Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Corporate collections
 Artists abroad
 Caribbean impressions
 Studio talk
 In review
 Jamaica school of art
 National gallery news
 News and information
 Back Cover

Title: Arts Jamaica
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101459/00009
 Material Information
Title: Arts Jamaica
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28-44 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Arts Jamaica Ltd.
Place of Publication: Kingston, Jamaica, West Indies
Kingston, Jamaica, West Indies
Publication Date: July 1985
Copyright Date: 1982
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Art, Jamaican -- Periodicals -- 20th century   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Jamaica
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Apr. 1982)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Some issues combined.
General Note: Title from cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101459
Volume ID: VID00009
Source Institution: Florida International University Libraries
Holding Location: Florida International University Libraries
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 11269244
lccn - 86644045

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Corporate collections
        Page 19
        Page 20-21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Artists abroad
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Caribbean impressions
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Studio talk
        Page 33
    In review
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Jamaica school of art
        Page 37
    National gallery news
        Page 38
    News and information
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Back Cover
        Page 42
Full Text



-I' A

4 .9

Yvonne /V Lymont
TEL: 92-68202


Chairman Peter King
Managing Editor Margaret Bernal
Financial Controller Horace Rousseau
Production Assistant Tina Matkovic S
Advertising Gloria Forsythe

P. 0. Box 79
Kingston 8.
Jamaica WI.

The Managing Committee, composed of journalists, artists, and art lovers,
wishes to stress that Arts Jamaica is conceived as a publication dedicated
to all that is excellent in the visual arts of Jamaica. The magazine will
aim to analyse and celebrate those things and persons already recognized
as having greatness, while remaining open to new ideas and encouraging
potential wherever it is found.


Explorations into African retentions
in Jamaican art provide the theme and
stimulus of this edition of Arts Jamaica;
the issues raised have proved so wide
ranging that the edition has become a
double one.
We also introduce a long planned
column on careers in art. It is hoped
that the insights and information
provided here will serve to enlighten an
increasing young audience to the career
possibilities, as well as the delights of
Arts Jamaica continues to use every
opportunity to take the message of
vibrancy and talent in the local art
scene to overseas audiences. Recent
months have seen our participation in
book fairs in London and Japan.
We plan to continue spreading the
good news.



17, 18, 23



25, 26




34, 35, 36

"Toward an African Aesthetic in Jamaica"
Intuitive Art Patricia Bryan

"The Afro-Caribbean Heritage in the Arts"
Rex Nettleford

"I would Like to Speak of Namba Roy"
Marie Stewart

The Wyndham New Kingston a Bold
Collection for Public View

The Restorers Art

"State Patronage in Holland"
Prudence Lovell writes on the artist as
Civil Servant

"The Dinner Party" Angela Craddock
Marcus Comments on Judy Chicago's oeuvre

"Haitian Art" Kay Y. Anderson talks
with Gerald Alexis

"Artistic Development through First Hand Discovery"
Donald Johnson

Local and Overseas Update

Arts Jamaica wishes gratefully to acknowledge
the photographic assistance in this issue -
of: Kathy Sloane, Norman Hamilton, Keith
Morrison and Jamaica Journal.
Foot notes and references for Insight and Focus
are available on request.

Cover: Brother Everald Brown, with a collection
of his spiritual artworks.
Photo: Tony Russell (1973) Separation: Tell
Precision Ltd.

( Arts Jamaica All rights reserved.



39, 40




by Patricia Bryan

In order to place the issue of African
continuities in its total perspective, all
aspects of culture must be examined,
and the Arts are both expression and
repository of culture. To speak of
African continuities does not imply the
transference and static preservation of
an African culture in the new
environment. It is rather to index the
deliberate and or subconscious per-
petuation of certain physical and
psychic expressions which have their
origins among those traditional African
cultures whose members were brought
to the New World.
As aspects of the mother culture are
forgotten, altered to suit new
environmental needs, or affected by
contact with other cultures, modifica-
tions must occur but the perpetuation of
elements of these ideas and activities
implies a tradition which is strong and
serves a vital function within the new
societies as it did in the old.
The existence of African continuities
in many aspects of New World culture
has been amply documented. During
the years 1655-1807 Jamaica saw a
period of mass immigration by Africans,
the majority of whom came from the
west coast of Africa and represented
diverse ethnic groups with a greater
concentration of Akan, Ga-Adangme,
Igbo, Ewe-Fon, Yoruba and Bakongo.
In the post-Emancipation period
African immigration was again launch-
ed with the arrival of Africans
transhipped from St. Helena and Sierra
Thrown as they were into a hostile
and alien environment, it is not illogical
to conclude that the transplanted
Africans held fast to whatever vestiges
of their native culture that they could in
order to preserve some sense of cultural
identity in the face of imminent
deculturalization. Mintz and Price are
correct in asserting that "no group, no
matter how well-equipped or how free
to choose, can transfer its way of life
and the accompanying beliefs and
values intact, from one locale to
another." Neither can it be claimed, in
the case of Blacks in the New World
that African culture was completely
absorbed and eliminated as it made
contact with the dominant European
culture. In fact, the transplanted
Africans shared a sense of kind, they
2 were black and slaves, and had cultural

expressions which were markedly
similar and which, in many aspects,
were comprehensible and on many
occasions meaningful to the greater
Evidence of African retentions has
been documented in various aspects of
Jamaican culture such as music, dance,
religion, folklore, language, hairdress-
ing and cookery. Such survivals have
been frequently discussed by scholars
since the seventeenth century and are
well known today, especially since the
crisis in Black self-consciousness of the
late 1960's onwards.
The African concept of art differs
from the European in two basic ways. In
traditional Africa art was always
functional and its multifarious function
within the religious, social, political and
economic organization of the society
made it an integral component of
human existence. Its scope included
carved figures, masquerade costumes,
architecture and the embellishment of
architecture, domestic utensils, musical
instruments, and the like. Thus the
European distinction between "Fine
Art" and "craft" is irrevelant. The
second factor is the notion of individual
creativity. The European evaluates the
genius of the artist by his ability to make
a unique aesthetic statement, while the
traditional African artist is judged by his
capacity to conform to .the established
representational canons of his group,
the purpose being the transmission of
the immutable essence. These ideas are
directly reflective of two distinct,
polarized, societal values: European
individualism versus African com-
munalism. These values in their turn
enter into the determination of the
aesthetic those ideas and ideals
implemented in the creation and
evaluation of the artistic worth of an
There is evidence of artistic
endeavour among the black population
during slavery and up to the nineteenth
century. The earliest references come
from Sir Hans Sloane (1707). He
discussess the musical instruments used
by the slaves:
The instruments are sometimes made of
hollowed timber covered with parchment or
other skin wetted, having a bow for its neck,
the strings ty'd longer or shorter, as they
would alter their sounds. The figures of some
of these instruments are hereafter graved.

This indicates the maintenance of the
African tradition wherein both pragma-
tic and aesthetic functions are fulfilled
within one object.
In traditional Africa the practice of
body decoration (painting and scarifi-
cation) enjoys the status of a fine art,
the practice of which demands a high
level of aesthetic sensibility. Sloane
indicates the existence of scarification
patterns on Africans in Jamaica:
There are few Negroes on whom one may
not see a great many cicatrices or scars... on
all their faces and bodies, and the
are common to them in their own countries,
and the cicatrices thought to add beauty to
The persistence of this practice was
documented by Brodber, whose sources
indicated its existence in Hanover up to
The perpetuation of a tradition of
figure carving was identified one
hundred and fifty years after Sloane's
work by Rev. James Phillippo:
Fifteen or twenty years ago in a Negro
burying ground, at no great distance from
the author's residence in Spanish Town there
was scarcely a grave that did not exhibit from
two to four rudely carved images.
This indicates the existence of a
tradition in figure carving which
fulfilled a funerary function. Phillippo
mentions several images connected with
a single burial. It is unfortunate that he
does not provide more detailed
information. As a result any conclusions
now drawn must be hypothetical,
pending evidence of the exact nature
and context of these funerary figures. It
can however be mentioned that a
number of African ethnic groups,
particularly the Akan, make use of
funerary statuary. Coronel documents
this fact:
The death of an Aowin (Akan sub-group)
chief or another prominent person was at
some time in the past usually
accompanied by a tradition of a clay portrait
of the deceased either alone or with his
She establishes that these practices
were prevalent during the seventeenth
and eighteenth centuries.
The similarity in death and burial
rites is strengthened by mention of
associated rituals. Coronel speaks of "...
annual libations, offerings and prayers
..." which would be enacted at the place
of burial where these figures (mma)


were located. In the Jamaican context"
Phillippo notes:
...It was a common custom, even for
comparatively respectable persons annually
to strew the rude tombs... with viands and to
pour upon them libations of wine and blood,
as offerings to their supposed divinities.
With the introduction of missionary
activities into the island, traditional
culture came under severe criticism and
new converts were anxious to adopt
Christian attitudes. Phillippo draws
attention to the fact that in time Blacks
began to ridicule adherents to the
traditional religions. The missionaries
took pride in the apparent success with
which they won over the black
population. Phillippo comments:
Idolatry, indeed may be said to be entirely
abolished. So little reverence do former
dieties now inspire that a short time since,
the author found an idol on the public road.
The appearance of such an object three
years ago in such a place would have created
the utmost terror and alarm throughout the
neighbourhood, but it was now either passed
by entirely unheeded, or elicited only
contempt or sallies of wit from the beholder.
Phillippo's assertion that such
practices had ceased within the space of
three years has to be called into
question. It is in fact most unlikely that
in so short a period of time religious
expressions could have been completely
eradicated from among the entire black
population. What did result from the
attitudes of the missionaries and planter
society was a duality in the religious
practices of certain sectors of the black
population, for while many truly gave
up their "pagan" ways, a large
percentage only superficially adhered to
Christian doctrine while continuing, in
matters of real importance, to consult
the African priests. A similar dichotomy
is highly evident in the African-derived
religions of other Caribbean territories.
In Haiti and Brazil for example,
Christian saints double as African
dieties and the true veneration of the
former is only made possible in terms of
allegiance to the latter.
It has often been argued that many of
the behaviour patterns and beliefs of
New World peoples of African descent
are of multiple provenance. It is more
challenging and realistic to examine
New World and Jamaican cultural
patterns from the point of view of
perceived continuities and the values
attached thereto than to become
bogged down in a debate that has

become sterile rather than informative.
Rather, this paper seeks to identify
specific elements which may have their
origin in African sources and suggest
directions for future research.

Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3.
Adinkra British Nyame
Sankofa Variant Dua.

Those art forms in which Africanisms
can be discerned include grillwork,
fretwork, costuming and in the last half
a century, plastic and graphic arts
especially of the self-taught artists we
now call Intuitives. Although it is
generally known that Africans were
used in the metal and woodworking
industries, specific data on the choices
and sources of motifs are unavailable.
However the visual similarities between
African and Jamaican motifs invite
Even a cursory examination of
Ghanaian adinkra patterns would
indicate the striking resemblance
between some of those patterns and
designs found in contemporary
Jamaican architectural decoration both
in wood and wrought iron work.
Georgian, the dominant architectural
style in Britain during the seventeenth
and eighteenth centuries, was naturally
the one which influenced Jamaican
architecture. This period coincided with
the height of African immigration. An
examination of the architectural
decoration of the Georgian period
revealed the inclusion of a motif similar
to the adinkra Sankofa (fig. 1) and to a
motif utilized in Jamaican grillwork.
This pattern is incidentally one of the
most common grillwork patterns to be
found in Jamaica today. This could very
easily be a case of reinforcement
through predisposition. The African
who was familiar with the motif from his
traditional environment could be
particularly receptive to the European
introduction of a similar motif. The fact
of Africans being involved in the
construction of buildings and furniture

in Jamaica lends credence to this
theory. The motif used in the local
grillwork is actually identical to the
Adinkra symbol, the British variant
(fig.2) being much more ornamental and
done in cast rather than wrought iron.
An integral aspect of any adinkra
pattern is the meaning attached to the
symbol. While there is no available
evidence for the retention, in Jamaica,
of meaning in these motifs, it is most
interesting to note the original meanings
of some of the most common motifs in
use in Jamaica. The Sankofa motif is
based on a stylization of the Sankofa
bird which is shown with its head turned
back towards its tail. The motif is an
exhortation to learn from and build
upon the past; the past is not all
shameful and the future may profitably
be built on aspects of the past. Another
common motif in Jamaican grillwork is
one identical to the adinkra Nyarne Dua
"God's tree" (fig.3). It is symbolic of the
altar erected in God's honour and which
is found in compounds and in front on
houses. It signifies God's omnipresence
and eternal nature. This Nyame is the
Asante God Onyankopong who is
venerated by the Jamaican Maroons
and commonly known as Nyangkipong.
The need to examine our Arts in a
traditional African context is especially
felt when discussing the Jonkonnu
masquerade, which in fact more aptly
describes the African artistic unity than
any other form of the creative arts for
here they are all integrated into one
tradition. Bettelheim and Ryman
have established a context within which
to view Africanisms in the Jamaican
masquerade tradition. It is now
necessary to examine the aesthetic
significance of the costumes. Very
frequently in African art criticism, the
mask is regarded as an entity separate
from the remainder of the masquerade
costume. While this isolation of the
mask may satisfy Western concepts of
"art", it is in fact an incomplete
statement of the African aesthetic for in
Africa the two are inseparably
interdependent. In Jamaica, little
artistic criticism has been given to any
part of the costume. Detailed research
is necessary to assess the aesthetic value
of these costumes which in many cases
show evidence of deliberate aesthetic
According to Western notions,
Jonkonnu is considered to be purely 3

secular in context. It must be
remembered however that in traditional
Africa there was no fast distinction
between the religious and the secular as
the latter was determined by the former.
Despite the absence of a religious
context, Jonkonnu masquerade still
manages to inspire in its viewers,
especially women and children the awe
and even fear characteristic of African
masquerade. This reaction extends
beyond the masquerade tradition and
into other artistic endeavours most
specifically figure carving. Such
response is particularly visible in folk
culture, in an area where, by dint of
limited exposure, traditions would be
most spontaneously preserved. In a folk
society, as in a traditional African
society every endeavour satisfies a need
within that society. Hence traditions
such as calabash carving and pottery
making, which are themselves in form
and process African retentions, are the
work of the folk artist. There are times
however when an artist from among the
ranks of the "folk" transcends utilitarian
dictates, becomes imbued with spon-
taneity and originality, moves into the
Western concept of fine art, and lacking
both traditional and cosmopolitan
training, enters the ranks of the
"Intuitive" artists.

At this point the concept of African
continuities assumes an added dimen-
sion. Here we are concerned with
elements of an African aesthetic for
which historical evidence is even more
limited. In this case where the absence
of historical evidence hampers identi-
fication of processes, the Africanisms
are largely visual and conceptual and
are to be discerned in the work of the
David Boxer offers a definition for
the Intuitive artist:
"These artists paint or sculpt intuitively.
They are not guided by fashion. Their vision
is pure and sincere, untarnished by art
theories and philosophies, principles and
movements. They are for the most part
self-taught. Their visions) (and many are true
visionaries) as released through paint or
wood, are unmediated expressions of their
individual relationships with the world
around them and the worlds within. Some
of them Kapo, Everald Brown, William
Joseph in particular reveal as well a
capacity for reaching into the depths of the
subconscious to rekindle century old
4 traditions and to pluck out images as

elemental and vital as those of their African
Boxer's definition corresponds with
that offered by Jung in his essay on
Instinct and the Unconscious where he
refers to intuition as:
...an instinctive act of comprehension...an
unconscious process in that its result is the
interruption into consciousness of an
unconscious content.

