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Title: Caribbean farming
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101460/00002
 Material Information
Title: Caribbean farming
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Mona, Jamaica
Publication Date: April 1969
Copyright Date: 1969
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Bibliographic ID: UF00101460
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 3116219

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Editorial
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Main
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Back Cover
        Page 33
        Page 34
Full Text
IsUIIII~QaCIUPg''I~ r--s~ 'II1I III~IIBIII~))IPIYIII C1 I L ~ C1 I ll~6PPI


" I I I i I I


eanRFI ll
1989


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Graham Edwards Hardware
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Jackson Williams & Sons
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DAIRYING INPUERTO RICO .................. 26

DEPARTMENTS

LETTER FROM AFARMER ................... .11
COCONUT INDUSTRY BOARD NOTES ............. 18
CARIBBEAN COOKING ................... ... 28
BOOK REVIEW ........... ....... ........ 29
U.W.I. RESEARCH REPORT ................... 29
JAMAICA LIVESTOCK ASSOCIATION NOTES .. ... .31

CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS ISSUE

JAMES KELLY is a soil scientist working with the research department of Jamaica's Sugar Manufacturers'
Association. W.A. TINSLEY is Extension Specialist and Associate Professor of Agricultural Economics at Michigan
State University. JOHN CROPPER works with the U.W.I's Faculty of Agriculture. He has been in Barbados taking
an interest in the island's dairy industry. J. SEEYAVE is the U.W.I's herbicide agronomist in the eastern Caribbean.
FRANZ ALEXANDER is a veterinarian with the Jamaica government Ministry of Agriculture. H.W. PAYNE is a
U.W.I. agronomist working in the regional field experimental programme.

Cover photograph by courtesy of Jamaica Infor-
mation Service and Government Savings Bank.

SUBSCRIPTION RATES FOR 4 ISSUES
JAMAICA ..16/8d. EASTERN CARIBBEAN .. E.C. S4.00 U.S.A. & other countries S2.00
The Editor welcomes suggestions, or articles, please write to:
Caribbean Farming, c/o Faculty of Agriculture, U.W.I., Kingston 7, Jamaica or St. Augustine, Trinidad.


NOTES FOR CONTRIBUTORS

The editor will be glad to hear from
farmers, research workers, extension officers
and others who would like to offer articles
or photographs for publication in CARIB-
BEAN FARMING
Preference is given to articles of a practi-
cal nature which will help to put the
results of research and experiment into the
farmer's hands. Where possible, good draw-
ings or diagrams should accompany articles.
Good quality photographs of not less than
5" x 7" are welcome they should relate to
farming in the region.
Payment will be made (on publication)
for all material accepted.


CONTENTS

HOW CARIBBEAN IS CARIBBEAN FARMING .. .. .. .5

BETTER YIELDS FROM BANANAS .. .. .. .. .. ...7
MANAGEMENT AND FERTILITY IN CATTLE . ... .. .8


CHEMICALS FOR PEST CONTROL ........


. . . 12


COMPUTERS AND THE FARMER . .. .. ... .. ... 14
SWEET POTATO CULTIVATION IN THE CARIBBEAN .. 15
TRICKLE IRRIGATION AND TOMATOES . .. .. . 16
SUGAR CANE IRRIGATION . .... .. ... ... .. 20
AT WHAT WEIGHT SHOULD WE MARKET HOGS .. .. 23
CHOOSING SMALL SPRAYERS . ... ... ... .. .. 24


APRIL, 1969 VOL. I NO. 2.
Published in association with the University of the West Indies Faculty of Agriculture

CAROL RECORD, General Editor
GEOFFREY CHAPMAN Ph.D., Technical Editor
JOHN JURGENSEN, Art Director
































ALLIED INDUSTRIES (JAMAICA) LIMITED, the
subsidiary of Jamaica Flour Mills Limited, has been
manufacturing animal and poultry feeds at their Rock-
fort feed mill which, with its parent Company, repre-
sents a 2 million total investment for Jamaican and
US interests. Allied Industries' feeds are distributed to
farmers throughout Jamaica by ANTI LLES CH EM ICA L
COMPANY. Pillsbury feeds are palatable, economical
and of high quality .


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Caribbean Farming April 1969


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EDITORIAL





As others see us .. .



Writing in the FARMER AND STOCKBREEDER magazine for 17 December last, the magazine's editor, Mr.
Robert Trow-Smith commented:

'Mr. C.E.W. Saunders, Whittlesey FU chairman, has asked the very reasonable
question why government will allow British beet growers to produce only one-
third of the nation's sugar, more cheaply than the importedtwo-thirds.
The answer is simple. WE have to keep our brethren in Jamaica in business (and the
sugar tycoons with vast investments there), just as we owe a living to our Irish
brethren with their unwanted dairy products and their ill-phased beef imports.'

Replying to Mr. Trow-Smith(F & S 7 January, 1969) Mr. Cecil Lomax had this to say:

'1 would like to query Mr. Trow-Smith's statement that British beet growers can
produce sugar more cheaply than imported sugar.
The British Sugar Corporation's last annual accounts showed that British beet
growers received a subsidy of no less than 30,628,000 in the twelve months
covered by accounts.

I have been told that since the start of beet growing for sugar in this country the
amount of direct and indirect subskizdizain has been in the neighbourhood of
700,000,000 up to last year.

Hardly an economic cropl'

Goodness knows we sympathise with our British farming brethren but it may not be out of place if we remind
them that the cane sugar growers of these Caribbean countries provide a preferential market for the products of
British industry, which in turn contributes to the subsidizing of British agriculture.






SUBSCRIPTION F`ORIM
Please Forward CARIBBEAN FARMING Magazine to:

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I enclose payment (cheque payable to Caribbean Farming) For 4 Issues.......................................
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RATES Jamaica for 4 Issues 16/8d. Eastern Caribbean EC $4.00 USA. & other countries .). 2.00

Send to: "Caribbean Farming" d/o Faculty of Agriculture U.W.I. Mona, Jamaica or St. Augustine, Trinidad.
Caribbean Farming April 1969
























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The highly-encouraging response to the first issue
of CARIBBEAN FARMING both readers and
advertisers, the editors hope, confirms their belief
that the publication is extremely relevant to the
needs of the agricultural community in the Carib-
bean.


Achieving this modest initial success depended on
two factors first, obtaining pertinent editorial
information, written in the commercial farmer's
language and secondly, reaching the calibre of farmer
who was capable of lending practical application to
his new knowledgee.


Mr. G.A. Southwell, Chief Technical Officer (Ex-
tension) in the Government of Grenada, seems to
have summed up popular opinion on the first factor.
In a letter to The Editor he says "How refreshing it is
to know that at least our region's agricultural
scientists have a vehicle through which to reach out
to the farming public".


A Trinidad Guardian editorial, on February 18,
elaborated further on this point. To quote, "It is
encouraging to note that the contributors to the first
issue of this magazine are agricultural scientists whose
writings are normally confined to professional or high
technical journals". The Guardian went on to say -
"Through the magazine, researchers like Radley and
Kasasian can at last be sure that there is a wider
audience to appreciate right away the practical results
of their efforts".


Prior to the appearance of the first issue the
editors of CARIBBEAN FARMING naturally had to
assure advertisers of the extent and likely effective-
ness of the magazine's circulation.


The mailing list of 2,000 names to whom the
publication was ultimately sent was drawn up with
the assistance of extension officers and other similar-
ly qualified administrators in the agricultural sectors
of every major territory in the Commonwealth
Caribbean. Priority was given, obviously, to agnicul-
turalists to whom CARIBBEAN FARMING could be
of most value and to whom those products advertised
would be of most interest. "Commercial farming"
presupposes the use of modern farm equipment, farm
services, chemicals and other products in order to
make farming pay.


The existing mailing list has been continuously
revised from the day compiling was started. It is by
no means complete . .and probably never will be.
However, if the response to the subscription appeal is
any indication, then it can be said that the basic
research on prospective readers has been worthwhile.


The first mailing list was composed of almost
1,000 Jamaican readers and 500 readers in Trinidad,
Barbados and Guyana. This ratio may vary according
to future experience. But whatever it is, CARIB-
BEAN FARMING is unquestionably a "Caribbean"
publication in every respect. This alone makes it "a
bold approach to agriculture" to quote from a letter
from Mr. Eric Smith, of Trinity, Port Maria, Jamaica.


Caribbean Farming April 1969


He wc Car 66~ean





is CARIBBEAN





F AR MING





We have

broadened
our

participation in

agricultural development


Believing that the further development of Agriculture is essential to the
future progress of the Caribbean, we have recently appointed Dr. Keith Roache
to the important post of Agricultural Officer and already, with his expert techni-
cal knowledge and supervision, Barclays have been able to increase the level of
loans made for agricultural projects.
If you are a progressive farmer with sound plans for development or in-
creasing the output of your present holdings, we invite you to discuss these with
your nearest Barclays Bank Manager. Not only will you obtain sound advice -
you will also be a'ole to benefit from the expert technical knowledge Dr. Roache
will be able to put at your disposal.
Let Barclays Bank participate with you in producing more food for the
future and well-being of all the Caribbean Territories in which we operate.


Dr. Keith Roache
Barclays Agricultural Officer
for the Commonwealth Caribbean





9 You're welcome at
BARCLAYS BANK
76 branches in the East Caribbean
39 offices throughout Jamaica.


Caribbean Farming April 1969














Yields frown

BA4NA NAS

Research workers of the Banana
Board in Jamaica have begun trials
to test the effect of removing the
bud or "navel" from growing bana-
na stems at the same time re-
moving the false hand from the
stem.
The indications are that the
removal of bud and false hand can
lead to increased production up
to half a ton of fruit more per acre.
These were results from newly-
established plants and the re-
search will be continued into the
ratoon crop.
Procedure

The bud and false hands were
removed from the stems twenty-six
days after shooting and care was
taken to leave nine inches of stalk
at the end of the stem. Measure-
ment of fingers was made when the
crop was harvested and the effect
of the de-budding was noted in
each of five groups of stems six,
seven, eight, nine and ten-hand
stems.

Varying results
The de-budding proved espec-
ially valuable on the bigger stems -
as a matter of fact it gave no
improved weight to six-hand stems.
At the other end of the scale,
ten-hand stems weighed 45.7 lb.
average where the bud and false
hand were not removed and 48.1
lb. where the bud and false hand
were removed. The difference in
nine-hand stems was 2.4 lb. in
favour of the de-budded stems.


Finger length
Another important benefit of
the de-budding was its effect on
finger length. On the control stems
(not de-budded) only 29.4 % of
stems had fruit with finger length
of 7V/2 inches or more with the
stems from which bud and false
hand were removed 40% of the
stems had finger length of 7V/2
inches and more.

Earlier maturity
The researchers noted that de-
budded stems were fit to cut for
export three days earlier (on the
average) than the control stems.


Caribbean Farming April 1969


1Better




















Dr. Franz Alexander, veterinarian in the Jamaica Government Ministry of Agriculture, delivered the third
ENGRO Lecture in a series sponsored by Antilles Chemical Company and presented in Jamaica in 1967-68.
The text of Dr. Alexander's address will be presented in three articles in CARIBBEAN FARMING. Part 1 deals
with "FACTORS AFFECTING HERD FERTILITY".


