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Title: Caribbean farming
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101460/00001
 Material Information
Title: Caribbean farming
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Mona, Jamaica
Publication Date: January 1969
Copyright Date: 1969
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101460
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 3116219

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Front Cover 3
        Front Cover 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Editorial
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Main
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Back Cover
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
Full Text

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Jaribbean 8Tl
J.ANUARY. 1969)






































THERMO-PLASTICS JAMAICA LIMITED


I


ANNOTTO BAY
Drake's Hardware
BLACK RIVER
Dor's (Mr. Lyn)
FALMOUTH
Chin See Brothers
LUCEA
Hanover Agencies
MAY PEN
Stork Deroux
MANDEVI LLE
V. M.Bromfield Limited


MONTEGO BAY
Creighton Brothers
OCHO RIOS
B.E.Stanigar
PORT ANTONIO
Graham Edwards Hardware
PORT MARIA
Ebony House
RUNAWAY BAY
Rose Brothers
SANTA CRUZ
L.E.Beadle


SAVAN NA-LA- MAR
Jackson Williams & Sons
ST. ANN'S BAY
Clarke's Hardware
KINGSTON
Facey Commodity Co.Ltd.
3 West Street
Antilles Trading Co.Ltd.
2 Ashenheim Road
Croydon Limited
10 Gold St


SI ,b


NOW

THERE ARE~

EVEN MVORE

DEALERS FOR

PVC PIPES


Here's where you can buy Thermoco PVC pipes
Pressure Fittings and Solvent Cement

































NEMATODES AND BANANAS ...................... ......... ...................................5
SOYABEANS A NEW CROP FOR THE CARIBBEAN................... .. .................7
USEFUL MACHINE FOR SMALL ACRES.................. .. .... ...............
SUGAR CANE VARIETIES FOR CARIBBEAN FARMERS .................... . ........... ..........11
RAT DAMAGE TO COCONUTS..................... ..... ... ............1
CONTROLLING NUT-GRASS WITH CHEMICALS .................... ....... . ...........15
PRODUCTION OF FOOD ON SUGAR ESTATES IN BARBADOS .......... ................... . ... ........... ...........17
MANAGEMENT HINTS FOR POULTRY FARMERS................... ................19
CONTROL OF PARASITES IN BEEF CATTLE................. .. ................. 22

UWI RESEARCH REPORTS................... .................24
LETT'ER FROM A FARMER................... .. ............. ..25
D EPA RTM CENTS
BOOK RE VI EW ............................ ...............2
JAMAICA LIVESTOCK ASSOCIATION NOTES ...............27



CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS ISSUE

JOSEPH EDMUNDS wrote the story on nematodes in bananas. He is Nematologist in the Department
of Crop Science at the UWI.. R. W. RADLEY did the research and wrote the story on soyabeans. He
has just returned to the UK after a spell as lecturer at the UW1. MICHAEL SHAW who tells us about
sugar cane varieties is a Research Agronomist with the Sugar Manufacturers' Association in Jamaica.
ROGER SMITH (Rats and coconuts) is Agronomist, Crop Physiologist with Jamaica's Coconut Industry
Board. L. KASASIAN (Nut-grass control) used to be Herbicide Agronomist with the UW1. He also
has returned to the UK. E. G. B. GOODING of the Barbados Sugar Producers' Association kindly
wrote the story on food production in his country.










~~ will .begin we pu`7
C'ARIBBEAN COOKING Advertising Rates ~-
24C BWI or I /- per word.








F


I
C
r-j ~r


There's an Engro complex NPK fertilizer that can help produce abundant crops
on any type of soil or under any local climatic condition. Engro fertilizers,
manufactured in Jamaica, are available in most Caribbean countries. Get the
best economic return for your investment. Use Engro to increase your crops
and profits.


a\i
I
I~~C ()I~~

rj
.~


ENGRO ANTILLES CHEMICAL COMPANY
r i 96 MARCUS GARVEY DRIVE, KINGSTON 16, TELEPHONE-37035
With 1,500, 000 invested in a modern Jamaican manufacturing plant,an annual
expenditure of another 250,000 in goods, seirvi and raw materials and a yearly
payroll of 140,000 for a labour force of up to 145 men and women.


Caribbean Farming January 1969


i~S

~rik:











EDITORIAL


There are in the Caribbean several periodicals devoted to the agriculture of the region.

The publishers of CARIBBEAN FARMING have been urged to add to the number of
these publications for one or two reasons. In the first place there seems to be need for a

magazine whose particular business it will be to tell the farmers of these countries about
the appliances, chemicals and techniques which industry is producing for their use. Also
needed are reports on the successful use of these products and techniques.

It seems time for the Faculty of Agriculture of the University of the West Indies to
establish a special contact with the farmers of the Caribbean and with the commercial
and industrial interests which serve these farmers.

It is hoped that CARIBBEAN FARMING will prove of particular value to extension
workers in these countries; many of these workers are far removed from the areas of
research and innovation precisely because they are close to the farmers they serve.

But although the publishers of a magazine must begin their enterprise with their
own idea of the principal purposes they hope to serve, it is inevitable that the paper will
come in time to fulfil the tasks which its readers require of it and the measure of the

magazine's success may be the extent to which the two courses converge. For this reason
the publishers may be wise to confine themselves ine a first issue to this brief statement
which they make because 'a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they
should declare the causes which impel them.'
















Geoffrey Chapman Carol Reckord Dave Romney
Technical Editor General Editor Director


Caribbean Farming January 1969





Caribbean Farming January 1969


W~e hv

broadened

ourT


participation in

agricultural development



Believing that the further development of Agriculture is essential to the
future progress of the Caribbean, we have recently appointed Dr. Keith Roache
to the important post of Agricultural Officer and already, with his expert techni-
cal knowledge and supervision, Barclays have been able to increase the level of
loans made for agricultural projects.
If you are a progressive farmer with sound plans for development or in-
creasing the output of your present holdings, we invite you to discuss these with
your nearest Barclays Bank Manager. Not only will you obtain sound advice -
you will also be able to benefit from the expert technical knowledge Dr. Roache
will be able to put at your disposal.
Let Barclays Bank participate with you in producing more food for the
future and well-being of all the Caribbean Territories in which we operate.


Dr. Keith Roache
Barclays Agricultural Officer
for the Commonwealth Caribbean




v, You're welcome at

BARCl.AYS BANK
76 branches in the East Caribbean
39 offices throughout Jamaica.


r-











NEMATODES and BANANAS

by Joseph Edmunds




The first report on nematode damage to bananas
was from the Fiji Islands in 1890-91 but it was not until
around 1915 and 1960 that similar reports were pub-
lished from Jamaica and the Windward Islands
respectively. Research on nematodes attacking L
bananas was started around 1958 in Jamaica and 1965
in the Windward Islands.
Radopholus similis (the burrowing nematode) was
reported to be the main type causing damage to
bananas in Jamaica. A survey of nematodes affecting I~ e~
bananas in the Windward Islands revealed that in addi-
tion to the burrowing nematode, Helicotylenchus sp.
(the spiral nematode) and Rotylenchulus reniformis
(the reniform nematode) were causing considerable
damage to bananas in the region. The latter was found I C~-Shi
to be particularly important as a pathogen of the
secondary and tertiary root system of bananas. They Paring banana suckers for dipping.
As a result of nematode attack the banana plant
is not able to take up as much water and food ma-
terial as it normally would. A plant heavily infected
with nematodes cannot therefore efficiently make
use of fertilizers applied to soils.
The general health of the plant is adversely affect-
5 ed, and fruit production (quality and quantity) is re-
1 duced. Banana plants infected with nematodes cannot
stand up to winds and they often topple easily under
the weight of the bunch even in the absence of winds.
The economic losses in nematode infested fields is
therefore very high and in most banana cultivations
in the Caribbean, nematodes constitute a serious








Banana plants toppled by wind
exposing poor root system.
therefore probably have a pronounced deleterious
effect on water and nutrient uptake by the plant.
Nature of nematode damage to bananas
These nematodes are too small to be observed with
the naked eye. Under the microscope they look like
tiny worms. The females of some species assume an
obese shape, e.g. the reniform nematode.
These nematodes puncture root cells with a needle-
like apparatus called a stylet or spear at their head
ends. They also secrete chemical substances called
enzymes into root cells. These enzymes cause a break- ""-
down of cellular material eventually resulting in root `
decay. This decay is also caused by the combined
action of nematodes and other soil microorganisms -
fungi and bacteria. It is known for example, that roots
under the combined action of nematodes and fungi de-
cay more rapidly than those under the action of 3
nematodes or fungi alone. A properly prepared sucker.


Caribbean Farming January 1969






























Nematodes destroy the root system of the plant making for poor growth. These plants are the same age.


limiting factor in fruit production.
For example, banana production in the Windward
Islands and Jamaica is around 2.5 tons per acre per
year. Although methods of measuring yields vary from
place to place, this average is rather low when com-
pared with a production of 8 tons per acre per year
in the French islands and 10-16 tons in Surinam. This
low production in the Windward Islands is to a large
measure due to the very high incidence of pathogenic
nematodes in the islands and the damage already
outlined-
Nematode Spread
Man has been and still is the most effective agent
for the spread of plant diseases. In the case of bananas
he has been spreading banana nematodes into new
areas with the vegetative banana 'seed' the corm
or rhizome. A corm can carry thousands of these
worms which multiply with the establishment and
growth of banana plants. In time, the nematode popu-
lation increases to a stage where they become the
limiting factor in banana production-
They can also be spread by running streams and
with the movement of infested soil from place to
place.
Weed Hosts
Some types of nematodes can reproduce on a large
number of hosts while others Jhave a narrow host
range. Several weeds have been found to support popu-
lations of the spiral nematodes and the reniform nema-
tode. For example the common water grass (Com-
melina sp.) is a very good host for the latter nema-
tode.
Control
There are several control methods in use in
different parts of the world. Let us first consider PRE-
PLANTING TREATMENTS. This involves cutting off
or paring all diseased (reddish-brown or black) tissue
from planting material. Those with a large quantity
of this infected tissue should not be used for planting.
Before planting, the 'seed' should be dipped in a
mixture containing 1 fluid ounce Nemagon or Fuma-
zone (both brominated hydrocarbons) for nematode
control, 1 Vz ounces Aldrin, for insect control, V/2 fluid
ounce sticker and two handfuls of clay per gallon.
Alternatively the pared material may be dipped
in hot water at 1280 F to 130" F for 20 minutes before
planting.