Jung in his definition of the Intuitive
explains as one characteristic the ability
to draw upon the collective unconscious
through which submerged cultural
memories can resurface.
The African resurgences in the
Intuitives mentioned by Boxer some-
times conform in context to African
traditions, though the products are
unique. One strong African artistic
tradition is the familial context of
artistic production which survives even
in contemporary Africa. Nigerian artists
such as Fakeye and Bandele continue
the carving tradition bequeathed to
them by their fathers.
In Jamaica there are some examples
of this. The David Millers were a well
known father and son team who found
great inspiration in their African
heritage. It is by now common
knowledge that the Millers sought out
books on African art but rather than
blindly reproducing those images, each
reinterpreted the ideas gained from
such perusal. The work of David Miller
Junior, is a dissertation on the African
physiognomy. One particular work by
Miller Senior, Obi exhibits the
geometric treatment of form character-
istic of much African sculpture. Everald
and Clinton Brown represent two
generations of painters within one
family. The Browns exhibit a further
Africanism in that the entire family is
involved in creative endeavour, the
female members being practitioners of
needlecraft. The Joseph family may
eventually join this tradition for the
young son of William Joseph is carving
figures of his own.
Africanisms have been retained not
only by some artists but also in the
collective psyche of the society. The
awe, fear or even suspicion with which
some of the Jamaican folk population
traditionally regarded carved objects
was the result of a sometimes
subconscious association with obeah
and ultimately with Africa. Walking
sticks, which are rarely used through

true infirmity, have always maintained
mysterious associations. Abraham
Emerick quoted from a clipping which
appeared in the Kingston Daily
Telegraph sometime earlier telling of
the trial of an obeah man:
The accused (obi man) then brought from his
room a thing called "Mary"... He started
talking in an unknown tongue and began
jumping at the same time, holding "Mary"
which moved about like a snake... This
"Mary" was his snake stick or substitute for a
Kapo, in an interview conducted by
Ena Campbell, relates an incident which
occurred within the last half of a
I went to St. Catherine with a piece of stick...
I call the stick "finger" with a face upon it... I
went into a bar to buy a beer and I... hold the
stick in my hand... and I laid it and looked
upon it and a lady tender look up and start to
scream.., and run, the place was crowded
round because people came in now hearing
that the man coming in the bar there to buy
something with an obeah stick.
William Joseph (Woody) also admits
to being accused of being an obeah
An examination of the aesthetic
which governs Intuitive art indicates
that in a number of cases it is clearly
related to the African conceptually
based aesthetic while being largely
alien to the Western scientifically based
criteria and contrary to "primitive"
belief, there is in fact a set of principles
which comprises the African aesthetic
code. An exploration of the possible
aesthetic connection between tradi-
tional African and Jamaican Intuitive
art will now be attempted by examining
those African aesthetic determinants
relevant for comparison with selected
works of Jamaican intuitive art. As the
majority of African art known to us is
West African sculpture, the principles
are most relevant to this medium.
Painting shares some of these principles
while having others of its own but these
will be identified later in the context of
Intuitive painting.
The relationship between the
African sculptor and the wood is
symbolic of the African's cyclical view
of creation in which man lives, dies and
is reborn. The sculptor takes a living
organism (the tree) and prepares it for
the sacrificial role of cutting it down by
making oblation to the spirit which
dwells within and gives it life. The felled
tree, which is dead, is given life again by
the sculptor who uses it to create a


home for another spirit, this time an
ancestor spirit or some other spirit from
the pantheon.
The Intuitive, despite the absence of
his conscious knowledge of the
cosmological implications, conforms to
this aesthetic consideration. Like the
African, he links his work to the act of
divine creation. William Joseph
(Woody) constantly speaks of his work
as being "creation" and he explains that
the Father shows him the creation. His
references to a grove of creation
inhabited by angels, creates a twofold
association. On one hand it recalls the
African groves where secret rituals and
initiation rites are performed. Symbolic
death and rebirth take place in these
groves which become places of
There is also the possibility of an
allusion to a practice mentioned by
Phillippo. He said of a group of post-
Emancipation self-styled preachers:
At Christmas time it was customary for them
and their disciples to go in groups into the
woods, or, if there were any in the
neighbourhood, among the sheep over which
they pretend to watch, in imitation of the
shepherds, to whom the angels announced
the birth of the redeemer... or as they
expressed it; they went into the bush to see
the angels... .
Woody is unable to identify his source
of the concept of a grove.
Mallica Reynolds in the previously
mentioned interview with Ena Campbell
explains the process of his first creation:
I find myself with a knife... and I begin to
scrape on a stone... for about a week or more
I was scraping on that piece of stone until
one day I hold the stone in my hand like this
and I saw as if I see a mouth. And I looked. I
said, I don't understand, but this thing
looked to me like a face. But by right there
was no engraving there it was only something
coming up out of me that I saw.
and his second:
I scraped out again another little piece... that
was done out of a river stone. It is for you to
know how tough it was and the kind of work,
that I put pressure by using tools like old files
and old knives to cut down, to get it out.
When I got it out it was iust like a been bird.
Woody, whose first creation was also
a bird, used an old cutlass, pieces of
glass from broken bottles and an old file
to create his bird from a piece of wood
which he found floating in a river. He
explains that the bird was the original
creation and it inhabits the grove in the
form of flying angels.
It is interesting that both artists have
utilized the archetypal image of the bird

Oron Carving

in their symbolic artistic birth and
consequent spiritual freedom.
A further principle considered
essential to the beauty of African figure
sculpture is the emphasis which is
placed on the union of verticality,
symmetry and cylindricality. This
reflects the natural state of the wood as
well as the natural state of the human
When Paul Cezanne, a precursor of
the Cubist movement, proposed the
idea of treating nature as variations of
the cylinder, sphere and cone he was
only becoming attuned to something
that the African artist had realized ages
ago. When the Cubists, primarily
Picasso took up Cezanne's idea, they
turned to African sculpture and there
found that idea previously expressed.
The African sculptor employed any
combination of the three basic
geometric components and in some
cases incorporated all three as in this
Oron carving where the headcrest
is conical, the arms and upper torso are
cylindrical and the abdomen is
spherical. This threefold combination
also occurs in a work by Woody titled

Sister Marie by William Joseph.

Sister Marie. In this figure the head and
lower section of the figure are conical
while the neck and chest areas are
cylindrical and spherical respectively.
A related concept is the primary
emphasis placed upon frontality.
Although African sculpture can be
admired from more than one view it is
generally designed to be appreciated in
its frontal aspect as any intensity of
features are directed at a frontal viewer.
Among the Intuitives this is a
recurring feature of the works of many.
It is however, particularly true of a
majority of the works of both Kapo and
This rigidity is not typical of all
African sculpture. Many figures,
especially masks, are intended to be
viewed in combination with dance. In
the Chi Wara mask of the Bambara the
graceful movement of the antelope with
its soaring antlers is expressed even in
repose. What greater dynamism must
therefore be expressed when the mask
sits aloft the dancing costumed figure as
he simulates the movements of that
animal. 5


The Jamaican Intuitive, who does not
create his work to be used in dance,
manages to convey movement through
his sculpture. Kapo's Revival Goddess
Dina aptly verifies this as she
sways to the music, skirt billowing as
she rotates with outstretched arms.
Her power is further expressed by the
horns which comprise her hairdo (the
horn is also largely used in Africa as a
symbol of power and growth). Dina is
specifically a revival goddess but she
is also indicative of procreative
power. She is mother of her
congregation as well as mother of her
Another integral component of any
aesthetic code is the principle of
proportion. It has frequently been said
of African sculpted figures that they
lack proportion. The truth is that
African proportion is different from
European proportion which is based on
the naturalistic 1:6 or 1:7 relationship
between head and body, while African
proportion on the other hand is usually
symbolic and based on a 1:3 or 1:4 ratio.
The question of an African proportion
was first suggested by William Fagg but
seriously analysed by Dr. E.
Okechukwu Odita.
6 According to Odita, the figure three

has symbolic significance for all
Africans. The example is given of the
Yoruba among whom markings in
groups of threes on figures as well as
utilitarian objects represent the claws of
the royal panther and as such is a
symbol of power or might. This power
symbolism is also the case in Benin
bronzes where three marks occur over
each eyebrow in figures of the Oba.
While the number three is frequently
associated with men, four is pre-
dominantly a feminine numeral. The
number four is also an archetypal
symbol of wholeness or totality.
Woody is an Intuitive who frequently
employs strict African proportion in his
work. A piece such as Bob Jones
shows the division of the figure into
three sections with the head being one
third of the total height.
In Africa the head is selected as the
basic unit of measurement because of
the African recognition of the head as
being the central power-house, the seat
of vital energy which controls the total
organism. The emphasis upon the head
is usually expressed as the enlargement
of the head in relation to the rest of the
figure and has already been discussed in
terms of the 1:3, 1:4 ratio.
This type of figure when taken to an
extreme results in figures which are only

busts or heads. Most prolific among
African head figures are masks. The
significance of the head is here
emphasized by the fact that though the
mask is only one portion of the total
masquerade costume it is the primary
A principle related to that of
proportion is the emphasis which the
African sculptor places not only on the
head but on all the essential elements,
especially the feet and the reproductive
organs. The hypertrophied feet are
firmly rooted in the ground because the
African recognizes the need for physical
as well as mental stability. The earth is
also acknowledged as the great mother
from whom nourishment must come.
The abdomen, breasts and genitalia are
usually well displayed especially in
fertility related objects. Harking back to
this African conceptualization is a work
by Woody appropriately titled Venus.
The image is obviously sexual even in
the widely spaced legs. The sexual
imagery is completed by the form atop
the head which has phallic implications.
Ephebism is one principle of the
African aesthetic identified by Robert
Farris Thompson and which is also
apparent in the work of some Intuitives.
This practice of depicting subjects of all

With the Compliments of

f tUOrtC-'MMuw^u

"Bob Jones" William Joseph 1983
Cedar H 222" Collection: Stanley Barnes.

"Revival goddess Dina" Mallica Reynolds
Lignum Vitae H 34" Collection: National

ff SffGHIT__________

"Venus" William Joseph 1983
Cedar H 16" Collection: Paisley Gallery

ages at the optimum of physicality
between the extremes of infancy and
old age is in keeping with the African
conceptualization of his universe. As a
result of this idealized age, even
children appear as miniature adults.
Facial hair can be added to indicate
advanced age. Another function of
facial hair is to identify important
personages. Father Abraham by
Kapo shows the operation of both
functions. The subject is a man of
mature years; he also holds a venerable
position yet he is shown here devoid of
all wrinkles and sagging skin which
would indicate his age. This symbolizes
his prestigious role and age. Another
work shows the Man of Calvary
who is also depicted with a beard, for
though he died quite young, he is of
primary significance in the Christian
In the traditional African context, the
quality of the finished surface is of great
importance. Embellishment in the form
of cicatrices frequently adorns carved
images, notable among which are those
of the Yoruba and Bena Lulua. This
practice, when applied to either carved
objects or the human body, has
an aesthetic function.
Woody in many of his carvings
utilizes cicatrization patterns so

"Father Abraham" Mallica Reynolds -
c. 1955
Lignum Vitae H 16" Collection: National

complex that they would necessarily
have been outside of his frame of
conscious reference. Had he even been
aware of examples of physical body
scarification it is almost certain that
he had no exposure to African carved
images utilizing cicatrization patterns. It
is all the more interesting that he should
compulsively and repeatedly introduce
these otherwise inexplicable markings.
Another aspect of the finished
product is the colour. African figure
sculpture is most often left unpainted
but acquires a patina through ritual use
and storage over a fireplace. Masks on
the other hand are generally painted
with the three most prevalently used
colours being black, red and white.
Woody creates works in either of two
colours; red or black. Both colours are
achieved from dyes which Woody
makes himself by boiling certain types
of wood. The red dye, of which he is
particularly proud, he calls his "Zambia
Reinforcing the use of African
aesthetic determinants is the re-
occurrence of the African creative
context, where for the most part, the art
of carving is a family tradition in which
the craft is passed from father to son.
This patrilineal inheritance has been
previously mentioned in the examples

"Man of Calvary" Mallica Reynolds c. 1955
Cedar H. 14" Collection: National Gallery

of the Millers, Browns and possibly the
Josephs. In these instances however the
tradition does not extend beyond the
immediate father and son couples
A more directly transmitted African
continuity in this area can be seen in the
case of Namba Roy, a Jamaican Maroon
who eventually migrated to Britain
where he died in 1961. While it cannot
be denied that Roy was widely travelled
and was possibly consciously exposed to
African Art, his early history as related
by Pamela Beshoff speaks for itself:
It is known that his people came to
Jamaica under slavery from the
Congo... Namba Roy's grandfather
was the traditional carver of his
village, a role which was handed
down from father to son and was
said to have been in his family for
250 years.

It is noteworthy that ivory was a
desired material in the tradition from
which Roy came for the carving of ivory
is an integral aspect of Congolese
artistic heritage.
It has already been stated that there is
little physical evidence of the painting
tradition in West Africa. The painting
traditions known to us come from the
other three geographical locations. 7

With the Compliments of

TELEPHONE: 92-61680-5, 61200-3. TELEX: 2124

Northern and southern Africa have a
significant record of rock art dating
from as early as the fourth to third
millennium B.C. However, it is really
from northeast Africa, Egypt and
Ethiopia that we have record of a
vibrant and sophisticated painting
Africanisms in Jamaica have hitherto
generally been explored through West
Africa as the physical connection of the
Slave Trade facilitated such research.
However, there also exists in Jamaica a
long tradition of intellectual and
spiritual reconnection with Africa, the
Africa that was Abyssinnia. Ethiopia,
the repatriative home of the Rastaman,
is still physically unknown to the
majority of the brethren. It is known
mainly through visions and dreams.
Even more obscure than the reality of
the land is the painting tradition of that
country. Unprecedented, then, is the
work of Albert Artwell which reignites
many traditions found in East African
One compositional device utilized in
Egyptian art is the hieratic proportion
applied to figures within a composition.
In Egyptian art this standard device
depicts the Pharoah as largest of all
mortals, though in his capacity as
offspring of the gods, he is at times
shown on equal scale with the divinities.
This stratification occurs even in the
depiction of couples where in some
instances the woman is only as tall as
her husband's knee. In the Palette of
Narmer the Pharaoh can be seen
to be much larger than the foreman who
is in turn larger than the standard
Albert Artwell, as the Intuitive who
most prominently expresses the East
African connection, usually adheres to
this principle. The Crucifixion by
Artwell depicts Christ as the largest
figure in the composition. Second in
scale are the two Roman soldiers
dressed in white: they hold that position
because they represent a power which is
second only to that of Christ. Next in
status are the two thieves who by virtue
of their crimes could have been the
smallest figures but who are here shown
to be next in scale for they have a place
in this historic event.
Everald Brown is another Intuitive
who utilizes this canon in works such as
Niabingi Holy.
Artwell's work also bears a strong
8 resemblance to the tradition of

"Accompong Madonna" Namba Roy c
Plastic Wood H 21" Collection: National
Gallery (gift of the Maroons of Accompong,

manuscript illumination in Ethiopia. A
painting from an Ethiopian manuscript
also entitled Crucifixion shows a
similar arrangement of the figures
except that in this case the thieves are
larger than the soldiers. This is
understandable as the thieves may be
perceived in this context as being, like
Christ, victims of an oppressive system.
Another principle is that which calls
for equal prominence being given to all
components of the composition, those
in the foreground as well as the
background. This is formalized in a
system of vertical perspective in which
objects in the background appear in the
upper portion of the picture plane. The
manuscript illustration of the Entry of
Christ into Jerusalem depicts the
procession by means of rows of
isocephalic figures appearing one above
the other.
In Artwell's painting entitled Judge-
ment the figures can be seen in
vertical perspective although the scene
could also be convincingly perceived as
occurring on a hillside. Hierarchical

arrangement can be observed in the
figures of Moses (holding a staff) and
Joshua (with the sword) who are
somewhat larger and quite differenti-
ated from the others. This scene shows
the doubting children of Israel being
frightened by the mighty voice of God
on Mt. Sinai, whence they had been
directed by Moses in order to receive
proof of the divine existence. The
register in the sky is an empyreal vision
in which the Father and the Son are
contemplating the destruction of man.
Paradoxes abound in Artwell's work
and this work is no exception as one
sees that though the narrative concerns
an historical event, the instrument of
destruction is none other than the
modern invention, the bomb. Artwell
explains that the catastrophe was
averted however by the pleas of the Son
who volunteered to give himself to
redeem man.
The use of a hierarchical composition
in Judgement is also apparent in the
view of the heavens where the figures of
the standing angels are no taller than
the seated figures of the divinities. The
ordered arrangement of the figures in a
register is a feature which is cannonized
in Egyptian reliefs and paintings as
illustrated in this work from The Tomb
of Mereuka at Saqqara and also in
works by Albert such as Judgement.
Another Egyptian formula which is
utilized by Artwell is that which governs
the representation of the human figure.
The standard is a composite figure
showing a frontal torso with profile
head, feet and one breast. One full front
eye is shown in the profile head. This
pose is also implemented by Artwell in
the representation of most of his figures.
In traditional Africa the function
which the work of art fulfils is a major
consideration in determining the
aesthetic value of that work. The
function in traditional West Africa has
already been indicated. In ancient
Egypt the function of art was magico-
religious being designed for service in
the after-life. In Ethiopia art was
primarily employed in the service of the
church and took the form of illuminated
Artwell's paintings are not employed
in the service of a particular church but
rather spring from his personal
revelation of Rastafari combined with
his individual cosmology and are put to
the service of mankind to inform of


-',Zj2t s..,.