The dairy and beef industries
are subject to considerable eco-
nomic loss because of breeding fail-
ures in their herds. It has been
estimated that a 5 10% yearly loss
in a herd due to conception failure
or sterility is to be expected. Added
to this there is the tremendous
economic wastage due to delays in
conception, foetal mortality, abor-
tions, etc.
At the outset we must concern
ourselves with the fertility status of
herds as a whole. Although the
reproductive efficiency of a group
of animals depends upon the mndi-
vidual fertility of each male and
female within the herd, there are a
number of factors which may tend
to reduce overall breeding effic-
iency.
(1) SEASONAL CHANGES:-
which in the Caribbean means high
summer temperatures. We do not
know exactly what part this plays
as heat variation is relatively small
and factors of adaptability are in-
volved. It has definitely been estab-
lished that even though we consider
cattle as continuous breeders, they
have developed from seasonal bree-
ders and even in continuous bree-
ders there are definite peaks of fer-
tility and the low points are also
related in cattle to high environ-
mental temperatures.
At Bodies Research Station in
Jamaica an average of 1.8 services
per conception in 'Spring' months
may be contrasted with an average
of 3 to 4 services per conception in
August.
(2) FAULTY NUTRITION:- or
low energy levels as represented by
total digestible nutrients (TDN) are
possibly the most significant factor
in the fertility of herds as a whole.
At a recent seminar in Miami, Dr.
Warnick produced evidence concer-
ning the value of moderate to high
T.D.N. levels in the reproductive
activity of beef cattle. The general
demarcation between the perfor-
mance of animals on moderate to
high and on low T.D.N. energy
levels was quite marked.


Poor nutrition may be aggra-
vated by conditions such as pro-
longed drought. Certain diseases
leading to emaciation and anaemia
in cattle have a marked effect.
Internal and external parasites of all
descriptions come immediately to
mind, so do also the tick-trans-
mitted diseases anaplasmosis and
piroplasmosis. Infectious diarrhoea
affecting herds may leave animals in
extremely poor conditions. Mineral
deficiencies -especially phos-
phorus may be of extreme impor-
tan ce.
(3) HEREDITY DEFECTS:- The
danger of excessive inbreeding is
well known. Equally, genital ano-
malies can cause serious problems if
they are not diagnosed and affected
animals removed from the herd.
(4) POOR DISEASE CONTROL
PRACTICES:- Obviously the entire
herd will be affected when con-
ditions such as brucellosis (con-
tagious abortion), vibriosis, tricho-
moniasis, leptospirosis remain pro-
blems. The failure to combat or
eliminate these diseases will always
lead to poor results. Poor manage-
ment practice has been observed on
many farms in Jamaica which I
have visited in relation to animals
introduced on to a farm. Farmers
will go to a lot of trouble to have
all their animals tested then all of


for us, the incidence of these di-
seases appears to be relatively low,
but there has been an increase in
the incidence of brucellosis with
the establishment of many new
dairies. On farms, there is the ab-
sence of facilities for the isolation
of sick animals especially im-
portant is the isolation of animals
that have aborted and animals with
persistent genital discharges. It may
be useful at this stage, to review
these infectious diseases.
BRUCELLOSIS or contagious
abortion (Bang's disease) is caused
by a bacterium and though it may
be spread venereally it is not a true
venereal disease. Brucellosis is main-
ly spread by infected pastures due
to contamination from discharges
of recently-calved or aborting ani-
mals. It is a very complex disease
and there are a number of factors
that decide whether an infected
animal will abort and if so when
she will abort. Here are some of
the signs the farmer will be looking
out for aborting cattle (usually
late in gestation), a great number of
retained placentas in the herd, post
partum (after calving) infection in
the form of metritis, weak calves
and eventually infertility that is.
delayed conception.
It is most important that we
attempt to control brucellosis.
eventually to eradicate it, if also for
one other reason. Brucellosis may-
be transmitted from cattle to hu-
man beings where it is the cause
of undulant fever. The people who
handle cattle are therefore the folk
most exposed to brucellosis, as is;
anyone who drinks infected milk.
Undulant fever is a chronic, insid-
ious malarial type of fever and it
has caused several deaths in hu-
mans.
VIBRIOSIS AND TRICHO-
MONIASIS are venereal diseases.
They are spread by the bull or by
any infected material that may be
introduced into the reproductive
tract. These diseases are sometime,
but not always, spectacular in on-
Caribbean Farming April 1969


Aborted foetus a dramatic indication of loss
to the farmer.
a sudden they will bring on to the
farm animals which have not been
tested. Cases of failure to maintain
the disease-free status of farm herds
are numerous when animals that
are not tested are kept on farms
nearby to tested herds or when
tested and untested catle on ad-
joining farms are allowed to come
into close proximity. Fortunately


Management and Fertility

in Cattle











































This cow is typical of thousands of Holstein-Friesian cattle imported into the Caribbean from the United States and Canada.


Holstein-Friesian yearlings on a West Indian farm.


Caribbean Farming April 1969













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ved. Pyometras (accumulation of
pus in the uterus) may be diag-
nosed, but not necessarily. In fact,
recent papers suggest that these
abortions and pyometras are rare
and really we are looking for delays
in conception and a picture of
general infertility.
LEPTOSPIROSIS is a gener-
alised infection which is caused by
a group of bacteria. Water-borne
infection may be commonest due
to contamination by discharges of
affected domestic animals. Pigs may
act as a reservoir host. Herd infec-
tion may go unnoticed until heral-
ded by abortion late in the ges-
tation period. Serological tests may
be relied on as evidence of infec-
tion. Leptospirosis is a serious de-
sease mn man.
A broad set of categories which
can affect the herd as a whole have
been given categories are easily
devised because they are man-made
and they only try to suit our
purpose of description. But the
trouble is hardly ever just one or
Other of these things. Often, there
is a combination of several of these
factors. Added to this, individual
animals are at varying levels of
fertility. I want to stress that bulls
may appear and act similarly but
their conception rates may vary
enormously. This also applies to
cows and heifers. Some time ago we
read that 12 to 25 per cent of
heifers without distinguishable ab-
normalities were discarded because
of infertility. These are problems
that we have to live with. If animals
were either fertile or completely
sterile then the problems associated


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BREEDING SCHEDULE


set. Very often they are more insid-
ious; it may be some time before
the farmer is aware that one of
these diseases is in the herd.
What the farmer looks for are
delays in conception especially
irregular returns to oestrus (irreg-
ular heat periods). Quite often the
conditions may show up in heifers,
and generally it follows the intro-
duction of some animal or the use
of natural service involving an ani-
mal introduced from outside the
farm. Early abortions may be obser-


with repro ductive inefficiencyJ
would be greatly simplified.
Our aim must be to maintain~
that only normal, healthy, fertile
females are bred to normal, healthJ
fertile males. The achievement of
this end is dependent upon the
combined and cooperative skills cf
the .herd manager, the A.I. tect--'
nician (where he is involved), the:
nutritionist and the veterinarian.

Part 2 of this series will appear in the next issl e.
of Caribbean Farming.


Caribbean Farming April 196!1


























spraying I had been losing some
trees and began to be bothered as
to the cause. Gummosis at one
period was marked and common in
the crotches of a large number of
trees. The death of some other trees
was not traceable to gummosis but
finally put down to some root
problems with a few going down
from ringing due to gummosis.
During this period I was forever
pitting one technical opinion
against the other, and because of
my medical training I was able to
do a positive critical analysis of the
advice given. There was one period
when I did believe that there were
two or three separate disease prob-
lems. But one day as a result of a
visit by a Shell man it became clear
that the gummosis and Phytoph-
thora were one, and with the pos-
sible exception of those trees which
had obviously died from root
troubles, I now understood the
main problems of the grove. In a
number of trees we were able to
trace lesions from the crotches up
and out to the end of the limbs.
After that one could pick out those
trees whose dead twilgs were reach-
ing to the sky you could be sure
that lesions would be found on the
limbs.
Spray Treatment Results
The next step was the obser-
vation that the annual foliar spray
was bringing about healing of the
larger gummotic lesions. This was
vital, for once healing was ~taking
place time worked for you This is
the situation as it is today. Gum-
mosis is healing, Phytophthora is
under control, mosses and algae die
after the spray but return in Oct-
ober, November. This period of
regrowth of mosses and algae is too
long sometimes the rains con-
tine into January. I notice too
that weeping spots (which are the
first signs of damage) occur in the
wet season, and this gives the im-
pression that the mosses are an


A continuous programme of
new plantings every year was fol-
lowed without problems until a
field of four-year-old trees (planted
in my second year on the farm) just
seemed to stop growing. The trees
were on well-cambered beds, they
were getting care and fertilizer,
there was no sign of water-logging.
Nevertheless somebody suggested
that it might be a drainage problem
- and after some hesitation, a
number of experimental drains
were put in and it was discovered
that some old water runnels had
been covered by the cambered
beds. They weren't of any size, but
on this evidence I went to work and
deepened the drains and once again
the response of the trees was ful-
somely dramatic.
Disease Problems
I reached a point of consoli-
dation and began to feel a sense of
satisfaction while waiting for the
trees to fill out and to begin mature
bearing. Then the trees began to
look off colour. Something was
wrong. Once again help was called
in and it was pointed out that the
trees had been attacked by Phyto-
phthora, gummosis, sooty mould,
mosses, algae and anthracnose. The
list was formidable. The treatment
was simpler, consisting mainly of
copper and zinc sprays to be ap-
plied twice a year. When the advice
was given I was unprepared men-
talorganisationally and finan-
cilyto carry out the treatment.
Then the rains came and when the
next dry season arrived the con-
dition of the trees decided things. It
had to be done or there would be
no grove.
Copper, zine and urea were used
and the response of the trees once
again showed that citrus can res-
pond to environmental and other
cultural practices. Since that time
an attempt has been made to give
one -better two sprays a year.
While feeling my way into foliar


In Trinidad and Tobago high
rainfall conditions bring a number
of problems to face the citrus
grower and my own efforts with
oranges have been fortunately assis-
ted by a number of trained agricul-
turists staff members of the
Ministry of Agriculture and the
UWI Faculty of Agriculture. I am
most grateful to all of them.
I began with cambered beds laid
out by a bulldozer because it was
felt that the cambering would lend
to easy mechanical cultivation and
control. From the start there was
trouble with machinery. The bull-
dozer was caught by rains before it
could finish the allotted area and as
a result drainage could not be com-
pleted until the next dry season,
This was the first lesson. When the
rains come, you are either ready
and gain a year or you pack up and
wait another year. When the rains
came that year a decision had to be
made about whether planting
should be done or not. After much
hesitation it was decided that, as
the plants were going to be on
cambered beds, the chance should
be taken. This was done and the
fields were planted.
Drainage Problems
Nine months later the dry sea-
son was back and the whole field
was chlorotically yellow. I looked
at the whole question critically and
went into a huddle with advisers as
to whether to replant or not. The
decision was taken to tackle the
drainage and to expand cultivation
as had been planned and see what
happened. Three weeks after the
drainage was fixed the achlorotic
plants changed colour and a year
later there was nothing in their
appearance to suggest that the year
before there was a big question as
to whether the field should be
replanted. The citrus plants showed
great powers of recovery and this is
something which farmers should
bear in mind.
Caribbean Farming April 1969


