknown and
the more serious American foul
brood is extremely rare; (the last
outbreak occurred in 1943). Our
beekeepers are also free of such
hazards as honeybadgers, bears and
skunks that complicate life else-
where. Add to this the tropical
environment with its year-long pro-
duction of pollen and nectar, and
the prospects for a honey industry
seem promising. And yet it is true
that Jamaica has no honey enter-
prise comparable in scope to the
Monastery of St. Benedict in Trini-
dad nor do the performances of
Jamaican hives approach those of,
say Canada, which incidentally
operate through a much shorter
season from colonies begun afresh
each year. The Jamaican national
average is about 28 lb. of honey per
hive per year, whereas for Canada
the corresponding figure is 97 lb.
Clearly, therefore, a searching ap-
praisal of the possibilities for Jamai-
can beekeeping is long overdue.






*IL ^A


Occasional yields of 500 700 lb.
of honey per hive are achieved by
Canadian beekeepers using a two-
queen system and favoured by a
good season.
A Beekeepers' Association
No beekeepers' association ex-
ists in the island and previous
attempts at co-operative marketing
have not been invariably happy in
their outcome. It may be that the
preoccupation with marketing was
misplaced and that more would
now be gained by an association
concerned with dispersing new in-
formation rather than with buying
and selling for which other agencies
already exist.
Colony Performance
During a meeting of beekeepers
and others at the Faculty of Agri-
culture on 17th June 1969, Pro-
fessor Jay made the point that
because, in Western Canada, it is
vital to achieve maximum effici-
ency at peak nectar flow, each item
of colony management is carefully
studied. Mistakes can be costly
since the bulk of honey production
for the year (the bee man's income)
usually takes place over a short
period of four to five weeks. He has
asked, therefore, whether or not a




*Tw.


close study of the composition of
Jamaican colonies the proportion
of foragers, strength of colony and
organisation of the apiary through-
out the year would not repay
study. To take an instructive ex-
ample from his work in Canada,
where hives are arranged in straight
lines worker bees tend to 'drift' or
desert to the colonies at or near the
row ends. The central colonies thus
lose bees and their honey yields
drop. By using irregular colony
layouts drifting is reduced and
honey yields improve.
Bee Forage
When the beekeepers met Pro-
fessor Jay they deplored the loss ol
many logwood trees which is reck
oned to have depressed honey pro
duction here.There are, however.
about 4,000 species of plants in the
island and the species present vary
from place to place. It may be.
therefore, that some plants support
bees to a greater extent than is
suspected at present. The coconut
for example produces nectar and
pollen throughout the year. (Dr.
Roger Whitehead, at the Coconut
Industry Board Research Depart-
ment, once recorded 103 bees visit-
ing one single female coconut flow-
er for nectar in 30 minutes. Cont'd.




^^ l T~Fa




















MANUFACTURED BY
GENERAL WAX PRODUCTS LIMITED
43 HANOVER STREET,
KINGSTON, JAMAICA, W.I.
RATTEX is a ready prepared, ready to use Warfarin Rat Bait.
It contains a high percentage of Paraffin that protects the
active ingredient from being washed out by water, or rainfall,
and makes it ideal for agricultural protection against rodents
in Tropical countries.
Warfarin prevents the formation of Prothrombin; without
Prothrombin no Thrombin is produced to combine with
fibrinogen to form fibrin or blood clots. The rats thus
develop leakage from internal blood vessels, leading to
extensive hemmorages and death. The rats feed on the bait,
without feeling any ill effects, and thus do not develop "Bait
Shyness" consequently whole areas of infestation can be
cleaned out. Rats die within 4 to 14 days.

Rattex Agents in Carifta Countries.
Trinidad- Spencer Kirton
Guyana Davsons Caribbean Agencies.
St. Vincent Orange Hill Estate.
St. Lucia Renwick Geddes Grant.
Grenada Importers Combined.


Pollination.

World demand for quality
honey is good but beekeepers are
now developing a second source of
income through renting colonies for
pollination. Last year what is be-
lieved to be the first such arrange-
ment in Jamaica took place. More
can follow. There is need, however,
for a careful look at the problems
involved. In the case of ortanique,
for example, both high- and low-
shouldered fruits can be found on
the same tree, the former being
more seedy. It seems possible that
above a certain limit increasing
pollination further would make not
for increased numbers of fruit so
much as for increased seediness.
Before renting hives for pollination
it would be wiser for both the
beekeeper and the citrus grower to
get the facts.


Pesticides and Herbicides.

It is often the case that pesti-
cides are applied with little thought
for pollinating insects. Conse-
quently, not only the honeybee but
also our wild bee species like
Xylocopa, Ceratina and Exoma-
lopsis could be affected. The use of
herbicides, although not directly
harmful, can affect bees indirectly
by destroying pollen and nectar
sources among plants. A vigorous
association of beekeepers could in
cases like these make its voice heard
preferably before the sprays are
applied.