Nematodes, fungi and borers associated with the
outer areas of the corm are removed with the pared
corm tissue. Therefore, paring in addition to a chemi-
cal or hot water dip will reduce the incidence of these
organisms in the planting material. This results in
more healthy plant growth and better yields in the
plant crop than when untreated material is used.
It is best to plant clean 'seed' (as treated above)
in clean land (land free of the banana nematodes).
Since the vast majority of banana fields in the Wind-
ward Islands are already infested and growers resist
fallowing banana lands it is necessary to control nema-
todes in established fields. It has been clearly de-
monstrated that even in areas heavily infested with
nematodes when clean 'seed' is used there is a mark-
ed increase in production in the plant crop as com-
pared with untreated controls.
POST-PLANTING TREATMENTS are necessary
because of the high nematode populations in soils and
population increase with time. Very good results have
been obtained by injecting Nemagon or Fumazone at
the rate of 3-4 gals. per acre. 9/4 tablespoonful of either
of the above chemicals (diluted with water) is injected
at each of 6 points 18 inches from the pseudostem
and to a depth of 6 to 8 inches.
When nematodes are controlled during the early
part of the plant's life, healthy root growth and de-
velopment are greatly favoured resulting in better
nutrient and water uptake, better plant anchorage
and thus earlier and heavier fruiting with fewer wind
losses,
S~fsequent reinjections would reduce nematode
populations to a tolerable level and help lengthen the
life of a banana field cutting down on the expensive
replanting operation. The above practice has given
yield increases of from 5 to 15 tons per acre in the
Windward Islands.
Although DBCP injection has given good results,
the Windward Islands Banana Research Scheme is
pursuing the quest for a chemical that can be applied
with greater ease than by injection. Granular and
powder formulations are being tried and different
methods of application are being looked into. Results
are promising to date. Banana growers, especially the
small grower with 2-5 acres with limited resources
and growers with banana lands on steep slopes will
find such a method most convenient.


Caribbean Farming January 1969























c/o National College of Agricultural Engineering,
Silsoe, Bedford, England.
weather (usually drought), the ravages of Red Ring
disease in Trinidad and Lethal Yellowing in Jamaica,
and hurricane damage. Although the replacement of
the susceptible tall coconuts with the resistant dwarf
types in Jamaica appears to be a partial solution to
the effects of Lethal Yellowing, no effective answer
has been found to the problem of Red Ring.; under
these circumstances it is not unlikely that there will
be in the future a fairly regular demand for soyabean
oil to supplement supplies of fat from copra. More-
over, it may be of interest to note that one leading
copra processing firm in the West Indies has given
an assurance to the author that "within reasonable
limits, no amount of soya oil would be an embarrass-
ment because of the export possibilities."
These, then, are the main reasons why in late
1965 a programme of soyabean research was initiated
in the U.W.I. Faculty of Agriculture. Add to them the
exciting possibilities df using whole soyabeans or soya
meal for the preparation of protein-enriched foods for
humans, and there is a very strong case indeed for
attempting to develop soyabean growing in the West
Indies.
The research programme
In the formulation of the programme in 1965, a
broad series of investigations was conceived in which
the most important agronomic factors would be studied
simultaneously over a two or three year period. The
main objectives were to solve the many and varied
problems of cultivation and to assess the level of pro-
duction which could be achieved commercially. The
first requirement was clearly to identify the problems
and to determine relative research priorities. These
were considered as follows:--
1. Selection of suitable varieties and assessment of
the effects of planting date.
2. Determination of optimum plant density.
3. A study of the main crop protection problems,
mainly weed and insect pest control.
4. The response of the crop to fertilisers.
A large number of small plot trials have been
carried out at St. Augustine, Trinidad and two large
variety selection trials (64 i'ultivars have been on
test) have been completed at Twickenham Park,
Jamaica. Although the investigations are still in pro-
gress, sufficient results are through for cultural re-
commendations to be made with some confidence and
also, for an overall assessment to be made of the
general potential of the crop. Of great importance,
the experience gained during the period of experimen-
tation has brought into focus the difficulties that would


*Present address:

Soyabean a new crop for the West Indies?
Soyabean is a short-term leguminous crop grown
in warm temperate and sub-tropical regions of the
world and increasingly in tropical countries. It is used
in various forms as food for humans and farm ani-
mals. Soyabean seed is particularly valuable because
it contains approximately 20%/ oil and 40% protein.
The oil is suitable for the preparation of cooking fats
and margarine (but has many other uses) and the
most common use of the protein residue is for in-
corporation into livestock feeds. However, since the
protein derived from soyabean is of such high quality
(in scientific terms it is said to have a "high biolo-
gical value") soya meal is now used in large quantities
for the manufacture of a number of highly nutritious
food and drink preparations particularly for babies
and young children.

Why soyabeans?
A consistent feature of the trade figures of Com-
monwealth Caribbean countries is the very high im-
portation of meat, milk and (until comparatively
recently) eggs. In an attempt to prevent further rise in
importation, considerable investment has been chan-
nelled into the livestock industries of many of the
territories and future plans include provision for even
more. Although this is most encouraging, it is of great
importance to recognize that "the rise in production
has been achieved by greatly increasing the importa-
tion of feedstuffs, particularly maize and soyabean
meal which are the principal carbohydrate and protein
constituents of animal feedstuffs.
Dependence on foiteign supplies is not only costly
(especially since the devaluation of sterling) but places
the whole industry in a position of weakness. It is
submitted that the newly expanded livestock industries
can begin to play a positive role in the economies of
the various islands only when the feed requirements,
which account for a high percentage of total costs of
production (especially in the case of pigs and poultry)
are met locally. Grass, managed well, can make a
greater contribution than it is doing at present (for
ruminant stock) but the by-products of the copra,
citrus and sugar industries can account for only a
small part of the current and projected requirements
for concentrates. Both soyabean and maize therefore
have a large and expanding home market for the
production of animal feedstuffs.
Shortfalls in copra -production quite frequently
occur and are made good to a large degree by the
importation of soyabean oil.. These shortfalls are due
to a number of factors which include unfavourable


C~aribbean Farming January 1969


SOYABEANS


A new crop for the West Indies

Article prepared for 'Caribbean Farming"
by R. W. Radley*
Dept. of Crop Science Faculty, of Agriculture
University of the West Indies, St.Augustine, Trinidad.





undoubtedly arise in the event of the crop being devel-
oped commercially.
The important findings
In Trinidad, a cultivar which has given good per-
formances consistently is F62/3977 which was obtained
from Florida State University. In the several trials in
which it has been included, it has yielded between 2100
and 2600 lbs. per acre, shown excellent standing
ability, matures in 110-125 days depending on planting
date and produces seed of good appearance with an
oil content of 18-22%~. A further screening trial is cur-
rently in progress at St. Augustine.
In Jamaica, the final choice of variety has not yet
been made; ten varieties selected from an original 64
are to be compared mna trial which wil be completed
by December, 1968, when a recommendation will be
possible. However it is already clear that given condi-
tions of good management seed yields in Jamaica are
very high indeed; in the first trial laid down in August,
1967 one variety yielded 3056 lbs./acre and in the
second trial planted mn February, 1968, another variety
exceeded 3600 lbs./acre (these yields, of course, were
achieved under irrigated conditions). .
Since the time of flowering and the maturity
period are both affected by even small changes in
daylength, the time of sowing of a soyabean crop is
particularly important. Also,- in the absence of irriga-
tion facilities, the crop must be planted at a time such
that it receives adequate moisture to sustain growth
- particularly during the pod-filling stage (5-6 weeks)
- followed by a reliably dry period to ripen the seed.
Work in Trinidad suggests that planting there should
be between March and October; sowing in the shorter
days of November to February leads to advanced
maturity, a reduction in mean plant height (important
if harvesting is to be mechanised) and lower seed
yields.
On the basis of results from four plant density
experiments, the recommended spacing for soyabean is
a row width of 22"-26" and within row spacing of
2V/2"-3V/2" although in terms of seed yield it is ap-
parent that the crop is able to tolerate quite wide
variation in density. At lower-than-recommended den-
sities, mean plant height is reduced, branching is more
profuse and pods are borne rather lower on the plant
(which is undesirable if harvesting is to be mech-
anised); at higher than recommended densities, the
risk of lodging is increased.
It has been found that chemical weed and insect


pest control measures are of vital importance. Season-
long weed control has been achieved in Trinidad using
Amiben applied pre-emergence followed by a "direct-
ed" application of Gramoxone at 5-6 weeks. On the
light, sandy soil of Twickenham Park, Jamaica,
Dacthal applied pre-emergence has. given very good
results. Where nut-grass is a problem both Vernolate
and EPTC, incorporated into the soil pre-planting,
have been found to be safe and effective.
Dipterex SP 80 applied at the rate of 14 grams
per gallon has given good caterpillar control when
sprayed at 7I-10-day intervals. DDT 25 ML and Folidol
M 48 have also given good results but due to considera-
tion of mammalian toxicity, Dipterex is-recommended.
Fertiliser work has been done on soyabean at one
location only on the River Estate loam of the Uni-
versity Field Station, Trinidad. Since fertilizer recom-
mendations are likely to vary widely according to
soil type, the results obtained are of limited value. On
this soil type, the only fertilizer required by the crop
(successfully inoculated with Rhizobium bacteria) is
2-2y'2 cwt./acre of superphosphate (48% Pa Os); in-
organic nitrogen reduced yields if anything and
potassium was virtually without effect.


Conclusion
Results gathered during the research programme
are without question sufficiently encouraging for de-
velopment work to be undertaken and for the prob-
lems of seed storage, processing and marketing to be
given serious attention. As most of the experiments
were done using small replicated plot techniques, the
next step of great importance will be the cultivation
of rather larger areas say 3-4 acre blocks using
the set of practices to emerge from the experimental
programme. During this exercise it should be possible
to assess the mechanisation problems and also to
determine the level of production feasible under con-
ditions likely to be encountered by farmers.
The potential profitability of the crop cannot be
predicted until rather more is learnt about costs of
production. Certainly, it will be influenced by the scale
of production and degree of mechanisation. In this
connection, consideration must be given to the whole
rotation which is to include soyabean. There are many
reasons for suggesting that the rotation should be
based on maize and soyabean but space does not allow
this issue to be discussed more fully.