Letter frons a Farsner







Dr. Elton Richardson reports his experiences in establishing an orange
grove in Trinidad, where a long wet season presents special problems.










under one crate per tree. In this
orchard, trees for the last three
years have given over three crates
per tree in a twenty acre spread. I
believe we can do even better.
The problem that stands out is
the one I have mentioned how to
get the copper, zinc and arsenic to
hold on to the plant long enough to
give a longer kill of mosses and
fungus. I am not happy with the
heavy murderous rains and I believe
that in our heavy clays new ideas
have to be tried. A rainfall of 90"
to 111" a year when poured on in a
few months is remorseless in its
impact on oranges. I think grape-
fruit stand up better to wet con-
ditions than do oranges. Constant
vigilance is the key to high yields in
heavy rainfall areas.
Spray Formula
Another observation worthy of
mention to farmers is that dead or


dying roots and limbs inhibit a tree
badly, they should be cut with saw,
hammer and chisel until clean wood
is reached. The clean wood should
then be painted with a suitable
preservative. The citrus tree res-
ponds to surgery pretty much the
same as a human being. This has
been proven in more than one case
and it is easier to keep a bearing
tree economically productive than
to bring a "supply" plant to full
bearing.
This is the spray formula I use:-
To 320 gallons of water, add
10 lbs. Zinc Sulphate
5 lbs. Hydrated lime
8 lbs. Copper Oxycloloride
4 lbs. Lonacol
3 lbs. Lead Arsenate
25 lbs. Magnesium Sulphate
and 15 lbs. Urea.


indicator that fungus infection to
the tree is a result of prolonged
humidity. Some of the small weep-
ing spots have been incised down to
wood to see whether they were
caused by insects, but we came to
the conclusion that this was not so.
Yields
At the present moment the pro-
blem of the regrowth of moss de-
mands that one should get a mid-
wet-season spray on or see whether
improved stickers are the answer. I
am satisfied that if one could ob-
tain six more weeks of anti-fungal
impact (using the regrowth of mos-
ses as an indicator) the sanitation
problem would be under control.
Using the above methods it has
been proven that orange production
ca he csistentlyn iod doe i
editions, the national yields have
been low, the average being slightly


Per 100 galls. H.V.
Per 25 galls. L.V.
2 pints
4 lb.
1 gall.
7 lb. per 250 sq. ft.
(Approx. 10%/ cwt.
per acre)
3 lb.
1 2pints
3 -4 lb.
1 pint
%/ pint
1 pint
8 lb.
4 lb.
4 pints
2 lb.
1 1% lb.
4 6 b.
1 1% lb.
4 lbs.
1 gall.
1 -2 pints
3 -4 lb.
4 lb.
1 pint
1 pint
1 pint
%/ pnt
1 gall.
4 lb.
2 pints
4 lb.
1 2 pints
3 4 bs.


1 gall. H.V.


Ants






Aphids




Caterpillars




Cut worms



Thrips & Leaf
hoppers


Leaf miner
(Coffee)

White Grubs



Scale Insects


S Chlordane 71% E.C.
Dieldrin 50% W.P.
Dieldrin 1.5 E.C.
Agrocide 3% Dust


Agrocide 26% W.P.
-Malathion 57% E.C.
Malathion 25% W.P.
Rogor 40% E.C.
Perfecthion 40% E.C.
Diazinon 40% E.C.
-D.D.T. 25% W.P.
D.D.T. 50% W.P.
D.D.T. 25% E.C.
Sevin 85% W.P.
Dipterex S.P. 80
SD.D.T. 50% W.P.
Dipterex S.P.80
Dieldrin 50% W.P.
Dieldrin 1.5 E.C.
-Malathion 57% E.C.
D.D.T. 25% W.P.
D.D.T. 50% W.P.
Rogor 40% E.C.
-Diazinon 40% E.C.
Rogor 40
Perfecthion 40% E.C.
-Dieldrin 1.5 E.C.
Dieldrin 50% W.P.
Chlordane 71.7% E.C.
D.D.T. 50% W.P.
-Malathion 57% E.C. or
Malathion 25% W.P.
+ White oil


1 2 tablespoons
2 tablespoons
4 tablespoons



1%/ tablespoons
% 2- tablespoon
1%i 2 tablespoons
2 teaspoonful
1%z teaspoonful
2 teaspoonful
4 tablespoons
2 tablespoons
2 tablespoons
14c tablespoons
% z- tablespoon
2 3 tablespoons
% 2- tablespoon
2 tablespoons
4 tablespoons
% 2- tablespoon
1%z 2 tablespoons
2 tablespoons
2 teaspoonful
2 teaspoonfuls
2 teaspoonfuls
1%z teaspoonfuls
4 tablespoons
2 tablespoons
1 tablespoon
2 tablespoons
1/ tablespoon
2 tablespoons
4 6 tablespoons


N.B. H.V. High volume L.V. Lowvolume


W.P. Wettable powder


E.C;-Emulsifiable concentrate
Caribbean Farming April 1969


CHIEM1IICALS for ]PEST CONITRtOL




















A~sk ~bourt our
range of
VA~CC IN~E S

for Technical Information contact:-

SLAS CELL S LAB ORATO RI ES LIMI TE D
e EXCLUSIVE DI STRIBUTORS FOR JAMAICA
Caribbean Farming April 1960 1


rINEIANYI


POULTRY LABORATORIES
VINE LAND, NEW JERSEY

Specialists in. Products
for Poultry Medicationl


~3~~L~

















Most of us are becoming increas-
ingly aware of computers and some
of the work they are doing and can
be expected to do for us. For the
past five years, Michigan farmers
have been using computers to re-
cord and analyze information about
their farm businesses. This com-
puter project is known as "TEL-
FARM".
Why are computers needed and
what is the TELFARM project like?
Following are some answers.
WHY TELFARM IS NEEDED
(1) The farmer's ability to man-
age and control his business

has not kep cpwih mam-

have not kept pace with
continuing advances in
"know-how".
(2) New and ever-changing tech-
nologies require constant re-
appraisal of expected flows
of income and expenses so
.that farmers can gain a bet-
ter idea as to where they
stand and where their busi-
ness is going. Information
concerning what has hap-
pened can serve the farmer
as a basis for estimating
what will happen.
(3) Credit agencies, educational
workers, and government
personnel are all asking for
more information and help
in improving their manage-
ment work with farmers.
(4) Michigan State University in
its research, teaching, and
other educational programs
utilizes information gath-
ered directly from farms.
The Telfarm Program, which util-
izes high-speed electronic machines,
provides this information faster and
in more detail to better meet the
naerd of farmers and those serving

WHAT IS TELFARM?
Telfarm is an educational pro-
gram designed to improve manage-
ment and increase earnings on
Michigan farms. The word TEL-
FARM is an abbreviation of "To-
day's ELectronic FArm Records for
Management". Telfarm includes an
electronic system of farm record
keeping and business analysis. It
also includes professional advice to


special book in which he files these
reports. Cooperators may choose to
receive any or all of the following
kinds of reports:
*A monthly summary of in-
come and expenses used mn
understanding monthly in-
come and outgo and for in-
come tax reporting.
*A monthly family living re-
port for use in keeping ac-
count of what it is costing the
family to live.
*A monthly "listback" of the
items sent by the cooperator.
This is a proofsheet enablingj
copert to m se ethatncal


*A monthly credit summary
of loans and loan repaymentsj
to help in managing finances,
appraising ability to take on1
new debts, checking the ac-
curacy of charge account
statements and evaluating th
cost of credit.
*Monthly enterprise reports to
help in following the progress
of important parts of the farml
business.
*An annual farm business
analysis report with which co-
operators can compare their
farm's performance with farms
of similar size and organ:-
zation.
(5) After a cooperator hes~
chosen the particular reports he
wishes to receive, he is offered a
variety of tours, consultations;,
meetings and farm visits by ex-P
tension agents and other profeja-
sional people to help him in repot-~
ting information, understanding re-
sults, and using the results to make
changes and improvements.
(6) All information is handled
on a strictly confidential basis. No j
facts on an individual farm are re
vealeld without permission ofth
faiy*

Editor's Note:
Readers should realise that a computer can
reach useful conclusions ONLY if useful inform
mation is fed into it. This involves detailed and
accurate farm records on the farmer's part.


Caribbean Farming April 1969


Roy Howes of Copemish, Michigan uses his
TELFARM records in managing his 780 acre
cash crop farm. He grows potatoes, beans,
strawberries and cucumbers.

hel cao pedtrs lan ro eqtu re
information needed to make better
business decisions.
A starting place toward better
management is a knowledge of the
past through records. Today's farm
businesses need several types of
farm record information. Telfarm
places at the farmer's service several
million dollars worth of computers
and business machines to take over
the routine jobs of summarizing,
analyzing, and printing these re-
cords.
HOW DOES TELFARM WORK?
(1) The farm family enrolls in
the program and pays a fee for
participation. The fee is charged on
the basis of the amount of tillable
land farmed and the number of
head of livestock kept. The fee

ranges from a mnummum of $50.00
to a maximum of $f195.00 The
average fee paid for 1968 was
$105.00 per cooperator. Fifteen
hundred and thirty-five Michigan
farmers enrolled in the project in
1968.

fatr rAc ieresea reo tingh bocpco -
taining forms for use in submitting
reports to the Telfarm Center. The
reporting book also contains com-
plete instructions for reporting.
(3) Each month the cooperator
mails his farm information to Mich-
igan State's Computer Center for
processing
(4) Each month the Computer
Center staff returns reports to co-
operators. Each cooperator has a


Computers and`The Farmer
Some experiences from Michigan's TE1.FARM Project.
By Wd.A. TINSLEY.
















by H.W. PAYNE
SOILS
Sweet potatoes tolerate a wide range of soil conditions although they
do best in well-drained areas with light textured soils. Usually, tuber
development is poor on heavy or very stony soils. Sweet potatoes can be
grown successfully without much erosion hazard on quite steep slopes (up
to 20 degrees) as they rapidly provide the land with a complete cover.
LAND PREPARATION
Land preparation should be thorough, ploughing and harrowing
operations are important to provide a suitable tilth. Periods between
furrowing or banking and planting should be sufficiently long (at least two
weeks) to permit weathering and restoration of soil moisture capillarity*
Experience suggests that ridges 3--4 feet wide are best for sweet potato
establishment*
For many years sweet potato crops in the Caribbean have suffered
from several diseases and pests such as megastes and the potato weevil, and
it is suggested that farmers will benefit greatly by treating the soil prior to
planting with dieldrin (4 lbs. 80% wettable powder per acre) or other long
lasting insecticide.
PLANTING MATERIAL and ESTABLISHMENT
Farmers pay too little attention to proper selection of sweet potato
planting material. Admittedly, planting material mn sufficient quantities is
often hard to obtamn but there is great advantage in using only the best
disease-free material. First of all, varieties differ widely mn their yield
potential and farmers are advised to obtamn only those varieties of proven
menit mn their area. Secondly, the apical portions -the tips- of the vines are
less likely to be infected by the insects, (Megastes or Cylas formicarius.)
Careful selection from areas relatively free of mnsect and disease damage is
recommended and it will be a wise measure to dip slips in an insecticidal
solution of dieldrin, sevin or chlordane prior to planting.
For establishment, cuttings of about one foot long should be used. In
dry areas, it has been found that removal of the lower leaves, as well as
using only apical cuttings, greatly increases the percentage take. This
increased germination percentage is very important in subsequent weed
control.
Most potato stands inspected show a great deal of mixing of the plant
material as far as variety is concerned. This practice of planting mixed
varieties is bad husbandry and results in poor yields as varieties vary in the
time required for their maturity usually from 18 to 25 weeks.
Furthermore, early maturing types contribute to insect build-up while the
more vigorous varietiessuppress others. Farmers are therefore advised to
plant different types of vines in pure stands. With time the farmer will be
able to select the variety that gives the best results under his conditions for
future expansion.
The density or population of vines per acre will vary somewhat with
conditions but high populations provided by plants at intervals of 12 to 18
inches usually give the highest yields
The best time to establish sweet potatoes will also vary with conditions
in the region but experience indicates that potatoes established in the
latter part of the year when day-lengths are short give the best results.
FERTILIZING
Fertilizing practices again will vary with the nature of the soil but a
complete mixture such as 6-18-27 at 6 cwt. per acre may be used.
Experience suggests that early fertilizer application either just prior to
planting or at first sprouting of vines is most advantageous and has often
resulted in a two-fold increase. Fertilizers should be applied in a
continuous band about 2 inches away from the plant and buried with
moulding operations. On sloping land, best results are obtained when the
fertilizer is placed on the bank above the plant.
Caribbean Farming April 1969