"Crucifixion" Albert Artwell
Oil on board 24 x 24.


"Judgement" Albert Artwell Oil on board.
- 24 x 24.

"Entry of Christ into Jerusalem" Ethiopia
Illuminated Manuscripts UNESCO Art
Slide series # 17 (3)

"Crucifixion" Ethiopia: Illuminated Manuscripts
-UNESCO Art slide scenes. #16 (Slide 16).

things revealed to the artist prophet in
Both the Ethiopian manuscript
paintings and those done by Artwell are
part of a narrative tradition. In this
context art functions as a vehicle for
documenting religious, historical and
political events. In the case of Artwell
these aspects can be viewed in dynamic
combination as they all become one.
His painting of The Flood narrates a
scene from biblical history showing the
unbelievers belatedly attempting to get
aboard the ark. It is not difficult,
however, to realize that the ship is, in
fact, the Black Star Line which is a
recurring motif in a number of Artwell's
works. This duality in Artwell's work is
further expressed in the Crucifixion
which can be seen as being symbolic of
the torturing of the black man by his
Artwell's drawings offer a reinforce-
ment of the connection with the
Ethiopian manuscript tradition. In fact,
his earliest works were an attempt at
transcribing Bible passages in combina-
tion with illustrations of biblical
characters in a manner conceptually
similar to that employed by the
Ethiopian monk-artists, even to the
extent of being executed in books. The
figurative products of his illustrative
impulse take the form of prophetic
figures including icons of God himself.
Artwell is a true visionary and these
drawings are an expression of his
mystical conception of the union
between man, his soul and the cosmos
within which he exists.

The study of African continuities is
always a complex issue. There will be
few questions satisfactorily answered, a
greater quantity answered condition-
ally, and many more left completely
unanswered. This study is an initial
statement to indicate the scope for
investigating retentions in the Jamaican
folk artistic tradition. It deliberately
ignores the academic tradition, for the
Africanisms within that tradition are of
10 a basically different nature due to the

"Niabingi Holy" Br. Everald Brown 1969
Oil on hardboard 24 x 32 Collection: National Gallery.

greater potential for external in-
There are two major types of
continuities which have been indicated
herein. The first is based on the
historical potential for such retentions.
Within this category are variations from
pure retentions of process and products
to features which are obviously
syncretic but which retain undeniable
Africanisms. The second, which is much


more difficult to ascertain due to its
lack of purely objective criteria, is the
involvement of the collective un-
conscious and the idea of a black
psyche. The unifying factor in all of this
is the existence of an underlying
aesthetic which is common to both
traditional African and Jamaican folk
art and which finds expression in
contemporary Intuitive art.

Auoaicee Malitca jKeynotas (Aapo) I y/- uu on naranoara .u x 46
Collection: National Gallery.

With the Compliments of

Cclgate Dalmolive Cc. Jamaica



'The right religion is self-consciousness
- and each man must come into his
own music is a self-conscious thing...
it penetrates... Our forefathers didn't
play music for you to just jump up. It is
a conscious thing, to do works. Some
people take the music to carry water,
some use it to catch fire. When you play
music, you must follow the sound.
Brother Everald Brown

Patricia Bryan was a Junior Research
:Fellow at the African Caribbean
Institute of Jamaica and first presented
this paper at the ACIJ seminar series in
1983. She is currently Education Tutor
at the JamaicaSchool of Art. ..

"Head" David Miller Jr. c. 1963
Lignum vitae H. 14" Collection.- Peter King.

many of the 20 mnil'n Africans who
over a period of 250 years were
transported from Africa as slaves.
.. There they waited in the dungeons
until the ships came. Then they were
herded through that door, and rowed
out to the slave ships that would take
them through the Middle Passage to
the Caribbean and the Americas.
..Standing in those dark cells in
Goree many years ago was an
experience unparalleled by any other
in my life. The knowledge that
countless thousands of human beings,
perhaps among them some of our own
forebears, had been incarcerated there,
was overwhelming.
.. And as you look through that door
the ocean reaches out to the horizon
and beyond the Middle Passage -
to the Caribbean and the Americas.
. With my small camera I was about
to try to capture this view through that
door when at that very moment a tall
figure appeared as if coming out of the
sea, returning from that dread
There is a door a door cut in the . This structure faces the Atlantic journey. It was Mortimer Planno who
thick walls of the castle the fortress whose waters wash: the stones Jiust had accompanied our delegation
- on the island of Goree, just off the outside that door. It wa a minajor w~ which was sent by the Government to
coast of Senegal in West Africa. station for the "storage" of an-great visit a number of African countries.
S..Don Mills 11

HIwafa Vq1* do&1*

QtWMrn ffiUf







Antelope Mask Bakwele tribe, Congo.

Sociologists, anthropologists, cultural
historians, linguists and others have not
been slow to offer us varied ways of
perceiving the Caribbean, and while
there seems to be general agreement on
what might be regarded as acceptable to
define the Caribbean, the pluralist
persuasion sticks like a religious faith
does to a subject congregation. The
hyphen or the qualifying adjective,
therefore, continues to dominate our
perceptions of that part of the world
which has recently been christened a
"Basin" by the Reagan Administration.

The usual ways of describing the
region, indeed, continue to manifest
themselves in hyphenated splendour: so
there is not only an Anglophone
Caribbean and a Spanish-speaking
Caribbean but also a Dutch-speaking
Caribbean, a Francophone Caribbean
and the corresponding political
descriptions of the more recent past -
12 French Antilles, Dutch Antilles,

Hispanic Caribbean and the British
West Indies, which has been
rechristened the Commonwealth Carib-
bean with the coming of Independence.
However, there is no 'Afrophone
Caribbean' since the competition
between Yoruba, Ibo, Akan Twi, to
name just three major nation language
groups that migrated with their enslaved
speakers, would only further Babelise
the region. Yet it is in this area, as in
some other patent, potent ones that
Africa ruled in such a way that the
symbiosis between European, Amer-
indian and African tongues threw up
products of the creative intellect which
have long defied the hyphen and now
challenge our Adamic urge to find new
names and designations.
The argument goes that such things as
are identifiably and peculiarly "Carib-
bean", have been forged for the most
part in the crucible of the African
experience in the region. Historical data
can, indeed, be marshalled to support
the point especially if scholars choose to
take into consideration the vigor of the
adaptation and adjustment over four
centuries by the Africans to their new
environment from which they could not
voluntarily return to ancestral hearths,
as was the case with European masters
and indentured laborers before them or
with the East Indian and Chinese
indentured laborers who came after
Emancipation. Much of the African's
return has had to be symbolic, mythical
and intellectual. And the exercise of the
creative intellect and the creative
imagination in adapting, adjusting,
creating and innovating became the
model for both survival and beyond in
shaping the region.
It is in this sense that Black has come
to signify culture rather than skin. And
perhaps it is this deep understanding of
that historical and social reality which
makes the Cuban leader Fidel Castro, in
his attempt to enter legitimately
Caribbean society, insist that the
Cubans are "Afro-Latins". The "Afro"
prefix may then belong more
appropriately before the names of other
groups (or nations) which have become
"Caribbean" because of contact with
the Africans' dominating influence
through the process of creolisation
which I have described elsewhere as
"that awesome process actualised in
simultaneous acts of negating and
affirming, demolishing and construct-
ing, rejecting and reshaping."

It is such a process that has
characterized the internal dynamics of
Caribbean society over these past four
centuries, and it is the centrality of the
African Presence in this process which
gives to the Caribbean a distinctive
flavour, mood, orientation and identity
that is nothing if it is not
African-derived or African-rooted.
Since the process draws heavily on
the exercise of the creative intellect and
the creative imagination, collectively
and individually, the areas of human
activity which draw heaviest on these
attributes or faculties would naturally
reflect the African influence greatest.
Insofar as there are manifestations
which reveal, unquestionably, the
African-derived influences one may,
indeed, be tempted to gild the lily by
designating it "Afro-Caribbean". But
more accurately, one would be better
served by speaking of the now well
documented African Heritage in the
The Afro-Cuban source has, since the
turn of the century, been one of the
strongest inspirations for musical artists
(composers, performers and arrangers).
It was the son, "the rural music from the
east of Cuba that channelled African
percussion and a simple rondo form into
Havana in 1916," according to Robert
Farris Thompson in an informative and
useful survey of dance music in the
Americas. It was the son that inspired
the poetic inventions of Guillen in a
body of poetry which caught the rhythm
and tonal texture of the Afro-Cuban
"Common ancestral source" explains
the continuing influence of Afro-Cuban
musical forms on the creative
outpourings of musical (and dance)
artists in the Americas. "Cha-cha-cha
was 'born' in Havana around 1948 when
an ambitious young composer named
Enrique Jorrin streamlined the structure
of the danzon, a warhorse among Cuban
dances, leaving only its sixteen-bar
introduction and adding a highly
platable alternation of flute passages
and unison vocals" according to the
historian of dance-music of the
Fifties. New York was the next stop
and by the end of the Fifties,
Afro-Cuban music was leaven to the
popular music of all America.
From here on the story shifts focus to
ideological conflict, assertion of
superpower hegemony and the media
obsession with Castroite, anti-imperial-


ist intransigence. Cuba countered
United States "cultural infiltration" and
continued with its rhumba, mambo,
comparsa, and cha-cha-cha, within its
borders. Its revolution was un-
mistakenly Afro-Latin with Guillen as
its poet laureate, Alejo Carpentier, the
novelist, as a musicologist on
Afro-Cuban forms, and the popular
music serving the populist revolution
still Afroid in the beat. The painting and
sculpture seemed enduringly Euro-
centric but the canvases of its "naive
school" seemed rooted, in part, in
Afro-Cuban sensibilities as much as in
revolutionary realism. In any case, the
Cuban painter, Wilfredo Lam, long
regarded as a protege of Picasso's stable
in far-away Paris where he went to
paint, had in fact taken to that stable the
childhood exposure he had had to the
Afro-Cuban cult-world which never left
his creative imagination.
The Haitian primitive school had long
gained an international reputation and
it is clear in the works of Hypolite and
others that the neo-African religion of
vodun has had the most profound
influence on that Haitian art-form as it
had had on the art of Haitian dance.
The parallel Jamaican school of
intuitive painters and sculptors betrayed
an 'art of reconnection' as Brathwaite
would say. The foremost classicist
among the contemporary "primitives",
Kapo (Mallica Reynolds), draws on the
psychic phenomena of the pocomania
cult world (he is a Shepherd of the faith)
to produce masterpieces that speak to a
truly "Caribbean" expression as well as
the universal human condition.
As with music and art so with dance
- and understandably so since
characteristic of the African musical
heritage in the Caribbean, is the close
and organic connection music has with
drama and the theatre. Katherine
Dunham, the Black American anthro-
pologist and student of Melville
Herskovits, was to become a leading
dance artist drawing on material she
researched in Haiti, Brazil and
Jamaica. Pearl Primus, who followed in
her wake, drew also on Trinidad
folkforms and made her reconnection
with Africa itself, helping to give form
to that which could be generally
designated Afro-American dance-
For "Theater" is what the dance of
the African heritage in the Americas is!

/ /,

* :4

-t 'S

"The Annunciation" Wilfredo Lam 1954
Ink and wash on paper 19 x 24%" Collection:
In the Caribbean itself, this mode of
expression, coupled with music,
remains the strongest testimony of the
African presence. The dance-vocabu-
lary of the Voodoo religious complex is
varied, textured and rich. Lavinia
Williams, a former Dunham dancer, has
developed both technique and dance-
works out of the complex and has
transmitted them all over the Caribbean
(Jamaica, Antigua, Guyana and the

Wallace Campbell.
Bahamas. Leon Destine remains a
leading exponent, working out of the
United States but as a 'guardian' of the
forms which he brought from his native
Haiti. In Trinidad, Beryl McBurnie,
regarded as the priestess of Caribbean
dance, was doing in Port-of-Spain what
Dunham soon after did in Chicago and
New York.
McBurnie was to emerge by the
mid-Fifties, as a major dance-artist of

S "John Canoe in
Guanaboa Vale"-
Gaston Tabois -
1962 oil on hard
board- 24"x 30"
National Gallery
(gift of Royval Bank
foundation 1982)


the Caribbean committed to the
indigenous material she found among
her people and inspiring others like Ivy
Baxter of Jamaica whose "creative
dance" orientation directed her to
Afro-Jamaican creole sources (religious,
recreational and work-day habits).
Her "Elation" drew on pocomania, her
"Village Scene", on Afro-Jamaican
creole life and experience, while her
"Cane-Cutters Dance" spoke for itself to
the ancestral music of the Jamaican
The N.D.T.C.
My own intimate acquaintance with
that process of formation and
articulation over two decades prompts
my concentrating on aspects of the
artistic output of the National Dance
Theatre Company. Here the elements
and spirit of the African sensibilities are
used liberally and deliberately to
fertilise the artistic product around to
what is claimed to be a Jamaican variant
of a distinctive Caribbean aesthetic. The
emphasis is on dance-theater and not
abstract dance and such an orientation
draws strength and legitimacy from
such Afro-Jamaican cultural "givens" as
the collective endeavour of village life,
integrated song and movement and the
significance of religion and ritual to the

Osmond Watson
14 "MASK& DANCERS" 1978
Oil on Canvas 48 x 50"

With the Compliments of

"Pocomania" by David Pottinger, 1982. Oil on canvas, 26% x 37% ". Collection: Dr. and Mr.
Minott. Photo: Cecil Ward.

normal life of the vast majority of the
It is sufficient to concentrate on just
two of the major themes which recur
with eloquent frequency in the varied
and extensive repertoire crafted over
two decades. These are cited in my
forthcoming history of the Jamaican
dance-theater company as (a) Carib-
bean religiosity (with emphasis on
ritual) and (b) the African presence in
the Caribbean ethos.
Nowhere has the adaptation to
change and changing circumstances and
to a new environment been achieved
better, reads the text, than in the field of
religion. And the religiosity of Jamaican
and of wider Caribbean life offers the
NDTC thematic grist for its choreo-
graphic mill. The African belief-systems
which were instruments of survival for
the enslaved population were soon
forbidden. In their place came, soon
enough, "syncretised" substitutions,
underground versions of the original
forms, above-board editions of the
coloniser's legitimate forms of worship
as well as many variations betwixt and