By-products.
It has to be admitted that in the
past beekeepers have done them-
selves a disservice by over-insistence
on the virtues of royal jelly and the
value of bee stings to cure rheuma-


tism. Mead, or fermented honey, is
a different proposition altogether
and in recent years there have been
one or two attempts to brew a
Jamaican mead. Metheglin, or
spiced mead, if we use pimento
would seem to have interesting pos-
sibilities too.
Professor Jay has already started
our beekeepers thinking and we
hope to make more use of him
through the pages of CARIBBEAN
FARMING later on. G.P.C.


CAJANUS
The Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute's
bi-monthly newsletter CAJANUS is directed
to all workers in health, education, community
development and agriculture whose professional
concerns relate to human nutrition or the
production in the Caribbean of nutritious
foods. CAJANUS is distributed gratis. Re-
quests for inclusion on the mailing list should
be directed to The Editor, CAJANUS,
C.F.N.I., U.W.I, P.O. Box 140, Kingston 7,
Jamaica.


.gtr


Regular sailing by modern CARGO steam-
ers between Jamaica, New York and New
Orleans, Cristobal, Costa Rica, Colombia,
Guatemala, Honduras as also to Pacific
Coast, Ports of North and South America
with transhipment at Cristobel, C.Z. Re-
frigerated and chilled Cargo accepted
from New York and New Orleans for
Kingston.

For full information apply to United
Fruit Jamaica Company, 40 Harbour
Street, Kingston, Jamaica, or, United
Fruit Company, Pier 3, North River,
New York, or, 321 St. Charles Avenue,
New Orleans 4, La., or Caribbean Steam-
ship Agency Limited, 421-427 Millbrook
Rd., Southampton S. 09 2 GF, England.


AGENTS:
MOORE-McCORMACK LINES, INC.
TROPICAL RADIO TELEGRAPH CO.


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And they COST NO MORE than ordinary truck tyres! they COST NO MORE than ordinary
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Caribbean Farming July 1969


14 qm










BOOK

REVIEW


THE GAP
"The Innovators" Michael Shanks
published by Pelican
All sorts of people should read
this book farmers, civil servants,
speakers at forthcoming luncheons
who are at a loss for ideas, those
politicians still open to suggestion
and many others.
The wealth of a few countries is
increasing rapidly when most others
remain comparatively poor. What
-nlarges the gap is the endless
tream of options for new wealth
)resented by science to rich coun-
ries who tend to take them and
becomee richer. Britain's problem is
partly that of not growing rich fast
enough Michael Shanks sought to
ind reasons and remedies.
In this book it is no surprise to
ead of the unAmerican activities of
iritish management, universities
.nd trade unions, each of which
;eems to have only a half-hearted
commitmentt to the profit motive.
Ne are reminded yet again of
3ritish reliance on protected col-
)nial markets but there are, too,
nore general lessons relevant to


other countries on whichever side
of the gap they happen to be.
The author indicates, for ex-
ample, the extent of innovation in
British farming, the continuing ag-
gregation into larger holdings and
the high and increasing capitali-
sation. Significantly, increases there
in productivity through applied
science are among the highest for
any sector of the economy. Moral:
for science to enter agriculture it is
more important to be in a scientific
than an agricultural country.
Any progressive government to-
day sets aside a portion of its
budget for research and develop-
ment only to wonder if it gets value
for money. The Russians estimate
that in order to reduce the inci-
dence of 're-invention', or dupli-
cation of effort, one fifth of the
national scientific effort should be
devoted to the storage and retrieval
of information. Since the scientific
effort of any West Indian govern-
ment is only a minute portion of
that for the World it is worth asking
what proportion of that govern-
ment's science budget should be
spent on seeking the already known
from what is published elsewhere.
Again, according to folk-lore at
least, it is usual for inventors to
languish. No government today can
afford to ignore its innovators who
comprise a valuable national asset.


Hitherto the machinery of govern-
ment has been adjusted to main-
taining order and orderliness. To-
day governments are required to
plan for and promote change. Inno-
vators therefore are in fashion.
As regards the West Indies, the
effects will be far reaching if Britain
joins the European Economic Com-
munity. This book emphasises that,
outside the United States, only a
continent-sized market is big
enough, that the problems of
British industry will be eased if the
European bid succeeds and that in
any event the pressures for joining
E.C.M. can only grow stronger.
The 'brain-drain' is a common
problem for under-developed coun-
tries and drain-wise this is where
Mr. Shanks puts Britain. (He does
not even insist on substituting the
word 'developing'). The point is
made that skilled people leave only
partly because the financial rewards
are better. Of importance too are
the bureaucratic obstacles to prac-
ticing one's skill. Sooner or later
the West Indies will have to face up
to the fact that their better special-
ists continue to leave in alarming
numbers. ("Go North, young
man!").
-'The Innovators" is a thought-
provoking book. Buy it.
G.P.C.