PEST and DISEASE CONTROL
An area of serious neglect in
small farmers' cultivation of sweet
potatoes is the complete disregard
of insect and disease control mea-
sures. Farmers usually take the
trouble of spraying tomatoes and
cabbages but seldom are these prac-
tices extended to sweet potatoes
which are usually left to the mercy
of various caterpmlars, red spider
mites, aphids and rats. Fortnightly
spraying with sevin at the rate of 2
lbs. per acre along with a fungicide
such as Zineb, is strongly recom-
mended.

WEED CONTROL
The control of weeds in sweet
potatoes is relatively easy provided
recommended methods of establish-
ment are utilized as the vines soon
effectively crowd out all weeds.
Nonetheless, the use of weedicides
offer great labour saving advantages
and where large acreages are to be
planted, a mixture of Amiben and
T.C.A. (3-6 pints and 51bs. res-
pectively) should be sprayed over
the crop after planting but before
weed emergence to keep down
annual broad leaf and grass weeds.
At a later stage, Gramoxone spray-
ing with 1-2 pints per acre using a
shield to keep the spray off the
crop will provide excellent weed
control. In the latter practice, it
will be necessary to shift the vines
over into alternate rows and carry
out spraying in two operations
within a week's interval (See
CARIBBEAN WEED KILLERS by
L. Kasasian and J. Seeyave)

HARVESTING

Farmers are advised to reap their
potatoes as early as possible to
avoid loss and damage by pests. For
continued profitable cultivation of
sweet potatoes, great attention
should be paid to the proper re-
moval of all sprouts and crop re-
mains, as crop rotation is important
to both soil fertility maintenance
and avoidance of insect and disease
build-up.


SWEET POTATO CULTIVATION


IN THIE CARtIBBEAN









































-- water flow



IGS P


Recently, a grower Mr. Maurice Lister drew attention to the merits of 'Roll Drip Hose' which he had been using successfully with
roses and carnations. The trial reported here was a result of collaboration between Mr. Lister and the author. The results have
implications particularly for the production of high priced crops where water is in short supply. The system is not a 'hydroponic' one
and there is no recirculation of nutrients.
By G.P. CHAPMAN


The growth of the tourist in-
dustry in the Caribbean has stimu-
lated interest in high quality vege-
tables and made it apparent that,
additionally, the islands can contri-
bute to off-shore supplies for the
United States' market. Since water
availability is often a limiting factor
any system that economises this has
attractions for the grower. In the
trial reported here a system used
originally for watering roses and
carnations was adapted to supply the
dwarf tomato variety 'Galaxy'. This
variety grown under the conditions
described required neither pruning
(side shoot removal) tying, nor indi-
vidual staking.
Water and Fertilizer Application
After trying several arrangements
the following layout was adopted. A
galvanised %"' internal diameter pipe
fom the domestic supply was led to
the plot. Here the water was diverted
to either the storage tank or the
header pipe (See Fig. 1.). Water in
the storage tank a 45 gallon oil
drum was used to dissolve fertilizer
which was then dispersed through
the header and lateral pipes. The
lateral pipes were 'Roll Drip Hose' a
black plastic material with capillary
exits at regular intervals, (Fig. 2.). As
originally supplied exits were every
8 ; By blocking two out of three
with P.V.C. tape exits were at 2/
intervals which coincided with the
planting distance chosen for the
tomatoes. Water was supplied to the
plot via the system for up to two
hours per day except in rainy wea-
ther. To reduce evaporation losses
water was turned on in the early
morning. Water emerges from the
pipe in 'tear drop' fashion.
Plot Layout
Rows were placed 3' apart and
short hardwood posts were deeply
set 52' apart at the row ends.
Between the posts a double strand of
14G wire was stretched. (Later it was
necessary to prop the wires with
short pegs due to the weight of fruits
and foliage). 'Fig. 3.1 shows the
arrangement in the row. There were
18 rows in all.
* Roll Drip Hose is manufactured
by Chapin Watermatics Inc. under
Code No. B. 12-5161. Material for
this trial was purchased from
Gloeckner, 15 East 26th St. New
York, N.Y. 10010.


storage tank


header pipe



led on to the plot through the header
pipe. If taps A &t B are closed and C is
open water only reaches the plot.


pouch


fro suppl 11 p1


Fig. 1. water feed system. Water from the
supply is led through tap A to the tank
where fertilizer is then dissolved. By
opening tap B the nutrient solution is


mpl i


Fig. 2. The pipe when empty is flat but inflates
when filled with water. Water emerges
from the plastic tube via the capillary


which leads into the pouch. Since the
pouch is open on both sides water 'tear
drops' appear there and fall on the soil.


/ \ dry soil
Plastic piping (between row~


Fig. 3. The dwarf variety Galaxy growing in a
trickle irrigation system. Support is
provided by a pair of wires carried
between posts at the end of each row.


'Ron drip hose' (black in the diagrm)
allows exit of water at 2' intervals i~e.
opposite the plants.

Caribbean Farming April 1969


Trickle Irrigation


axul


Tosnlatoes





II
Yields for Trickle Irrigated Tomatoes


Final Total at 183 days from sowmg : 2,529.7 lb.


Maintenance
Spraying was carried out at
weekly intervals (or at slightly less
often in dry weather) using a Dith-


Yield
No generally accepted grading
system for tomatoes exists in
Jamaica. We thus took the simple
course of using a grading ring of 5.5
em. (about 21/5'") diameter from
which two classes 'large' and 'small'
resulted the former being unable to
pass through the ring. Damaged or
diseased fruit was rejected and all
yields recorded here refer to 'mar-
ketable' fruit. The larger fruit were
preferred but the smaller ones, too,
were quite easily sold. For yield
recording the plot was divided into
quarters (A,B,C and D).
From the 122nd day after sowing
although trickle irrigation was con-
tinued the various quarters were
given different treatments which will
be reported in a later article. It will
however be apparent that the final
total was appreciably greater than a
ton.
Some Comments
This method of growing toma-
toes involving trickle irrigation ap-
peared to offer a number of ad-
vantages. There were:
(1) Water was applied precisely
where it was needed therefore
giving extreme economy in its
use.


BUDGET
Equipment Installation


Ss
. .. 2 5
...4 16
.15 15
. .4 3
... 1 0


...30 4
... 6 0
64 3


36 posts .....
1 roll 14G wire ..
315' galvanised pipe
Pipe fittings ....
2 drums .....
Drip Hose
.(including airfreight)
Labour for assembly

Other Costs
Fertiliser &
Sprays etc. ....
Peat pots


The dwarf variety Galaxy in fruit and
with a pair of wires supporting the
plants. The plastic hose is concealed by
fon age.

ane/Sevin mixture alternately with
Dithane/Malathion. Disease control
was good and losses were minimal
as might be expected on a small
area. Weeding was rarely necessary
since water application was directly
to the tomato roots and the ared
between the rows remained dry
thus discouraging weed growth.
Fig. 4. Mlustrates the dwarf var-
iety usect when in fruit.
Fertiliser was applied in sol-
ution. Since no previous knowledge
of fertilizer requirements for this


10 0 0


Water ...
Labour for


. . .6
. . . 7


cultural operations


Total Cost ...


38 13

. 102 16


B

Large
313.2 lb.

Small
72.1 lb.

Total
385.3 lb


C

Large
352.8 lb

Small
56.5 lb.

Total
409.3 lbs


D


376.3 b.

Small
67.6 lb.

Total
443.9 lb.


Total

Large
1329.0 lb.

Small
293.5 lb.

Overall Total
*1622.5 lb.


Harvest at
121 days
from sowing


Large
286.7 lb.

Small
97.3 lb.

Total
384.0 lb.


Seedlings and Planting Out
Seedlings were raised under cover
11peat pots and set out mn the field at
dayss from sowing. Seedlings were
redregularly with Liro P.C.
1.B. 5mtaned ellets of Bug-Getta
Before planting out the area was
roughed and harrowed. Planting
oles were prepared by the simple
pedent of using a rotary plough in
vertical position and removing
depth wheels. In this way holes
be dug at about twelve per
i ute. One day before planting the
ilwas sprayed with Dithane and

ibenFarming April 1969


kind of tomato culture was avail-
able for Jamaica we used a formula
based on that recommended for
hydroponic culture of tomatoes in
the tropics. (The solution yvas of
course not recirculated in the pres-
ent test). Materials were:-
Magnesium Sulphate 31 oz.
Moum Ndt uteum Po phate- 3M oz
Water to 45 gallons
and the solution was applied at the
rate of 45 gallons per 99 plants on
two occasions. Trace elements were
omitted from the solution, since it
was being applied to a reasonably
fertile soil.


(2) Because the water was applied
very slowly lateral run-off was
eliminated.
(3) Paths remained dry thus check-
Sing weed growth and aiding
.the pickers.
1(4) By placing vines on wires no
tymng or side shoot removal
was necessary with this dwarf
variety and fruit was kept off
the ground.
(5) Fertiliser was applied in sol-
ution and only to the tomato

(6) Becaus water was applied be-
low the foliage pesticides re-
mained on the plants.
(7) The high installation costs

























































CHEMIICALS for PEST CONTROL


needed for a recirculating
'hydroponic' system were avoi
ded.
In retrospect it seems that a
more frequent addition of fertilizer
while it would have perhaps im-
proved fruit yield, would also at the
same time have produced a heavier
growth of foliage with its attendant
disadvantages and made some
pruning necessary. Although similar
systems for feeding tomatoes are
known in temperate glasshouses
they do not yet seem to have found
wide application in the tropics.
Where water is in short supply such
systems appear to be potentially
useful. What seems worth stressing
is that where for a particular crop
on a given soil type the water
requirements are accurately known
this system offers a way of ensuring
precise supply.
The plastic hose at the conclusion
of the experiment was in sound
condition and could readily be used
again. Since it is flexible it could be
rolled up to the header pipe to
allow cultivation and then unrolled
at the second planting out.
Finally it would have been help-
ful if more information about
liquid fertilisers were available for
the local situation.
This work was appraised by the
Jamaican Ministry of Agriculture

doesF ho u Take a wi mr tdpr o
trickle irrigation


Prices of coconuts and copra in
Jamaica remained stable during
1968 at 22/6d. per unit of coconuts
and 76.8/- per ton of Grade 1
copra. Copra production in 1968
fell sharply from an average of
1,650 long tons per month up to
June to only 1,100 long tons per
month from July onwards. This was
due mainly to the long drawn out
drought which commenced in Feb-
ruary 1967. Data from research
experiments and from copra fac-
tories showed that nut size de-
creased so that the number of
Jamaica tall nuts required to make
1 unit of 135 lb. went from an
average of 100 to about 120, whilst
Malayan Dwarf nuts required
130-140 instead of the usual
110-120 nuts for 1 unit of 155 lb..
In addition, labour problems in
some areas caused many coconuts
to be left in the field.
Recovery from drought is ex-
pected during 1969, and signs of
this are already evident. However,
many farmers are still not getting in
all their nuts. Surveys by the Re-
search Department show up to 25%
of mature nuts left in the field by
reapers. Some of these nuts are not
recovered at the next reaping: they
sprout, or roll into gullies, even-
tually into the sea, or are stolen, or
become grown over with weeds.