First, there is the popular trilogy
carrying such titles as Pocomania, Myal
and Kumina. The religious impulse
behind these works makes them older
than revolution itself and in their
movements, designs and structural
development have become hallmarks of
what many people have come to regard
as the iconography of Jamaican
dance-theater. The painterly
Pocomania (1963) followed on field-
research by the entire Company in the
parish of St. Mary and in the ghetto of
West Kingston (Salt Lane). The
choreographer also drew on his own
childhood experience of the 'cult' as it
was practised in his native village in
northern Jamaica. The result was a
pocoo" festival of meeting bands of
worshippers, each band led by a
Shepherd (a priest) who went through a
three-day travel into the spirit world
with trumping and cymballing, and
possession dances in response to the
spirit of the Rivermaid, Engine Spirit,
Cooing Dove or Indian Spirit. In
addition, there are three wheeling
Shepherds attended by their bands
caught in controlled frenzy and



convulsions. The audiences' nervous
laughter which greeted the work in the
Sixties dissolved into reflective silence
by the mid-Seventies by which time, the
Jamaican populace clearly had become
more knowledgeable and confident
about the integrity of the Afro-Jamaican
aspects of their heritage.
The next in the trilogy is Kumina
created in 1971. The actual Kumina rite
speaks to the fact of ancestral spirits
and identifies the Congo as the place
of origin too. The NDTC version is
based on the self-same rite which is still
observed in the easternmost parish of
the island St. Thomas. The rite is
held for a variety of occasions -
for mourning, tombing, healing, thanks-
giving and even when help is needed to
win a court case or for winning the hand
of a lover. The invocation of the gods in
time of need is as Jamaican as it is
human. The use of traditional
drummers (James Walker and Obadiah
Lewis), themselves true believers in the
rite, coupled with the dancers' own
respect for the rite as a serious
dimension of the Jamaican heritage
gives to the work special qualities of
exultation, authority and that sense of a
final epiphany. It celebrates African-in-
Jamaica and to many this is in itself a
liberating force. But it also speaks to the
religious impulse of a life and history
laced with fundamentalist beliefs
and faith in one God or another an
this offers dimensions of emotional
Myal, choreographed in 1974, is no
less rooted in the religious instincts of
the Jamaican people. It, too, is religious
ritual. Myalism once vied openly with
Christian orthodoxy according to the
historical records and to this day 'Myal'
means religious mysticism to many.
It certainly goes further back and
deeper than pocomania (or pukkumina)
but not deeper than kumina.
In 1983 Gerrehbenta, a dance-work
took its name from two of the
major traditional
(African-derived) rites still
practised in Jamaica the
gerreh in the parishes of Hanover
and Westmoreland

With the Compliments of

Upstairs The Little Pub Complex
Ocho Rios
Telephone: 0974-2374

and the dink-mini which uses the
musical instrument, the benta, in St.
Mary. The dance evokes the
ceremonies invoking the spirits of
ancestors usually at "dead-yard"
ceremonies (wakes). Also utilised in the
dance-work were the Horsehead
character from Jonkonnu as a symbol of
fertility and the yoruba-derived
shawling dance called the etu. The
work transformed the long established
ritual trilogy into a quartet but its
strongly religious motivating forces
transfixed audiences, who responded
with a revival handclapping applause
long after the stage lights faded on the
circle of dancers contorting around the
apocalypse of a Horsehead. The dance

"Sulkari" Susan Alexander 1973
Plaster H.8" Collection: Guy McIntosh

Fr ame



makes no compromise to Modern
Dance or European Classical ballet
idioms, vocabulary or technique; and
on that basis entered the selected
gallery of works that speak directly to
the traditional movement patterns and
musical contours of Jamaica. Like
Kumina, it also speaks to the religious
impulse of the Jamaican people but
simultaneously demonstrated the
absence of any clear distinction at times
between religious and secular concerns
in the Jamaican psyche.
In 1973, Homage (part religious, part
secular) was choreographed in tribute
to that reality of an African derived
aesthetic-arched back, akimbo'd arms,
foot planted firmly in the ground on half
bent knees. 'Misa Luba' and Neil
Diamond's 'African Trilogy' supplied
the sounds. It was exploratory work
giving joy to the dancers and
puzzlement to some critics, one of
whom felt that the work "appeared
confused in its stylizations of African
movement and hackneyed in its modern
dance vocabulary". But it was to
feed, albeit imperceptibly, some other
works that followed. That it appeared at
all was to find vindication seven years
later with the advent into the repertoire
of Eduardo Rivero's Sulkari which came
after four years of negotiation with the
Cuban cultural authorities for its
"exchange" from the Danza Nacional de
Cuba to the Jamaican company. Sulkari
isolates, fragments, expands, amplifies
African forms in a truly splendid
evocation of the aesthetic, logic, vigor
and cultural integrity of African life and
movement patterns. The programme
notes read:
"A dance of exaltation in fecundity
and fertility, so that through the
man-woman relationship the life of
man will continue. The forms of the
dance were inspired by and
originate from the sculpture,
carvings, headdresses, masks, stools
and other elements and details of
African sculpture, as well as the
movement of the Yoruba people of
Arara (Dahomey)."
Jamaican choreographers who create
with a creolised Caribbean sensibility
but also with an understanding of how 1

10 Tangerine Place,
Kingston 10
Telephone: 92-64644

the African Presence acts as leaven, are
likely to celebrate the African Presence
in Caribbean terms rather than in
faithful reproductions of Senegalese,
Nigerian, Ghanaian or Guinean dances
as a number of Black dance groups in
the United States frequently attempt to
do. So Drumscore dedicated to the
Drum, that most African and ubiquitous
of instruments in the Americas, draws
on a Ghanaian proverb for initial
inspiration: "When God created the
universe, He first created the
drummer". But to sustain its
momentum, the choreographer draws
on the African Presence as it has
expressed itself over time in the
Caribbean. The sounds and rhythms are
utilised to present a panorama of
polyrhythms supporting supple, now
flowing, now syncopated, movement. It
all makes one literally hear the dance
and see the music. It is Africa-in-the-
Caribbean. It celebrates the great truth
that lies in the assertion that no people
can ever be totally uprooted or deprived
of their ancestral heritage.
The theme of the Africanity of the
Jamaican cultural reality preceded the
Black Power onslaughts of the late
Sixties. More accurately, such African-
ity had long been seen as critical to the
identity of Caribbean dance-theater and
as part of Caribbean modern
development. That the East Indian
dimension of that life has got to be
taken into account in places like
Trinidad and Guyana, there is no doubt.
But significantly, it is the mix between
the historically legitimate African-
derived elements of Caribbean culture
that have stood predominant for a long
time in the expressions even when East
Indian cultural realities are evident as in
Jamaican revivalism and masquerade or
are strongly visible and life-giving as in
Carnival and the steelband music of
That such expressions of confidence
should act as antidote to the poison of
the Eurocentric arrogance of former
rulers is no reason to lead Caribbean
artists into constraints of another kind
of ethnocentric determinism or the
cultural impoverishment that is likely to
result from such a strategy of
self-defense. The NDTC has avoided
this without having to drum up any
special effort. Many would share with
one of its former dancers the view that
"an essential part of our freedom in the
16 West Indies is the freedom to adapt any

device from anywhere, and use it to
make statements which define our
situation". I would like to believe
that what is here important is the
making of "statements which define our
situation". For adapting from anywhere
has been at the heart of our survival
while the will to define our situation
ourselves denotes a life beyond survival
which is the essential aspect of our
That "freedom" which is critical to
modern Caribbean existence continues
to be endangered by the continuing
cultural domination of those who were
once political masters and are even now
the decided determiners and arbiters of
the Caribbean's economic destiny.
Within the parameters of artistic
creation, the notion that the
"Afro-Caribbean heritage" is of a lesser
cultural pedigree than the European
heritage, manifest in the admittedly
stirring liturgical music of a Handel or
the instrumental compositional feats of
a Mozart or a Beethoven, has an
enduring and powerful existence among
not only the remnants of the white
European settler-class in the region but
also among the indigenous brown,
mulatto class who are the faithful
carriers of the dilemma of the
Plantation society as well as among
those aspiring Black-skinned recruits to
the society's white bias. It exists no less
among many of the latecomer Indian
and Chinese groups who would
naturally prefer to side with the
power-structure rather than identify
with an underclass. And so the
'Afro-Caribbean heritage' so-called, is
yet to be fully accepted as a major and
inescapable determinant of Caribbean
cultural identity in any deep sense of
that term.
Clearly, the over-riding evidence of
cross-fertilisation with the African
element as a major determinant of the
end-product in Caribbean history of the
last four or five centuries, cannot totally
weigh against that other historical
evidence of a persistent world view
which ranks things European higher
than things African or non-European.
This is reinforced by the political and
economic realities of an ongoing
economic dependency of the black
masses on their brown or white leaders
or by the largely non-white Caribbean
on the predominantly white North
The epidermal correlation with

cultural status is surprisingly persistent
in what is admittedly a much changed
and vigorously dynamic society which
has indeed weathered well through
slave emancipation, colonial domina-
tion, nationalist liberation, military
invasions and attempts at post-colonial
social transformation. Underlying all
this has been the genuine revolution
evident in the exercise of the creative
imagination by the "migrants" who were
brought involuntarily, interacting with
those who came willingly as masters and
as indentured laborers or traders, but all
with cultural memories that have
guaranteed survival.
The firmest constant among the
underclass has been the enduring
all-pervasive African heritage. It may
well be, that the options now offered the
region between Marx, Freud and Jesus
- all icons of European civilisation -
may prove less relevant than the
immediacy of politics and economic
development suggests. For is it not
through the medium of artistic culture
that the struggle will continue, that the
collective neurosis will serve the
creative tension necessary for innova-
tion and growth, and the promise for
redemption will be realized? The
Caribbean cultural universe (with the
African heritage as its soul force) may
indeed have to continue giving to the
totality of Caribbean existence its
greatest hope for ideal, form and
purpose, as it has done with such vigor
and defiant persistence in the past.

Drummer and Dancer Edna Manley 1981
Terracotta H. 25"- Collection: Mr. Peter




In September, 1961, an article
entitled "The Maker of Madonnas" was
published in The Guardian newspaper
in England. It begun with the words
"I would like to speak of Namba Roy
who died last June. I am his English
wife and he was from Jamaica, where,
many years ago, his people had been
taken from the Congo as slaves."
Yvonne Roy explained that Namba Roy
had been a Maroon and how he wrote
about his people.
"But beyond all this" she continued
"he was an artist, expressing the love
he saw in life. His most tender
subject, the mother and her child, he
portrayed over and over again, always
finding something new and more
wonderful as the image took shape,
either from beneath his chisel, or
appearing in all the vivid colours of
his birthplace, from his brush.
"These subjects were predominantly
Christian, presenting the Child Jesus
and his Mother as coloured,
identifying his people with God -
refusing to subscribe to a colour bar
of the spirit. His great simplicity
brought his work to life, and as a
friend once said, he needed so little
matter to convey his beliefs in art."
Many Jamaicans have only recently
become aware of Namba Roy's work.
There are four pieces currently on
exhibition in the National Gallery:
'Accompong Madonna', a mother and
child in plastic wood recorded as a gift
of the Maroons of Accompong; 'Spirit
of the Black Stone' another carving in
ivory; and the painting 'Crucifixion'.
Namba Roy was represented in the
Smithsonian travelling exhibition of
Jamaican art by two outstanding ivory
carvings loaned for a short period by an
English collector: 'Jesus and His
Mammy' and 'Annunciation'. A
photograph of 'Annunciation' was on
the cover of the edition of the Jamaica
Journal (No. 16 3) with the article by
Pamela Beshoff that introduced many
of us to Namba Roy.
In 1950, Namba Roy met Yvonne
Shelly, an English actress who went to
see him because she heard that he
needed a model for a piece of work that
he wanted to do for a Catholic
exhibition in London. They later
married and had two daughters,
Jacqueline and Lucinda, and a son,

Namba Roy at work in his home studio.

Tamba. For more than 20 years since
Namba Roy's death Yvonne Roy has
been the devoted custodian- of his work
and his memory. She says that Namba
Roy felt strongly that his work was for
his people and his family; she has been
working to get his 2 books, "No Black
Sparrows" and "Black Albino",
published and hopes fervently that his
work will soon be exhibited in Jamaica.
Her dreams are coming true. "Black
Albino", issued in 1961 on a limited
scale in London, will shortly be
published by Longmans and the
National Gallery has plans for a Namba
Roy exhibition. The Jamaican High
Commission in London included 60
items by Namba Roy in its exhibition of
Jamaican art in London in 1983.
Namba Roy was born Nathan Roy
Atkins in Jamaica in 1910. Until the age
of 11 when his father died, Namba Roy
had his father, his uncle and his
grandfather as tutors in the traditions of
his people. The older men taught the
boy the stories and symbols of Africa.
Males in his family had been the
storytellers for over 200 years. Life was
very hard for his mother after his

father's death and the family had to split
up. The younger boy, Namba Roy,
stayed with his mother, but his brother
and sister went to relatives. Both
mother and son found work at a school
run by English teachers. His mother did
the laundry while, as he recalled later,
at the age of 12 he earned one shilling a
week for working 14 hours per day.
From the stories that he told of that
period, it seems that he was fiercely
protective of his mother. But she too
was to die early, when Namba Roy was
only 16.
The young man did several jobs in
Jamaica to support himself, including
working for R.S. Gamble, shipping
agents. At the start of the war he joined
the Merchant Navy, but in 1944 when
his ship had to return to the United
Kingdom after a collision in a storm, he
was discharged from the ship on the
grounds of ill health. He was not
returned to Jamaica, but left in England
with the "green card" given to the
disabled. As Yvonne Roy wrote later, in
his life Namba Roy "knew what
loneliness and hunger were". It was very
difficult for black people to get work in 17


England at this time and Namba Roy
had a disability. Among the jobs that he
did while enduring the pain of a
duodenal ulcer was dragging hides
through lime at a tannery. He later
found work as an artists' model,
frequently dressing in African clothing.
About this time, isolated in London
and in poor health, Namba Roy started
once again to write about his people and
to carve and paint. He retold the stories
that he had been told as a child. His wife
says that he was intensely proud of his
people, eagerly seeking their history
from books and and museums. After he
married, to support his family, he would
leave for work at 5:00 a.m. each day,
returning home at 7 each evening. At
night he would write or bring out his
paints or chisels. At weekends, he
would tour the street-markets looking
for ivory. At one auction he found an
enormous tusk that would have been
perfect for his art, but it sold for over
three hundred pounds.
It was difficult to get wood for
carvings while living in inner London.
One sculpture in his family's collection,
"Brer Patoo", was carved from a piano
leg. Namba Roy therefore began to
experiment with synthetic materials like
plastic wood, although the fumes from
these materials were rather unpleasant.
Plastic wood required combining
techniques of moulding and carving.
For "Adoration", a madonna with the
child gently touching her earring which
is shaped like a cross, the plastic wood
was covered with a metal alloy. He
learnt how to use armatures and these
reduced the problem of the synthetic
material cracking. Roy used anything
that he could find around the house -
"The Water Carrier" was modelled in
plastic wood around a discarded Bovril
container. He was excited by the search
for the right material. Sometimes he
woulid carefully work out his ideas on
paper first; at other times he would
know what he was going to do
immediately and start carving directly.
He often said that the form was
imprisoned in the wood or the ivory and
it was his task to release it.
Many of his themes came from the
Bible. His mother was a Roman
Catholic and she took the young child to
church with her. As an adult, he was
able to recite many Bible passages from
memory, but was resistant to the rituals
18 of the organised Church. In addition to

his exploration of the relationship
between Jesus Christ and his Mother
which included "Sorrow", the death of
Christ, there is also "the Wise Virgin"
with the lamp and "The Foolish Virgin".
One group of works by Namba Roy
illustrates the Creation Story a story
in the oral tradition of the Maroons
which was said to be the result of the
amalgamation of the stories of several
African tribes. The Lord of the Sky,
Nananyankupon, is represented in a
sculpture, as is the first pickney that was
made by the male and female spirits.
There is a series of 12 paintings of the
story. Namba Roy told this story on the
BBC Radio Third Programme in 1957. It
was billed "Negro Creation: An
Afro-Maroon legend retold by Namba
Roy". The family tradition continues.
Yvonne Roy, who is now a teacher,
recently produced performances of
Creation Story by children at her school
with music written by her son, Tamba.
The story was expanded to explain how
the spirits accidentally produced
pickneys of different colours. Namba
Roy, the traditional storyteller, would
certainly have approved. He was very
concerned that his art, his writing and
his storytelling should help to foster
interracial understanding.
He also retold Anansi stories and
other traditional stories. As well as
"Brer Patoo" we can see "Brer Anansi"
himself. We can also see "He who fears
the spirits" and "He who speaks with the
Namba Roy attracted some attention
during his lifetime. An English collector
was a regular visitor and he bought
some of his best pieces. He exhibited in
London for example at the Catholic
Festival of Britian Exhibition in 1951 -
as well as in Paris and Nice in France
and in Scandinavia.
Many Jamaicans may not know that
they have a sample of his work on the
dust jacket of Peter Abrahams' book
Jamaica: an Island mosaic published in
While Roy was working at the Osram
lamp factory in January 1956, a
workmate wrote in Our Sphere,
described as "The National Organ of
Peoples from Jamaica, Nigeria, etc"
"Quite by accident, recently, I
discovered that we have with us at the
Wembley Lamp Works, MF13,
Sleeving Section, Mr. N.R. Atkins --
better known in the world of art as