Easier Land
Preparation for
Itice by L. Kasasian
The preparation of paddy fields
before the crop can be sown or
planted is the most arduous part of
rice growing. Anything that saves
the time and effort of man, animals
or machinery is to be welcomed not
only for its own sake but also
because it means that more land
can be cultivated with the same
resources, water can be conserved
for other purposes and it may be
possible to use the time saved to get
in an extra crop.
In Australia sheep have been
found useful in preparing rice land
and while the method may not be


applicable in areas with a high
rainfall it could be worth trying.
The technique is (1) to graze the
fields right down immediately be-
fore sowing (2) drill the crop into
the uncultivated land (3) irrigate
and (4) allow the sheep in again till
the rice begins to come through.
This method has been found to give
the crop a head start and to be
particularly useful in controlling
grass weeds which are difficult to
control by handweeding and expen-
sive to control by sprays of Stain or
Rogue after the crop has come
through.

During the last 3 years the
Department of Agriculture in
Ceylon and Plant Protection, Ltd.
have carried out nearly 30 experi-


ments on replacing some of the
usual cultivations in paddy prepar-
ation by spraying. As the climate in
Ceylon is not unlike that in the
West Indies, this method should be
of particular interest to readers of
CARIBBEAN FARMING.
The technique depends on the
fact that the weedkiller Gramoxone
is inactivated on contact with the
soil and that the crop can therefore
be sown right after spraying.
In numerous demonstration
plots yields have been at least as
good as from land prepared in the
normal way. The usual recommend-
ations forrates and timing of nitro-
gen fertilizer have been found to
hold for this 'minimum tillage'
method. O


Caribbean Farming July 1969









How do I aint it?









More than many other people,
farmers have various types of build-
ings, equipment and surfaces that
need special protection from the
effects of sun, wind and rain.
Although brave claims have
been made for the virtues of 'all-
purpose' paints, the manufacturers
continue to produce special primers
and other coatings for water-
proofing concrete tanks, rust-proof-
ing metal roofs, termite-proofing
wooden structures, to name a few.
Beginning next issue, CARIB-
BEAN FARMING will feature
examples of special situations and
the advice of experts on the paints
for the job and the way to apply
them.


Commodities & Prices
Caribbean Farming is undertaking for the
information of farmers and dealers a
study of commodity supplies, movement
and prices. The following list is of market
prices in Port of Spain in late June.


Tomatoes

Cabbages
Cauliflower
Sweet-pepper
Christophene
Cucumber
Melongene
Patchoi
Pumpkins
Yams (Lisbon)
Dasheen
Sweet Potatoes
Plantains
Poultry
Beef
Pork


(E.C. currency per Ib.)
75 cts.-85 cts.(large)
50 cts.-60 cts.(Medium)
35 cts.-45 cts.
55 cts.-60 cts.
50 cts.-60 cts.
65 cts.-70 cts.
25 cts.-30 cts.
20 cts.-25 cts.
18 cts.-20 cts. /bundle
16 cts.-20 cts.
18 cts.-20 cts.
7 cts.-10 cts.
16 cts.-20 cts.
18 cts.-20 cts.
65 cts.-70 cts.
90 cts.-S1.00
90 cts.-S1.00


Cool Hens
The farmer who installed this fan in his fowl house is
buying more fans for other poultry buildings.
Circulation of air makes for cooler, healthier birds that ( at
more feed and convert it to more eggs or meat.


Now exporting

to NEW ZEALAND

CANADA and all

CARIFTA countries.









h1--,lO


IIO31T



WEST INDIES SYNTHETICS LTD.
Twickenham Pk., Spanish Town, Jamaica.

























AGRICULTURE


Over 5,000 head of the Island's best beef cattle graze on
Alcan's pastures in Manchester and St Ann. The Company is
also engaged in citrus production and operates a dairy in
Manchester. Over 21,000 acres of Company-owned land is
rented or leased to some 4,400 tenant farmers. Although
primarily engaged in the production of alumina from Jamaican
bauxite, Alcan is proud also to contribute to the country's
agricultural sector.


ALCAN JAMAICA UNITED "


PRINTED BY LITHOGRAPHIC PRINTERS 78 HANOVER STREET, KINGSTON.











































































We trust on research


For further information please contact:

Jamaica:
Bryden & Evelyn Ltd.
54-56, Church Street
Kingston


You can trust in BASF

Polyram-Combi organic fungicide,
based on Metiram

Perfekthion systemic insecticide with
contact action, based on Dimethoate

Basfapon for the control of annual
and perennial grasses


Grenada: St. Lucia:
Gerald S. W. Smith & Co. Ltd. J. Q. Charles Ltd.
P. O. Box No. 14 P. O. Box No. 279
St. George's Castries


U 46 selective herbicide, against broad-
leaved weeds in various formulations

Citowett spreader-sticker

Nitrophoska complex fertilizer in
various grades


Trinidad:
Geo. F. Huggins & Co. Ltd.
P. O. Box No. 179
Port of Spain


Guyana: Barbados:
T. Geddes Grant (Guyana) Ltd. Da Costa & Musson Ltd.
P. O. Box No. 407 P. 0. Box No. 103
Georgetown Bridgetown


Dominica:
T. D. Shillingford
P. O. Box No. 12
Roseau


BASFI


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