T96 ms2,0 lo g onesmoef co fr '
and the coconut products factories
could readily use much more than
this.
Rat Control Programme
The Board's rat control subsidy
began 1st April 1968. Rat blockS


used on coconuts now cost only 1/-
per lb. compared with the usual
retail price of 2/-. Rat blocks can be
purchased at most copra factories
or will be delivered to the farm by
the Board. At; the same time, the
Board's Advisory Officers perform
free rat damage assessments for
farmers, and will apply the blocks
to rat infested fields for 3d. per lb.
if a farmer wishes. There are still
many fields suffering rat damage
ranging from 10% to 50% of the
total nuts.
Malayan Dwarf Expansion
About 60,000 Jamaica Tall trees
died of Lethal Yellowing disease in
1968, mainly between Annotto Bay
and Orange Bay, and around Long
Bay. A total of 245,000 Malayan
Dwarfs were planted during 1968,
including 82,000 plants issued free
under the Lethal Yellowing In-
surance Scheme. Since the Scheme
began in April 1966, 160,000
plants have been issued or com-
mitted, together with 35,500 for
their planting and maintenance for
4 years. Outside the diseased areas,
farmers can buy selected Malayan
Dwarf plants in any quantity for 1/-
each including delivery to the farm.
The aims in coconut farming for
1969 are
1. cleaner epn
2. control rora ns
3. planting 350,000 plants.
The immediate objective is to
produce 20,000 tons of copra an-
nually with the long term aim of
producing 30,000 tons of copra per
annum to completely meet the
needs for Jamaica and for export.
These notes are contributed by the Coconu
Industry Board of Jamaica.


Cut Worms:
Dipterex bait.
1 lb Dipterex
20 lb Cornmeal
3 lb. Molasses or 1% lb. dark sugar
3 5 galls. water.

Slugs:
Metaldehyde bait.
1 oz. Metaldehyde to 1V/2 lb. Cornmeal or Bran.

Sluggit 2 tablespoonful per gallon water
Bug-Getta Pellets 1 lb. per 1200 sq. ft.


Other proprietory slug baits
Rats:
Warfarin bait
1 lb. WVarfarin to 19 lb. cornmeal plus 2 lb. dry
sugar.
Rattex (Warfarin-paraffin blocks) 4 8i blocks (!M lb
each) per acre.

Prepared by Plant Protec~tion Division,
Ministry of Agriculture and Landfs,
JTamaica.


Caribbean Farming April 1969


Coconut Industry Board Notes





yOU CAN DEPEND ON

H l-MI LER GS

ByNo GOOD YEA \';' (


~i~8~k
'Y
~i~
--

h ~rars~
rd
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6~3
r 'i -
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~
p.:~q 5 '~ ~1P ~
~r~s ......, ~Y~;~~a.lr:_
r ~.~uj

GOODYEAR
fORQUE GRIP


Modern wrap around tread
gives extra road grip for better
steering, skid free cornering and


positive (
quicker s
Exclusive
fights he
And they


c ontrol.Tra csyn rub be ren su res' ~s"The hardest working longest lasting
;topping and unequalled "wet-skid" resistance. tractor tyre ever built! Specially de-
S3T cord, pound for pound stronger than steel, signed to pull the heaviest ads over
at, bumps and bruises, provides longer mileage. any kind of terrain, wet in, dry. And
SCOST NO MORE than ordinary truck tyres! they COST NO MORE than ordinary

GO~~ ~ tractor~trato tyres!

JAMAICA LTD.


Caribbean Farming April 1969


When the going is rough, long, fast..

















complex to yield to theoretical
studies, and the only way to evalu-
uate these factors is to try them out
under controlled conditions. This
means that a very large amount of
experimentation would be required
to get all the information about
irrigation. To get some quick ans-
wers, we have decided to carry out
some of our work in the way
described below. We set out to
compare the results that we will get
from trying out four different kinds
of irrigation under conditions of


pare the following four methods of
irrigation.
(i) The Twig and Main System,
which is the most common method
of irrigating cane in Jamaica. Water
is brought into the field, and con-
veyed in the furrow direction by an
infield main, which meets twigs, or
infield trenches, running across the
furrows, and spaced at intervals of
from V/2 Of a chain to 3 and rarely 5
chains. The spacing of the twigs is
dependent on the uniformity of
land slope over the field. There may
be more than one field main in any
one field. Figure I shows a typical
layout for a twig and main system
of irrigation.
(ii) The Interrupted Long Line System.
which is bemng used com-
mercially on several areas such as
parts of Monymusk and Sevens. In
this system of irrigation, water is
brought into the field mna head
main, as in the twig and main
system, whence it is diverted mnto
the furrows. Modified "twigs" m-
terrupt the the furrow stream at
mntervals of about 5 chamns. These
modified twigs, called C-trenches,
are differentiated from ordinary-
twigs by being constructed in a waT
that enables them to interrupt the~
advance of the furrow stream. They:
act as equalizers to the advance of
the different furrow streams; their
correct placement ensures an auto-
matically more uniform wettin!


Fig. 1. The Twig-and- Main Syste~m

PART 1
The sugar industry on the plains
of Clarendon and Saint Catherine in
Jamaica is maintained at its existing
level of production by surface irri-
gation which is aimed at supplying
the cane plant's requirement when
rain-fall is inadequate. Most of the
irrigation water is obtained from
deep or shallow wells usually situa-
ted close to the area to be irrigated.
Particularly because of the recent
drought in these areas, but also
because of an increasing problem of
ground-water salinity and the
awareness of the high cost of pro-
ducing cane, the sugar industry is
taking a much closer look at its
irrigation practices with a view to
possibly reducing the cost of irri-
gation, and to reduce the quantity
of water needed to meet the net
plant requirement.
Our previous experience has
taught us that a large number of
individual factors act both sepa-
rately and together to determine
the efficiency with which water is
used in irrigation. The land slope,
its uniformity, soil type, furrow
stream sizes, length of run, timing
of irrigation and furrow shapes and
sizes are a few of the physical
factors which affect irrigation effic-
iency. All such physical factors are
then modified by different levels of
manual and supervisory attention,
which are themselves controlled by
different levels of appreciation of
the economics of irrigation,
FIELD EXPERIMENTS
There are therefore a great
many factors to be taken into
account in considering what affects
irrigation efficiency. They are too


Fig. 2. The Interrupted Long-Line System

controlled supervision, on the same
soil type, and using the same qual-
ity of water. The four irrigation
treatments were planted with the
same variety of cane, and at about
the same time. The irrigations are
scheduled to apply water when
required on each block, using what
is known as a water budget method.
This means that as soon as the cane
has germinated, and any necessary
supplying done to replace non-
germinated canes, each field is irri-
gated on its own merits, depending
on the calculated amount of soil
water known ~to be available to the
plant from time to time.
FOUR METHODS
In the trials at Exeter, the Re-
search Departments of.Monymusk
Estate and the Sugar Manufacterers'
Association are cooperating to com-


Fig. 3. Graded Long Line System.
Caribbean Farming April 1969


SUGAR CANIE

IIRRIIGACTIONI

By JAM ES KE LLY


veryL i


'"L' ~

I~ I i / 1 i 1


11:1 1


I L


IIIIIIII(II/IIIIIIJ IIIIIIIIIIIII/I










~t~i~i~i~i~~t~










furrows are usually run for the full
length of the fields, without inter-
ruption. At Exeter they are 15
chains long.
(iv) Sprinkler Irrigation, using
lowr rates of application (a gross
0.28 inch per hour) designed to
match the basic infiltration rate of
the soil concerned. In the experi-
ment area the sprinklers are run for
ten hours, so that a gross 2.8 inches
per application is intended.
Water consumption is being
closely monitored in each of the
four treatments. All water is measu-
red onto each block at each irri-
gation, and any drainage water ap-
pearing in lateral or foot drains is
also measured. An ordinary flow
meter is installed in the main line of
the sprinkler system, and this re-
cords the sprinkler application di-
rectly. The surface irrigation appli-
cations and drainage losses are
measured by a Parshall Flume and
by using a water-stage recorder in
conjunction with each flume, we
are able to accurately record all the
flows and calculate all the volumes
of water used.

MEASUREMENTS

By collecting this data, we will
be in a position to be able to
compare how much water is re-
quired by each kind of irrigation,
and after the cane is harvested we
will know how much cane has been
grown by each kind of irrigation.
We will then calculate tons of cane
per acre, and tons of cane per unit
volume of water. For although land
is a limiting factor to overall pro-
duction in Jamaica, it is becoming
increasingly apparent that water
availability is, or could become, as
limiting as land availability. Pro-
ductivity might well be determined
as much by tons of cane per acre-
foot of water as by tons of cane per
acre of land.
There are different costs assoc-
iated with the different treatments.
When we relate our treatments to
costs on commercial fields, then the
costs of equipment or preparation
for irrigation are in the order
sprinkler graded long line inter-
rupted long line twig and main. So
the fact that any one treatment
yields more cane, or uses more
water will not alone determine
the worth of that treatment. It will
be necessary to consider the yield
and water use results in the light of
the different capital and recurrent
expenditures incurred under the
different treatments. For this rea-
son we aim to keep careful records
of all pertinent costs.