Namba Roy, the sculptor."
This was accompanied by a photograph
of Roy and of "Salome", an ivory
Roy came to the attention of Cottie
Burland, the curator of a small London
museum who worked in the ethno-
graphic department of the British
Museum. Burland included information
from Roy and photographs of his work
in his books, dedicating one, Myths of
Life and Death, to Namba Roy.
One of his sculptures was given to
Queen Elizabeth II Accompong
Madonna holding a child representing
the new Jamaica. In 1955, Princess
Margaret was given "Brer Anansi, the
boastful one".
Namba Roy discussed African art
with Sir Jacob Epstein, who acknow-
ledged its influence on his own work.
Epstein bought two pieces of Roy's
work, "Christ in the Garden" and
Roy was also recognized in the
Jamaican press. George Panton
reviewed Black Albino for the Dally
Gleaner describing it as a historical
novel that deals with "us Jamaicans as
ourselves as Vic Reid's New Day did".
On Namba Roy's death, Rudolph
Dunbar wrote of "Namba Roy: his life
and work".
Namba Roy did however meet a
certain amount of resistance to his work
from his fellow Jamaicans. Roy thought
that they did not understand the
symbolism of his work. In The Guardian
newspaper and elsewhere he passed on
what he had been taught as a child by
the older men in his Maroon family
trying to explain the "primitivism" in his
art. Namba Roy wrote,
"There would be the flat, abstract-
like mask or figure, created to
symbolise the belief that man's spirit
or soul, unlike man himself, was free
from physical bulk, and was thus able
to travel freely and unhampered
wherever it wished. The elongated
figures and heads were also another
way of saying this. The club-like feet
on a figure showed man's debt to the
earth, who was his second mother and
who will claim his body in the end.
But of the many symbols pregnant
with beautiful legends and amazing
philosophy none is greater than the
head, always out of proportion to the
figure in carvings representing the
supernatural. To this there were a few
Continued on page 23


The newest and certainly the most
colourful addition to the Kingston
skyline is the Wyndham New Kingston
Hotel. While some might accredit its
"special quality" to its cuisine,
entertainment packages, or its suave
service Arts Jamaica visited the
Wyndham to partake of more
"sublime" fare; the attraction in this -
case, was the hotel's newly hung
collection of Jamaican art and its
enthusiastic General Manager, artist,
and art-aficionado Conal O'Sullivan.
General Manager O'Sullivan, who has
taken up office since the hotel's
re-opening under new ownership -
earlier this year, is the prime mover
behind the "art-focused" decor of this
spanking new hotel.
"I've always hung art at any hotel I've
been involved in, and it's almost always
local art."
O'Sullivan's interest in art goes back
to his youthful upbringing in his native
Dublin; after an early exposure to
school art, he went to technical college
where he learned to weld, proceeding to
create free form welded sculpture. He "African" (Robert Cookhorne)
credits his early education, in Dublin,
with giving him the howss", the
experience in handling different
materials and tools. He then was
confident enough to take up the
challenge of genuine creative work.
"You can't teach art, you can teach
Although working and studying art
from his young days with a 6-month
spell at Ecole de Beaux Arts, France -
O'Sullivan always maintained a healthy
sense of realism about just what career
could actually earn him a living. With
that in view, he embarked on his life
long career as an hotelier, right after
leaving France.
Coming to Jamaica for the first time
in 1985 to take up his current position,
Conal O'Sullivan has been able to
combine his interests in an especially
pleasing way. As the Wyndham's owner
is himself a very serious art collector,
the ebullient G.M. was able to secure a
Fine Arts Budget, after discussions with
the Company's Designer. The artworks
on display therefore reflect the G.M's Ike Dodoo
personal taste and an awareness to the
hotel's general ambiance and function.
The works selected so far include six


The best every Season

77 n~tfod Bulear
P.O. ox12
WYN H HcfELKigstn 0,Jamic .I.
Telex 215
Cable : YDOE L IN


bold dominant murals by Eric Cadien,
commissioned by the hotel. These
unmistakable works include the
Jonkanoo mural, which stretches the
length of the 48-foot dance floor. In the
lobby area the lively varied styles of Ike
Dodoo, African (Robert Cookhorne),
Merillee Draculich and Fitz Harrack
overlook and arrest passersby.
The Wyndham's General Manager is
very aware of the hotel's potential as a
"showplace of national culture."

"At the risk of sounding pious, I feel
strongly that art should be hung in
public places arts should be in banks,
railway stations, insurances companies
and many other such places. If the
people won't go to the art put the art
where the people are. On a daily basis
the exposure the art gets here, is greater
than at the National Gallery; more
people pass through the hotel per day,
than pass through the Gallery. Also you
tend to get the same people going,
probably five times a year to the
Gallery. You have in reality, therefore a
lot less people passing through.
The Wyndham's General Manager
feels strongly about Public Art.
"A National Arts Council should be
created here in Jamaica to buy art at the
galleries; these works should then be
made available to be hung in public
places... the best works, abstract,
representational, whatever. The ex-
posure brings the work before a great
number of people who may either buy
for their private collection or for their
The Wyndham Collection, hung in
the various lobby areas, therefore, is a
concentrated effort to alert all patrons
whether visitors or locals, to the wealth
and excitement of the local art world.
Dominating, in their size (the majority
are over eight feet square) and colour
(bold colours prevail with an accent on
pink, the hotel colour) the works
serve well to introduce a flamboyant
and vital country and its culture.

Wyndham's collection includes works by
Fitz Harrack (above) and Merillee Draculich
22 (right).

FORU Continued from page 18

exceptions. For my ancestors claimed
that every abstract gift which humans
are said to possess soul, life,
thoughts, good or bad, courage,
cowardice, every emotion, were all
placed in their heads just before their
birth. The old tutor would say:
'See the front part of the newborn
infant's head? See how it throbs? Put
your finger on it now gently. For it
is as soft as an over-ripe fruit! This is
where the Great One opened, and
placed his bag of gifts to Man just
as the Great Father of Life did when
he made the First Child when the
earth first came from the sky...' "
Namba Roy is in so many ways
representative and symbolic of our
Jamaican society: Congolese traditions
developed within the Maroon tradition
of resistance and rebellion against
European colonial rule; Catholic
religious images alongside the Maroon
Creation Story; patriotism to Britain
combined with a strong black
nationalism and pride.
We look forward to seeing his work
here in Jamaica.
We share Yvonne Roy's dream.
"Crucifixion" Namba Roy.

Dr. Marie Stewart is a Psychologist,
who has recently returned from the
Netherlands to continue her research
interests in London. She has maintained
her involvement in Jamaican cultural
life, and has worked with magazines and
photographic journals in London.

With the increasing local interest and
commitment to public monuments (see
Sam Sharpe Monument. Sullivan, Bob
Marley. Marriott) Jamaican art lovers
should be calling for Art Preservation
Acts such as recently enacted in
Mass. This state became the 3rd in the
USA to pass an artists' moral rights
law which permits artists to take legal
action if their creations are altered,
destroyed or defaced.

With the Compliments of *

94c Old Hope Road,
Kingston 6, Jamaica, W.I.
VIDCOM LTD. Clectronic Engineerng Services & Supplies Telephone: 92-77811


Restoration is an Art.
There is only one restorer of works of
art in Jamaica. He functions out of the
National Gallery of Jamaica on the Roy
West Building in the Kingston Mall, down-
Stanley Barnes is a graduate of the Ja-
maica School of Art. He has practised the
restoration of works of art since 1980
when he completed his training in that
field in Mexico.
The artist has explained that the term
restoration as it is applied to works of art
and cultural property is not restricted to
mean the mending of an item which has
fallen into disrepair. It is mending as well
as conserving and preserving for future
Restoration always has its guiding
objective the maintenance or preservation
of the original intention or artistic integ-
rity of the original creator of the work to
be restored.
This is not an easy task. And it should
be observed and enforced whether the
item in question is a statue or any other
monument a site, a carving or a painting.
Mr. Barnes has pointed out that in the
case of a painting there are three prelim-
inary investigative steps to be taken be-
fore actual restoration work is begun.
These steps are carried out on the flawless
areas which remain in the painting. They
help the restorer to determine the exact
nature of the damage to the work, which
may be due to climatic, biological or
human intervention.
Firstly a sample of thread from the
canvas should be examined to determine
the kind of material from which it is made,
whether it is linen, cotton, jute or any
Secondly the restorer must determine
the basic preparation of grounding of the
work to arrive at a better understanding
of the surface on which the painting was
Thirdly, there has to be an examination
of the superficial paint pigments which
will reveal their chemical properties and
therefore the nature of any shifting which
may have occurred since the original pre-
paration and execution of the work.
At this stage the restorer is still not
able to begin his work unless he is prepared
to maintain the integrity of the intention
of the original creator of the item con-
This task requires the restorer to have
more than a working knowledge of the
period within which the work was created,
24 the techniques and styles of the particular

Tools of a Restorer's Trade Restorer S
7. Scalpel 2. Spatula
3. Magnifying glass
4. Tweezers
artist whose work he has been requested
to restore.
These will help him to determine
whether in fact the work is that of the
artist of whom it has been reputed. The
restorer is then ready to work. "He can-
not afford to get carried away", Mr.
Barnes emphasized. "He should never
make the mistake of introducing his own
ideas, philosophies, likes and dislikes. His
job is to create an illusion of what was,
not to copy what is, or change it. In the
end, the restorer's intervention should be
aesthetically pleasing and should not
For Stanley Barnes, the most satisfying
aspect of restoration is in the conservation
of a work previously thought to be be-
yond redemption. He said, "Rectifying
a major problem in a work of art is like
Some of the most challenging work
which he has undertaken include the mural
at Mary Seacole Hall at the Mona Campus
of the University of the West Indies, some
works of Roger Mais, the Larry Wirth
collection of Kapo and 60 prints from the
Matalon collection.
To would-be restorers, Mr. Barnes said,
"the work is full of joy and adventure
and is needed especially in this part of the
world. It can be financially and spiritually
rewarding. But one needs to be constant-
ly aware of the dangers to which one is
exposed from the chemical which form
an indispensable part of the restorer's
kit. This is why the study of restoration

tanley Barnes at work.

involves so many science-oriented
In addition to the study of the main
periods of art, the main artists and the
main schools of thought implied above,
the study of restoration of paintings also
involves some study of chemistry, pathol-
ogy, photography and a thorough know-
ledge of the history of art of the home
territory in which the restorer hopes to
function. In Mexico where Mr. Barnes
studies it also involved visits to archeolo-
gical sites.
Statues, monuments and sites (also re-
ferred to as national or cultural property)
constitute the second category for restora-
In emphasizing the importance of
restoration to an accurate visual and
historical record for future generations
Mr. Barnes also emphasized the role of
the political and social climate in determin-
ing what is to be restored and why. He
said "It is to be noted that since cultural
deposits which flourish in one regime
might be suppressed in another."
But that the restoration of cultural
property is another art and another
Isoline Blackwood
-':e- ."'
Isbline .Blacwood, dwlio,'w9rks -with
e A, eOM Seqiear af-i eGuyana;
'rievi ped aMr ariesn b ire i'e left
fuder W6rs dyWe vork.
r .-



Jamaican artists, faced with uncertain
and unpredictably fluctuating incomes,
may well envy their Dutch counterparts.
For more than thirty years, there has
been a system of State patronage in
Holland which provides artists with a
living wage in return for which they give
the nation a certain number of works
each year. Recently, however, the
consequences and cost of this scheme
- which covered some 3,000 registered
artists in 1980 have been giving rise
to concern. This has led to a informal
re-evaluation in which some important
questions have been raised. Because I
feel these questions throw some light on
the perennial problem of how fine
artists are to support themselves
(perhaps for a number of years at a
stretch without much prospect of
selling), I believe that a few facts about
this Dutch experiment are worth giving.
The Beeldende Kunstenaars Regeling
(BKR), as it is now called, began in
1949. It was largely the idea of a group
of Dutch artists who had played an
active and valued part in the Dutch
underground resistance to the German
occupation (and were therefore in a
strong position to negotiate with the
Dutch government for support), but
who were finding that in the immediate
aftermath of the war, which had
devastated the Dutch economy, that the
art-buying public could not afford to
purchase much art. Of course, this
could have been seen as a special
temporary situation, which the Govern-
ment could have handled on an ad-hoc
basis by concentrating its support on
those particular artists. The relevant
civil servants and politicians must have
been unusually enlightened, however,
because it was soon decided that the
State would set aside fairly substantial
sums to support the work of all serious
Dutch artists. To qualify for support an
artist must have been working on her
(or his) own for at least two years after
completing her training. The original
intention of the scheme was that the
State would then bridge the gap from
that time until she had brought her work
and reputation up to the point at which
she could be expected to support herself
from ordinary sales.
To get into the BKR, an artist
undergoes three screenings by a panel
which typically consists of government

officials, other artists and museum
directors or gallery owners. The first
stage is an interview with the panel, to
which she shows some of her work. If
satisfactory, the panel then visits her
studio to see her work in progress; and
if she gets over that hurdle, there is a
final interview. Once accepted, she can
then present her work at intervals. She
states her prices, which the Govern-
ment usually accepts, although some-
times it considers them too high and a
compromise has to be negotiated. Once
the prices are agreed, the BKR then
calculates when she should return with
more work, taking into consideration

her circumstances, the number of
dependents she has to support, etc. She
can also claim rent for her studio, and
the cost of materials. The maximum
which can be drawn from the BKR in
any one year, however, is Hfl. 40,000
(approximately US$11,000), on which
tax must be paid, but one can live quite
comfortably in Holland on Hfl. 20,000
per annum after tax. An artist accepted
into the scheme is not prevented from
selling to the public, but any such
income must be declared and off-set
against her sales to the BKR. If she
wishes to reclaim a particular piece of
work, she may do so within a year by 25

"Figures" Karel Appel


buying it back from the BKR at the
same price, but thereafter it has up till
now, been irretrievable.
By all accounts, .the Dutch
government has handled the scheme
with integrity. There has been no
recognisable attempt on the part of the
BKR to influence the type of work
produced, to push any particular school
or to show any preferences. On the
contrary, the scheme has generally been
open to all serious artists. Initially, it
was comparatively easy to be accepted
once one had established one's good
faith, but standards of admission have
lately become more rigorous. On the
face of it, then, this would appear an
almost ideal situation: artists free to
produce their own sort of work (with
studio space and materials assured), and
a guaranteed market for their products.
Is it really the panacea for fine artists
that it appears? I asked several Dutch
artists, some in the BKR and others who
for a variety of reasons had declined to
apply. All agreed that artists are a
special case and need support, but
several expressed deep reservations.
One of the biggest problems stems from
what happens to work handed over to
the scheme. In practice, most of it is
simply stored away indefinitely in
government cellars and warehouses,
although a certain proportion is hung in
government buildings and from time to
time a brochure is published of work
selected for such purposes. Whatever
the cash return and however liberating
the freedom from economic pressure
provided by the BKR, it is deeply
depressing for an artist to feel that her
work has been flung into a government
cellar and may never see the light of
day. And this is not simply to do with
the viewing public. There is a strong
suspicion that something has gone
wrong with the filing system, so that if
the artist herself needs to refer to earlier
work, the BKR may not be able to
locate it for her.
Some of the artists told me that they
believe that the cut-and-thrust of the
marketplace provides an additional spur
to develop their work, that the BKR
does not give them that pressure for a
competitive edge which drives them
forward to greater things.
I have also heard the related
argument that although in other
countries art has to be a real vocation,
26 the existence of the BKR means that