HELP CLEAN UP WITH SHEEP
Many more farms could use a flock
of sheep to clean up crop stubbles
and weeds at little or no cost
to thre farmer.


Caribbean Farming January 1969

































. .with rotary cultivator blades.


LOCAL REACTION
Those who saw the machine with its implements
at work under Caribbean conditions have generally
been favourably impressed with its ease of handling
and the variety of tasks it can tackle. It is light enough
to be easily carried from job to job and yet appears
sturdy and simple.
The demonstrations in Jamaica were carried out
by Will's Battery Company of Kingston, the local
agents with Mr. Paul Capes of the Landmaster
Company assisting.


Landmaster with mouldboard plough.
acre cinder average light soil conditions up to 15 hours
per acre under more severe conditions.
In the words of the third report from the
Yugoslav Institute for Mechanisation io Agriculture -
the machine is of solid construction with very good
finish. Handling is easy and maintenance and ser-
vicing simple.
SPECIFICATIONS and ATTACHMENTS
The basic machine is of the two-wheeled walking
tractor type, the engine is a 148 c.c two-stroke petrol-
driven JLO and the standard working axle is 22"' long.
There is a choice between pneumatic traction tyres
and steel wheels with ratchet hubs.
Implements available for use with the Land-
master include ridging rotors and cultivator blades
in three types, mouldboard plough, adjustable ridger,
rotary grass cutter with 24" cut, 6000 GPH 2" irriga-
tion pump, seeders. A trailer is also available for the
transport of farm loads.


. .. with ridging rotors.


Caribbean Farming January 1969


USEFUL MACHINE

FOR

SMALL ACRES


There are thousands of farmers in the Caribbean
who could well be interested in a machine which has
been on demonstration in Jamaica during the past
few months.
The LANDMASTER L150 is shown being put
through its paces (pictures on this page). The manu-
facturers have published a 48-page booklet on the
plachine; in this it is reported that the Landmaster
is in use in 65 countries. The booklet also contains
reports from officially-recognised agricultural en-
gineering testing establishments where the machine
was worked under various conditions.
In East Africa, according to the report, the ma-
chine was tested as a rotary cultivator; it had a high
rate of work under favourable conditions and was
described as being capable of producing a good quality
of work under most conditions.
The report from India estimated operating costs
at about 2/5 to 2/7 per hour (58 to 62 BWI cents) and
the average output in ploughing at 8 to 12 hours per





.8 IUDGHMOULBOARD
Turns a perfect furrow at al
depth of 4 to 6 in, with al
9~ in.';~',d"s- wiefro.Ajs-
and fitted with Disc Coul-
ter & Skimmer*


RhOTLARdmse VmethON of direct power to the rotor glades is fast,
economical and efficient.
Any Width It's so easy to select and change the width of cultivation
BoasuitTyhe scroFor every type of soil condition.
Curved Blades for hard soil. Slasher Blades for general purpose
and trashy ground. Hoe Blades for inter-row hoeing and shallow
cultivation. Pick Tines for hard compact or stony ground.

RIDGING MOTORS OErat~eR in sgle o
For ridging special .- .]S _twin gang arrangements.
Crops with widths tol 9 Seeds can be sown
S suit all types of PUMp~ up to pea size.
plants.Delivery rate of up to 6,000 gal-
lons (27,258 litres) an hour. Ideal
for irrigation.


THRESHER
For threshing most
seed crops.


REVERSIBLE PLOUGH
Ideal for all types of wet
or dry ploughing. Spe-
cial paddy ploughing
wheels are available for
conditions.
Adjustable for depth
and width.


YEII ~ZI IE~ Z 113:~m~EY12~F1:1;1


Hor


33" (83-8cm)


POTATO LIFTER
For harvesting potatoes and sim-
ilar crops.
Sdjustable ro E1R in to
30 in. For planting and
splitting back.Used with
rotor blades,


ROTARY For cutting all types of
GRASS CUTT~ER grass, weeds, bracken
~L- and all over-grown
T aen s, roaodrid e ergosn
orchards paddocks, etc.,
)-I and fodo goun dcle
tion.


DOZER BLADE:
For snow and soil
clearing and gen-
'eral light dozing
duties.


P.T.O. AND FLEXIBLE DRIVE
A flexible drive can be fitted to
the L 150 to enable the use of
many proprietary attachments
such as hedge trimmer, chain
saw, drill, grinding wheel, etc.


FARMING


PROBLEMS?


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There is little doubt that varie-
ties of cane now available to farm-
ers are not being used to their best
advantage on the farm. With the
emphasis in farming being forced to
shift more and more towards cost of
production and the prevailing feel-
ing that mechanization will in itself
be a panacea, there is need to re-
mind the farmer that in agricultural
production it is the sum total of
small and regular improvements
that make for real progress and
profit. One of the surer ways of
achieving progress on the cane farm
is the better use of varieties.
High among the reasons f or the
present underusee" of varieties is
the farmers' lack of awareness of
the full potential of superior varie-
ties. We hope that these articles


will help to increase that awareness.
The following discussion focuses gen-
erally on the features of a good
variety and the points to consider
when deciding which variety to plant.
A second article will deal with the
proper use of varieties now available
and their suitability to different
farming environments. Some of the
newer varieties will also be intro-
duced.
VARIETY IMPROVEMENT:
Sugarcane originated in Southeast
Asia and had been cultivated in that
region for many centuries before the
Christian era. The original varieties
grown in t~he West Indies were
"noble" canes from India and Poly-
nesia. The great Creole cane from
India, brought; to the New World by
Columbus, was the only cane grown


in the Caribbean for 250 years. It
failed eventually because of Gum-
ming disease and was followed by
the equally famous Bourbon (Ota-
heite) cane from the Polynesian I's-
land of Otaheite. Bourbon was in
turn replaced by other varieties be-
cause of its susceptibility to dis-
eases.
Thus, variety improvement up to
the turn of this. century consisted
simply of substitution of varieties
after the failure of their predeces-
sors. These failures resulted in great
fluctuations in sugar production, as
typified in Louisiana where in the
mid 1920's mosaic and red rot caused
a decline in sugar production from
almost 250,000 tons per year to less
than 50,000 tons over a period of 2
crops.
Modern variety improvement is
much more than substitution. Mod-
ern breeding provides varieties
"tailor-made"' for the particular
needs of farming areas and situa-
tions and when used to full eco-
nomic advantage are usually the
cheapest means of increasing yields.
WHAT ARE THE FEATURES OF A
GOOD VARIETY?
The best sugarcane varieties are
those which return the largest yields
of sugar per acre in relation to the
period of growth and the cost and
ease of production. These varieties
fit the needs of the farmer. They are
efficient in their use of plant nutri-
ents and are well adapted to the
more inflexible conditions of a farm-
ing area such as high or low rain-
fall, prevalent pests and diseases,
and soil physical and chemical con-
ditions. These qualities in varieties


Caribbean Farming January 1969


Sugfarcane Varieties 3P

for


Caribbeanl Farmers

by Michael Shaw










variety which should not be over-
looked, is its ability to germinate
well even under difficult conditions.
This ability reduces the obvious cost
of supplying, but even more im-
portant; is the reduction in the time
lost in the establishment of the crop.
It should always be remembered that
time is an important factor of eco-
nomic yield. A variety which es-
tablishes quickly and forms a closed
leaf canopy in a short time also pro-
vides effective control of weeds.
With regard to ratooning, in Carib-
bean cane agriculture there are per-
haps 5 ratoons for each planting. It
is therefore most important that
varieties continue to produce well in
ratoon.
(c) Varieties should facilitate the
method of reaping.
The farmer whose canes are cut
without prior burning and loaded
manually will need to grow varie-
ties which are easy or free trashing
and otherwise acceptable to his
workers. They should be free from
spines on the leaf sheaths and the
leaves should not have sharp cut-
ting edges. These features are of
little importance where cane is burnt
before cutting. For mechanical cut-
ting, varieties should be erect-
(d) The ripening pattern of varie-
ties should be known.
Varieties differ not only in their
ability to store different amounts of
sugar, but also with regard to whe-
ther they ripen at the beginning or
middle of crop and whether they
hold their juice quality for a short
ar li 1 ti after the nripetn. s is
ciently exploited but it can make a
very real and large economic differ-
ence to the farmer. Take for example
B51410 in Jamaica. Its juice quality
before March is usually very poor
but it ripens rapidly and from mid-
March to July its quality compares
favourably with that of B4362.
B51129, on the other hand has excel-
lent juice quality from early Decem-
ber right through to the end of crop.
In between these is B51415, whose ex-
ceptionally good quality for a short
time during the first part of crop
usually declines very rapidly. It has
been known in 8 weeks to decline by
more than 3 tons cane/ton sugar re
sulting in a decrease of 1 ton sugar/
acre. This decline represents a fall
from an economically very profit-
able position to what might be a
marginal one.
These varieties all require differ-
ent schedules for reaping and it is
therefore most important that the
farmer is well aware of the ripen-

Caribbean Farming January 1969


ing characteristics of varieties before
planting them.
(e) Reaction of varieties to ferli-
lizer and irrigation.
All farmers know that fertilizer
and irrigation increase cane yields.
Most know that nitrogenous fertiliz-
ers usually reduce the sucrose con-
tent of their canes. Some are aware
that varieties respond differently to
fertilizer additions, but very few in-
deed cater to this difference in the
efficiency with which varieties use
fertilizer. The same is true of irri-
gation. Yet, very real economy in
cost of production could be made.
Part of the problem is, of course, the
dearth of information and its dis-
semination. The farmer should ask
about these features of varieties and
be prepared to exploit them. Let me
give one illustration based on ob-
servations from field experiments of
what is possible:
The sugar yield of B51129 when
4 cwt. of sulphate of ammonia was
applied was similar to that of
B4362 and B41227. However, when
8 cwt were applied the cane
yields of B41227 and B51129 in-
creased by 5)/2 tons per acre while
that of B4362 increased by only 2
tons cane/acre mainly because it
rotted at the higher yield. The
juice- quality of B4362 and B41227
worsened by almost %/ ton cane