Apparatus used to measure the flow of water in the irrigation experiment.


plane surface that best approxi-
mates to the existing surface. The
plane surface is usually tilted, so
that a furrow slope exists. Because
the surface is plane, the same slope
exits for any part of the furrow in
any part of the field. The land is
bulldozed roughly mnto desired
shape, or preferably worked over
with pull-type scrapers which can
carry about 5 tons at a time. This is
followed with two passes of a land
plane. A good finished job has
actual heights differmng from design
heights by less that 0.1 foot. The


than is possible with the twig and
main system. The last C-trench is
about 16 feet from the end of the
field, and the land between this
C-trench and the foot-drain is wet
by seepage from the last C-trench.
The interrupted long hine system is
recommended for clay soils on flat-
ter slopes, and is normally laid out
on land-planed fields. See Figure II
(iii) The Graded Long-line Sys-
tem, which has so far been tried
only in limited experiment in
Jamaica. The field is surveyed, and
by calculating one determines the


\- l ---............rm. ~
SCaribbean Farming April 1969


. 9g





PUR~NA

CHOWS


With PURINA CHOWS you can


* get your broilers
earlier


to market 7 days


* up to 240 eggs per hen per year from
your layers
* up to 10 weaned pigs per litter
* 1000 lb. more milk per cow and
* your hogs go to market one month
sooner.
It pays to buy PURINA CHOWS
because it always pays to buy quality -
at the red and white checkerboard sign
of your Jamaica Feeds dealer -


THE JAMAICA LI VESTOC K ASSOC IATION LTD.
JAMA ICA AG RICULTU RAL SOC IETY
DOMESTIC SALES LTD SHELL CO.(W.I.) LTD.
Working together in Jamaica to produce better food at lower cost.


Caribbean Farming April 1969


The feeds

that produce the best

results

bring bigger profits















A good deal of the pork produced
in most Caribbean countries still
comes from the hog which is fed on
cull potatoes, reject bananas and
surplus fruit. This sort of diet does
produce a cheap carcase an im-
portant consideration for the far-
mer but the carcase is too often
either too thin (if the animal is
slaughtered young) or too fat (if it
is kept on feed for ten months or
more before slaughter).
More modern practice is to use
balanced concentrate feeds gener-
ally based on imported cereal grains
- to produce a hog which goes to
the butcher at five to six months of
age, weighing 120-140 lb. dressed
weight. This sort of programme
produces animals that have a maxi-
mum of 1V/2 inches of back fat -

Older pigs yield carcases with thicker back-fat.


which pleases the housewife. It also
produces a carcase of firm, tender
pork yielding the small cuts that
are fine for pre-packaged super-
market trade and for the small
modern, suburban family.
Disadvantages of small carcase
What the small carcase does not
provide is meat that has the full
flavour of meat from more mature


/;

/


No wonder some people won't eat pork.

weight on an ad lib. feed pro-
gramme which includes some quite
cheap feed especially during the
last few weeks before slaughter.
Chief value of the carcase from this
animal lies in its relatively low cost
per lb. of pork produced, its better
flavour and its use as a market for
the farmer's cull and surplus crops.
But what makes it a particularly
attractive proposition is the fact
that the cost of the lean meat of
the carcase after the thick back
fat is removed is lower than is the
cost of lean meat from lighter
carcases. The difference in favour
of the heavy hog is about 2.7 pence
per lb. of lean meat in the carcase,
according to one U.K. pork pro-
cessor. Chances are that with
home-produced supplement of cull
and surplus fruit, etc. costs in the
Caribbean would be even more in
favour of the heavy hog.
Market for edible fat needed
Chief complicating factor in heavy
hog production is the need to re-
move the thick back and belly fat
from the carcase and then to find
a market for this. The baking trade
seems to offer the best prospects -
for greasing baking sheets and pos-
sibly for inclusion in some bread
mixes. There may be opportunities
to sell this fat (after rendering) to
the housewife.
Finding a market will depend on a
number of factors different for
each country. But it may well be
that heavy hog production offers
the best opportunity for some Carib-
bean farmers to make profits using
the resources that are at hand. c.R.


This is fairly typical of the better-quality
carcases going to market nowadays the job is
to make a decent profit over feed cost.
animals. What the farmer does not
get from this method of production
is the opportunity to use the sur-
plus and cull products of his crop
farming. From the national point of
view this sort of pork production is
heavily dependent on relatively ex-
pensive unported feeds. Also there
is a larger capital herd requirement
to produce the tonnage of pork
used each year. And, of course, the
feed cost per Ib. of pork includes all
the charges that attach to the im-
ported feed ingredients.
Case for the heavy hog
There has been a fair amount of
study a good deal of it in the
United Kingdom of the econo-
mics of heavy hog production. This
heavy hog is an animal fed for
about 24 26 weeks after weaning,
scaling about 240 -260 lb. live-
weight and reaching its market


me i
Caribbean Farming April 1969


At what weight should we


market hogs?



























Corrosion-resistant knapsack sprayer made of plastic material.


The three types of portable
sprayers (1) knapsack, (2) pneu-
matic and (3) mistblower are illus-
trated in the photographs. All may
be used for applying insecticides
and fungicides. Only the first two
should be used for weed killers as the
spray given by mistblowers is so
fine that it drifts out of the area
one wants to spray if even a gentle
wind is blowing.
Knapsack sprayers need pum-
ping constantly but if you choose a
good one the pumping is easy.
Nearly all are fitted with two straps
and they fit comfortably on the
back. Sprayers of this type should
be fitted with a paddle this helps
to prevent sprays that do not dis-
solve e.g. Karmex, Gesaprim and
Sevin from settling out. In some
cases the handles are fitted on the
right hand side in others on the left
with a few the handle can be
placed on either side. Most right
handed people find it easier to
pump with the left hand and hold
the lance with the right. Pumps
may either be some sort of piston
pump e.g. on the Saval, Birchmeier,
Bertani, Hudson and Sebina, or dia-
phragm pumps e.g. on the Platz.
Pneumatic sprayers, which are
cylindrical in shape, are pumped up
before spraying starts and then, as
the pressure falls, once or twice
more for each tankful. These spray-
ers usually have only a single strap
and are carried slung over one
shoulder; for this reason they are
less comfortable to wear than knap-
sack sprayers. Their main advantage
is that you have a free hand to
steady yourself if spraying in an
awkard place, or if you want to
move branches etc. during spraying.
They are also easier to use in a
confined space. The best sprayers
of this type have lids that seal from
the inside, so that the higher the


useful for spraying trees. Before
you buy one make sure that the
spray will carry properly to the top
of the trees you want to spray. The
best models have a pump so that
the same amount of liquid is deli-
vered to the air stream whether the
nozzle is pointed up or down.
Some points to watch for in
choosing a sprayer are: (1) a big
filler opening to make it easy to
pour the spray in and make it easy
to clean the sprayer after use; (2) it
should be possible to empty out the
last drop of unused spray so that
the tank can be properly cleaned -
some sprayers have a lip around the
filler hole that makes this impose
sible; (3) there should be a strainer
in the filler hole (except with the
inside seal lids on pneumatic spray


pressure you pump to, the tighter
the seal you get. With some models
the pumps work very easily, with
others pumping can be hard work.
Some pneumatic sprayers are fitted
with pressure regulating valves that
give a constant pressure at the
nozzle regardless of the pressure in
the tank these usually work well
when new but tend to be unreli-
able.
LOW-VOLUME SPRAYERS
Mistblowers are very useful for
spraying insecticides and fungicides
particularly if you need to cover
both sides of the leaves as the
powerful blast of air which carries
out the spray blows the leaves
about exposing both surfaces.
These low volume sprayers are also


Pneumatic sprayer leaves operator's left hand free
Caribbean Farming April 1969


Choosing


Susall



Sprayers

By L. KASASIAN
and
J. SE EYAVE









































Mist-blower is particularly useful with pumpkins and melons powerful jet turns leaves over to deposit chemicals where they are most needed on the
underside of the leaves.


ers) and one in the handle of the
lance; in some cases a strainer is
also fitted behind the nozzle; (4)
the sprayer should be made of
corrosion resistant material e.g.
stainless steel, brass or plastic -
galvanizing does not last and it is
false economy to buy a cheap
sprayer of this material; (5) make
sure your dealer keeps adequate
supplies of spare parts.

Care of Sprayers
The most important factor is to
keep the sprayer really clean. If you
fail to do this then traces of sprays
which are safe in one crop may by
mistake find their way on to crops
on which they are harmful. Dirt in
the sprayers can also clog nozzles
and stop the on/off tap working
properly.
If the sprayer is to be used for
spraying the same chemical next
day rinse out with water and then
refill and leave full of water over-
night to prevent any residues from
drying out. Some of the water
should be sprayed out to clear the
hose and nozzle. If the sprayer is
not to be used the next day, or is to
be used for a different chemical,
first rinse with water, then wash
thoroughly with a detergent (spray-
mng some out) then rinse with water
Caribbean Farming April 1969


til no trace of detergent if left;
don't forget to spray some water
out to clear the hose and nozzle.
If you have been using a spray
mixed with oil instead of water,
first rinse with gasolene or kerosene
before using the detergent.
It is a good idea to use separate
sprayers for weedkillers and other
pesticides.
Pump packing (washers) on
knapsack sprayers are now usually
made of rubber, but if you have an
old model or a pneumatic sprayer
the packing will probably be made


of leather if so remember to oil it
occasionally to prevent it drying
out and hardening.
It is a good idea to carry a spare
nozzle when spraying so that if one
gets blocked you can easily fit ano-
ther. Never use any metal object
e.g. wire or a pin to clear a nozzle
as this will damage the nozzle; if
you need to poke something in use
a sharpened piece of wood (e.g.
matchstick) or plastic.
With proper care a good sprayer
will give years of satisfactory ser-
vice.


Pneumatic sprayer with the cover fitting from inside. At right is a shield handy when
applying herbicides to weeds growing in sensitive crops.









does not demand it). This system of
payment with its low requirement
of butter fat probably explains the
complete domination of the Hol-
stein (95%) among the dairy breeds
found in Puerto Rico
Although the system of control
is not directly applicable to Bar-
bados with its single milk plant
concerned with both fresh and
manufactured milk, there do seem
to be certain merits that would be
worthy of further study:- the regu-
lation by producers of the supply
of milk to the plant; the payment
for milk on the same basis as it is
sold i.e. with no differentiation for
milk solids.
Production: Puerto Rico is
generally regarded as the Caribbean
centre of high class forage pro-
duction, and there is no doubt that
the published literature tells of
much research work that has been
done in this field. Even flying over
the island or motoring through it,
one has the impression of wides-
pread production of- forage. How.
ever, a closer examination of the
situation at the farm level shows
that,although most farmers do have
an adequate area of forage, the
intensity of use is low and that the
rate of concentrate feeding is high.
Several farmers are importing
'high-fibre' feeds direct from Flori-
da to be used as a complete ration
for cows (no grazing or forage). The
University is working on the formu-
lation of a complete high fibre feed
based on bagasse, and this is also
being attempted by one large far-
mer. Not surprisingly, the farmers
practising this system are having
trouble to maintain even a 3.25%
level of butterfat. *
Although forage can supply nut-
rients at a cheaper cost than con-
centrates, its apparent neglect by
farmers can be put down to at least
two factors:--

a) the relatively cheap cost of
cno ntate ilcompared owit eth
a poiat ny Aa2 thaedestthofd HI.e o

aout 3,) an
b) the generally low level of man-
agement found on these farms.
Owners often do not live on the
farm, prefering to stay in San Juan
and visit the farm occasionally. Day
to day management is therefore left
to the untrained poorly paid wor-
kers. Under these conditions it is
easier to have a system based on the
almost ad lib feeding of concen-
trates, with animals turned out to
graze each day on the best looking


pasture.
The fact that such a system is
general mn Puerto Rico is an mndi-
cation, I feel, that there is little
economic pressure on dairy far-
mers. If this had been the situation
for several years it is another poin-
ter to the reason for the rapid
expansion of production.
Producers have become used to
operating a relatively inefficient
system, and a general rise in farm
costs has led them to request (and
obtain) within the last year a price
increase of 1c (US) per lb. (1%/c to
the consumer). However consumers
have reacted against this increased
price and sales of milk which fell
after the increase have not regained
their former level after a period of
10 months. It seems likely that the
long term interests of farmers as a
whole will suffer, for they must
now accept a lower average price
for all the milk since a higher
proportion now goes mnto manu-
facturmng.
After a long period of expan-
sion, under relatively easy con-
ditions farmers must be prepared to
face economic facts the least
efficient must either become more
efficient or must quit production.
On the other hand there has been
political pressure to force accep-
tance of the farmers demands, for
the milk industry has been the onlJ
agricultural industry mn past yearsI
to expand, and it is considered'
politically undesirable that this in-
dustry should be seen to be goinE:
through hard times also a poor
reflection on the Government in-
power.
Location: Dairying is mainly lo-
cated in the flatter areas of the
country which enjoy a reasonably
well distributed annual rainfall al
though some larger dairies with
irrigated pastures are found along
the dry south coast. However the
areas which are considered to be~
te most tuit lee cl i aially fo

and wher the g s mrouneder o

In the past these uplands have!
produced food crops and coffee,
but due to the movement of labour
into the towns (or more specifically
into San Juan) there is now little
food grown and the acreage of
coffee is rapidly diminishing. It was
surprising to hear persons in San
Juan speak of the scarcity of land
in Puerto Rico and the high popu-
lation density (incidentally only %z
that of Barbados) and then to drive
into the central range of mountains
Caribbean Farming April 1969


Puerto Rxico


By JOHN CROPPER

Mr. Cropper's visit was sponsored by the
Rockefeller Foundation, whose support the
author gratefully acknowledges.