Dutch artists do not need any great
commitment since they need never face
serious financial hardship or un-
certainty. In fact, it may even mean that
people stay in the profession who would
really prefer to leave for more sociable
ways of earning a living; by the time
they realise that they do not like the
solitude and the lack of external
standards in an artist's life, they are
trapped by the regular incomes
provided by the BKR and become
unwilling to endanger their mortgages
and other commitments by moving into
fields they might enjoy more. Finally,
some artists have told me that the BKR
involuntarily discourages experiment-
ation, since an artist may fear that the
committees may like her new work less
than they liked the styles originally
presented when she was seeking
admission to the scheme.
Other artists strongly disagree with all,
these arguments and despise the
necessity in other countries for artists to
compete for the favours of a fickle
public, and faddish critics, which they
think almost always has a negative
effect. Certainly it is clear that many
Dutch artists have used the BKR to full
advantage progressing from strength to
strength (most famous of these,
perhaps, being figures like Karel Appel,
and Askerjorn). At the same time,
however, it is noteworthy that although
the scheme was only meant to tide
artists over the difficult first 'struggling'
period, some have remained on it for up
to thirty years. More generally, too,
there is the question of the effect which
the scheme has had on Dutch post-war
art. Holland rightly considers itself an
integral part of the European artistic
community, and does not ask that its
artists should be judged more leniently,
than any body else. Despite the
unparalleled encouragement provided
by the Dutch government, however, the
Dutch themselves do not claim that
contemporary Dutch art is the most
vibrant or most significant being
produced in Europe. Indeed, some
artists have said that although the
intentions behind the BKR were of the
finest, the results have not lived up to
expectations, and they have expressed a
fear that mediocrity may to some
degree have been institutionalized. My
own feeling is that such criticisms may
be too harsh.
Meanwhile, the State finds itself with

a number of embarrassing problems. In
particular, it seems to be running out of
storage space and in any case, it is
increasingly aware that the works
should be seen. It cannot just sell off the
backlog of works, however, since this
would simply flood the market.
Experiments are being made, therefore,
to try to reach people who might
otherwise not think of buying original
works. Thus paintings are now being
offered on hire-purchase, and the
Amsterdam and Rotterdam Committees
are running schemes whereby the
general public can rent pictures for
their homes. It is too early to judge how
successful these ideas will be.
In the meantime, a new Government
came to power in 1982 committed to
drastic reductions in government
expenditures.One of their measures was
to prune the BKR budget severely,
which has meant a fall in the average
earnings of artists in the scheme.
Further, they have considerably
tightened up the conditions. Now, for
instance, to be eligible an artist must
privately sell US$1,100 of her work each
year, and this figure will rise to
US$2,300 in 1986. The artists responded
by temporarily occupying the Rijks-
museum in protest, but the move is
certain to go ahead.
It occurs to me to wonder what the
Jamaican visual Art world would have
been like today if by some miracle the
Jamaican Government in 1949 had been
willing and able to institute a similar
scheme. My guess is that there would
have been many more practising artists
by now, but that we would not
necessarily have reached where we have
in commitment or achievement.

Prudence Lovell who has been
painting in Jamaica for many years
now, is on an extended visit to
Holland, where she is continuing
her artistic career. She here shares
her reflections on the Dutch system
of state patronage as it affects
artists there.



Angela Craddock Marcus
No one ever sits down to dinner at
this party though the triangular table,
open centered and measuring 46 feet
on each side and covered by a white
tablecloth is set for 39 guests. Though
the guests never appear, hundreds of
thousands of viewers have flocked to
see the commemorative place settings
designed to honour each would be
Judy Chicago's The Dinner Party,
opened in San Francisco to great
acclaim in 1980 and has been exhibited
in Houston, Boston, Brooklyn, Chicago,
Montreal, where I saw it in 1982, and in
Toronto that same year.
The Dinner Party was created over
the period of six years and was the
co-operative effort of 400 women, and a
handful of men, working on a voluntary
basis. Each person involved with the
making of The Dinner Party has been
credited in the exhibition and in all of its
publications and the success of the
project belies the often held opinion
that women are unable to work
agreeably together.

The Dinner Party came upon the art
world like a bulldozer, knocking over
preconceived opinions about what
qualifies as art, ploughing into the
definitions that traditionally divide art
and craft and razing notions about what
might and might not be considered
suitable topics for a work of art. Unlike
many great works of contemporary art,
the experience of viewing The Dinner
Party touched everyone, either nega-
tively or positively; everyone had one
opinion or another, the public
participated and through their involve-
ment, humanized and enlivened an
assemblage of inanimate objects and
breathed life into some of the
long-forgotten absent guests.
The politics of The Dinner Party is
feminist. It is a tribute to women's
achievements and their contributions to
civilization throughout history and an
attempt to redress the fact that women's
accomplishments have been omitted
from recorded history by the
predominantly male historians. The
materials which have been used to fulfil

"The Dinner Party" Judy Chicago 1975-80. This open triangular dinner table is equilateral in
structure reflecting the goal of fleminish an equalized world. The triangle is also one of the earliest
symbols of the feminine.

this epic sized honour are clay and fibre.
Clay for the dinner plates, and fibre for
the tablecloth and placemats which
have been ornamented with encyclo-
paedic range of embroidery techniques.
On their way to the exhibition room,
viewers passed six colourful banners
which described a future altered and
restored to Eden by feminine influence.
They read: "And She Gathered All
before Her... And She made for them A
sign to see... And lo They saw a
Vision... From this day forth Like to like
in All things... and all that divided them
merged... And then Everywhere was
Eden Once Again." On entering the
dimly lit room, viewers saw the large
triangular table laid with a white cloth
set with 39 ornate place settings and 30
lustrous white chalices. The table sat on
a glowing white raised platform made
up to 2,300 handmade triangular
porcelain tiles on which are inscribed in
gold the names of 999 prominent
women. The work glowed and
shimmered in the dusky room and one
felt as though one had entered the holy

of holies. The overall impact was
dazzling and the content of the
exhibition could only be absorbed by
walking slowly around the table and
observing each place setting on an
individual basis.
The Dinner Party's most con-
troversial motif, and theme of the show
was the butterfly vagina which was the
dominant visual image of the sculpted,
painted china dinner plates. Chicago
chose the butterfly as an icon for
woman in terms of the metamorphosis
of the new woman, the symbol of
liberation; an image to suggest reaching
out or opening up the vagina is also
read as the essence of woman. Chicago
and her assistants carefully researched
each guest's era to identify the styles
and attitudes from which motifs and
information could be drawn and
incorporated into the place setting
design so as to enlarge upon the
personality of the embroidered name
and give a flavour of the style of each
woman's time.

With the Compliments of



- Place setting for Theodora

The tour of the table is arranged
chronologically and historically, start-
ing on side one with the period from
pre-historic goddesses to Roman times,
which include: Hypatia, 370-415,
Roman scholar and philosopher who
lived in Egypt; Snake Goddess who
represented the goddess religions of
earliest history; Judith, the Jewish
heroine from the Book of Judith;
Sappho, born 612 in Greece, one of the
greatest poets and teachers of Western
civilization. Side two covered the
periods from early Christianity to the
Reformation: St. Bridget, 453-523, the
patron saint of Ireland who founded the
first convent in Ireland; Eleanor of
Aquitaine 1122-1204, wife of Kings of
France and England who used her
power to help women in feudal castles
improve their status; Isabelle d'Este,
1474-1539, Italian Renaissance noble-
woman, scholar, linguist, stateswoman
and patron of the arts; Artemisla
Gentileschi, 1590-1652, female painter
who gained recognition for her work
during her lifetime in Italy. Side three,
dedicated to women of the periods from
the American Revolution to the
Twentieth Century: Anne Hutchinson,
28 1591-1643, American midwife, preach-

er, theologian and challenger of church
doctrine; Sojourner Truth, 1797-1883, a
former slave who chose her own name
and who became an abolitionist and
feminist. She helped newly freed slaves
to establish themselves after the Civil
War and symbolized the black woman's
struggle to overcome the oppression of
both her race and sex. Susan B.
Anthony, 1820-1906, crusading feminist;
Virginia Wolf, 1882-1941, celebrated
English novelist and Georgia O'Keefe,
born 1887, major figure in twentieth
century American painting.
It is the traditional work of women's
lives, now elevated through the politics
of liberation and feminism, and called
the "domestic arts", which by extension,
created the components of The Dinner
Party: women cook, serve dinner, sew,
paint china, throw pots in the backyard
or basement, and in some societies, may
make the utensils for cooking and
eating. In our society, some of these
activities are traditionally seen as
feminine hobbies, and as such are
deemed valueless or recreational. These
"hobbies" were transformed by the
energy and dedication of hundreds of
women united by a goal and by the
mystique of the Dinner Party project
into a powerful, most talked about,

much written about art event of
1981 82. Using the same approach,
Chicago is now at work on her second
Event, "The Birth Project", to make its
debut this spring.
The place setting for Hatshepsut,
cl503-1482, B.C. the ruler of the XVIII
Dynasty and one of the four female
Pharaohs of Egypt, combines typical
elements from Egyptian art and
hieroglyphics in the blue-green colours
traditionally associated with the gods
and worn by the rulers. Photographs of
her tomb decorations were the source
for design ideas for Hatshepsut's place
setting. The runner was embroidered
with silk threads in the tent stitch, the
motif on her plate combines the shape
of an Egyptian ceremonial wig with the
butterfly motif.
The mosaics of Byzantine Emperor
and Empress, Theodora and Justinaian
at San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, were the
design source for an elaborately
embroidered runner in satin stitch, long
and short stitch, split stitch, couching
and applique. Theodora, 508-548, ruled
equally with her husband and initiated
reforms on behalf of women, creating
laws to protect them in divorce, against
physical abuse from their husbands and
generally improved women's position in
society. The distinctive gold halo which
surrounds Theodora's head in the San
Vitale mosaics, was the inspiration for
the surround of her plate the texture
of the tiles of this famous depiction of
this celebrated couple dictated the
texture of the design on Theodora's
The right to an education for women
and an insistence that the tyranny of
men must be broken if women were
ever to be free, along with her book, "A
Vindication of the Rights of Woman",
were some of the contributions of Mary
Wollstonecraft, 1759-1797, British
feminist and mother of Mary Shelley.
Her lustrous satin placemat is
embroidered in stumpwork, a technique
popular in England during Wollstone-
craft's time. The repertoire of
embroidery stitches also include, the
pekenese stitch, crochet, turkey work
and applique.

With the Compliments of



Emily Dickinson, 1830-1888 one of
America's foremost poets, and a
reclusive spinster is symbolized in lace
and pink ribbons. The border of her
placemat is in the shape of butterflies
made of antique handmade lace. Her
name is spelled in ribbonwork, a
technique popular during Dickinson's
lifetime. Her plate is of lace ruffles
coated with porcelain and speaks for
The precedent set by The Dinner
Party has opened up new routes for
artistic expression. We can chart the
forerunners to Judy Chicago who broke
new ground and allowed new artistic
seeds to germinate: Picasso's use of
collage in his early Cubist paintings; the
found objects and ready mades of Dada
and Surrealism, the drip paintings of
Jackson Pollock, the shaped canvases of
Frank Stella; and the emergence of
performance and installation art of the
1960's. The benefit of The Dinner Party
has been exploited this time around
primarily by "craftspeople", though clay
and fibre has recently been explored by
many established "fine" artists. Many
potters and fibre artists who are
currently working in a conceptual and
philosophical mode have presented
critics with new problems of
interpretation this kind of ferment is
necessary to keep the artworld fresh
and away from complacency and
The Dinner Party reflects the current
life and times of Twentieth Century
North America as accurately as Italian
Baroque art reflects the tumult of the
Counter Reformation. In doing so, it is
appropriate that the ideas behind The
Dinner Party should be expressed in
unconventional materials and techni-

.Angela Craddock ,Marcus is.c a
:graduate of Wo#nersGir*School, 9w.p
'has lived.An ,anda, fo ,lover twe
,years. Se is a eelace wter




Place setting for Emily Dickinson.


Hatshepsut (1503 1482 B.C.) Ruler of XVIII Dynasty was one of the four known female
pharaohs. Daughter of a great warrior-king, she bolstered Egypt's economy through trade, achieved
Peace and prosperity during her reign. Her plate is set on a runner embroidered with hieroglyphics
which tell her story.


An interview with Gerald Alexis
Director of the Museum of Art, Haiti,
by Kay Y. Anderson

Haitian artists are rich spiritually. They
have produced flamboyant work
remarkable for the masterful juxtaposi-
tion of colours and the range of subject
matter, folklore, voodoo, mysticism,
history, Christianity or simple peasant
life. In fact art has become Haiti's
fourth largest "industry." The Haitian
art movement received worldwide
acclaim in the 1940's when they stole
the show at the international exhibit in
Paris organized by UNESCO. Since that
time Haitian art has attracted influential
collectors worldwide.
In November 1983 one of the works of
Hector Hyppolite "Le Rivier" sold at
Sotheby's for $36,300, the highest price
ever paid at auction for Haitian work. In
May of that same year Castera Brazile's
"Adoration of the Virgin" had sold at
Southby's for $27,000. Both Hyppolite
and Brazile had been associated with
the Centre of Art founded in 1944 by
Dewitt Peters. Both died in the forties.
Philome Obin is at 92 Haiti's oldest
living painter the undisputed
grandmaster! He was the first student at
the Centre of Art, painting primarily
historical scenes. These artists and their
contemporaries laid the groundwork for
the Haitian art movement. Today work
by the early masters can be seen at the
newly opened Museum of Art in
Port-au-Prince. The Director of the
Museum of Art while in Jamaica to
open an exhibition of Haitian paintings
and sculptures mounted by Air Jamaica,
in association with the Mutual Life
Gallery and the Nader Art Gallery of
Haiti granted the following interview.
He visited the National Gallery, gave a
slide presentation to the Jamaican
Artists and Craftsmen Guild, and met
artists, students and collectors for
informative discussions.

KA: What are your impressions of
Jamaican art?
GA: I think it is very expressive; I was
very surprised, you see, because I
was expecting to find something
that resembled Haitian art. It
does, in certain ways, in certain
artists, particularly those called
intuitive. But I found several
30 aspects a lot more expressive,



ADMIRING LA URENCEA U: Opening night at the Exhibition of Haitian Art, Mutual Life Gallery
saw a large enthusiastic crowd enjoying the varied artworks, assembled there from Nader's Galleries,
Haiti. Arranged by the Gallery under the auspices of Air Jamaica, the show was opened by Mr.
Gerald Alexis, Director of Haitian Museum of Art. Here admiring the work by Lionel Laurenceau
are (left to right) Gerald Alexis; Mrs. Daphne King, Advertising Manager, Air Jamaica; Mr. Ron
Hasden, Air Jamaica representative, Haiti; Mrs. Maria Williams, Director, Sales and Marketing,
Jamaica and the Caribbean and Mr. George Nader, Gallery owner, Naders Galleries, Haiti.

particularly sculptures, I found
sculpture extremely strong and
also the paintings of modem
artists. I think you are less spoiled
by Tourism than we are. I'd like to
add something. I think also that
your modern artists are more in
contact with the outside world
than ours would be.

KA: Why is this so?

GA: Well, art in Haiti has been such a
boom for the last 40 years that the
artists do not always see the need
to go out, and see what's
happening. They have the
tendency to think it is sufficient in
themselves. Not that some of them
don't go out you know it's just that
they look at one another very
much, but I don't know to what
extent the look is being done

KA: What exactly is happening in Haiti
at the moment?

GA: Well, there is just one great thing
in History of Haitian art since
1944, the opening of an institution
called Le Centre de Arts The
Art Centre, and this gathered
together artists that had been
working together. It was open to

wider range of artists, by range I
mean a social range. Painting was
regarded before 1944 as a side
activity for a more or less
bourgeois class. Just as the Centre
de Arts opened this class was very
aware of their identity because
Haiti had just gone out of the
American occupation. This in-
digenous movement was stronger
in literature than in the visual arts,
however, there were some artists
using the modem techniques to
express something that is more
Haitian, and so when the art
centre opened these artists were
the first ones to exhibit there. A lot
of promotion was made locally
about this art centre and artists
from everywhere from all walks of
life very timidly came to the centre
de art. And the great discovery -
(not that it was not there before,
but nobody paid attention to it) -
was the visual art produced by the
people in the lower classes; it was
amazing to see with what
imagination they would work; of
course they lack technique and
this is one of the reasons why they
have been referred to as
But what they had to say was very
important because it was their


inner vision of the world that the
artists tended to rationalize. Their
vision was totally irrational, and it
brought something very new and
very fresh to the current in Haiti.
The modern artists even though
they're been outshadowed by
these primitives because they
have gained instant popularity
around the world were wise
enough not to fight this
movement. On the contrary they
were observing very much and
getting some information from
these artists on their topics, on the
subjects they painted, on their way
of seeing things. Technically they
paint very flat; there is very little
relief in these paintings, because it
is question of atmosphere. When
you are in Haiti, with the humidity
and the light you have an
impression that everything is flat.
It reflects in the art of these
popular artists, who did not think
because they did not know the
techniques that they could not
present something in an un-
realistic way. So they learnt the
colours very well because they
dare do with colours that the
academic artists do not dare.
When you go to art school they
tell you that such and such a
colour doesn't go with such and
such a colour. The naive artist, (or
popular or primitives or however
you want to call them) do not
know such things and they dare to
put two colours together and it
worked out well, surprisingly.