B51290nwaofu ch gebut ahrela
tijve economic position of the var-
ieties which was similar at the
4 cwt. application changed dra-
matically. The profitability of
B4 hi decreased et~remely sharp
appreciably. The profit asetyof
B41227 was only slightly lowered.
The question of suitable treat-
ment for different varieties is im-
portant in good field husbandry. It
might make the farmer's job more
exacting but it is equally true that
his labour will not be spent in vain,
Fmnally, however satisfactory a
farmer might find any one variety
he should remember that it is risky
business to plant a single variety on
his farm. As an insurance against
the possibility of devastation by pest
or disease epidemic, he should never
have more than 60% of his farm in
a single variety. In addition to all
this, any monoculture, such as cane
farming in the Caribbean, encour-
ages the buildup of pest and disease
organisms which over many years
can gradually though almost un-
noticeably reduce yield. Continuous
growing of a single variety might
worsen this decline.


help to stabilize crop yields and
the farmer's income.
"Largest yields of sugar in rela-
tion to growth period (time), cost
and ease of production" may be
more conveniently referred to as
optimum economic yields. Every
farmer knows that what the factory
buys from him is the sugar in his
canes, but perhaps he is not suffi-
ciently aware of the full economic
advantage of higher sucrose content
in his canes. It is not enough to rea-
son, for example, that variety A
yields 42 tons cane per acre and the
juice quality is 10 tons cane/ton
sugar; variety B yields 35 tons cane
per acre and its quality is 9 tons
cane/ton sugar. Since A produces
over 4 tons sugar per acre and B
produces less than 4 under the same
conditions, then A is a better variety
to plant. The fact is that if other con-
ditions are equally advantageous to
both varieties, the "cost and ease of
production" could easily place B at
an economic advantage depending
among other factors on costs of hary-
est, transport, and manufacture.
This advantage resulting from high
juice quality is not easily offset and
is a prime factor in selecting varie-
ties for planting. There are, of
course, many other important fac-
tors some of which are discussed be-
low.
WHAT VARIETIES ARE SUITABLE
TO THE FARMERS' NEEDS?
The common practice of looking
over the fence and aping the neigh-
bour is often not an adequate way of
deidin what vaaiet esm Ifplan a

growing the most suitable varieties.
The factors which relate to the farm-
ers' choice of varieties are of three
types firstly, the inflexible con-
ditijons of his area, mainly climatic
and soil conditions and prevalent
pests and diseases; secondly, work-
er acceptability or adaptation to
mechanical handling, and thirdly
the farmer's own ability and willing:
ness to exploit the potential of sup-
erior varieties. These factors can be
detailed as follows:
(a) Varieties must be adapted to
the climatic and soil condi-
tions o~f the farming area.
Varieties differ in their tolerance
of different combinations of soil and
climatic conditions and it is the
farmer's business to find out first
hand from the appropriate source
which varieties are best adapted to
his conditions.
(b) Varieties must establish well
and ratoon well.
An important feature of a good























Rats are the major pest of coconuts in Jamaica,
and are a serious problem in coconut cultivation
throughout the Caribbean and the world. Coconut
farmers are familiar with the damage caused by rats
-- damaged fruit can always be seen on the ground
in coconut fields though the farmer does not always
associate the damage with the rat. It is a common
belief that the holes in the coconuts are caused by bats
("rat-bats") but in a simple experiment fixing
metal bands to the trunks of palms resulted in com-
plete cessation of the damage, proving that the bat,
which can fly into the crown of the palm, did not cause
the damage. Woodpeckers in Jamaica also damage
coconuts in some areas, but the damage is quite
different for the birds make a very much smaller hole
in the fruit than that made by rats.

dw .


and initially was very effective but today the bands
have fallen from many palms and rat damage is again
a serious problem. This method of control is expensive
and does not kill rats. The population might decrease
due to competition for food within the rat population
but by and large the rats will manage to find alterna-
tive sources of food often other economic crops
such as cocoa, sugar cane and bananas. A rat control
policy should thus be one of rat destruction.
Barn Owls and other owls should be encouraged
as their main diet is rats. It is impossible however,
for owls completely to rid an area of rats, for the
population of rats is too great and the owl population
is limited by territory size and lack of nesting sites.
The introduction of barn owls on the island of Mahe
in the Seychelles did not prove successful.
To achieve widespread acceptance, a rat poison
must be more or less specific to rats, and harmless
to man, his livestock and valuable wild life. The use
of poisons with a high mammalian toxicity, such as
arsenic and phosphorus compounds, is not to be re-
commended. Futhermore, these quick-acting poisons
are never successful as permanent methods of rat
control. The rat is a cautious animal and will become
'bait-shy' when offered these regularly. To be success-
ful, a long term programme, involving pre-baiting
with poison-free bait, must be used and, although
often successful in confined areas such as warehouses
and sewers, it is both unwieldly and expensive for
agricultural use.
Slow-acting poisons are much better for agriculture
and the use of anti-coagulant coumarin derivatives,
which are cheap, effective and fairly specific against
rats is without doubt the best method of rat control in
agriculture. The cheapest and most widely used of
these is warfarin, and the rat control programme in
coconuts in Jamaica is based completely on this
material.
Rat 'Blocks'
Research in Jamaica has led to the development
of the 'rat-block' (fig. 2). (now produced commer-
cially under the trade name 'Rattex Rat Blocks' in
Jamaica). These blocks contain warfarin, sugar and
cornmeal, mixed together and bonded with paraffin
wax. Blocks have the advantage of being resistant
to the weather thus making containers unnecessary
and are also preferred to the natural coconut diet by
rats in coconut fields. In other situations, such as
kitchens or grain stores, rats may prefer their normal
diet to the rat block, and the blocks may then be re-
jected by the rats. Rattex blocks have been developed
for use in coconut fields only: although they may be
effective in other situations, they should be tested be-
fore being recommended for general use.


Rat-damaged coconuts.
Measuring The Damage
The presence of a few rat-cut nuts under the coco-
nut palms is usually dismissed as being of negligible
importance, but actual count of damaged nuts in nine
coconut fields in Jamaica shows the rat damage, ex-
pressed as a percentage of the annual yield. Two of
these sites were selected as being reported "rat-free"
by the owners. At no site was damage less than 5%
of the annual yield, and in some areas was as high as
70% of the crop. Average damage for all fields was
over 20%. Even if we take an average figure of as low
as 10% of Jamaica's production, then rats cause a loss
of copra each year to the value of E150,000.
Control Methods
The surest way to prevent rat damage is to provide
a mechanical barrier or band preventing the rats
climbing the palms. If the bands are maintained in
good condition, are placed on every palm, and there
is no other way (such as via inter-planted trees) for
rats to climb the palms there will be no rat damage.
This method has been tried on the island of Tahiti


Caribbean Farming January 1969


Rats, Pests of Coconuts,

and


their Control

by Roger W. Smith















































Our work horse has wings!
AERO COMMANDER SNOW 110 600 H.P.P&W


B


total of 5 lb. block/acre/year is needed costing 10/-
(the cost of application a very simple operation of
dropping the blocks is negligible). A profit of 25/-
per acre can thus be achieved even looking at the
worst situation: low yield: low damage: high price for
blocks. Profits increase considerably where yield or
damage is higher, or block price is lower. The res-
ponse to rat control is very quick (as the fruit are
already on the palms and have only to be protected),
unlike the response to other agricultural practices
such as fertilizer application and weed control. In
Jamaica, also, every extra unit of coconuts sold in-
creases a farmer's automatic insurance cover against
hurricane loss and loss to .Lethal Yellowing disease,
and increases the farmers voting strength at general
meetings of coconut growers.
Some Problems
Extension work in Jamaica has revealed some
problems. Farmers are often reluctant to initiate a
control programme because they feel that rats will
always enter their field from neighboring properties
where rats are not poisoned. The farmer is unwilling
to keep killing his neighbour's rats. It has been
been shown however, that the application of blocks
regularly, as outlined above, will control damage
economically even on areas as small as 4 acres
- and in fact damage will be reduced a considerable
distance beyond the boundary of the treated area. It
is far better for a farmer to control damage on his
field at the expense of controlling a few of his
neighbours' rats, than to wait for ever until all his
neighbours agree to begin the programme together.
Secondly, farmers forget to re-apply blocks, however
satisfied they are with the results and need constant
reminders to re-treat the fields.


Rat blocks 40 lb. carton as sold in Jamaica.
The regular use of blocks will not reduce the
damage to zero, but will keep damage to a very low
level. For example, at one site the damage reduced
from 70% to 4% in 8 weeks.
Economics of Control
Let us look at the economics of rat control in coco-
nuts using rat blocks. In Jamaica depending on the
sales outlet, blocks are available at prices between
1/- per lb. subsidizedd) and 2/- per lb. (retail stores).
The following calculations are based on 2/- though this
is never paid by registered coconut farmers.
An average field of Jamaica tall coconuts will con-
tain 40 palms, yielding 35 nuts each per year, and will
have 10% rat damage. A total of 140 nuts will be lost
per acre per year, valued at about 35/- when sold at
the nearest copra drier. Effective control can be
achieved by placing pi lb. of rat block at the foot of
every 6th palm in the field, 3 times per year. Thus a


With eight aircraft of this type, CROP CULTURE
plays an important role in keeping Jamaican
agriculture healthy by spraying one and a quarter
million acres of bananaslannually. Some 100,000
acres of cane are also sprayed each year.

Banana growers and cane planters alike are aware
-of the tremendous benefits spraying has brought,
'not only to agriculture, but indirectly to the whole
Jamaican economy.

With operations covering the Caribbean, Central
and South America, CROP CU LTU RE is an
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Now we can offer a completely new service to
Jamaican Farmers AE RIAL F ERTI LIZATION.

Already proven in Australia and New Zealand
(yields have increased by as much as 300%), this
invaluable service is offered here at very competitive
rates. It will often prove far cheaper and more
effective than conventional methods. Call now for a
D. uotation.

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Caribbean Farming January 1969


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CARIBBEAN FARMING begins two new features in the next issue

Caribbean Cooking

specially for the housewife
Classified Column

for our advertisers and readers who have

something to sell, a job to fill,

a need to serve.