Puerto Rico has long been up-
held as the main dairying country
in the Caribbean. Some aspects that
we saw upheld this view, while
others were disappointing. '
Dairy output has expanded at
the rate of 10 15% per year for
the past 15 years in the face of
competition from imported manu.
factered milk products. Since these
products are imported from the
continental USA import controls
cannot be imposed, and the price of
the irpported products have been
consistently cheaper than that of
the local fresh milk (leche fresca)
on the basis of fresh nulk equiva-
lent.

How has fresh milk been able to
compete with cheap imports?
a) by first-rate marketing and pri.
marily by the control of the pro-
duction and marketing of milk un-
der one (autocratic) milk Adminis-
trator.
b) by the establishment of a milk
promotion fund, mamntamned by a
regular cess paid by all producers
on each quart of milk produced and
c) by having an outlet for surplus
milk, subsidized out of the milk
promotion fund*

phIVilk is purchased neh fied
feaihes a meniun lee nofr 35T
my mind this system has been one
of the main factors leading to the
rapid expansion of production
within the industry, for the farmers
have been able to concentrate on
just one aspect of production -
mecreassmg yield. In this way also
they have produced the greatest
quantity of milk protein (and fat)
per cow at the cheapest cost per
pound. (There is no advantage in
producing extra (expensive) butter
fat, particularly if the consumer
26





Now exporting

to NEWV ZEALAND

CANADA and all

CARIFTA countries.


















WEST INDIES SYNTHETICS LTD.
Twickenham Pk., Spanish Town, Jamaica.


Caribbean Farming April 1969


DUTCH MILK REPLACER FOR CALVES
Instinct guides a cow in caring for her calf... and instinct can do a lot, but
science will do much more for feeding calves.
Denkavit Calf-Milk Replacer is scientifically formulated to help calves get off
on the right start by promoting growth, protect health and put on more
pundsefaster... You save money too by using DENKAVIT TOPFOK Dutch
S59/* for 581b. bag
*11lb. mix Iqrt, milk
Cost 4d per quart

THE JAMAICA LIVESTOCK( ASSOCIATION LTD.
50 EAST STREET- KINGSTON- PHONE:26737-9
Branches: Mandevelle Christlqna Mortrego Bay Ma) Pen


and see thousands of acres of com-
pletely uncultivated land, growing
nothing but wild pasture. It is in
this area that dairying is expected
to be relocated, since flat land is
not essential for dairying.
A hard-headed approach to the
use of these hills for dairying is
being taken by the Soil Conser-
vation section of the Agricultural
Research Station. Techniques de-
veloped in these areas would pro-
bably be suitable for application in
Barbados, although the land in
Puerto Rico is less liable to erosion
than that of the Scotland District.
On one large farm we visited where
the farmer works in close cooper-
ation with the University estab-
lished pastures were fertilized by
crawler tractor (too steep for a
wheeled tractor) and a hand opera-
ted distributor was used on those
slopes too steep for the crawler.
Forage: In all the wetter areas
of the island pangola is the predo-
minant grass, but experiments with
'star grass' on upland farms have
shown a 30% increase in production
per acre. This grass also has the
advantage that it is relatively resis-
tant to aphid and virus attack
In the drier southern regions


which are unirrigated, guinea grass
is most common being better able
to withstand prolonged periods of
drought, yet giving equal yields to
pangola when first class manage-
ment is employed.
(A similar situation applies in the
southern regions of Jamaica.)

Forage conservation is not com-
mon, again probably due to the low
level of management employed.
However, many silos are to be seen
throughout the island, evidence of
the Governments generous subsidy
of 50% of the capital cost but in
effect a wasted investment (it is
simpler to use concentrates).
One exceptional farm with res-
pect to forage production had
approximately 1,000 cows all of
which were Holstein. Roughage was
provided by 200 acres of irrigated,
heavily fertilized pangola grass. The
grass was cut every 50 days and fed
to the cows, which were loose
housed. Average daily consumption
per cow of chopped green material
is 110 lbs. In addition to this cows
were getting several pounds of mo-
lasses, and the rest of the ration is
made up with concentrates, which
are regulated according to the level
of production, stage of pregnancy


and age of the animal. Require-
ments are worked out on a group
basis.
Replacements: Dairy herd re-
placements have traditionally been
purchased from North America,
and large numbers are still brought
in, due to the common problem of
having animals reared satisfactorily.
But studies at the University have
shown that the specialist rearing of
replacements for sale to dairy far-
mers or on contract can be very
profitable, and since this time the
system has become more popular.
The most difficult and expensive
period in raising replacements is
during the first 6 months of life, for
after this time heifers can make
satisfactory weight gains and
growth while grazing well managed
pastures.
Artificial; Insemination:
Government has a long established
AI Service using both local and
imported semen, but this is being
replaced rapidly by a private organi-
zation affiliated to the American
Breeders Association which uses im-
ported semen from proven bulls.
* 3.25% butter fat is equivalent to
approximately 11.6% total solids.




































COOK I GN



The art of food preparation in
the Caribbean region can draw on
enough variety to make these coun-
tries a gourmet's paradise. The
variety comes as much from the
world-wide origins of Caribbean
people as from the range of fla-
yours, colours and food values re-
presented in our tubers, fruit, vege-
tables, spices and animal and
marine life.
Those who devise recipes for
cooked, baked, fried, fermented or
distilled food and drink are invited
to make their formulas available to
the less ingenious through this page.
(We'll have to check that part about
distilled and fermented stuff it
may be subject to excise duty).
Mrs. Joy Royes who has lived
at both ends of the Caribbean has
kindly offered a recipe which won
her a prize from the Caribbean
Food and Nutrition Institute.

Pigeon (Gungu) Pea Fritters
You will need:
2 cups boiled dry peas
%m cup finely picked smoked red
herrmng (remove bones)
Seasoning salt, pepper, 1 onion'
3 cooking tomatoes,
Flour


How to do it
(1) Either boil dried pigeon (gun-
gu) peas in just sufficient water as is
needed to get the peas soft water
should have salt added as well as
finely chopped onion and toma-
toes. When peas are soft drain off
excess water.
Or Use left-over peas from a stew.
(2) Mash peas into a paste. Flour
hands and place a teaspoon of flour
in the palm of one hand. To this
add a tablespoonful of mashed peas
and roll into a ball. Keep hands well
fl ued and press the ball flat on
pa m
(3) Place strips of herring in the
centre of the flattened peas spread,
sprinkle liberally with black pepper,
fold, seal edges by pressing to-
gether.
(4) Roll in flour and fry in hot fat
until outside is crisp. Makes 8.
NOTE :
Some people who tried this recipe
thought that baking rather' than
frying might be a good idea. Also
for people who don't like black
pepper surely red or green peppers
would do. Editor.
Our next recipe is from Miss
Dotty Dean, who is heard daily on
Jamaica's radio station RJR.


For this meal Miss Dean borrws the kitchen o~f
the Jamaica Government's Food Technology
Division


Escabeche Fowl
You will need:
1 stewing fowl a fat one,
weighing 3 41b.
1 lb. onion, 2 alapeno peppers,
a few leaves of oregano,
pimento leaves and pepper corn.
Alapeno peppers are (Miss Dea~n
tells us) long red peppers n >t
very hot.
How to do it
Wash ad clea the f Il do at
ct ita ea Pt n eo ow l ohn
tnder rmove knmb ,ae.W~
the fowl is boiling slice the onicn!
and put them to soak in a bowl of
salt water.
After taking the fowl out of the
water, add the onions to this water
and let them cook until the onion!
have that transparent look.
Cover the fowl with a little butter
or oil and put to brown in oven, -
15 minutes should be enough to
give it a golden brown colour.
Remove from oven and cut in
pieces. Serve each piece of fowl
with some of the onion sauce
poured over.

NMiss Dea says ht to tilllas go veq
anyone has a recipe for tortillas
please send it along.
Caribbean Farming April 196:


CARIBBEAN












BOOK

REVIEW


confusion of social development
and political participation with an
overriding commitment to solving
the problem of food supply. He says
"These goals are not necessarily
incompatible, but their joint pur-
suit in unitary action programs is
incompatible with the develop-
ment of an effective strategy for
abundance".
Who could disagree?

fro' this pubsitoem1ni irahe
Indian farming. Where large coun-
tries in the tropics have diligently
attended to determined planning a
good season may top it off with a
surplus. Especially with increasing
private investment in agriculture
those large countries just beginning
to generate exports will have more
flexible agriculture because they
will attract high calibre managers.
What therefore should be the res-
ponse of a small tropical island?
Clearly what it must not do is to
prolong the situation whereby in-
efficiencies of one sort or another
are imposed on the sugar industry
and other traditional crops in which
the island has a foothold, nor must
it delay to produce a highly trained
group of agricultural managers.
There will not be a world food

year afer hat .e is trill tuc va
go whether reason or reproduction
cilo gi but agronsohi success i
should look ahead.

G.P. Chapman.


Jamaican Agricultural Develop-
ment, Beef Production at Ebini
Livestock Station, Guyana, The
Barbados Dairy Industry.

The Department of Biological
Sciences reports on research in:-
Taxonomy of Mites, Identificatior
of root-knot nematodes, Genetics
of the sweet potato, Phytophthora
disease in Cacao, Nutmeg quality
factors, Pigeon pea varieties,
Research in the Department of
Crop Science included:-
Avocado testing, selection and pro-
pagation, Propagation of papaya,
Handling of mangoes, Propagation
of cashew, Pest control and Variety
studies of various vegetables and
fruit, Tomato breeding work, De-
vices to increase sweet potato
yields, Breeding of sweet potatoes
and legumes, Diseases and pests of
kidney beans and Pigeon peas,
Nematodes in bananas in the
Windward Islands.