These are the lessons that they
brought to the so-called modern
artists. Since then, 1944, inter-
national attention was brought on
Haitian art and the demand for
Haitian art all over the world was
immense meseums, private col-
lectors; there are extraordinary
Haitian collections in the United
States, in France, in Switzerland in
Northern Europe, Sweden, every-
where. So the demand had to be
met, and unfortunately, at times,
the artists tend to produce to meet
the demand. In the midst of all
that production come out some
extraordinary pieces, that some
people are fortunate to get or that
museums are fortunate to get.

KA: Who is painting and what are they

GA: Everybody's painting. From the
slides that you saw yesterday you
see that the support for a painting
is not necessarily a canvas, it can
be anything. It's very funny. When
you walk on the streets you see
these plastic utensils that are used
on airplanes and are thrown away
after each trip. They are picked up
by children and they are painted
on, reused, or they are used
just to display, to decorate or even
to be used as balls as plates or
whatever. So everybody paints.
Not everybody is featured in
galleries because since 1944, we
have structured galleries that do
select, that do encourage.

We have institutions that create
some sort of contests where
younger artists come and show
their work and they get awards
and they are encouraged. So you
have what we call late professional
artists, and then we have the rest
of the people, who practically all
of them paint or draw or

KA: Who are the creative people?

GA: The Haitians think they can do
anything. So if your neighbour is
painting you try painting also. And
it is surprising to see that
something genuine can come of
this, not everytime, but something
comes out that's very interesting.
Take the tap taps (the buses which
are moving works of art) there are
two aspects of the tap taps. You
have one large painting which is
done by one artist. You have
decorative motifs, like birds and
flowers which are generally done
by another artist less talented, or
in a sort of mechanical act. Then
you have the geometric or
curvilinear designs, which are
done by a series of other painters,
one works with the blue, one
works with the red, one works
with the yellow, one works with
the white, and they freely put the
colours where they want, so there
is not a preplanned pattern. The
guy with the red comes in, puts the
red and moves on, to another tap
tap. And the guy with the blue


im ..Li d_ _i _ O_ 2__ _ _ _
TALKING CARIBBEANART: Gerald Alexis, Director of Haiti's Museum, took time in his Jamaican visit to meet teachers, artists and collectors at the
Frame Centre Gallery and to share news on Haiti's artworld. Here he elaborates to his audience during a slide display. Left to right, Fit: Harrack,
Cecil Cooper, Phanel Toussaint (artists) Gerald Alexis, Wallace Campbell (noted art collector) Margaret Bernal, Arts Jamaica (standing), Tina Spiro
(artist), Clement Pownall (art teacher, partially obscured) George Nader, gallery owner, righth t foreground).

comes, and it's done in that
fashion. But the owner, when he
comes he asks for a particular
painting. He selects or he brings
from a lithograph or something
interesting. "I would like this on
the tap tap." Now it's never a copy
because it's an interpretation.

KA: In what ways does Haitian Art
mirror traditional African art or
borrow from it?

GA: Art in Africa is essentially-
religious. African art is anony-
mous, because the artist will not
sign his work because he respects
the tradition which has been there
for centuries. One aspect is found
in Haitian art. In the Voodoo
religion all the divinities are
represented by a bi-dimensional
design, which is abstract; it's made
of lines, and this design is
reproduced everytime there is a
ceremony and the spirit is called.
It's made with corn flower. There
is a theory that this design is
African because it has the same
linear structure as the engraving
that you find on masks and statues
in Africa. Now since the slaves
were not allowed to bring their
statues with them and since the
statues were permanent, they did
not fit the context where the
occupants would tend to destroy
them, so they had to create a
representation that would be
destroyed immediately after use.
And so you realize at once that
32 they moved from a three

- "Young and Old" Lyonel Laurencean
Oil on canvas 19Y x 15 -
The Hardingham Collection.

dimensional to a bi-dimensional
representation, and that right after
the ceremony they could just walk
on the sketch and just spread out
the corn flower and it would
disappear. But people believe that
the same sketch is precisely done
each time and it has been done so
for generations and generations.
So there is one aspect of the
continuity in that regard. Now this
sketch has influenced a lot of
modern artists who have also
looked at other elements, divini-
ties and applied the same linear
stylization. In regard to the
popular artists the intuitive need
to represent iconography, the
divinities, has created what would
be called religious art, which is
also traditional, because every
divinity is associated in a syncretic
manner with one saint of the
Catholic faith. And not being able
to get always lithographs to ornate
the temple these "saints persons"
are painted on the walls. Now they
tend to respect a certain
iconograph which is traditional
Catholic but it doesn't always
come out that way. But there is
that need that would also be
Africa to ornate and represent.

KA: Could you discuss some of the
artists working in Haiti telling us
something about their work,
techniques etc.
GA: Let's take various categories, you
have Bernard Sejourne. He
studied in Jamaica, at the art
league in New York and he is an

extremely well trained artist;
technically he is extraordinary.
His inspiration is the Haitian
woman, the beauty of the Haitian
woman, and I would say the
feminity of the Haitian woman.
Because all of his portraits are
extremely tender, extremely
feminine, extremely motherly.
Even if he is to represent a
working woman, such as a woman
selling fabrics in the street he
always portrays her with a lot of
elegance a lot of style, a lot of
pride, and its true that the Haitian
woman is proud. This is always
reflected in the work of Sejourne.
His colours are always very subtle
creating this very chic atmos-
phere. All his colours blend and
generally there is a dominant
tone. He takes the liberty of
stretching some parts of the body,
such as the neck because it gives
more nobility. He intensifies the
eyes very often he makes them
larger than they ought to be to
penetrate more the character. The
women always dress in costumes
which are typically Haitian. His
paintings are generally very large
which makes them more impress-
ive and he is truly an academic
Also academic but in another
fashion is Lionel Laurenceau.
Lionel studied drawing at the ABC
School in Paris, a correspondence
course in design in drawing in
painting; generally the artists who
come out of this school are
extremely good portraitists, so
Lionel Laurenceau when he
started painting for his first show
which was over ten years ago,
presented a series of portraits.
They are not a portrait of a
particular person. He goes out in
the street and he sees a face
remembers the face and goes into
his canvas. Since he works with
acrylic and it's a very quick drying
medium he can work very fast, he
sketches very quickly and he
paints very quickly, so he doesn't
have time to forget the face. He is
particularly interested in children
because there is this candid aspect
of children and also he is inversely
interested by old men because
they present faces.......
(Cont'd on page 36)


by Donald Johnson
Since July 1976 we have been working
at setting up an efficient Pottery Studio
at Clonmel, St. Mary. After eight years
we are somewhat closer to our
objectives. The slow process involved in
establishing a desirable working
environment is made even more
frustrating by our desire to grow
It is relatively easy to create in the
imagination various schemes and
projects yet it is something quite
different coping with 'the real world'.
The 'real world' in our case is one in
which capital resources are less than
adequate and where skills and
technology are made available only
through study and practice which takes
The slow process associated with a
method that is largely empirical can and
does at times lead to some very
disappointing moments. Bernard
Palissy, the French Renaissance potter,
describes his early development as
follows... "at one time my work was
baked in front and not behind; the next
time, when I tried to prevent such an
accident I would burn it behind and the
front would not be baked; sometimes
my glazes were put on too thin, and
sometimes too thick: which caused me
heavy losses: sometimes when I had
glazes of various colours in the kiln,
some were burned before the others had
melted. In short, I blundered thus for
fifteen or sixteen years: when I had
learned to guard against one danger, I
encountered another that I would never
have thought about." Bernard Palissy
developed his art at a time when
theoretical knowledge was scarce and
when craftsmen protected their trade in
great secrecy. He, however, was
successful in learning his art and in 1562
earned the title 'Inventor of the King's
Rustic Pottery'. The Master Potter
wrote... "Even if I used a thousand
reams of paper to write down all the
accidents that happened to me in
learning this art, you must be assured
that, however good a brain you may
have, you will still make a thousand
mistakes, which cannot be learned from
writings, and even if you had them in
writing you wouldn't believe them until
practice has given you a thousand
afflictions." (Pg. 231 Kilns)
Also Michael Cardew was thinking
along similar lines when he warned

against too much reliance on
"predigested knowledge". In the book
bearing his name, by Garth Clarke, he
actually referred to working under
primitive conditions as presenting
oneself with "a continual series of
technical challenges... these have a
bracing effect on (one's) own potting,
since the effort to overcome technical
problems and difficulties is an integral
part of the content, the expression
which he puts into his work, not
something separate or different in
kind." (Pg. 219 Michael Cardew)
Cecil Baugh's work clearly demon-
strates the successful results of such an
approach. Take for example his mastery
of the Egyptian Blue glaze. The
sensitivity with which he uses this
particular glaze is possible mainly
because he independently discovered
the glaze without any prior knowledge
of glaze technology at the time or even
that such a glaze existed. That glaze has
deep inner meaning for Cecil Baugh and
it comes out as expressive content in his
There are many shortcuts which we
could have taken. For example, why
bother to build a kiln and then spend
countless hours trying to fire it to a
desired temperature only to be
disappointed in not being able even to
melt the glazes? On one occasion we
fired one of our first kilns for forty
hours nonstop. In fact we gave up only
because we were totally exhausted and
we thought we had achieved the desired

temperature. We did not get one good
piece from that and many other firings.
We could have acquired a commercial
kiln complete with operating instruc-
tions. However we would have lost the
opportunity of "tasting some of the
exhilarations as well as the frustrations
of one who is exploring new paths in his
We have learnt things about pottery
and about ourselves over the years
which we could not have learnt by other
means. Our present kiln, built January
1984, fires to 1300oC in seven to nine
hours and has a capacity of
approximately 200 pieces in a variety of
sizes. It could be said to maintain a
particular role in our understanding of
heat and the ceramic process. Lessons
learnt from this kiln feed back into our
work and will lead also to design
features in future kilns.
Our objective is not simply to shape
clay into saleable items functional
and or contemplative. Indeed,
although we are more than pleased to
see people exchanging their, in many
cases, hard earned money for our pieces
we also hope that they will find the kind
of 'enlightenment' and 'satisfaction' in
their acquisitions which we had in
producing them.
Our desire is to work in a way that
brings us close to our materials and
processes enabling us to develop the
kind of relationship that leads to
meaningful and valued results. Not
every piece we produce can be
considered satisfactory by any stand-
ards but we feel committed to the
thought that creative integrity needs the
kind of support that only a personal
search and discovery can give.

Stoneware Plate Clonmel Potters, Belva

"Francis"- William (Woody) Josephs 1984
Cedar- 18"
Collection: Gallery Makonde

Alison West, whose show "Cosmic
Thoughts" opened the '85 Mutual Life
Exhibition series confesses to a
strong attraction to three dimension-
ality created by line and form,
accentuated by the use of pure vibrant
colour. She explains further, "Primarily
the underlying concept behind my work
relates to my ideas about the disciplined

"In Review" faces as ever, the large
task of overseeing a four month period
packed with exhibitions and art
happenings of an undiminished scale
and vitality. Major shows have been
held across the island and at least two
new galleries have come into
being one in midtown Ocho Rios
(Bravo Ocho Rios).The opening
of the major Contemporary
Arts Centre in Kingston signals
a new 'high' in the capital's
integrated facilities for
Interestingly too, there has been
a plethora of "art-home" showings,
with works for sale, view and auction;
these events seem to indicate an
ever widening acceptance of and
interest in art as having a rightful
meaningful place in our day-to-day
lives and not necessarily only in a
gallery setting.
New and interesting venues were
brought into use (Huie / Morgans
Harbour, Diedre Porter / Sans Souci,
Wallace Campbell Collection Masonic
Lodge, Women Artists/ Social Welfare
Training Centre, Novi Shoucair/

forces of the universe. In this seemingly
chaotic and largely organic world in
which we live it may be difficult to
believe in an overall control or plan.
However everything that happens has a
reason and a cause, and is part of the
overall balance. By the use of geometric
forms in my drawings and paintings I try
to convey this feeling of order and often

Milton George, Hillel Group Show and
Auction all at residences, further
reinforcing this point. The Campbell
Collection, hung amidst a profusion of
exquisitely arranged orchid blooms,
spoke eloquently the "natural
harmonies" inherent in creative
disciplines. While the two day
pre-Nairobi women's meeting held by
the C.V.S.S., made the same statement
for the integration of art and academia.
An important event too was the
staging of an overseas art show (Haitian
Art/ Mutual Life Gallery) which
excited the support of many local art
buffs for the art offerings of the
neighboring island.
The infusion of international in-
fluences was also a sustained feature
of this period:- As well as the Haitian
show, there were shows by Lynn
Chadwick (Harmony Hall) and Tobi
Heller (guest artist / Upstairs, Down-
stairs); Rene Piscaer (Mutual Life) and
Djamila Liniger (Makonde) presented,
as it were, for the "long-term" artist -
visitors to the island.
Maintained too, was the determined
efforts of gallery operators to take art

Machine IV" Alison West 1983
on canvas 36 x 18 Collection:
St. "" "> '"
add to it by using perspective. Particular
points in a landscape seem to exert
absolute control on the forms within,
sometimes appearing to attract them
with magnetic force, at other times to
create them as they approach us
growing from infinity to huge
architectural masses.

With the Compliments of



q Esso

"to the people"; Barrington Watson
displayed at Richmond Hill, Graham
Davis' work went to Tryall and the
Frame Centre Three Women Exhibi-
tion (Judith Salmon, Rachel Fearing,
Samere Tansley) travelled on from its
Kingston debut to Frame Centre Ocho
In Kingston, Upstairs, Downstairs
maintained an interesting series of
varied medium explorations after their
February presentation of 'Originals'
with the series "Brushstrokes",
"Forms", "On Line"; "Intuitives"
presented at Harmony Hall as did
Colin Garland, Susan Shirley and
Albert Artwell, while St. Ann's Bay
Gallery introduced the new textile
artist, Tukula Ntama.
The National Gallery's youth show for
JAMFEST '85 brought the un-
equivocal statements of young artist
into an international wide-ranging
forum on Culture. The Bolivar Gallery
celebrated a solid twenty years in the
business and hosted the veteran
Alexander Cooper in a fine display of
works. Other welcome and varied
media exhibitions came in turn from
Laura Facey and Jacquie Marshall
(Mutual Life) and Woody Josephs,
Andrew Jefferson and Peter Ferguson

Jamaican Art 1922 1982

The Smithsonian Institute Travel-
ling Exhibition Services exhibition on
"Jamaican Art 1922 1982" has
taken Jamaican artworks on view
from Lousiana to Los Angeles from
Washington to Hartford, Connecticut.
This pathbreaking exhibition, the most
comprehensive yet to travel abroad,
afforded the public and critics alike, an
opportunity to evaluate first hand the
"arts of an island".
Overall with a few notable
exceptions, the critics were enthusiastic
about the quality and vigour of the
exhibition's offerings and were especi-
ally charmed by the "individualistic
intuitive artists whose styles derive from
the island's tradition of spiritual art"
(Waterbury Sunday Republican).