Nut-grass is too well known to
need describing and the difficulty
of controlling it also needs no men-
tion. There are, however, five che-
mical weedkillers which will control
it in varying degrees. The chemical
chosen will depend on the crop to
be grown after treatment and on
how much one-can afford to pay.
METHYL BROMIDE (sold in the
West Indies as DOWFUME) is the
most expensive treatment and the
most difficult to use but it is also
the treatment which can be used
with any crop and which really
kills the weed. The chemical is
highly poisonous to all life (includ-
ing human) but if the manufactur-
ers' instructions are followed it is
quite safe to use.

gatetahndl isB apmie b aas eialftum
applicator under a plastic sheet
which is fitted into a shallow trench
dug round the plot and sealed in by
throwing the soil back over the edge
of the plastic in the trench. If large
areas are to be treated it is easiest
to use long strips of plastic about
six feet wide rather than square
pieces. With the long strips it is
possible to plough out two parallel
trenches and then every day to free
just one side and turn it over -
and so on until the whole area has
been dealt with. The sheet is raised
a few inches above the ground by
wooden or wire hoops, large stones,
old bottles or coconut shells. Twenty-
four hours after treatment the plas-
tic sheet may be removed and forty-
eight hours later any crop may be
sown. A day or two before treatment


the soil should be damped down if
it has been dry for any length of
time so that weed seeds and nut-
grass tubers are not dormant.
Methyl bromide kills not only weeds
and weed seeds but all pest and dis-
ease organisms in the soil. As it is
necessary to apply 1 lb. per hundred
square feet the cost of treating an
acre is about 150 and so it is rarely
used for anything but nursery work.
Nut-grass may also be eradicated
by the use of HYVAR-X (Bromacil)
and SINBAR (terbacil). Tolerant
crops are citrus, pineapple and
sisal. In citrus they should be ap-
plied as a directed spray right up
to the base of the plants but in pine-
apple and sisal they may be sprayed
right over the crop. On heavy soils
in Trinidad SINBAR has proved to
be the better while in Jamaica on
light soils HYVAR-X has given
better results. In sisal, pineapple
and citrus nurseries about 1%/ to 4
lb. per acre of product are used -
the lower rate on light soils and the
higher on heavy soils. Around es.
tablished citrus (plants over 2-3
years old) higher rates can be used
- up to 5 lb. of commercial product
per acre. On fence lines, paths or
other ground which is not put into
crops the application of 10 12 lb.
per acre will control nut-grass and
most other weeds for up to a year.
Both compounds should be applied
only to a moist soil or where rain
is expected within a day or so of
spraymng.
The last two compounds which
will kill nut-grass are EPTAM and


VERNAM. Both of these will keep
nut-grass and several annual grasses
in check for up to six weeks and
there are several crops which may
be planted shortly after application.
In each case the compound is mixed
about three inches deep into the soil
by rotovator or offest double disc;
if the soil is absolutely dry, mixing
can be delayed for an hour or so
without any loss of activity but if the
soil is at all moist mixing must be
done within five minutes of spray-
ing.
VERNAM is used for cucurbits
(cucumber, cantaloupe, pumpkin
and watermelon) one pint per
acre should be applied a week be-
fore sowing. EPTAM is used at
about two pints/acre beans (red
peas) and corn may be planted the
day after treatment but for the fol-
lowing crops at least three days
should be allowed before sowing or
transplanting brassicas (cab-
bage, cauliflower) carrots, toma-
toes, onion, pigeon peas (gungo),
soyabean and sweet potato. Other
crops have proved not tolerant. If
the ground was absolutely dry at
time of treatment and remains so
until planting the time between
treatment and sowing should be
doubled. The usual pre-emergence
herbicides may be applied after
EPTAM or VERNAM for the control
of broad-leaved weeds.
Top growth of nut-grass may be
controlled by several foliage sprays
including 2, 4-D and GRAMOXONE
but re-growth can be expected to
start within a week or so.


Caribbean Farming January 1969


Controlling Nut-Grass ~with Chernicals

by L. Kasasion




































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It is worth noting that, as "catch" crops occupy-
ing land which has been prepared for sugar cane
and which has to be kept weeded for the new cane
crop, these provision crops are not considered as
attracting any costs for land preparation, weeding,
management or other overheads. They therefore con-
stitute a source of cheap food for the local population.
Until a few years ago the price of root vegetables was
controlled at 2$ per lb. ex field: the price is no longer
controlled and generally rising costs have sent prices
up to 4 or 5 cents per lb., still low compared with many
other territories. (1 cent E.C. f/d.).
LEGISLATION
The sugar estates in Barbados occupy 50,000 out
of the total arable acreage of 69,000 72% of the land:
clearly what they choose to grow or not to grow could
greatly influence food production in Barbados. It is
perhaps not surprising, therefore, that in World W~ar
II, when the Government was forced to drastically
reduce all imports, legislation (The Local Food Pro-
duction (Defence) Control Order 1942) was passed
requiring all estates to plant a minimum acreage in
food. In 1940-41 this minimum was 10%, but owing
to the serious U-boat menace in the Caribbean it rose
to 35% between 1942 and 1945. Currently the law re-
quires 12% of the arable acreage to be planted with
foodcrops, including 10z% in "thrown-out land", viz.
land which will not be put into cane at the end of the
year. The other 1002% is normally preparation land,
and the result is to produce fooderops virtually all the
year round. In the preparation land sweet potatoes,
for example, are harvested from Septemberz onwards
to about January and yams from November to Feb-
ruary. Corn, peas and beans are harvested from
September onwards. From, thrown-out land potatoes
are harvested from about February to June or July.
LIVESTOCK
The law is also concerned with livestock, and de-
mands that one cow or pig, or 5 sheep, be kept for
every 20 acres of estate land.
The arithmetic of these equivalents is that one cow
is expected to produce 400 lb. of meat in two years (a
low figure, but realistic under the poorer types of
husbandry still practised in Barbados). A pig should
yield 100 lb. of meat in 6 months, so keeping one pig
continuously (actually it would be four pigs, one after
another) for 2 years would also produce 400 lbs. of
meat. A sheep in its 12 months of life produces only
about 40 lb. of meat; so 5 sheep would have to be kept
throughout a two-year period to give 400 lb. of meat.
In practice there have been no major changes in
legislation in the past several years. The present pro-
duction of provision crops, with the exception of coin,
is just about what is required for the local market;


The West Indian countries in general, although
primarily agricultural, are large importers of food.
There are, of course, historical reasons for this;
these territories were for centuries regarded as pro-
ducers of raw materials, mainly agricultural, and as
outlets for the products of metropolitan countries, in-
cluding food.
The case of Barbados is particularly serious. The
island is small, only 166 square miles, with almost a
quarter of a million inhabitants, one of the world's
most densely populated countries. Of the total arable
acreage of about 69,000, 60,000 is planted in sugar cane.
Agriculture represents 93% by value of the gross
visible exports and sugar accounts for some 96% of
this, with a annual income of $35 to $40 million; the
Island's food bill amounts to about three quarters of
these earnings. The best current estimate is that local
production amounts to some 60,000 short tons out of
a total human food consumption of 118,500 short tons
- just over 50% by weight, though providing only
about 40% of the calories. To be fair, however, it must
be pointed out that about 24,000 tons of animal feeding
stuffs are imported annually, in addition to the 58,500
tons of food for direct human consumption.

FOOD CROPS
Further, Barbados has been producing food for a
very long time: the original settlers were more nearly
self supporting than we are, but with the development
of a plantation economy, greater dependence develop-
ed on imports, particularly for the managerial and
merchant classes. Estates did, however, grow so-called
provision crops for slaves yams (which were
originally used for provisioning slave ships coming
from Africa), sweet potatoes, corn, okras, guinea
corn, peas and beans. These food crops are those still
predominantly grown today, to the extent of some 60
million pounds per year, and they are still classed
under the name of "provisions".
Provision crops are normally grown on sugar
plantations as catch crops between the harvesting of
the sugar~ cane in the early part of the year, i.e. the
dry season, and the planting of the new crop at the
end of the year, at the end of the wet season. After
the final ratoon of sugar cane is harvested the land
is tilled ready for the next cane crop, the so-called
"preparation land", but instead of being allowed to lie
vacant it is planted in "provisions", which have the
advantage of the wet season for growth, but which
have the disadvantage of being grown in land prepared
for cane, not for the foodcrop in question. With crops
such as yams which take a long time to mature
(8 months), the new crop of young cane is planted
between the maturing yam plants: most others are
harvested before planting starts,


Caribbean Farming January 1969


Production of


Food on Sugar Estates


in Barbados

by E. G. 8. Gooding
























































The Hon. G. Arthur Brown
Governor, Bank of Jamaica, stated recently:--

"Sugar is not only a great employer of
labour-- the industry in fact is one of the
most efficient means of distributing in-
comes right through to the lowest income
groups of the community; the earnings of a
ton of sugar have a much wider impact
through this automatic distributive mech-
anism than the earnings of any other similar
commodity."

THE SUGAR MANUFACTURERS' ASSOCIATION

(it (OF JAMAICA)


indeed there is a surplus of yams which is exported.
There is no doubt that the law has served a valuable
purpose; for several years root crops were controlled
at prices which were uneconomic to the planter, and
but for the law these root crops might have virtually
disappeared. Similarly cattle and pig raising on sugar
estates is even today uhprofitable or may barely pay
its way; the livestock population of Barbados would
also have severely dwindled but for the law. Currently
provision crops are much more attractive economi-
cally than they were during the period of price control
and for some years now plantations have exceeded
their minimum legal requirements.
ANNUAL PRODUCTION
Rough estimates of annual production of some
major food items are root vegetables 28,000 short
tons (sugar plantations producing 90%), corn 900 tons
(plantations 600 tons), green vegetables 1,100 tons
(plantations 50%), meat 2,665 tons (plantations 25%).
Fish provide an important part of the food about
7,000 tons are landed annually.
The food control legislation has been valuable -
but it seems that there must be something wrong with
an economic system which requires legislation to
ensure food production.
It is the hope of those of us who work in the food
reductionn industry in Barbados that our work along
with improvements in the marketing system will
make the production of food at prices acceptable
to the consumer a sufficiently attractive proposi-
tion so that legislation will no longer be required tO
ensure adequate output.


Why are
m
5 S
11 M


Sugar earnmgs


SO Important

a a gg ggg Iga
U WH 1 MMSH &


OCOHOMy




19017 FOreign Exchange Earnings Available
60? LOC&i 080
Exports Foreign Exchange Retained Percentage of
b .of Cost of Exports Earnings Gross Retained


_Ir__ _Ilil_


Merchandise Exports
1. Sugar, Rum and
Molasses 17,701
2. Bananas 6,562
3. Bauxite and Alumina 39,635
4. Petroleum Products 2,217
5. Manufactured Good 5,032

71,147
Invisible (Jmm)
1. Tourism 28.7
2. Transfers (Private) 6.9

35.6
*Estimated


2,832
1,509
22,592
1,796
4,026


14,869
5,053
17.043
421
1,006


32,755 38,392


11.2 17.5 61
-6.9 100

11.2 24.4 68


Caribbean Farming January 1969


C AN~JANUYIS


The Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute's
bi-monthly newsletter 'CAJANUS' is directed
to all workers in health, education, community
development and agriculture whose profes-
sional concerns relate to human nutrition or
the production in the Caribbean of nutritious
foods. CAJANUS is distributed gratis. Re-
quests for inclusion on the mailing list should
be directed to The Editor, CAJANUS, C.F.N.I. '
U.W.1, P.O. Box 140, Kingston 7, Jamaica.





































Wash utensils with detergent solution before storing
away and again when they are taken down for use.
under the hover if the chicks huddle together under
the hover it means that they are cold, if they are
spread out with few of them actually under the hover
it means that they are too warm. The farmer should
adjust the hover temperature accordingly.
Programming for high production
Dr. Waters spoke of the steps necessary to what
he called programming the bird for high production
- vaccination and gradual exposure to the disease
organisms that the bird will encounter later in life.
A bird that is properly nourished, he said, will over-
come many of the natural stresses that it encounters
without any assistance from the farmer. However, if
the bird is on marginal nutrition, the farmer will have
to assist that bird in many ways with antibiotics,
drugs, etc. to fight its battle.
All in, all out.
It would be best if the farm carried only birds of
one age the all in, all out system. Where this is not
possible for the farm as a whole, it should be the
practice for each individual fowl-house on the farm -
no building should house birds of different age-groups.
It should be easy to arrange where there are
birds of different ages on the farm for the staff
always to look after the younger birds first in the day
and then proceed to the older birds. This reduces the
risk of spreading disease from older to younger birds
- and it should apply not only to feeding and water-
ing but also to egg-collection and other chores.
Especially where there are birds of different age
groups on a farm, a foot-bath is a good idea an
iodine-based disinfectant in the foot-bath is ideal, not
because this is more effective than other chemicals
but because it changes colour when it loses its
strength.


Dr. Waters


Caribbean Farming January 1969


1Maintaining

Peak Production

an1

Poultry Flocks



Earlier this year Corgon Hatcheries of Kingston,
Jamaica held a three-day seminar on poultry produc-
tion and poultry diseases. Among the speakers was
Dr. Gary Waters, Service Director of Hy-Line Poultry
Farms of Iowa, USA. Dr. Waters visits his company's
customers all over the world and his advice on
management was well received by the fifty-odd farm-
ers who attended the Corgon seminar.
To illustrate the part management plays in the
success of poultry farming Dr. Waters told of chicks
hatched in Minnesota and carried to Japan in a two-
day rail and air journey at the end of which mor-
tality rates are regularly lower than with chicks which
leave the Minnesota hatcheries and are raised on
farms within the State.
The Japanese who handle the chicks at the end of
their journey make it their business to take each indi-
vidual bird out of the box and dip its beak in water to
be sure that it gets water before it is introduced to
feed.
Dr. Waters stressed the importance of this practice
especially for day-old chicks that have travelled for
several hours. He said that the Japanese take care to
check the temperature of the litter on which the baby
chicks are placed they do this by placing their
cheek down on the litter. The best temperature for
day-old chicks, said Dr. Waters, is 900 F at a height of
about two inches off the floor. A good guide as to the
comfort of the chicks is the way they group themselves


I~










Protein need for point-of-lay birds
At this stage when birds are dropping their first
eggs, body growth has not yet finished they are
now particularly in need of protein. The nutritionists
calculate that such birds need about 18 grams of pro-
tein per bird per day until ninety days after the flock
has reached 50% egg production. Then protein may
be reduced to about 16 grams per day this is crude
protein. This is where records help the farmer
should know how much feed his birds are eating from
week to week.
There are many farms nowadays, Dr. Waters
said, which are automated to the point of disaster.
The people never see the chickens, they push buttons
to start feeding, to start egg-collection. They know
something is wrong when the eggs stop coming that
is at least a week too late. Observation is a key
feature of good management.
Ventilation
As the temperature in the fowl-house reaches
900 F with 55% relative humidity the bird can no
longer control its body heat; as the body heat goes
up, its ability to produce eggs goes down. It is better
to have birds where the temperature goes down at
nights and up in the day rather than have a uniform
temperature a few degrees difference is all that is
needed.
Parasite control is very important in areas with
high humidity especially in deep litter systems.
Internal parasites worms and external parasites
- lice, mites can cause serious losses in the flock.
Roosts are recommended although many farms
do quite well without them. If pullets are going to have
roosts in the laying house, they should have them
during their early life. Growing pullets should have
four inches of roost space per bird, with eight inches
between roost poles. In the laying house, roost~ poles
should be twelve inches apart, with six inches of
roost space per bird.
Roosts help by getting the birds off the litter at
night, removing them from soiling material and giving
them better ventilation. Droppings pits make an effec-
tive supplement to roosts.
Nest space should provide one nest to every five
birds in -a quality egg market, adequate nest space
is important to ensure clean eggs; with enough nest
space there is less tendency for birds to lay on the
floor. Once they start to lay on.the floor it is very hard
to break the habit.


Buildings are sprayed with disinfectant after they
have been scrubbed with soap and water.

Preparing the house for a new flock involves re-
moving all dung and dirt with soap and water and
then following with good disinfecting. "You disinfect
clean surfaces from which dirt has been removed"
said Dr. Waters.
Keeping a good set of records from stage to stage
is very important. For example, the farmer should
make a note of the medication used on the pullet
flock this could be important information for the
veterinarian or pathologist who may be called in to
help at a later stage in the life of the birds. A good
vaccination record is important the farmer should
keep a record of the serial lots of the vaccine. From
time to time vaccines are issued and through trans-
portation or other difficulties, they are left sitting
about somewhere without cooling and eventually the
vaccine is killed. Later the manufacturer or supplier
may inform their customers that serial lot of vaccine
number so-and-so has had an accident; if the farmer
knows the serial number of the vaccine he used, he
will be able to know whether his birds need re-
vaccinating. It will certainly be too late if the farmer
waits until his birds are exposed to disease.
Point-of-lay
A pullet just coming into lay should not be fat -
muscle and bone is what we want. The leaner, lighter
bird is preferable (at this stage) to the heavier, fat
bird. For Hy-Line pullets, a 2.75 to 2.9 lb. weight at
twenty weeks is optimum. Birds weighing more than
this very often have a pad of abdominal fat which
imposes physiological strains and may retard the
normal course of coming mnto lay. Prolapse (blow-outs)
may be associated with this condition.


Section round hover prepared for baby chicks.


Caribbean Farming January 1969












































































Soed to /LLr6 -,


Nests should be darkened to encourage the birds
to use them and there should be no other warm,
dark spots in the house other than the nests.
Litter condition is very important. Warm, moist,
dark litter is a perfect place for bacteria to grow.
Proper litter control includes keeping the litter from
crusting or matting, stirring the litter, seeing that it
is dry and deep enough. The frequency of stirring
which litter needs to keep it in good condition varies
with a number of factors only observation can tell
the farmer how often he should stir the litter in his
houses.
Some danger signs. A sudden drop in feed con-
sumption is often the earliest disease sign. If birds
drink more water than usual and if they dip their
wattles in the drinking water this may be a sign of
disease involving a fevered condition.
See if the birds gape or rattle when they breathe,
look out for running noses, extended wings, open
mouth, ruffled feathers, birds huddling together. Some
of these are early signs of coccidiosis. Look out for
blood-tinged or unusually-coloured droppings also
for droppings that are different from normal in con-
sistency.
Egg production rate is a chief indicator of the
health status of the flock and any abnormality in
egg size or shape could be a sign of trouble. When
spraying insecticides, read the directions; there are
some chemicals that should not be sprayed on to the
birds.
Observe the colour of the birds are the eyes
cloudy, the mucous membranes pale? Birds with a
heavy yellow pigmentation are not likely to be laying
well; bleached shanks are normally the sign of birds
that are laying satisfactorily. C.R.





Vaughan's was established in I876 and enjoy
a reputation of supplying the highest quality
seeds for the commercial vegetable grower.
Vaughan's vegetable seeds are obtainable from
the following seed dealers in your area who
will be pleased to serve you:
BRYDEN & EVELYN LTD.
KINGSTON, JAMAICA
ST. VINCENT MARKETING BOARD
KINGSTOWN, ST. VINCENT
MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, LABOUR
& NATIONAL INSURANCE
BARBADOS, WEST INDIES
RAMON L. BAEZ e hiio C. por A.
SANTO DOMINGO, REPUBLICIA DOMINICA



VADUGHAN'S SEED COMPANY
CHIMNEY ROCK ROAD
BOUND BROOK, NEW JERSEY.



i5 C ibb F


Well begun is half done.


ar ean armng


iln


PC N 21


















































Control of Parasites in Beef Cattle
"Excerpt from "STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE", REYNOLDS
JAMAICA MINES, LTD. AND AFFILIATED COMPANIES IN JAMAICA.

(b) Adult cattle will be treated
a with Thibenzole once per year
. e'(during the month of June.
o to (c) On Units 4X and 13H, Minel
bdy 4 9 o. swill be administered in addi-
o tion to Thibenzole at 8 months
-- and 12 months in the case of
calves and every December
n qFEin the case of adult animals.
a ortThe following dosages are re-
he commended :

a -Trm rs -. ,-, ; ; 4 .. .Thibenzole:
D la 3 grammes or 14 teaspoonful
per 100 lbs., body weight.

Minel :
1 lb. to 2 pints of water ad-
ministered as follows:
1. (a) AII cattle at 2 months. 10 ( i ) 6 months to 12 months of
months and 15 months of age age .... 4 fluid ounces
w~ill be treated writh Thiben. (i i) Yearlings
role .... 6 fluid ounces


Caribbean Farming January 1969





(iii) Should conditions appear
to warrant more fre-
quent dipping, this will
be done only on the auth-
ority of an Assistant
Superintendent, and in
no case will this be at
less than 14 days inter-
val.
(iv) Calves under 3 months
of age should not be dip-
ped or sprayed in full
strength solution, except
where Asuntol is used.
(b) Dipping of cattle is a very
exacting operation and must
be personally supervised by
the foreman. No shortcuts or
guessing of measurements
will be tolerated.
(c)( i) Animals should not be
dipped when they are hot
or tired, which occurs
when they have been
driven long distances.
They should be dipped
in the early morning.
(i i) Cattle should not be pen-
ned adjacent to dipping
facilities for more than
three hours. Under no
circumstances should
cattle be penned next to
a dipping tank overnight.
For some reason, cattle


(iii) 18 months of age
...7 fluid ounces
(iv) Adult animals
..10 fluid ounces
2. Twice per year, usually in Jan-
uary and June, calves over one
month of age will be treated with
lungworm vaccine (Dictol). This
is administered by drench. Indi-
vidual doses are prepared by the
manuf acturers The treatment
consists of two doses given one
month apart. Weaning will be
delayed during treatment and two
weeks thereafter.
3. In order to ensure that the above
schedule is strictly carried out,
a list indicating the animals to be
treated will be compiled and for-
warded from this office on appro-
priate dates.
4. Screw worm smear will be pro-
vided for all units and is to be
promptly applied as a dressing
for any wound or open sores
which may be infected by flies.
5. (a)( i )Normally, in the last
week of each month, all
cattle including calves
over three weeks, will
be dipped or sprayed for
tick control.
(i i) In unit 6V, dipping will
be controlled by visual
inspection.


do not mind drinking an
arsenic solution, and
therefore, if the only
water to which they have
access contains arsenic,
they will readily drink
it and it will just as
readily kill them.
(d) Insecticides for dipping will
be stored and mixed in ac-
cordance with Annex 1 attach-
ed.
6. (a) Every effort will be made to
prevent flood water from en-
tering the dip tank. If drain-
age is poor around any of
these facilities, please advise
the Superintendent immedia-
tely so that corrective steps
can be taken.
(b) When it is decided that a dip
tank is to be emptied, a large
hole should first be dug next
to the dip tank and the entire
contents of a dip tank pumped
into this hole. Never pump
the contents of a dip tank on
the ground as all dip is in-
soluble and will remain in the
earth forever.
7. The antidote for Asuntol is a sub-
cutaneous injection of 3 c.c. to
10 c.c. of Atrapine Sulphate 1%.
C. D. Gill,
Farm Manager.


Well known for quality all over the
variety of sprayers of all types and
contact us or our local distributors:


Caribbean Islands. Great
sizes. For details please


Jamaica: Bryden & Evelyn Ltd., Kingston
Guyana: T. Geddes Grant (Guyana) Ltd., Georgetown
Barbados: DaCosta & Musson Ltd., Bridgetown
Trinidad: T. Geddes Grant Ltd., Port-of-Spain
Dominica: T. D. Shillingford, Roseau
St. KitEs: S. L. Horsford & Co. Ltd., Basseterre
J. W. Thurston & Co. Ltd., Basseterre
St. Lucia: J. Q. Charles Ltd., Castries
Grenada: Royal Agencies Ltd., St. George's


W. BIESTERFELD & CO.
2000 HAMBURG 1 GERMANY
Ferdinandstrasse 41


Caribbean Farming January 1969


J ;3 I.`L~c~l,~-;l~


SPRAYERS















CARIBBEAN FARMING has re-
ceived copies of the reports men-
tioned below. They were all sub-
mitted this year by graduate stu-
dents of the University and read-
ers who are interested in the sub-
jects covered by the reports are n-
vited to write to CARIBBEAN
FARMING.

MECHANISED HARVESTING OF
SUGAR CANE by H. D. Franks is
a technical, economic and social
evaluation of the effects of the in-
troduction of mechanical harvest-


-. d ~1
ni ri4i ~ rl
e.~v~~ji ~ i~ ~d ~i [ 5 s


ers into the Trinidad sugar industry.

A CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF
WHOLESALE MARKETING AS
CONDUCTED BY THE MARKET
GARDENERS OF ARANJUEZ,
TRINIDAD by Richard H. Pickering
is a report on the wholesale mar-
keting of vegetables in Trinidad and
in particular on the progressive
small farmers who grow vegetables
on the 400-acre Aranjuez Estate for
the Port of Spain market.

THE SCOPE FOR MECHANISA-


TION OF VEGETABLE PRODUC-
TION IN ARANJUEZ, TRINIDAD
by Robert A. Reader examines the
prospects for introducing mechanic-
al ridging and transplanting, me-
chanical irrigation, power-operated
knapsack sprayers and small horti-
cultural tractors into the market
garden operations at Aranjuez.
AN ECONOMIC SURVEY OF
FLUE-CURED TOBACCO PRO-
DUCTION IN TRINIDAD by T. E.
Bourne is a report of costs and re-
turns on twenty-one tobacco farms
of two to eight acres in Trinidad.


Correspondent Banks in: Atlanta, Chicago, London, Miarni, New York,
San Francisco, Toronto and all Caribbean countries.




Ib n 4,11-


CARIBBEAN FARMING begins two new features in the next issue
Caribbean Cooking

specially for the housewife
Classified Column
for our advertisers and readers who have

something to sell, a job to fill,
a need to serve.


Caribbean Farming January 1969


What's new in Jamaica?,
We are! Jamaica's first independent bank, conceived by Jamaicans for Jamaica. Offering a complete
range of financial services for all your banking needs, domestic or international. If you have
business in Jamaica, contact us.


BANK
H ead Of fice: 4 K ing St.,K ingstonJama ica
CABLE: Jamcitbank TELEX: 29
































One fundamental difference be-
tween growing cacao in Jamaica
and elsewhere in the world is that
at least until recently there were no
pests or diseases of consequence to
contend with here, while in most
cacao areas they have at least a few,
some of them quite serious. The ori-
ginal cacao here was a form of
Trinitario established as seedlings
many years ago. When a cacao de-
velopment programme was started
here, it was based on planting rooted
cuttings of certain clones from Trini-
dad. Not all of these clones proved to
be very satisfactory either here or
in Trinidad and many were later
abandoned there. The propagation of
the cuttings was expensive and when
hybrid seedlings came into use they
were eventually adopted here in Ja-
maica. The hybrid seedling tends to
produce a tree that is shaped like
a tree and does not require expensive
and skillful pruning.
Young plants were put in, using
bananas as shade, economically the
best nurse crop because of the es-
tablished market for bananas. For a
fairly long time the two crops con-
tinue to produce almost as well as
they would individually, but when
the cacao gets canopy that is dense
it shades the young banana followers
enough so that the cacao takes over,
Our oldest cacao here is 16 years old
and we still have enough bananas in
it to pay to reap them, except in cer-
tain cases where we have removed
the bananas deliberately.
While bananas were being spray-
ed with Bordeaux mixture there was
little or no trouble with Black Pod,
but when they began to spray the
.banana disease with oil, there was
;no longer any copper to inhibit the
growth of the fungus and slowly


this disease began to take its toll.
Losses as high as 40% due to it were
not uncommon. At the same time,
there was a fairly heavy loss due to
rat damage if no steps were taken
to prevent it. So that today, to grow
cacao commercially here it is ne-
cessary to control rats and spray for
fungus.
The rat control we use is in the
form of Warfarin in blocks made up
of bait and covered with paraffin
wax. These can be dropped on the
ground in the plantation at about the
rate of 8 lbs per year per acre and
adequate control results. Carefully
controlled trials by the Plant Pro-
tection Division at Egypt Pen show-
ed that under these conditions rat
damage could be held to 2%l of the
ripe pods. There is also about a 1%
loss to birds on ripe pods but this
can be higher if ripe pods are left
on the tree long.

SPRAY PROGRAMME
In our spray programme we use
KOCIDE-101 made by Kennecott
Copper Corp at the rate of 1%/ lbs
per acre with mist blowers using
about 25 gallons of water per acre.
This gives fair control and in the
case of the trials conducted by the
Plant Protection Division of the Min
istry of Agriculture the loss from
Black Pod was reduced to 2%o from
an uncontrolled figure of 35%. KO-
CIDE is 36% cuprous hydroxide-
which is the useful ingredient in
Bordeaux mixture. Like Bordeaux it i
sticks well in rain and the spray is
actually directed only to the pods,
no attempt being made to spray the
foliage. Mist blowers with a device
to kick the spray upward are best
for this purpose.
We can cover about 180 acres with

Caribbean Farming January 1969


five Mistblowers in a cycle of 21
days, weather permitting. On the
whole plot we have used only three
cycles per year, all in the rainy sea-
son, but on the Plant Protection Divi-
sion trials they used six the first
season and are now trying one half
of the plot using a six week cycle in-
stead of three weeks. So far the re-
sults seem good.
Another possible development re-
lates to KOCIDE being used as an
oil suspension. This is now under
trial at Orange River Station of the
Ministry. If it proves to give a much
longer cycle, as it well might, and
if it can be used as an emrulsion
with much less water, the trouble of
providing water at convenient loca-
tions would be helped. Also it can
be noted that the small grower rare-
ly has any facility for storage of
water in sufficient quantity.
As to the cost of spraying we
found it didn t; matter what it cost,
due to a peculiar case of synergistic
effect. On the original trials by the
Plant Protection Division, they care-
fully counted all pods reaped, whe-
ther healthy or diseased. To our
great surprise and puzzlement. the
number of pods per tree was 60%
greater in the sprayed area. At first
we were inclined to think that may-
be the reduction of the disease re-
sulted in less cherelle wilt. But later
Son we found a reference in the lit-
/erature to work done in Costa Rica
which confirmed additional fruit set
with the use of mist blowers no mat-
Ster what the liquid that was used,
Including water only. (And by per-
Ssonal letter from the author, even
:air only). Thus it seems that the
cacao flower, which is a notoriously
bad pollinatpr is shaken up in a way

25


Letter from a Farmer

H. E. Wheeler writes on cacao
growing
H. E. Wheeler is one of the leading
cacao growers in Jamaica. He farms
at Egypt Pen near Highgate, Ja-
maica in the eastern high-rainfall
part of the Island. This is the Is-
land's principal banana-growing
area.
















I ~Eg~i,


that spreads the pollen more effec-
tively.
This brings up a lot of new ideas,
some of them really startling.
1. The cacao tree has always been
considered to be self-regulating as
to crop, depending on the ecology, it
will normally slough off by cherelle
wilt enough fruit to avoid killing it.
self (unlike the coffee tree). With
this artificial pollination it may be
possible to overwork the tree to the
danger point. Our own experience
seems to confirm this.
2. When in Ghana they used mist
blowers to kill the Capsid bug they
had a sudden jump of about 10% in
crop, which nearly ruined the mar-
ket for beans. How much, if any of
this jump might have been due to
increased pollination will now be
hard to assess.
3. In our own case, we are this
year trying the experiment of blow-
ing the trees with an empty mist
blower when they are in bloom. In
other words, we are convinced.
4. It is already becoming evident
that other crops can be stimulated to
higher fruit set with mist blowers
and it also appears that increases
attributed to some chemical used
may have been due entirely to the
blast.
REAPING AND YIELDS
Some reaping goes on all year
round but there are two main crops
and in our case the Spring crop is
by far the main one. although this
varies with the location on the Is-
land. Not too far away are places
where the old type cacao bears most
heavily in the Fall. The reaping is
done mostly by women who break
the pods in the field and put the wet
beans into sacks that can be carried


by mules to a truck road. All are
then brought to one point and meas-
ured into the standard boxes used
by the Cocoa Industry Board,
12" x12" x13" inside. As they are
filled they are counted and dumped
into the Board's truck and taken to
the fermentary, where they are fer-
mented and dried either for use here
by local manufacturers or shipped
overseas. As this is being written the
world price of beans is high due to a
greater consumption than production
these past three years, leaving a
shortage of about 300,000 tons of
beans in the world market.
One feature of growing cacao here
that came as a complete surprise
was the fact that the crop produced
very well under drought; conditions.
We had removed nearly all shade
from our cacao thinking that ade-
quate fertilizer would be enough pro-
tection to the trees but we did suf-
fer quite a bit of dieback toward the
end of the period of drought, es-
pecially where the trees were sub-
ject to strong winds. We do not in-
tend to go back to using shade, and
would in future rely on using more
fertilizer before the normal dry
period-
Since we do not have tree counts
for all the acreage we cannot give
meaningful yield figures, but for the
year just over, we did furnish 3,908
boxes of wet beans and in this dry
period I would think the dry yield
would run 25 lbs. per box, which at a
rough approximation would indicate
about 500-plus lbs. per acre. At
Orange River Station nearby they
have had yields, they tell me, of
1,000 to 1,500-on small plots and
purely as experiments, not on a com-
mercial basis.


Title 'Commercial Vegetable Growing'

Author H. D. Tindall
Publisher Oxford University Press,
1968. 300pp.
Tropical vegetable growers include
farmers working small hillside
patches of land and those whose
operations are highly mechanised
and stretch across acres of fertile
irrigated level land. Between them
is every gradation. To offer success-
fully one book to all these farmers,
requires careful selection of mat-
erial.
Most of this book is given over to
crops listed alphabetically by com-
mon names and to which are added
details of botany, growing require-
ments, nutritional value and uses,
The summary of agronomy for each
crop is useful and is set out in
simple fashion. To take one example,
the agronomy section for Okra in-
cludes comments on soil prepara-
tion, method of propagation, plant-
ing and spacing, fertilizer treatment
general cultivation, pests, diseases,
time to maturity and method of har-
vesting.
The distance over which. crops
must be hauled increases as vege-
table growing becomes a larger and
more specialised affair. It is there-
fore rather disappointing that
'Handling and Storage of perishable
produce' receives only brief treat-
ment.
The least satisfactory features of
the book are the illustrations. Some
of the photographs are small and
with inadequate contrast and defi-
nition, particularly those showing
pea and groundnut harvesting, en-
dive, onion weeding and soilless cult-
ivation. On page 145 there is an il-
lustration of four kinds of legume
seed where no detail whatever is
discernible and where in one case
even the label is barely legible.
Again, the author refers briefly to a
'Chinese' level for terrace prepara-
tion. The details are not given how-
ever, nor is it illustrated.
Apart from these criticisms, a
book like this does have a value
especially for men beginning mar-
ket gardening even though one
might wish for more detail. Doubt-
less successive editions of the book
will improve on the first.
G.P.C.


Caribbeap Farming January,1969~


BO Oe
REgggH


Lettelr fiyggg a Iparmte


Will be a regular CARIBBEAN FARMING feature.
Progressive farmers using successful modern farming
techniques are mysited to submit articles for publica-
tion. Articles should not have been previously publish-
ed. Text should be 1,000 2,000 words. IIlustrating
photographs or drawings of good quality will be
welcome.
CARIBBEAN FARMING will pay for material accept-
ed for publication.
















































ISUBSCRIPTION FiORMI


I Please Forward CARIBBEAN FARMING Magazine to:

NAM E........................................................ ......................................~..................

A D D RESS................................................ ......................................... .. ... .. ......... ....

COUNTRY......... .............................................. ..................... ...................................................
I enclose payment (cheque payable to Caribbean Farming) For 4 Issues.......................................
Amount


principal negotiator in matters that
affect the livestock farmer.
The directors of the JLA regard it
as their duty to consider any pro-
posal that members make for the
welfare and improvement of the in-
dustry. Two such proposals are
mentioned here and members
are invited to write to the Associa-
tion giving their reaction to the pro-
posals or making any other pro-
posals that they wish.
POLICING OF CONDENSERY
ROUTE COLLECTIONS.
Members have often expressed
dissatisfaction with the condensery's
figures for milk supplied by indi-
vidual farmers. One member has
suggested that the Association in-
stitute a regular check of all the
condensery routes which its mem-
bers supply to make comparisons
between the quantity and quality of
milk which leaves members' farms
and that which is received at the
Condensery or collecting stations. It
has been suggested that there is
considerable tampering with milk
between the two points and that
this policing would help to reduce it.
ADVERTISING, PROMOTION AND
RESEARCH IN THE FLUID MILK
MARKET.
Consumption of fluid milk in the


During its twenty-seven years this
Association has, in the main, served
its members as a source of supply
for their farming needs and as a
marketing agent for their livestock.
The Association has more recently
acted as headquarters for the cattle
breed societies and as sponsor of
their operations. However, as the
secretariat and offices improve in
efficiency and experience it may be
the wish of members that the Asso-
ciation extend its services to its
members and to the livestock indus-
try. Thus the JLA has been accept-
ed by Government and farmers as a


country is still far below the figure
which nutritionists recommend and
although there has been some growth
the rate of increase is far from
satisfactory. It is believed that the
Association could investigate the
possibilities in this quarter parti-
cularly in view of the quantities of
dairy products powdered whole
and skim milk in particular now
being imported into Jamaica at
'dump' prices.
To implement these proposals it
has been suggested that a cess on
milk sales be considered. For the
first, estimates are that about half-
penny a gallon from condensery
supplies would be enough. For the
second, suppliers to the fluid milk
market would no doubt meet and ar-
rive at a figure. Those farmers who
have contacts and experience in the
sugar industry will no doubt be able
to recognize parallels in that in-
dustry with the devices proposed
above both in respect of the polic-
ing and in respect of the use of pro-
duction cess to further the interests
of the industry.
These notes are published by the
Jamaica Livestock Association as a
service to its members.


Jamaica 16/8 Eastern Caribbean EC $4
for 4 Issues


USA. & other countries 2


RATES


Jamaica 16/8 Eastern Caribbean EC $4
for 4 Issues


USA. & other countries 2


RATES


SUBSCRIPTION FiORMI


Please Forward CARIBBEAN FARMING Magazine to:

N A M E............................................ ........ ........................................

A DDRESS................................................. .......................;.....................................

CO U N TRY ............................................... .......................................... .. .. ... ..... .. .....
I enclose payment (cheque payable to Caribbean Farming) For 4 Issues.......................................
Amount

















































Send to:

"Caribbean Farming"
c/o Faculty of Agriculture
U.W.I. Mona, Jamaica or
St. Augustine, Trinidad.










Send to:

"Caribbean Farming"
c/o Faculty of Agriculture
U.W.I. Mona, Jamaica or
St. Augustine, Trinidad.


Handy Cart

This young man's work is made
easier by the pneumatic-tyred farm
carry-all cart shown in our picture.
It should not be beyond the ability
of any welder to put such a cart
together with odds and ends of steel
tubing and angle iron and it will
find a dozen jobs a day on most
farms. Tyres are 4.00-8 a fairly
standard size and a pair will last
for years.
With a solid board floor, the cart
can be used to move calves and
small stock; some farmers might
prefer to have the sides of close
rails or wire mesh.





fertilizer


Pioneers of better forming in Jamaica. Wise farmers all
over Jamaica have relied on Albatros fertilizer year after
year for healthier crops and bountiful yields.
* They know that Albatros fertilizers work quickly and
efficiently.
They know that they get superior physical and chemi-
cal qualities.
And they remember Albatros fertilizers are always
neatly packed in jute bags.
Ask your Agricultural dealer for Albatros "the fertilizer
with the bird on the bag".



FOOT OF HANOVER STREET, PHONE: 23641


PRINTED BY LITHOGRAP~HIC PHINTERS 78 HANO\'ER STREET. KINGSTON


ALBATROS

F ER TILIZER


" The


with the bird on the bag"

























































































M 3


You can trust in BASF

~Polyram-Combi organic fungicide,
based on Metiram
QPerfekthion systemic insecticide with
contact action, based on Dimethoate

~Basfapon for the control of annual
Sand perennial grasses


"U 46 selective herbicide, against broad-
leaved weeds in various formulations
*YCitowett spreader-sticker
~Nitrophoska complex fertilizer in
various grades


0 -


i. ~? "


For further information please contact:
Jamaica:
Bryden & Evelyn Ltd.
54-56, Church Street
Kingston


Grenada: St. Lucia:
Gerald S. W. Smith & Co. Ltd. J. Q. Charles Ltd.
P. O. Box No. 14 P. O. Box No. 279
St. George's Castries


Trinidad :
Geo. F. Huggins & Co. Ltd.
P. O. Box No. 179
Port of Spain

Barbados:
Da Costa & Musson Ltd.
P. O. Box No. 103
Bridgetown


Dominica :
T. D. Shillingford
P. O. Box No. 12
Roseau


Guyana:
T. Geddes Grant (Guyana) Ltd.
P. O. Box No. 407
Georgetown


L 127


We trust on research




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