Herbicide trial reports occupy
thirty pages of the publication.
Mention is made of tests of various
chemicals on several tropical species
_ crops and weeds.
Agricultural Engineering research
produced reports on:-
Land drainage, Run-off studies,
Mechanisation of Root Crop pro-
duction,. Mechanical harvesting of
sugar cane, Mechanisation of vege-
table production.
The report of the Department of
Livestock Science carries an abs-
tract of a paper on the performance
of grade Holstein 'cattle in the
southern Caribbean. The report also
contains runler treatment or re-
search on the water buffalo as a
meat producer, production charac-
teristics of the Jamaica Hope breed,
internal parasites of sheep, calf rear-
ing, tick-borne diseases of Canadian
cattle imported into Trinidad, rumi-
nant nutrition and fodder manage-
ment, poultry nutrition.
The Department of Soil Science
reports on soil and land use studies
in various parts of the Caribbean,
field experiments in crop pro-
duction on many of the most im-
portant soils of the region for infor-
mation as to their response to
fertilizer application,detailed analy-
tical work on soils of the region,
irrigation experiments with a num-
ber of vegetable crops.


TROPICAL SURPLUS?
"Strategy for the Conquest of Hunger"
(published by the Rockefeller
Foundation 1968, pp.131)
P.T. Bauer remarked recently
that "The major determinants of
development are domestic" (or as
Nyerere would say "We'll never do
it unless we do it"). Bauer went on
to add "Moreover international eco-
nomic relations are today highly
favourable to the underdeveloped
countries, which can now benefit
from the fruits of technical progress
elsewhere, much more than was
possible for the West in the past".
This Rockefeller publication is a
collection of fourteen contri-
butions, which taken as a whole
partially justify Bauer's remarks.
Some of the results for Mexico for
example are:
SUGAR --1941-45 38,700 tons
imported each year
1962-66 600,000 tons
exported each year
(Caribbean countries please
note)
TOMATOES 1941-45 374 tons
imported each year
1962-66 160,000 tons
exported each year
CORN 1941-45 48,000 tons
imported each year
1962-66 496,900 tons
exported each year
A research paper by R.F. Chan-
dler records progress f or two im-
ported grains, wheat and rice. In 25
years average yields of Mexican
wheat have risen from 11 to40
bushels per acre, the country has
changed from a net importer to
exporter in the meantime. Perhaps
the most dramatic instance quoted
i~s for rice research mn the Philip-
pines where in six years beginning
mn '1962 the islands have changed
from importers to exporters of rice
due largely of course to the famous
IR.8 and its relatives.

Probably the most useful essay
in the Rockefeller publication is
that by W.D. Hopper on "Invest-
ment in Agriculture: The Essentials
for Pay Off"which is forthright and
to the point especially about the
Caribbean Farming April 1969


REPORT OF THE FACULTY OF
AGRICULTURE 1967 1968 deals
with all the activities of the Faculty
- including teaching and research.
Several pages are devoted to ac.
counts in some detail of the
research carried out by staff mem.
bers of the various departments of
the Faculty.

The Department of Agricultural
Economics and Farm Management
reports on the following project
studies:-


U.W.I "

RESEARCH

n DOT












FYFFES LINE





Fortnighd~y Passenger Service to and from
JAMAICA UNITED KINGDOM
BERMUDA
also to
JAMAICA from U.K. via TRINIDAD
Fortnightly Express Freight Service to and from
JAMAICA UNITED KINGDOM

U.K. FREIGHT AGENTS:
CARIBBEAN STEAMSHIP AGENCY
421-427 MIIlbrook Rd., Southampton S. 09 2 GF, England.
ELDERS & F YFFES LT D.
15 STRATTON STREET, PICCADILLY, LONDON, W.I.
UNITED FRUIT JAMAICA COMPANY
JAMAICA AGENCY:
40 HARBOUR STREET, KINGSTON TEL: 22141


QUALITY


MILK PRODUCTION


BEGINS ON


THE FAR M


By following good sanitary practiCO
Good sanitary practice begins with the wise selection and
use of cleansing and sanitizing chemicals designed for the
job.
Diversey offers you the products and methods especially
developed for MILK HOUSE SANITATION.


DIVERSOL CX the penetration quick-acting
bactericide-disinfectant.
PEPTEX the soapless cleanser
that floats away milk
and grease residues.
DI LAC removes milkstone deposit
rapidly and thoroughly.
RUB-R-KLEEN specially formulated
to keep rubber inflations and
tubing clean.
DIOKEM cleans and sanitizes pipeline
milking systems, cuts clean-up
time in half.

DIVOSAN iodophor, cleanser-sanitizes
for milking equipment and udder
washing.







CORPORATION (JAhMAICA LIMITED

Product available in Kingston and Montego Bay Jamaica.
Antigua. Barbados, Dominica. Guyana. Trinidad .


Caribbean Farming April 196l


CA JA~NUS


The Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute's
bi-monthly newsletter 'CAJANUS' is directed
to all workers in health, education, community
development and agriculture whose profes-
sional concerns relate to human nutrition or
the production in the Caribbean of nutritious
foods. CAJANUS is distributed gratis. Re-
quests for inclusion on the mailing list should
be directed to The Editor, CAJANUS, C.F.N.I.,
U.W.1, P.O. Box 140, Kingston 7, Jamaica.
















































Our work horse has wings!
AERO COMMANDER SNOW 110 600 H.P.P&W
With eight aircraft of this type, CROP CU LTUR E
plays an important role in keeping Jamaican
agriculture healthy by spraying one and a quarter
million acres of bananas annually. Some 100,000
acres of cane are also sprayed each year.

Banana growers and cane planters alike are aware
of the tremendous benefits spraying has brought,
e. v ,'. "not only to agriculture, but indirectly to the whole
-1- Jamaican economy.

SNJEN- en' co"''S With operations covering the Caribbean, Central
~ ~LI I I and South America, CROP CULTURE is an
experienced and growing company.

Now we can offer a completely new service to
Jamaican Farmers AER IAL FERTI LIZATION.

Already proven in Australia and New Zealand
(yields have increased by as much as 300%/), this
invaluable service is offered here at very competitive
rates. It will often prove tar cheaper and more
effective than conventional methods. Call now for a

CR OP CUL TUR E(Overseas) LTD. quotation.
2 SOUTH ODEON AVE. KINGSTON 10
PHONE: 65611
Ca ibbean Farming April 1969


Members of the Association are
reminded that the JLA acts as
purchasing agent for its~members --
for any merchandise available lo-
cally or overseas. There is a small
handling charge -- generally amoun-
ting to about 10% of the cost of the
item.
The Association has also acted
as marketing agent for its members
- particularly in the matter of
livestock sales. Wherever possible,
the Association circularises infor-
mation on merchandise offered for
sale by members '
3RANCHES
The Association's branches and
depots at Montego Bay, Mandeville,
Christiana and May Pen are another
feature of the JLA service. Mem-
bers are invited to make full use of
the branches for purchases from
stock as well as agency arrange-
ments. The branches have a good
record of service to members -- and
the Association's aim is to extend
and improve service through its
branches.
1968 TRADING YEAR
JLA members will be pleased to
know that their Association did a
record 3776,000 in sales for the
year ended November, 1968. Net


profits were satisfactory but in kee-
ping with the JLA policy of trading
on the lowest practical margin --
giving its customers the benefit of
best prices.
NEW HOME FOR THE ASSOCIATION.
Work has begun on the cons-
truction of the spacious new buil-
dings which will house your Associ-
ation's offices and warehouse. It is
expected that the new facilities on
Marcus Garvey Drive in Kingston
will be complete for occupancy by
the end of 1969.
Special attention is being paid
to adequacy of parking space and
merchandise handling facilities. The
building will include 14,300 square
feet of warehouse and counter
space with 2,700 square feet of
office space upstairs.
Members of the Association will
be given first choice in the share
issue which will finance the new
building.
LOOKING AROUND AND AHEAD
Farmers in the Caribbean would
be less than wise if they ignore
events around the world and the
effects which these events certainly
will have on the farmer in this
region. The current surplus of dairy
products in Western Europe is a


case in point. Dairy products are
being sold in the Caribbean at
prices lower than cost they are
sent merely to relieve the surplus
situation in the European countries
of origin. Meanwhile the farmers of
the Caribbean countries are being
asked to employ as many workers
as they can and to pay them
better and better wages.
KEEP IT CLEAN
As the number ~s and quality of
flocks and~ herds improve, the live-
stock and poultry of this island
become an asset of increasing value.
One very special feature of this
asset is the freedom from most of
the serious diseases which are com-
mon in some parts of the world. As
international communications ex-
tend as the world grows smaller,
so to speak the danger of intro-
ducing livestock and poultry di-
seases becomes greater. Only strict
vigilance will keep Jamaica clean in
this respect and the people who
have to be most vigilant are the
people who have most at stake -
the farmers.
These notes are published by the Ja-
maica Livestock Association as a service
to its members.


Jamaoica Livestock Assoelation Notes









PENNY WISE...

c~
r~
T~i ~Si;;~-aC~--~i;LIC



.31


The farmer who built this fowl house roof thought he would save some money on his lumber bill .. so he used green (uncured) sticks from his ow.n
wood-lot for rafters.
He might have got away with this but he also used green wood instead of cured, sawn lumber over the rafters to take the nails holding the corrugatld
roofing.
As the green laths dried out, the nails ceased to hold and pretty soon the roof looked like this.


MONEY DOWN THE DRAIN
Too many farm building are designed and constructed so that they can serve one purpose only as was the case with this milking shed. When the far ner
decided to give up dairying the building became useless and, soon after that, derelict. Even a small building can be designed with the future in min 1 -
if plans change there can be other uses without expensive and elaborate alteration.


















oirters
TYLAN Soluble TYLAR Injectable
TYLAN.Premix TYLAN~for
H Y GRO MIX (R) In jection
and its most useful herbicide DY MIDR.,
for Technical Information contact :-
LAS CE L LES LAB ORATO RI ES LI MITE D
SEXCLUS IVE DI STRIBUTORS FOR JAM~AICA


PROTECT YOUBl ANVIMALS
ANVD CH OPS.,



























































































For further information please contact:

Jamaica :
Bryden & Evelyn Ltd.
54-56, Church Street
Kingston


We trust on research You can trust in BASF

*Polyram-Combi organic fungicide,
based on Metiram

eDPerfekthion systemic insecticide with
contact action, based on Dimethoate

YBasfapon for the control of annual
and perennial grasses


ePU 46 selective herbicide, against broad-
leaved weeds in various formulations

*Citowett spreader-sticker

*Nitrophoska complex fertilizer in
various grades


Trinidad :
Geo. F. Hugging & Co. Ltd.
P. O. Box No. 179
Port of Spain


Barbados:
Da Costa & Musson Ltd.
P. O. Box No. 103
Bridgetown


Grenada:
Gerald S. W. Smith & Co. Ltd.
P. O. Box No. 14
St. George's


St. Lucle:
J. Q. Charles Ltd.
P. O. Box No. 279
Castries


Guyana:
T. Geddes Grant (Guyana) Ltd.
P. O. Box No. 407
Georgetown -


Dominica:
T. D. Shillingford
P. O. Box No. 12
Roseau -




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