Boxer, and arranged by Vera Hyatt was
accompanied throughout by a com-
prehensive catalogue and array of film,
slide and lecture presentations, which
equipped the inquiring new audiences
with just enough background informa-
tion to render the exhibition more

'The 50 paintings and 26 sculptures
present a balanced representation of
both the trained mainstream artists and
the untrained artists, considered in
Jamaica to be intuitive rather than
promitive. Many aspects of daily life in
Jamaica are depicted in the exhibit, as
well as the emotional responses to the
events of Jamaica's history in the last
half century. Jamaican art developed as
an integral part of the nationalist,
anti-colonialist consciousness which has
been a major emphasis of Jamaican
cultural and intellectual life since the

'The exhibition is presented historically
and organized by themes, but an
underlying factor is the inclusion of
both the 'mainstream'and the 'intuitive'
artist. The latter term, coined by David
Boxer as an alternative to primitive
artists, means untrained but evokes a
sense of authenticity and roots."- The
Hartford Courant.

"We see the work of mainstream artists,
such as the elegantly undulating
"Mahogany Form" by Winston Patrick
and the textural study of 'Tour
Pomegranates" by Hope Brooks. We
see works by painters obviously
following traditions of European
"masters, "such as Barrington Watson's
very fine "Mother and Child" and Karl
Parboosingh 's "Brother Man," directly
influenced by Georges Rouault. We see
examples of African roots as in "All
Women are Five Women" by Mallica
Reynolds, known as Kapo. We see sheer
religious ecstasy in "Hallelujah,
Hallelujah, Hallelujah" by Carl
Abrahams and "Revival Kingdom" by
Osmond Watson. We see a colorful
tropical fecundity, a visual expression of
Reggae music if there ever was one. in
Everald Brown's "Ethiopian Apple" and
Spiritualism ".

most intellectual of Jamaican artists
appear to have their feet planted firmly
in Jamaica's rich island soil". -
Entertainment Listings.

The S.I.T.E.S. exhibition curated by We see a lot of fantasy and little pure
the National Gallery's Director David abstraction. Even the most trained,

. McLaren's lollipop trees, layer cake
flower beds, and consistent absence of
natural proportion in the depiction of
people and objects are all enchanting.
His paintings "Hope Gardens" and "The
City Kingston"have a magic quality, but
they also make strong, simple
statements about Jamaican life that
could never come from a learned
palette". The New England Newsclip

"One can find here no compulsion for
power or radical itch, no clever ironies,
no cynicism. What you will find is a
spirit which finds life basically good and
finds pleasure in it.
. .In contrasting the artistic expressions
of this island nation to mainland
cultures in Mexico and the United
States, one is reminded of the contrast
between the ancient Minoan civilization
on the Mediterranean island of Crete
and its neighbours in Egypt and
Babylonia. Then as now, the rhythm of
the sea seems to have softened any
hardness of human nature so that there
is no evidence, even in political and
social terms, of that wire in the neck up
to the ear which drives and maddens
much of the modern world.
. Look, for example, at the Jamaican
painting Halelujah, Hallelujah, Hallelu-
jah with its fervent, dancing figures. In
other hands, this theme might very well
turn into a dithyrambic utterance

"Jamaican intuitive art also seems more
deeply based in religion. In fact, if there
is any constant thread that runs through
all of Jamaican art and sets it apart from
the art of other countries. It is that
religion here is still very much a part of
thought and life, even for such
sophisticated artists as David Boxer". -
Arts & Entertainment, The Washington

burdened with psychological overtones.
But for artist Carl Abrahams, there is a
lilt to the theme that yields a happier
passion. Again, one is reminded of how
the Minoans transformed the somber
pomp of Egyptian and Mesopotamian
animal cults (like the bull and the snake)
into sprightly gamelike rituals." -
Charles Moore, The Times Shreveport.

"Paintings and sculptures by Sydney
McLaren, Mallica Reynolds (Kapo),
Everald Brown, and the David Millers,
father and son, all of whom were born
before 1920. These are among the self-
taught Jqmaican artists represented at
the Atheneum who have expressed the
essence of their culture naturally,
without affectation. Unaffected by
mainstream trends, they have depicted
their land, their countrymen, and their
spiritual selves with candor.
- Calendar.

SUP PLIES LTD. TELEPHONE: 92-67475/6, 92-67340

With the Compliments of



The School of Art opened on the 9th
April on a quiet note for some. All
second year students however entered
their area of specialization with a
feeling of excitement and expectation.

The Graphic students under the
dynamic leadership of the Head of the
Department Mr. Isaac Dodoo
executed a delightful backdrop for the
Jam Fest Village at the Devon House.
These students worked throughout the
Easter Holidays to complete the task.

The School is in dire need of
financing as the overall economic
squeeze is affecting the School as well.
Government funding is almost
non-existent, therefore, the School has
to provide for itself through various
fundraising events. Some past students
of the School have become prominent
"names" in entertainment; these
graduates have agreed to stage a large
benefit Concert for the School. The
School is immensely proud of them,
and also grateful that they have not
forgotten their alma mater.

which are interesting, with all the
wrinkles and the suffering of a
long life expressed in those
sculpted face. Laurenceau is a
master of volumes, and of light.
His work is close to being
photographic, he is extremely
realistic and he has moved on
throughout the years to use super

rts amaica

The School of Art has been chosen
as the most appropriate place for the
development of the School of Design.
Plans are on the way for the expansion
of the Graphic department to house a
larger component of Design with
emphasis on Packaging.
Mr. Silas Rhodes from the School of
Visual Arts in the U.S.A., will be
visiting the School to help in planning
the programme with the assistance of
USAID. This is the fulfilment of one
the aims of the School to work closely
with industry and commerce.

started with a Preview for the Friends
of the School, on the 29th of June. The
show opened to the public from
Monday 1st July through to the 13th
July. The Graduation Exercise took
place on the 6th of July with over 40
students graduating from all depart-
ments. This was a most exciting event
and many friends and well wishers of
the School attended the Ceremony
and the Exhibition.

imposition of various faces, of
faces with objects, of faces and
colour backgrounds, that would
create an atmosphere. This
superimposition has created
another tendency in Laurenceau
to convey a message. Initially
concerned with portraits, he is
now concerned with other aspects,
he is concerned with environ-

Subscription rates (inclusive of postage, handling)
4 issues J$25.00 / US$20.00.
Back copies available on request.

"Thinker" Livingston Lewin 1982
Cedar H. 15% Collection: The artist.

mental situations. One of the
paintings which is in the show,
shows a little girl, surrounded by
doves, a simple atmosphere of
innocence, and of purity: and in
the background there is the profile
of an older man. I don't like to
give interpretations to works of
the artists, it is for the beholder to
or not to understand but the face
in the background is probably
there for something. There is
nothing that is accidental in the
work of Laurenceau. (To be

P.O. Box 79,
Kingston 8.


Address: ___________________________________________
Amount enclosed:
(Please print cheques and money orders to be made payable to: Arts Jamaica.
P.O. Box 79, Kingston 8.)

With the Compliments of



In collaboration with the organizing
committee of The World Youth
Festival of Arts, The National Gallery
mounted a special exhibition entitled
Young Talent '85 which opened the
festival week of events on Sunday, 31st
March. Young Talent features twelve
of the most promising young Jamaican
artists, the majority of whom are
recent graduates of the Jamaica
School of Art.
July '85, The National Gallery's
exhibition entitled '6 Options:
Environments in Situ' was opened
by the American Ambassador, Mr.
William Hewitt. This exhibition
organised by Rosalie Smith McCrea
introduced a vastly new concept of art
making in Jamaica, and was the first of
its kind ever mounted. Four artists
from Jamaica and 2 from the United
States had been invited to design
installations for the special exhibition
space at The National Gallery.
As a concept, this is new to the
general public as it encourages the
artist to think in terms of materials,
colour, multi-media, surfaces, content
and technology for a given 'construct-
ed' space of a certain size and

"Victory" (Grenada series) Douglas Wallace -
Collection: Jane Skogstad
dimension, in order to come to terms
with the envisioned statement. As a
landmark exhibition, it will be
considered highly unique and stimula-
ting for amateur professional artists,
art students, collectors interested in
new ways of seeing, and the public at

From the Deterioration Series Larry Brown 1984; Oil on canvas -
12"x 16" Collection: the artist.

The education department at the
National Gallery continues to expand
its resources, especially towards the
younger school children. From the
first week in January to April 17th this
year over 110 junior & senior
secondary school children alone have
been coming into the department to
do research on Jamaican art & artists.
This facility was started over a year
ago. The Education department also
prepares slide presentations on
Jamaica art for schools outside of
Kingston. For March & April the
Gallery will have gone out to Brown's
Town Community College & Thomp-
son Town Secondary in Clarendon,
with slide presentations on Jamaican
art. This Easter term as well, the
department contacted other special
interested groups for tours around the
country such as, patients at Bellevue,
the Jamaican Constabulary Force &
the Jamaica Defence Force.
On Thursday l lth of April, the
National Gallery became the proud
recipient of the Gleaner Certificate of
Merit Award for Outstanding Achieve-
ment and consistent high quality work,
especially in 1984 the year of its
birthday celebrates. Dr. David Boxer
the Director Cuator and Ms. Rosalie
Smith McCrea Assistant Cuator.
Educator received the award at the
Jamaica Pegasus on behalf of the
National Gallery.


REUNION TIME: At a recent reunion of pioneer artists hosted at the
Frame Centre Gallery, sculptor Koren der Harootian renewed
a 50 year friendship with fellow sculptor Alvin Marriott (right).
After the discussion and film on der Harootian's work attended
by student artists and art lovers, the two friends paused to

admire this work "Labrish in the
world stalwart David Pottinger.

1962 1983
DANCE JAMAICA, a richly illustra-
ted history, written by NDTC's artistic
director Rex Nettleford, celebrates the
Company's first twenty-one years.
Dance Jamaica tells the story of how a
group of unpaid dancers, musicians,
choreographers, designers, and techni-
cians became one of the most
influential cultural voices of the third
world. Mr. Nettleford describes the
Company's continuing efforts to forge
an organic vocabulary, technique, and
style of Caribbean dance art against
the background of the wider society's
history of severance, suffering, and
survival. He shows how the Company
achieved its ambition to secure for the
Jamaican people a way of articulating
their identity and of building faith in a
historical reality virtually denied by
three centuries of colonial subjuga-

Street" by another local art

.. Jamaican Folk Tales and Oral
History by Dr. Laura Tanna
provides in painstaking and sympa-
thetic detail, a welcome introduction
to Jamaican's Oral Art forms. Over 50
narratives songs, plays, riddles,
Parson Stories, Anansi stories and
others are presented in this fully
illustrated anthology the first in the
Jamaica 21 series published on behalf
of 'the office of the Prime Minister, by
Institute of Jamaica Publications Ltd.
Anansesem is a collection of folk-
tales, legends, and poems selected
from a large number of Caribbean
territories and ethnic groups. This
wide geographical spread has lent a
truly Caribbean flavour to this
stimulating anthology.
Editor Velma Pollard is a lecturer in
the School of Education, University of
the West Indies. She is also co-editor
of Over Our Way, another appealing
anthology of Caribbean stories for
youngsters. Delano McFarlane illu-
strates this, his first book, with
promising skill.

Book-Corner a brief comment on
current artbooks

Toby Judith Klayman with Cobbett
The Artists' Survival Manual
A complete guide to marketing your
work. Charles Scribner's Sons. New
York 1984
Well written informative, a must for any
artist who needs practical advice on
how to market art successfully.
Richard Seddon
The Artist's Studio Book
Beaufort Books. Inc. N.Y/Toronto

Provides artists with ideas for setting up
the right kind of studio. If you are handy
with your hands and cannot afford
expensive equipment then this is the
book for you; as his studio fixtures are
designed for the do-it-yourself. They are
also cheap, efficient, space-saving and
Betty Edwards
Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain
J.P. Tarcher Inc. Los Angeles 1979
Described as "a course in enhancing
creativity and artistic confidence" this
book gives a fresh approach through its
application of brain research findings to
the teaching of drawing skills.

"Whatever liberates our spirit without
giving us self-control is disastrous".

"What gives Johann Sebastian Bach and
Mozart a place apart is that these two
great expressive composers never
sacrificed form to expression."

"In the Dust where we have buried
The silent races and their abominations
We have buried so much of the delicate
magic of life."
D. IH. Lawrence.

Bob Marley by sculptor Alvin Marriott was
unveiled in Celebrity Park in Feb. 1985.

Schools Subscriptions Drive
Arts Jamaica gratefully acknowledges
the ongoing support which local firms
are demonstrating to the AJA schools
subscription drive. Recognizing the
increasingly strained government
schools budget means cuts in arts and
crafts expenditure. Several firms are
'committing' themselves to uphold
magazine subscription to art rooms
and libraries.
Arts Jamaica salutes the sensitive
vision of: Alcoa, T. Geddes Grant,
Caribbean Cement Company and
National Commercial Bank and
hopes to see more firms joining the
40 Schools Subscription Drive.

April 1985 marked the revival of the
Jamaica Artist and Craftsmen's Guild.
At a lively meeting at Mutual Life
gallery, the new managing committee
was elected comprising Kay
Anderson, President, Ike Dodoo
Secretary, Hazel Bradshaw-Beaumont
Treasurer and with Pat Ramsay
continuing as gallery manager. The
guild immediately got active, holding a
talk on Haitian Art and a seminar on
"Preparating for an Exhibition" future
plans include a copyright seminar, a
summer craft show and a November
guild members exhibition.

You owe it to yourself to do
something about that neglected
creative talent you know you possess.
Get away to "the country" this
summer for two weeks painting
vacation in surroundings ideal for
landscape study. Living accommoda-
tion for two in independent flat with
studio facilities provided along with
intensive tuition in drawing, painting,
and or history of art. Non residential
tuition also available. For further
information write now to Gloria
Escoffery, P.O. Box 14, Brown's Town,
St. Ann, or Telephone: 9752268 any
day after 3.30 p.m.

National Gallery
Kingston Mall
Mon. Sat.: 10.00 a.m. 5.00 p.m.
Bolivar Bookshop and Gallery
ID Grove Road, Kingston 10
Mon. Fri. 8.30 a.m. 4.30 p.m.
Saturday 9.00 a.m. 1.00 p.m.
Frame Centre
Tangerine Place, Kingston 10
Mon. Fri. 8.30 a.m. 5.00 p.m.
Saturday 9.30 a.m. 1.00 p.m.
Contemporary Art Centre
Corner Liguanea Ave./Hope Rd.
Mon. Fri. 10.00 a.m. 10.00 p.m.
Saturday 2.00 6.00 p.m.
Hi Qo
Spanish Court, New Kingston
Mon. Fri. 9.30 a.m. 5.00 p.m.
Saturday 9.30 a.m. 1.00 p.m.
33 University Crescent, Kingston 7
Mon. Fri. 10.00 a.m. 12 noon;
12.00 p.m. 5.00 p.m.
Mutual Life Gallery
2 Oxford Road, Kingston 5
Mon. Fri. 10.00 a.m. 5.00 p.m.
Garden Gallery
1 Mannings Hill Road
Mon. Sat. 9.00 a.m. 4.00 p.m.
Upstairs/Downstairs Gallery
108 Harbour Street, Kingston
Mon. Fri. 9.00 a.m. 4.00 p.m.
Makonde Gallery
Waterloo Road
Mon. Sat. 10.00 5.00 p.m.

Galleries Outside of Kingston
Gallery Jamaica
Plantation Inn, Ocho Rios
The Designers Gallery
Trident Hotel, Port Antonio
St. Ann's Bay Gallery
Mon. Fri. 9.00 a.m. 4.00 p.m.
Sam Street's Museum of African Art
Gallery Hoffstead
58 Hanover Street, Hanover, Lucea
Gloria Escoffery's Gallery
Brown's Town, St. Ann Tel: 0975-2268
Gallery Joe James
Rio Bueno, Trelawny
Harmony Hall
Ocho Rios
Frame Centre Gallery
Little Pub, Ocho Rios
Mon. Fri. 10.00 a.m. 6.00 p.m.
Saturday 10.00 a.m. 2.00 p.m.


Torch Lily Tina Matkovic Spiro

With the Compliments



156 Spanish Town Road,
Tel: 092-37055

"Torch Lily" is currently travelling with
the Smithsonian Exhibition's
"Jamaican Art 1922 1982".

'I, ~




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs