• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 National Gallery news
 Insight
 Forum
 In review
 Studio talk
 Jamaica School of Art
 News and information
 Back Cover














Title: Arts Jamaica
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101459/00005
 Material Information
Title: Arts Jamaica
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28-44 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Arts Jamaica Ltd.
Place of Publication: Kingston, Jamaica, West Indies
Kingston, Jamaica, West Indies
Publication Date: June 1983
Copyright Date: 1982
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Art, Jamaican -- Periodicals -- 20th century   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Jamaica
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Apr. 1982)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Some issues combined.
General Note: Title from cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101459
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 11269244
lccn - 86644045

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    National Gallery news
        Page 1
    Insight
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Forum
        Page 10
        Page 11
    In review
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Studio talk
        Page 14
    Jamaica School of Art
        Page 15
    News and information
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Back Cover
        Page 18
Full Text
















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rts amaica


Arts Jamaica is published quarterly by Arts Jamaica, P.O. Box 79, Kingston 8.


Chairman
Managing Editor
Financial Controller
Marketing
Production Assistant
Design
Graphics
Advertising


Peter King
Margaret Bernal
Horace Rousseau
Leighton Ashley
Tina Matkovic-Spiro
Carol McDonald
T. Squares Inc.
Gloria Forsythe


The Managing Committee, composed of Journalists, artists, and art lovers,
wishes to streu that Arts Jamaica is conceived as a publication dedicated
to all that is excellent In the visual arts of Jamaica. The magazine will
aim to analyse and celebrate those things and persons already recognized
as having greatness, while remaining open to new ideas and encouraging
potential wherever It is found.


EDITORIAL
The 3 months since our March issue
have seen no lessening of activity in the
arts with sustained output and
heightened controversy among its pro-
minent features. The incentive of this
year's Jamaica 21 Celebrations serves to
further increase islandwide creative
activity and unite attentions and energies
particularly among the young.
The spectacular attention awarded to
the relocation of the Marley statue has in-
evitably subsided, making way it is
hoped, for a new thoughtfulness a com-
mittment to, a demand for, more not less
"public art"; works which come out to
us challenging, illuminating, inspiring -
attesting to the supportive vital role of
the creative vision.
This vision glories especially in the uni-
verse of nature which surrounds it; tri-
bute to Jamaica's sensitivity and efforts
in this area, was evidenced by its selection
as venue for World Environment Day
observances on June 4.
Fittingly therefore this issue continues
with its explorations into the dynamic
operating between the sources of creative
inspiration flora, fauna, landscape -
and Artist; especially, we focus here on
the historic interrelationship of "Art and
the Environment."


1

2- 9


CONTENTS
NATIONAL GALLERY NEWS

INSIGHT "The Historic Relationship


Between Art and the Environment" -
Anna Maria Hendriks

10- 11 FORUM "Starting Early Art in
the Classroom" Pet Archer-Straw


12- 13

13-14

15
16


IN REVIEW

STUDIO TALK

JAMAICA SCHOOL OF ART

NEWS AND INFORMATION


Cover: "The Hone" by Edna Manley 1980 Silk Screen 20" x 28"
(Silk Screen portfolio based on a 1945 water colour). Photo: Tell Precision Ltd.


(c) Arts Jamaica. All rights reserved.









National Gallery News


All photography, unless otherwise
credited, is by Keith Morrisson.


Now settled comfortably in their
spacious venue, the National Gallery has
been preparing busily for their forth-
coming summer shows, and main-
taining their programme of guided tours
and presentations geared especially for
schools and visiting groups. In May,
the gallery received an unexpected
acquisition Gonzales' 7'9" bronze
monument to the late Robert Nesta
Marley, O.D. Commenting on the new
arrival, Director/Curator, Dr. David
Boxer told Arts Jamaica "While we are
very happy to have it, it was created to
be seen outdoors and should be outdoors.
We intend to do our best to explain the
artist's intentions and to educate our
viewers as to the basic differences be-
tween a naturalist and a symbolic
approach. Hopefully in a few years the
public will be sufficiently prepared to
accept this work in a public open space."


THE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
Mandated to give the viewing public
formal informative tours of the Gallery's
collection, the Curatorial and Educa-
tional Department of the National
Gallery has been functioning on a regular
basis since its 1983 opening. On request,
small groups of primary, preparatory and
secondary pupils as well affinity groups,
teacher trainees etc. have toured the
varied galleries, enhancing and stimulat-
ing their knowledge and appreciation of
Jamaican art by the guiding commentary
of the education department staff. On
occasion, the staff go out to the school
audience to elaborate on the function
and content of the Gallery; specially pre-
pared slide presentations often go out
with them, again in response to special
request by the school or group. Happy
to share it's national
treasures, the Gallery
also plays host to small
groups of students embarked
on research into local art history;
interested parties can direct enquiries for
such research visits to the education
department, of the National Gallery.

Smithsonian Launching Jamaican
Art 1922-1982. Monday June 27th
marked the long anticipated opening of
the first ever travelling exhibition of
Jamaican Art. This comprehensive collec-
tion, selected by the National Gallery and
sponsored by S.I.T.E.S. (Smithsonian
Institution Travelling Exhibition
Services), embarks on a two year circuit
of major U.S. City Galleries.
The companion Catalogue contains many
superb colour illustrations and an inform-
ative text; obtainable at the National
Gallery it is a necessary acquisition for
libraries, teachers, and art lovers an
especially fine 21st year anniversary gift
at $30.

FORTHCOMING
Over the summer months two major
N.G. shows have been planned which


S"Monument to Marley" by Christopher
Gonzales bronze 7'9" 1982.
Commission: Government of Jamaica.


promise a challenging aesthetic treat to
local art lovers. June 27th saw the
opening of a thematic stylistic compari-
son exhibition Aspects I which
juxtaposes works by 10 artists; Huie's
realistic landscapes of Port Henderson
interact with Milton George's highly
expressionistic views of the same area;
Hope Brooks' "textures" of tree trunks
provide a "close-up" commentary to
June Bellew's systematic whole rendi-
tions; Barnes' landscapes adjoin Br.
Brown's stone-scapes, Garland's papier-
mache personages stand beside those of
"Woody" Josephs; Edna Manley's ex-
pressions of inner conflicts, beside
Cadien's. August will usher in the other
major thematic exhibition "Male and
Female created He them"; the various
visions of our artists so focused on
adolescence, courtship, marriage, the
erotic, conflict and on old age will
speak for themselves.


With the Compliments of Ari n

American


Jewellers








Insight


A survey of the historic relationship
between THE ENVIRONMENT AND
ART IN JAMAICA

Jamaica's artistic activity both
among those who make works of art and
those who appreciate or acquire them -
is vital and vigorous, broad and deep. The
island's flora and fauna, as well as the
land which is the background of their
and our being, have projected themselves
on to our screen of consciousness and
have dominated the content of what
artists produce and what their public
demands.
The causes which generated this
activity and interest in the Arts are
numerous. One seriously researched book
could scarcely probe them justly, much
less one article. But it is useful to take
a look into the past at some of the trends
and a few of the events which, gradually,
developed a growing appreciation of the
Arts; and of landscape and flora and


fauna in them; to focus briefly orn a few
of the many artists visitors or
Jamaicans by birth or by adoption -
whose energies and love for their work
added to our rich heritage.
Ever since man first patterned cave
walls with coal and soil or chiselled bone
to shape with skill and beauty the forms
which were imprinted on his mind, those
shapes have documented the indivisible
relationship between the environment,
humanity and the visual arts.
Perhaps because plants were necessary
for medicines and nutrients, and animals
for flesh and clothing; perhaps because
both, from the dawn of religion, were
mystical symbols; perhaps because they
were part of the grandeur, mysteries and
marvellous functioning of our world;
or because they themselves are infinitely
varied and beautiful; for whichever of
these or other reasons, flora and fauna
have retained their high place in our Art.

it .1A, ".,


When, after centuries under the feudal
system, Greek thought and knowledge
was rediscovered in Europe, the dynamic
which surged through the continent
propelled men to adventure their inner
and outer worlds. Artists began a return
to realism and to individual expression;
interest in foreign countries was lively,
and views of these lands were in demand.
Artists accompanied the early
explorers to assist with mapping and to
record the physical aspect of the new
lands. Within sixteen years of the capture
of Jamaica by the English, an artist was
at work here making finely finished
tortoise shell wig comb cases, combs
and trinkets sensitively engraved with
designs of local flora: banana, cacao,
anatto, cactus, and cashew nut. Dates
engraved on some of these cases show
that those examples were made between
1671 and 1690.
Crucial to the growing science of
physic in Europe was the accurate
identification of medicinal plants and this
need gave impetus to the expanding
science of botany. Illustrated herbals,
updating those of Ancient Greece,
became a necessary part of a physician's
equipment.
In 1687, the Duke of Albemarle was
appointed Governor of Jamaica and per-
suaded the brilliant young physician and
botanist, Hans Sloane, to accompany
him and his wife here. No other eminent
botanist visited Jamaica in those early
years.
It is reputed that during fifteen
months here Sloane collected over 800
new species of plants, to the names of
which was appended Jamaicensis, and
3824 insects. These and his later collec-
tions formed the core of the British
Museum, which he founded.
It was a feat that Sloane
collected that large number of specimens
and made such a number of drawings
during fifteen months, particularly as he
was then responsible for the care of the
Duchess of Albemarle, who was mentally
unstable. Sloane accompanied the
Duchess to England after the Duke died
here; he published an account of the
1692 earthquake at Port Royal in
"Philosophical Transactions"


"Cyperus maxiums" by M.V. Gucht after a drawing by Sir Hans Sloane,
13"x 15'". (With the permission of the Institute of Jamaica.)


1696. Engraving,


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Anna Maria Hendriks


This tireless, talented man carefully
documented, in accurate drawings, much
of the flora and fauna of Jamaica. Engrav-
ings on copper after many of these
drawings were made by the sculptor,
M.V. Gucht, and printed for Sloane's


"The Jamaica Coat of Arms" by Alvin
Marriott, 1953 after the design for the
original Arms by the Archbishop of
Canterbury, 1661. Mahogany, c. 24" x
42". (Headquarters House).
Jamaica's original Coat of Arms is the
earliest known design to include the
country's flora and fauna. It is a white
Shield bearing a red cross charged with
five golden Pineapples. The Shield is
supported by two Arawak Indians whose
head dresses include red Macaw feathers
with which these earliest inhabitants used
to adorn themselves. Surmounting the
Catalogue of Plants in the Island of
Jamaica. This remains an important work
for botanical reference and an outstand-
ing artistic achievement. Its beautiful,
often sensuous, engravings included
studies of wild flowering plants, ferns
(with what generous patience were these
drawn!), grasses, coral, crabs, shells,
fish, insects and birds. Nature seemed to
have an inexhaustible supply of endless
variety.
It had become the practice of artists
to visit other countries, make drawings


and paintings of the local landscape, of
flora and fauna, and then to return home
where these served as designs for a series
of engravings or lithographs. This broa-
dened the role of the artist in society, and
Jamaica benefitted. The island was not
only beautiful and warm, but famous


Shield are the Royal Helmet and Mantle
- a rare distinction which few Common-
wealth countries have received. The Crest
is an Alligator; and the Orle, or Scroll,
carries the inscription "Indus Uterq:
serviet uni "
Alvin Marriott made this carving of the
original Arms in 1953 for the Legislative
Chamber of Headquarters House but, on
the granting of Independence to Jamaica
in 1962, he was commissioned to re-
place the Orle with one inscribed with the
country's new motto. "Out of Many One
People."
from the days of wicked, wealthy Port
Royal. Many fine artists visited us
throughout the centuries, worked here,
became acquainted with our people, and
helped to stimulate an appreciation of
visual arts; for most early planters had
little or no interest in aesthetics, and
the people who worked their estates
little or no exposure to the arts.
Two of the earliest artists working
here were George Robertson, whose
patron was William Beckford, nephew
of the Lord Mayor of London; and Philip


Wickstead. Over a period of several years
Robertson had studied in Rome, where
he had travelled with Beckford. Beckford
owned properties in Jamaica where he
was born and brought Robertson and
Wickstead here on a visit. Robertson,
who was also a naturalist, mentioned in
his accounts the magnificent macaws,
which were then part of our bird life
but which quickly became extinct. The
local scenes he painted were exhibited by
him in England in 1775 at the
Incorporated Society of Artists, of which
he was Vice President. A set of six en-
gravings after paintings by him was made
and published in 1778. Wickstead, a
portrait painter, remained to work here.

In 1779, another portrait painter, J.
Stephenson, exhibited his work in
Kingston, an important event for our
later landscapists who often lived from
work in both genres. The presence of
these three artists here would have done
much to arouse an interest in Art, in
people generally, and more particularly,
in those who would practise or purchase
it.
During these years Jamaica was being
settled by a variety of people of many
different nationalities, professions and
occupations. In 1795, a large group of
French immigrants, feeling from Santo
Domingo, landed. Lord Balcarres, the
recently arrived Lieutenant-Governor,
wrote that among them were many of the
French nobility and their attendants
as well as "A Multitude of slaves and of
handicraft men of colour. .. ." This in-
flux of skills broadened the foundation
of Art here.
The sugar estates of this century had
workshops where slaves and, subsequent-
ly, apprentices and free men who had
brought some skills with them were
further trained in various occupations
including furniture making. These shops
produced magnificent furniture for the
great houses which were now being more
elaborately constructed. A tradition was
established of ornamenting sofas and
chairs with floral or bird motifs, and four-
poster beds with the pineapple motif -
there being five pineapples on a red
border on the parochial seal of the parish
of St. James and five pines charging the
red cross on our Coat of Arms granted in
1661.


With the Compliments of


THE SHELL COMPANY (W.I.) LTD.








Insight


Another skill which was established
was the elaborate decoration of marble
tombstones. The carved designs, which
often included floral motifs, were of fine'
workmanship.
These arts were passed on and survived
to an equally high standard among the
few who learned and practised them.
There was satisfaction to be found not
only in making things well, but in shaping
kindred forms of Nature.
In 1795 also, Richard Hill was born.
His father, after whom he was named,
was a Scotsman, his mother of African
descent. He was the first recorded Ja-
maican artist and naturalist. At the
age of five years. Richard Hill Jnr. was
sent to England to be educated. He re-
turned when his father, a vigorous aboli-
tionist, died in 1818, and continuedthe
fight for "freedom of the coloured race,"
here and in England. Back in Jamaica,
he became a Member for the House of
Assembly. In 1835, he was appointed
Stipendiary Magistrate and while he was
busy with this work, two professional
painters were practising in Jamaica: the
already established Isaac Belisario who
had a studio in Kingston and painted
landscapes and miniature portraits; and
Joseph Bartholomew Kidd,a member of
the Scottish Academy of Arts who knew
Audubon in Edinburgh and, at the great
naturalist's request, had made oil copies
of engravings in his The Birds of Ameri-.
ca.


"Sea Grape" by Joseph Barthlomew Kidd, c. 1838. Hand tinted lithograph, 24" x 181'/".
(With the permission of the Institute of Jamaica.)


Kidd's first local exhibition, of Scot-
tish landscapes, was held at his brother's
home in Stewart Town in 1836. In the
following month he held an exhibition
of his Jamaican scenes. These exhibi-
tions introduced his work to wealthy
parishoners who kept him fully occupied
with commissions for portraits and vistas
of their properties. It was obviously
becoming fashionable for local land-


-,


"Tyrannus griseus" (Picheri) by Richard Hill, c. 1820. Mixed media, 201 x 12". (With the
permission of the Institute of Jamaica.)


owners to acquire works in these genres.
These two artists helped to strengthen
the trend and enable it to continue.
Between 1835 and 1843 Kidd paid
three visits to Jamaica. From his drawings
he himself made a series of hand tinted
lithographs which included "Sea Grape,"
a beachscape with shrubs and shells.
By this time slavery had been
abolished and the long painful journey to
inner healing and inner freedom for those
who had been enslaved and for those who
had enslaved was under way.
Meanwhile, Richard Hill had with-
drawn from public life. He studied birds
during his spare time. His paintings of
them illustrated their structure, colour-
ing and habits. They were portrayed
grooming their feathers, pecking gravel,
flying, or perched by a nest or on a
branch. The majority of these works
reveal a fine sense of design and rhythm.
In 1844, when Phillip Henry Gosse,
the renowned zoologist, was sent here
by the British Museum to collect birds, he
enquired if there were anyone on the
island with interests similar to his. He
was directed to Richard Hill. They be-
came close friends. Hill assisted Gosse
with his book, A Naturalist's Sojourn
in Jamaica. Gosse published two other
books on Jamaica: The Birds of Jamaica.


With the Compliments of


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"Corvus Jamaicensis" (Black Crow) by Philip Henry Gosse, 1849. Lithograph, 10%'/" x 7".
(With the permission of the Institute of Jamaica.)


in the production of which Hill also
assisted, and Illustrations of the Birds of
Jamaica, a volume of artistic and
scientific worth. His birds were acutely
observed and beautifully painted and
were all drawn from life. He had been
drawing from the age of thirteen, having
inherited his ability from his father, who
was a miniature painter.
Gosse's achievements here between
1844 and 1846 were also facilitated by
the assistance of Jamaica's landowners
and grooms. His records show his impres-
sive collection of the island's land and
marine fauna: about 200 species of birds,
and 24 new species of other fauna.
In England, Gosse continued to write
books on marine life which had such
appeal that they made the collecting of
marine plants and creatures for aquariums
a popular pastime. Enthusiasm for
science, admirably, had spread to laymen
and school boys who unwittingly were
destroying Nature's fabric of delicate
relationships. Gosse lived to grieve over
the destruction of beaches which re-
sulted, for he revered Nature.
This was a time when ladies in England
were expected to be cultivated in the
Arts. Some of these ladies were women of
dauntless determination. Two of them
born within a year of each other were
destined to be painting in Jamaica at the


same time, travelling about the rough
countryside on horseback in order to
get at otherwise inaccessible subjects.
Mrs. Charlotte Hall (nee Bane) was
born in England in 1831. She married
Clarence Hall, a Solicitor and Attorney,
in 1855. Shortly after he decided to be-
come a missionary clergyman and went
to study in Canada. Rev. and Mrs. Hall
then came to Jamaica, where he had
been appointed to serve at St. Dorothy's
Church in Old Harbour. He was the
island rector.
In 1867, Charlotte Hall found herself
a widow with four children, the eldest of
whom was eight. She began to paint por-
traits of notable residents, including the
Hon. Mathew Farquharson, Judge of the
High Court of May Pen (1817-1900), and
Sir Bryan Edwards, Chief Justice of
Jamaica (1855-1969). It is known that
her large portraits were sold for 30, a
large sum in those days. Through these
commissions she supported and educated
her children. The trend that had been set
from the days of Robertson and Wick-
stead, and strengthened by Kidd and
Belisario and the many other artists who
had come and practised here, served
Charlotte Hall well.
She was a tiny lady, about five feet
tall, and she would ride side-saddle along
the rough country roads accompanied


by a trusted Jamaican of West African
descent who rode behind her with her
luggage and painting equipment.
It is likely that between sittings for
portraits she made excursions into the
surrounding areas to paint flowers she
loved so prevalent then for she left
a unique series of fifteen orchid portraits
set against views of Jamaica. The majority
appear to have been first drawn in pencil
on paper then painted in watercolour
with body colour. These were made be-
tween 1867 and 1877.
Sometimes the orchid sprays were
placed centrally, in sharp focus; at other
times they framed a view: golden
mountain tops; a lonely country house
with adjoining barbecues; or a distant
home backed by majestic hills in front
of which stood a woman, child and
loaded donkey.
The flowers were simplified, as the
landscape was, each setting off the other.
Colours were subdued and sharp tonal
contrasts were avoided. It is evident that
Charlotte Hall was an introspective per-
son with a mind inclined to mysticism;
she sensed the invisibles within and
beyond the visible and became one not
only with her pictures, but with the rol-
ling landscape and its flowers.
In contrast, the other English woman
who was her parallel in destiny, Marianne
North, was more objective and extrovert
in her paintings. Mostly of flowers, fruit
or trees, also set within their environm-
ment, these clear, vivid paintings poured
from her in an unrestrainable torrent.
In her Gallery at Kew Gardens there are
848 of them, painted of 727 genera and
nearly 1000 species. She worked from
early morning, in rain, cold or heat,
accepting cheerfully the discomforts
which accompany an itinerant artist.
As in Charlotte Hall's case, the death
of Marianne North's closest companion
started her travelling alone to paint,
though it was not the death of a husband
but of her father, in 1869, just two years
after the Rev. Hall had died, She being a
woman of means who knew no other life
but one of painting while travelling, dared
to continue her lifestyle and to make the
world's flora the major theme of her
work.
She had a life long love of plants and
of the natural world. Through her father,
who was a member of the British Parlia-


GIVE AN rtsamaica GIFT SUBSCRIPTION








Insight


ment, she was associated with the most
renowned botanists in England: Sir
William Hooker, Director of Kew Gardens
(who caused the cinchona tree to be
brought here); his son Joseph, who was
to succeed his father as Director at Kew;
and Charles Darwin. It is no wonder that
she cultivated an affinity for Nature and
spent her life traversing the globe to
translate its diverse beauties into poems
of paint.
She was painting in Jamaica during
1871 and 1872, travelling on horseback
or walking through some of the same
areas in which Charlotte Hall painted.
Moreover, her closest friends here were
the Attorney General and his sister, who
must have known a large number of the
legal profession. It is reasonable to
assume that Rev. Hall retained his interest
in legal matters and made contact with
legal men here, for his widow painted
two eminent men of the High Court.
Did these two extraordinary women
meet?
Marianne North was aware that Nature
was under threat and on seeing the Cali-
fornia redwoods observed in her diary,
"...it broke one's heart to think of
man, the civiliser, wasting treasures in a
few years to which savages and animals
had done no harm for centuries."
Sir Joseph Hooker, her life long
friend, also realized that the ecosystem
was endangered. In his preface to the
original catalogue of her 1982 exhibition
at Kew he wrote of how many of the
world's habitats "are already disappearing
or are doomed shortly to disappear
before the axe and the forest fires, the
plough and the flock, of the ever advanc-
ing settler and colonist. Such scenes
can never be renewed by Nature."
Three years before, in 1879, the Insti-
tute of Jamaica was founded. Its early
efforts to spread interest in the Arts
were halted by the 1907 earthquake,
which demolished the building.
It had become customary here for
young women from affluent homes to
go to England to be educated and culti-
vated in the Arts. They returned to prac-
tise their skills for pleasure and to contri-
bute to artistic activity. As always, the
landscape, and its flora were their most
popular subjects. Among these women
were Freda Berry, who taught school,
painted, and instructed a small group of


~0 6


"Anacardium occidental (Cashew Apple)" by Helen Wood, 1913. Mixed media, 11V" x
91/. (With the permission of the Institute of Jamaica.)


painters; Violet Taylor, who was also a
fine singer and became an artist photo-
grapher of great sensitivity; the Jeffrey
Smith sisters, Ivy and Daisy; the talented
Shaw sisters, Nora and Stella, from
Mandeville....
Helen Wood, from Cayman, joined the
staff of the Institute in 1912 and spent
many years there recording fruit and
flowers of Jamaica in a series of painted
studies ...
Into this competent, enthusiastic
though traditional artistic setting, Edna
Manley, in the 20s brought modern sculp-
tural concepts and began her monumental
contribution to the Arts here. Simul-
taneously, Alvin Marriot was beginning
his heroic career, and his vast work for
art, struggling to earn a living from
modelling in clay and sculpting in
wood. To assist him in this. he carved
finely executed floral designs on tradi-
tional furniture of outstanding quality
made by Theophilus T. Jackson who
was awarded a silver Musgrave medal in
1979, and other cabinet makers.


In the thirties, other men were paint-
ing: Jacksonand Eric Nash, in and around
Mandeville, painted the countryside from
which they sprung; while H.Q. Levy of
Brown's Town was prominently involved
with plants commercially as Assistant
Director of the Citrus Growers Assn. and
an authority on Panama disease in the
banana, and privately as a major orchid
grower. His paintings of orchid sprays,
of spice plants, fruit and vegetables
were skillfully and colourfully rendered
with attention to minutest detail.
By the early forties the Institute of
Jamaica provided a steady base, at the
Junior Center (and in the 50s at the
Jamaica School of Arts and Crafts), for
a series of Art instructors. The foremost
of these was Edna Manley who here
began other major aspects of her work as
instructor and patron of the Arts. The
Institute also now provided a gallery
where its annual exhibitions of painting
as well as shows by individual artists
could be held.


With the Compliments of

THE JAMAICA TELEPHONE COMPANY LIMITED










S* tions of flora and fauna, were adding
Another dimension to the country's per-
Ai ception.. .


"Dendrobium superbiens" by H.Q. Levy, 1936. Watercolour with body colour, 8" x 7%V".
(With the permission of the Institute of Jamaica.)


In this decade when Jamaica was
granted self-government Edna Manley's
masterpiece "Horse of the Morning"
symbolic to all that is wild and unharness-
ed in Nature, yet of the utmost sensitive
response, reared its mysterious presence
the landscape of the subconscious .....
Young Albert Huie walked into Jamaican
Art, bringing with him a passion for the
natural environment; for its trees, fields,
flowers, fruit and its generating seas ..
Edgar Wallace was carving beautiful
marble plaques and decorated tombstones
in the old tradition. . John Dunkley
was painting visionary images of his
partners in life: mice, spiders, and lace-
leaved trees... Audrey Wiles, a successor
to Helen Wood at the Institute's Natural
History department started out on over
three decades of work recording local
flora and fauna... Ralph Campbell, Keith
Brennan and Leslie Clerk began their
work in Art by painting landscapes...
Alvin Marriott presented his splendid
head of Franklin Rosevelt at the White
House....
...Kapo and other members of the
Rastafarian community were realising
themselves and, through painting and
sculpture which included rich concep-


The long journey for inner healing and
inner freedom had reached a high plateau
from which Jamaican Art could extend
itself into the unending variety of uni-
versal Mind. Obstacles can be turned into
triumphs of the spirit.
But the very source and substance of
not only our visual arts, but of our
people, is at risk; not only locally, but the
world over. Trees, our major source of
oxygen and absorbers of carbon dioxide,
givers of shade and humus to the land and
shelter to its creatures, verdant beings
essential for humidity and rainfall, for
our physical well being . are being
felled at a rapid rate for lumber, and to
give way for crops and housing. Valuable
insects, indispensable to pollination of
flowers for fruit and as links in the
ecological chain, are threatened not only
by loss of shelter, but by insecticides.
Pollution, from the burning of fossil
fuels (which consumes quantities of
oxygen) seeps into living cells or falls
as acid rain, doing harm to plants and
fish. The oceans are being polluted, the
hillsides eroded, the creatures endangered
as we ourselves are.



9WM1W_ b~2


"Urban landscape" by Albert Huie (miniature) 1983 oil on canvas.
Collection: Mrs Eunice Morrisson


With the Compliments of

Ccleate IDalmclive C. Jamaica

Ltd.








Insight


A hostile environment once threatened
early man, largely unarmed as he was. He
gradually used his wits to tame or con-
quer it. Now the roles are reversed and
we are the threat to our defenseless
planet... and therefore a threat to our-
selves.
Artists, being particularly sensitive to
their environment, are conscious of the
signs of its distress: drought, erosion, a
dwindling of creatures.
Ralph Campbell's "Mona Drought" is
a graphic example of an artist's emo-
tional response to nature in crisis.
Artists are also conscious of the indi-
visible relationship, the interdependence
between man and his environment. Edna


Manley's "Mountain Women" conveys
this union symbolically. The forms are
at once women's heads and ridges of
strong mountains.
It is left to each one of us to protect
our beautiful island so that the Natural
History Department's gallery at the In-
stitute will not become a mausoleum of
extinct species but rather a showcase for
learning; so that our visual arts will not
become documents of what our enchant-
ing island once was but rather celebra-
tions of our wisdoni; so that we all will
be healthy citizens rather than statistics
of fatal diseases; so that all of us can draw
strength from the mountains and spiritual
upliftment from the beauty of our


MARIANNE NORTH
"VISION OF EDEN"
Gwenllian Hart writes on Marianne North's
abridged illustrated autobiography.
"What a fantastic person must have
been the courageous and generous vic-
torian lady whose paintings of flora and
fauna from around the world illustrate
this delightful abridgement of her auto-
biography "Reflections of a Happy
Life".
Traveller botanist and creative gar-
dener as well as artist, Marianne North
(1830-1980) recorded with reverence and
accuracy the flowers and trees, the bushes
and birds, the fruits and the butterflies
typical of the earth's vastly differing
countries and climates. "A Vision of
Eden" is a book one would like to think
of as being available to people of all
ages everywhere. It is a beautiful book.
It's pictures are fascinating. The prose is
clear, cryptic and often witty. The
journeys undertaken and the people
encountered are portrayed vividly and
amusingly, the difficulties, discomforts
and dangers inseperable from travelling
alone in that day and age are mentioned
only in passing if at all.
Her early painting had been water
colour but, in 1865 she was introduced
to oil painting by the Australian artist,
Dowling, "And I have never done any-
thing else since, oil painting being a vice
like dram drinking almost impossible
to leave off once it gets possession of
one."


S flora and fauna and realise a deeper com-
munion with the world whose seas are in
our veins and whose soil is in our heart.

Anna Maria Hendriks is an artist, art
teacher and writer who has exhibited
locally and in Canada. She has been
writing on art since 1956.

Bibliography for this article on page 16.






"Mountain Women" Edna Manley 1971 -
Mahogany 40". Collection Mr. & Mrs. David
Berger.



trts amaica
VISIONINGS OF PEACE AND LOVE


FORTHCOMING












After her father died in 1869
Marrianne North who had travelled ex-
tensively with him in Europe and the
Middle East, set off to fulfill a dream of
"going to some tropical country to
paint its peculiar vegetation on the
spot" and coming via Canada and the
United States, she arrived in Jamaica on
Christmas Eve.
As we read in chapter 3 she was in the
Irish Town area for quite a while and
later was in Spanish Town. She went
through Morant Bay and Bath to Port
Antonio and stayed also in St. Ann.
The word Jamaica appears as a heading
on several pages of the next chapter
which in fact is about her trip the
following year to Brazil. There are several
such typesetting errors elsewhere in the
book but they detract very little from its
overall perfection and none at all from its
appeal as a compendium of stimulating
interest and lasting worth. Jamaica has a
special link with the famous Marianne
North Gallery at Kew. For it was in
Jamaica that she, who had been deeply
upset by her fathers death, found "a
welcome retreat to perfect quiet and
incessant painting after the excitement
of Washington". And it was in Jamaica...
"living in the Garden House on two
pounds of beef a week stewed afresh with
vegetables every day that she began the
collection of paintings of tropical vegeta-
tion which gave her a new purpose in
life."


Anthony Huxley's introduction includes
two views of the gallery interior which
show clearly how the artist arranged the
rooms and the surround of 246 different
types of wood which she had collected in
her travels.
In an age when so much of value is
being destroyed in the names "progress"
and "development" it is both comforting
and refreshing to know that although
great efforts are being made and will
continue to be made to modernise Kew's
several museums, there is one that will
remain unchanged as it stands in the
Marianne North Gallery.


Foliage flowers and fruit of the nutmeg tree
(Myristica fragrans) by Marianne North oil
with Vervain Hummingbird (Mellisga
Minima) and Butterfly (Battue Polydanus) -
A VISION OFEDEN Jamaica, 1869.
The life and work of Marianne North
published 1980 by Webb and Bower
(Publishers) Ltd. Exeter, England, in
collaboration with the Royal Botanic
Garden, Kew. Text abridged from "Re-
collections of a Happy Life" by
Marianne North, 1893. Preface by Profes-
sor P.M. Brennan, M.A., B.Sc., FCS.,
F.L. Biology, Director of the Royal
Botanic Gardens, Kew. Forward by
Anthony Huxley. Biographical Note by
Brenda.E. Moon.


"Mona Drought" by Ralph Campbell. Oil on canvas. Photo
courtesy of the Institute of Jamaica National Library.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The writing of this article would not
have been possible without the informa-
tion given and books lent by a number
of people, particularly, Fr. Philip Hart,
Director of the Institute of Jamaica; Dr.
T Farr, Natural History Dept., Inst. of
Jamaica; Mrs. Eileen Kalbrenner; Mrs.
Audrey Wiles; Mrs. Rita Landale; Miss
Beryl Fletcher; and without the helpful
attention of the staff of the National
Library of the Institute ofJamaica.

A full article on tortoise shell wig comb
cases and combs will appear in the
August issue of the Jamaica Journal.


PHOTOGRAPHIC
COMPETITION JAMAl
PRIZES VALUEDAT $21,000
LABORATORIES LIMITED.
9 Lady Mu'grave Road, Kgn. 10 CLOSING DATE SEPT. 30, 1983








Forum


STARTING ART EARLY
Paintings from St. Andrew Junior School
Art Competition 1983.
Moving through the classroom in
Jamaica and viewing the artistic product
of our young people it becomes im-
mediately apparent that there is a dis-
parity between art at the preparatory
and primary school level. The prepara-
tory schools which have more pro-
grammes geared towards developing a
child's artistic skills are making greater
headway than the poorer primary insti-
tutions who struggle with inadequate faci-
lities, materials and trained art teachers.
This disparity is being carried through
to the high schools and shows itself up in
terms of the students attitude to art at
this level.


Stephen Wright -10 years.
It is a daily feature of the art class-
room situation that high school students
will insist that they cannot do this pro-
ject or that piece of work because they
cannot draw. Furthermore when a
student tells a teacher that he cannot do
something creative, unlike math, history
or geography (where the mind remains
open to learning), the word 'can't, in
connection with art, usually applies to an
unwillingness to try; this reluctance is
often accompanied by visible frustration
and the downing of tools. Not unsur-
prisingly the students at the high school
level, who are more likely to take a nega-
tive approach to activities in art and
craft class, are those who have had very
little experience in the subject at the
preparatory and primary school level.
These are the students who have experi-
enced a gap in their creative development
in terms of a basic foundation in art and
crafts and the opportunity to exercise
their imagination freely. They therefore
bring to the classroom the preconceived
notion that they are ill-equipped for the
subject.
This preconception some students will
nurture, without serious reflection,
throughout their school careers into
adulthood; it is also one which unlike
in the case of Mathematics or English, a
parent will not question. In fact parents
who, similarly, have had little exposure
to the area, will accept the child's reti-
cence to the subject, concluding that
obviously it is 'not in the blood'.
It seems almost overly simplistic to
point out that this cycle can quite easily



TROPICAL PLAZA
12-14 Constant Spring Road
Kingston 10.


Sacha Page 9 yrs.


With the Compliments of







Pet Archer-Straw


.. history of art education in the Jamaican
classroom has not always been inspiring.
Too often art class consisted of the
drawing or painting of the cliched still-
Slife or landscape for the teachers con-
venience rather than the students benefit.
However for the teacher willing to
commit themselves to the task of
encouraging the child's artistic develop-
ment, there is nothing more rewarding
than to witness the outpouring of creati-
vity which might otherwise have
remained dormant. And for the parent
it is the surprise and pride which accom-
panies the discovery of a child's artistic
ability which can result in a change of
attitude towards the subject.




,# ,Pet Archer-Straw is an artist and writer.
k ywho is currently engaged in research into
Jamaican art history.
Simone Bailey -11 yrs.

be broken by more stress being placed
on art and craft classes at both the pri-
mary and preparatory school level. It is
almost frightening to see the work that
children can produce at an early age when
they are left alone to experiment, with-
out negative self-consciousness holding
them back. Of course the major con-
straint to art education on a broader base
at this level is an economic one, since not
all schools have the facility for extensive
programmes. Hence one normally finds
that it is those children who have
attended preparatory schools with good
art programmes who show a more eager
facility and confident response to art at
a higher level, while those who have come
from ill-equipped primary schools and
have not been able to fulfil their creative
urges are often more unsure of them-
selves, and unwilling to even try.
A solution to bridging the learning gap
of the underexposed child who reaches
high school, is the trained teacher who JoeUe Bernard -11 yrs. points to a detail in this nightscape that catches her fancy.
has deaf ears to the word 'can't'. The
teachers attitude towards art is equally, if
not more, important than that of the Stay involved with your old school. Con-
child. If the teacher can help to create tribute an Arts Jamaica subscription to
a stimulating atmosphere of freedom and t library Gift subscriptions (4 issues,
innovation in the classroom then shortage
of materials and other financial ob- plus postage/ handling) J$25.00/US$20.00.
stacles need not be drawbacks to the
creative process. It is unfortunate that the

With the Compliments of Frame Centre Ltd. and Gallery


TANGERINE PLACE, KINGSTON


LITTLE PUB, OCHO RIOS








In Review


The second trimester of 1983 saw the
continuation of a lively pace in exhibition
openings which had been set in the first.
Of marked interest however was the
increase in the number of group shows
held in this period. Of special note too,
was the launching on May 13th of
what surely is a pioneer work, in the
documentary of local art history. The 36
page book on Carl Abrahams by Nora
Strudwick. This took place in conjunc-
tion with an exhibition of works by
this artist. The Creative Arts Centre,
U.W.I. unveiled it's first art exhibition
for some time welcoming back Brother
Everald Brown, who was exhibiting in
that special venue, as speaker Professor
Rex Nettleford reminded his audience
after an interval of 12 years. Out of town
openings Barnes (Harmony Hall) and
Escoffery (St. Ann's Bay Gallery) and
the Frame Center collection (Ocho Rios)
maintained the ascendency of the Ocho
Rios area as most vigorous in the rural
art scene. The biggest group show at
Olympia paid tribute to master potter
Baugh, and six of his former students -
Lauron Bachan, Belva and Donald
Johnson, Phillip Johnson, Gene Pearson,
Norma Harrack and Jean Taylor-Bushay.
1 I rc


At the St. Hugh's Barn, 3 young artist/
teachers also 'christened' that utilitarian
structure with a group show; Bolivar
Gallery's midsummer show of antique
art marked their third show for this
period, after their April exhibition of
works by Pottinger/Powell and their
May show. April too saw the fine Par-
boosingh retrospective (Gallery Barring-
ton) while Sunday May 15th marked
the first "triple" of 1983 with the
simultaneous opening of three exhibi-
tions Kenneth Gregory (Frame
Center Kgn.), Rosemary Allison, the two
Harracks and Kay Sullivan at Fay
Kessler's (the debut of this versatile
salon) and Lloyd Walcott (Barbican
Road residence). June ushered in Albert
Huie's latest works (Mutual Life) and the
Douglas Graham Collection, (Upstairs
Downstairs). In Review as indicated in
the last issue attempts to share with a
wider audience some of the substance,
and the spirit of the fifteen (15)
openings.
Cecil Cooper, artist and JSA tutor,
opened the Archer/Daley/Donaldson
show at the St. Hugh's Barn, speaking
exhuberantly of his delight (as one of the
first J.S.A. graduating group) at seeing


I


I I
"Things to Remember" by Cheryl Daley. 1983 28cm x 20/ cm. Graphite on hand-
made paper.

With the Compliments of


JAMAICA UNIT TRUST


Cecil Baugh with his ceramic sculpture
"My brothers keeper". Photo: Bob Kerns.
"the results, the work of yet another
dynasty a new generation emerge....
There is a certain vibrancy in the
visual arts today in Jamaica and the
School of Art is directly responsible for
much of it. The Art School within the
context of the Cultural Training Centre
is an enormously important institution
not just to Jamaica but the Caribbean
region in general. It is in my esti-
mation one of the most significant
achievement in a 21 year history. The
school affects and reflects a strong
Caribbean identity. We are a people of
strong moods, strong feelings and
strong convictions; we are also a
strongly organic and spontaneous people
and these qualities are so strongly evident
in these works of art that we are about to
view.
This exhibition is not an accident -
its a happening it's a coming together
of young minds focused in a particular
direction. Their points of departure are
unquestionably diverse but the objective
is clearly one of kinship. At first glance
one might be induced to see sameness but
at a closer look at each of these artist
will reveal distinctly different concerns.


f:JAMAICA
UNIT TRUST
SERVICES LTD










These ladies are now members of a
second generation of painters from the
Jamaica School of Art, and the future
looks good. Its good because they are
better trained and better prepared in
attitude to challenge the status-quo; but
more importantly there is a need to go
beyond self to investigate their environ-
ment clearly and thoroughly. Not many
graduates have been able to put together
a major or even a minor show one year
after graduation. In fact, it takes time
and courage to build up back to that high
energy level attained in the final year of
study. It is significant here, not only that
we have a major exhibition one year after
graduation, but one that is significantly
matured.
These works are decidedly in oppo-
sition to what the older generation of
artists have been feeding the people.
Very few artists in Jamaica have the
courage to depart from accepted taste.
They don't want to starve, but it would
seem that if you feed the unsuspecting
society a steady diet of sameness in
time the society will have taste for
nothing else. It is incumbent therefore
on the very young to change all that,
to actualise the courage to be; to go in
search of self!"
Mr. George Fatta opened the exhibi-
tion of works by Carl Abrahams and
book launching on 14th May.... "a day
of great significance in his (Carl's) life."
He commented:
"Carl's works in this exhibition reflect
another landmark along the road to
cultural advancement, pointing the way
to new and wider horizons in human
creativity and national culture".
The Prime Minister of Jamaica, Hon.
Edward Seaga opened the Cecil Baugh
and potters exhibition to a large assembly
on 31st of May. Discussing Baugh's life
and work, the Prime Minister commented

"Cecil Baugh is one of those rare indi-
viduals who discovers at an early age what
it is he really wants to do as his life's
work, and what is more, has the courage
to persevere and stick to his chosen field.
For his discipline alone, Cecil Baugh
should serve as a model to us all, even
more so to the youth of today searching
to find some meaningful work.


When Cecil was a youth growing up in
Portland where his father was a sawyer
and small farmer and his mother sold
produce in the market, Cecil welcomed
the opportunity to walk the seven miles
to market with his mother each weekend.
As a teenager he welcomed the long hike
over the Blue Mountains to bring his
brother in Kingston provisions every
other week. Cecil has never shied away
from hard work or helping others.
It was there, by his brother's lodgings
on Long Mountain Road in Kingston
that Cecil first saw traditional potters,
Susan and Ethel Trenchfield, unpacking
their Kiln one morning. And from that
moment, Cecil knew what he would do
with his life.
At the age of 17 he apprenticed
himself to these two ladies and another
traditional potter, Wilfred Lord, and from
them he learned the basics of pottery.
At a time when potters were still con-
sidered peasants, when working in clay
with one's hands was considered degrad-
ing, Cecil Baugh survived the taunts of
"Yabba Man". He didn't seek after status
or let the social whims of society change
him from his humble but satisfying
career. Instead, Cecil sought to bring his
chosen field up to a level where people
from all walks of life would admire his
art.
Cecil always wanted to improve him-
self and to improve his work. Even
though he had moved to Montego Bay
and set up "The Cornwall Clay Works"
with Wilfred Lord in 1936, sticking to it
even when Lord left him there alone,
Cecil realized he would have to learn
more to become something special.
So he gave up his successful pottery in
Montego Bay, enlisted in the British
Army in 1941, and set sail for parts
unknown. He was willing to risk his life
by going to war on the gamble that
if he survived, he would be able to study
with more experienced potters abroad.
His dream was realized in 1948 when,
armed only with a letter of introduction
from the British Council, he paid his own
passage to England where he wouldn't
take no for an answer. He proved himself
by studying for several months with
Margaret Leach and then he was ac-
cepted to study with the Master Potter,
Bernard Leach, the man who revived


craft pottery in England at a time when
commercialism was threatening to en-
gulf the individual artist.
Cecil Baugh had the very first one-man
ceramics exhibition ever held in Jamaica
in 1950; from 1950 until his retirement
in 1974, he imparted his knowledge of
pottery to anyone who wished to learn.
But his work is not yet finished. Cecil
has always been a pioneer because he has
always tried to use whatever was avail-
able to him to better himself and his
art this includes his use of local
materials.
He walks the mountainsides, he
searches the shorelines, he digs until he
finds a material available in Jamaica with
which to create his beautiful glazes and
decorations. And all of this knowledge
he has shared throughout the years as
he coupled his career as an artist with his
career as a teacher."


Carnations by Albert Huie 1983 Oil on
Canvas. Collection: Dr. Paul Chen Young.
Sonya Mills in opening the exhibition
of Albert Huie's recent works introduced
an artist who at an almost sublimal
level has helped us to appreciate us Huie
understands well the difficulty and the
disadvantages of being an artist in this
society; he understands class and caste -
what it means to be black and the
struggle to make black beautiful.
Already in 1939 what Huie was painting
was not the struggle but the resolution.
Huie was painting then, and has
continued to paint from inside out".


With the Compliments of


Eagle Merchant Bank

of Jamaica Limited
7 Trinidad Terrace, Kingston 5, Jamaica.
Tel: 926-5335, 929-3017, 929-3400









Studio Talk


Andy Jefferson


THE ART OF THE PRINT
Relief and Intaglio
A Fine Art print is the creative result
of an artists own work and must be dis-
tinguished from a piece of modern re-
productive printing which can be mass
manufactured using photographic proces-
ses. Two major types of printing are the
relief and intaglio methods.
Relief printing
is done on a surface on which the
areas to be printed stand in relief from
the block, or, the areas not to be printed
are cut away, leaving the printed areas
above the surrounding surface. Wood-
cuts fall into this category.



INK



a) Inking Stage
Area standing in relief receives ink from a hand
roller.







b) Printing Stage
Paper placed on inked surface then rubbed with
spoon.
FIG. 1 RELIEF PRINTING METHOD


Intaglio Printing
is done from a surface on which the
areas to be printed are not raised above,
but are cut below the surface and the
paper is forced into the indentations to
print an impression. Metal plate etchings
and engravings are printed using this
method.
An engraved plate is dependent on
sharp tools which are used to cut into the
plate surface directly; the engraved line
is characterized by its sharp and infinitely
crisp detail. Lines are often smooth and
flowing. The thickness of line is depen-
dent on the pressure applied to the en-
graving tool.


JINK

S7/7/7///-///7/ 7/ 7/

a) Inking Stage
Ink is twisted into the plate surface with a
soft rag, the raised surface is then wiped clean.


/



b) Printing Stage
Etching press roller pushes dampened
paper into inked grooves, an intermediate
layer of felt blankets push damp paper into
plate surface.
FIG. 2 INTAGLIO PRINTING METHOD


When the plate is properly inked the
crucial stage of hand wiping begins. Pads
of newspaper can be used to wipe excess
ink off the plate surface;care should be
taken to make sure that the plate is not
overwiped, which will cause a loss of
image.
The printing paper must be a heavy
watercolour or lithographic paper which
is dampened and blotted before use. The
paper is placed onto the printing plate
and is then run through an etching press
(Fig. 2.) The press forces the dampened
paper into the intaglio surface which
picks up the ink.
Metal plates can be expensive and
difficult to obtain so the method of card-
board plate printing, otherwise known
as collagraphy, is a cheap, practical
printing medium. Collagraphs can be
printed in either relief or intaglio; the
featured print is an intaglio
collagraph. A heavy cardboard
is used for a base board, dark
areas are obtained with the


addition of sand and light
areas are achieved with the
use of ponal glue, which dries
to a hard plastic finish and is
not affected by the inking or
cleaning processes; fine details
can be put into the plate surface
with an exacto knife.
Collagraphic prints in the
relief method can also be very
"Struggle in Vain" by A.W. Jefferson. 1983 -18"x 24" interesting and lend themselves
- Collagraph. Collection the artist. Photo --Jim Treder more to home or school


Etching is generally done on zinc or
copper plates on which wax is melted to
form a thin coat over the entire surface of
the plate. The design is drawn on this thin
coat of wax with a sharp pointed needle.
The needle cuts through the wax, ex-
posing the copper plate below. The plate
is then placed into a tray containing acid.
The acid eats into the metal plate where
it has been exposed by the needle. After
the desired depth of line is obtained the
wax can be cleaned off the plate and it
can then beinked and printed.
Both engraved and etched plates are
inked in the same way. Intaglio ink is
rubbed into the plate surface with a soft
rag. This stage is done over a warm hot-
plate which allows the ink to soften,
making it penetrate thoroughly and
allows easier wiping.


production than the intaglio method,
as the use of an etching press is not
necessary and locally made lino or
wood block inks can be used,(intaglio
inks are only available from abroad.)
The relief collagraph can be built
upon or cut away; areas standing in
relief can then be inked with a hand
roller (Fig. 1). In the printing stage dry
paper can be placed onto the plate and
the back rubbed with a spoon. Wood
and lino blocks can also be printed in this
way.
Due to the care with which cardboard
printing plates can be made, the process is
ideal for multicolour printing.
Andy Jefferson is printing tutor at the
Jamaica School of Art. He studied at
Plymouth College of Art and Exeter
College of Art where he obtained an
honours degree in Printmaking.


With the Compliments of

ESSO STANDARD OIL S.A. LTD.


( Es









Jamaica School of Art


GRADUATION 1983
The Jamaica School of Art was hun
ming with energy these last few month
as final year students, staff and admini
trators prepared for annual assessment
exhibition. This years graduation sho'
was previewed by Friends of J.S.A. o
July 1st and open to the public July 2-1
At the formal graduation ceremony, o
July 9th, art lovers gathered to view
wide range of dynamic works of various
media from young Jamaican and Cari
bean artists.
CHILDREN ART FESTIVAL
Creativity not competition. Wit
this foremost in mind, the School of Ar
in conjunction with the other there
schools of the Cultural Training Comple
(Dance, Music & Drama) currently gear
for another big event: a comprehensive
Children Art Festival. Funded by Mea
Johnson, the festival will involve con
munity centres and schools this summer
and through to December under the gu
dance of trained teachers. The festival
theme derives from an adapted Osca
Wilde story: The Story of the Selfis
Giant. In addition to promoting a garde
of creative children happenings through
art, dance, music and drama, the festive
hopes to initiate a children art section a
at the Jamaica National Gallery.


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"Shy"by Ike Dodoo- 36" x 25" -pastel on card 1983. Collection the artist. Photo -
Jim Treder.


David Williams won Seven Hundred and
Fifty Dollars ($750.00) for 3rd. That the
competition promoted friendship and
cooperation between Jamaica and Vene-
zuela was seen and heard in the speeches,
applause and merriment which filled the
judging and awards ceremony. The entries
are currently in the Jamaica School of
Art administrative office. The winning
bust will soon be housed at the Bolivar y
Bello Cultural Centre and 2nd and 3rd
place pieces will be sent to Barbados and
Aruba respectively.
STAFF ART GOES TO TRINIDAD
The staff at Jamaica School of Art
group exhibition to Trinidad has pro-
ceeded well, with great cooperation by
JSA staffers. The work is already photo-
graphed and crated and only details re-
main. Mr. Budhoo of Trinidad is the
organizer of what promises to be a fasci-
nating first exhibition. Plans are also
being consolidated to bring the exhibit
back to Jamaica for the "21" Celebra-
tions.


h GRAPHICS SUMMER PROGRAM
al Jamaica School of Art has long be-
t lived that technical/formal art training
is only a part of skills development pro-
gram. Also of importance to the students
is practical on-the-job work in related
fields of study. With this goal in mind the
Graphic Department has been actively
seeking assistance from outside agencies
and organizations for a summer work/
study program for third year Graphic
Students. Favourable responses continue
and it is anticipated that this program
will expand and become a permanent and
invaluable part of the schools curriculum.
SIMON BOLIVAR ANNIVERSARY
The Bolivar y Bello Cultural Centre
(Hillcrest Avenue, Kingston) with close
cooperation and guidance of the Vene-
zuelan Embassy recently sponsored a
sculpture competition at Jamaica School
of Art to honour the 200th Anniversary
of Simon Bolivar. Nine (9) entrants
submitted cement busts of Simon
Bolivar. Third (3) year sculpture student
Austin Wright took home the One Thou-
sand Five Hundred Dollars ($1,500) -
1st Prize; Livingston Lewin gathered in
One Thousand ($1,000) for 2nd and


With the Compliments of

JAMAICA NATIONAL EXPORT CORPORATION
8 WATERLOO ROAD, KINGSTON 10.









News and Information


ARTISTS' UPDATE
Kofi Kayiga is visiting Jamaica from
his teaching base at Massachusetts College
of Art where he is Assistant Professor. He
has recently exhibited in England, with
a December show at the Commonwealth
Institute, London; a second travelling
exhibition, arranged by the University
of Sussex Garden Centre which will
tour art centres throughout Britain for
the next year and a half, will also include
his works.

Justin "Ricky" George who graduated
last year from the JSA, is currently on a
fellowship, studying foundry techniques
at the world-renowned Johnson Atelier,
in Princeton, New Jersey.
SEABED CERAMICS
Visitors to the downtown Kingston
headquarters of the Seabed Building are
finding details of harmony between art
and architecture around every corer.
Among these, are a set of ceramic tiles
- 48 to be precise created by artist
Norma Harrack in gorgeous hues of blues
and turquoise. Their theme is "The Fish",
done as a relief stylized in 48 different
ways. Each tile has been executed using
the slab method (rolled and cut clay).
They all have individual movement with
added variation of slip and texture to
enhance colour and impact. Inset into
wooden boxes, these "Fish" form
unusual and attractive coffee tables and
are but one of the many aesthetically
attractive features of this special building.
NEW ARRIVALS
Arts Jamaica is especially pleased to
view the several fine publications which
have arrived on the scene since the begin-
ning of this year. Although only one is
specifically art-related (Strudwick's "Carl
Abrahams Artist and Visionary -
Pomegranate Press, Box 2, Gordon Town)
there is a strong complimentary; welcome
to Focus 1983, ed. Mervyn Morris,
published by Caribbean Authors Publish-
ing Co. Ltd. the most recent of this
distinguished series last out in 1960; to
Kingston Publishers "Insites Guide -
Jamaica", (and looking forward to their
forthcoming Jamaican Art); Aimee
Webster's "Anthurium for Profit and
Pleasure"; Jamaica Journal's May issue
is a solid 88 pages and contains orchid
watercolours which elaborate on AJ 's
current focus on Art and the Environ-
ment.


BIBLIOGRAPHY-THE ENVIRONMENT
AND ART IN JAMAICA
*Andrews, J., "Philip Henry Gosse, F.R.S.
(1810-88)." Library Association Record.
June 1961.
*Brown, F., and Heineman, B., Jamaica
and its Butterflies. London, 1972.
*Cundall, F., Historic Jamaica. London,
1915.
*Cundall, F., "Richard Hill," Journal of
Negro History. Vol. v, No. 1. Jan., 1920.
*deQuesnay, F., "Philip Henry Gosse,"
Parts 1 & 2, The Daily Gleaner. 1965.
*Hedgpeth, J., "A Century at the Sea-
shore," The Scientific Monthly. Sept.,
1945.
*Hulton, P., and Smith, L., Flowers in
Art from East and West. London, 1979.
* Jamaica Herald and Commercial Adver-
tiser, (Belisario). Kingston, July 29, 1835.
* Kalbrener, E., Catalogue of Orchid Por-
traits by Charlotte Hall. (Typescript.)
* Lewis, S., "Over Eighty-One: H.Q. Levy."
The Sunday Gleaner, June 9, 1957.
* National Library, Institute of Jamaica,
B/N Joseph Bartholomew Kidd.
* Records of the Institute of Jamaica, The
National Library, Inst. of Jamaica.


.Sherlock, P., B/N Philip Henry Gosse,
National Library, Inst. of Jca.
*Sherlock P., Editor, Jamaica Today
(Revised Ed. Cundall, F., Jamaica in
1928, London, 1940). London, 1940.
*STANGIB LTD., Press Release: "Isaac
Mendes Belisario." New York, Nov. 8,
1976.
* The British Medical Journal, "The
Foundation of the British Museum."
London, Nov. 4, 1905.
* The Penny Magazine, (ref: Sir Hans
Sloane). Sept. 3, 1836.
*A Vision of Eden, The Life and Work
of Marianne North. Webb & Bower Pub.,
Exeter, 1980.
I RT WORDS
"If you refuse to study anatomy, the
arts of drawing and perspective, the
mathematics of aesthetics, the science of
colour, let me tell you that this is more a
sign of laziness than of genius."
Savador Dali
Dairy of a Genius
"Whatever you can do, or dream you
can, begin it. Boldness has genius power
and magic in it."
Goethe


FORTHCOMING:


ts ica ART IN J ICA
rJ a ABSTRACT ART IN JAMAICA












WHAT'S ON
KINGSTON GALLERIES
NATIONAL GALLERY
Kingston Mall
Mon. -Sat. 10.00 a.m. 5.00 p.m.
JULY "Aspects I" thematic exhibition by
10 artists.
AUGUST OCTOBER "Male and female
created he them'"
BOLIVAR BOOKSHOP AND GALLERY
1D Grove Road, Kingston 10.
Mon, Fri. 8.30 a.m. 4.30 p.m.,
Saturday 9.00 a.m. 1.00p.m.
JULY Antique Prints, maps and water
colours by 18th 19th century artists.
JULY 20 -AUGUST Simon Bolivar compe-
tition and exhibition.
SEPT. -Henri Aubry -drawings and graphics.
FRAME CENTRE
Tangerine Place, Kingston 10.
Mon. -Fr. 9.00 a.m. -5.00 p.m.
JULY 17 Kofi Kaylga exhibition.
AUGUST SEPTEMBER In-house collec-
tion.
GALLERY BARRINGTON
70 Hope Road, No. 3 Mountbatten Court,
Kgn. 6.
Mon. -Fri -9.00 a.m. .00 p.m.
Saturday 9.00 12 noon.
JULY- AUGUST- Roger Maie retrospective.
SEPTEMBER Barrington Watson.
HI QO
Spanish Court, New Kingston.
Mon. -Fr. 9.00 a.m. -5.00 p.m.
MUTUAL LIFE GALLERY
2 Oxford Road, Kingston 5.
Mon. Fr 10.00 a.m. 5.00p.m.
JULY 13 Cecil Baugh and potters
JULY 25 Trafalgar artists and crafts
AUGUST 12 Byron Bowden oil's
AUGUST 31 Ralph Campbell
SEPT. 21 Gerry Craig
OLYMPIA
33 University Cres., Kgn. 7, Mono.
Mon. Fr. 10.00 a.m. 12 noon
2.00 p.m. -5.00 p.m.
JULY SEPT. -Olympia collection.
UPSTAIRS DOWNSTAIRS GALLERY
108 Harbour St., Kgn.
Mon. --FriL 9.00 a.m. -4.00 p.m.
JULY 3rd 10th Petrona Morrison recent
works.
JULY AUGUST 'Festival exhibition.
THE GARDEN GALLERY
1 Manning Hill Road.
Mon--Sat. 10.00 a.m -4.00 p.m.
JULY SEPTEMBER Eric Smith recent
works.

GALLERIES OUTSIDE OF KINGSTON
BOLIVAR FINE ARTS
Westgate Shopping Centre, Montego Bay.
BUDHAI GALLERY
Montego Bay.
GALLERY OF WEST INDIAN ART
Montego Bay.
GALLERY MAKONDE
Half Moon Hotel, Montego Bay.
Tel: 809 953-2211.
THE ROUNb HOUSE GALLERY
2 Orange Street, Montego Bay.
GALLERY JOE JAMES
Rio Bueno, Trelawny.
GALLERY JAMAICA
Plantation Inn, Ocho Rios.


HARMONY HALL
Ocho Rios
JULY 17 Recnt art school graduates.
JULY 31 Gene Pearson/Christopher Gonzales
GLORIA ESCOFFERY'S GALLERY
Brown's Town, St. Ann.
TeL 0975-2268
Viewing by appointment.
ST. ANN'S BAY GALLERY
Mon. Fri. -9.00 am. -4.00p.m.
FRAME CENTRE GALLERY
Little Pub, Ocho Rios.
Mon --Fri 10.00 am. 6.00 p.m.
Saturday 10.00 a.m. 2.00 p.m.
JULY SEPT. Frame Centre Collection.
THE DESIGNER'S GALLERY
Trident Hotel, Port Antonio.
HERB ROSE'S GALLERY
Port Antonio.
UJOMO ART GALLERY
Mandeville, Manchester.


_ LETTERS

Brown's Town
Gloria Escoffery
"For years, I have been teaching
young people at a community college
and thinking about the problems they
face. The lack of discriminating guidance
given to young people is heartbreaking -
so much talent and potential going down
the drain. There are culturally upgrad-
ing competitions notably the annual
show sponsored by the indefatigable com-
mittee under the auspices of the Ocho
Rios Branch Library; these provide
standards of quality by which young
artists can measure themselves.
Young people need the stimulus of
working together with their peers; they
need art materials and the sort of gui-
dance in techniques that encourages
experiment against the background of
traditional expertise. They need a sensi-
tive type of training which combines
stimulus with an awareness of the diffi-
culties of transition from village to world
outlook. Exposure will not "spoil" these
young artists, but rather will bring out
their talents.
One of the main obstacles to achieving
any sort of coherent community devel-
opment is bureaucratic thinking, which
assigns different areas of life unrealis-
tically though necessarily I suppose, to
such more or less watertight categories as
"youth and community development" or
"culture" or "education" or "tourism".
Solutions to almost any problem cut
across these artificial boundaries.
There is one project which may be of


interest to readers of this art magazine,
who presumably believe in the import-
ance and power of art as an agent of
social change. That is the idea of the
establishment of a small original type of
art and craft centre in this small market
town .... primarily a show place for local
talent. What I have in mind is a sort of
workshop combining intensive training in
sculpture, painting and two hitherto
underdeveloped crafts with a variety of
community-oriented cultural activities.
The objectives would be not just the
production or training of craftsmen but
a sort of community fertilization in the
techniques of creative thinking and
artistic discipline, which is what we need
for nation-wide human development.
If this were to become an islandwide
movement, employing genuinely creative
persons content to remain in rural areas -
I believe that in time Jamaica would
spontaneously rid itself of its negative
elements.
Any reader who would like to help
me get this project off the ground may
write simply Brown's Town, St. Ann -
or phone me at 0975-2268.
.....................................................................
St. Ann
Ocho Rios conjures up images of an
idyllic holiday resort for some, an escape
from the city for others, and, for an in-
creasing number of people, an alternative
art centre. The parishes of St. Ann
and St. Mary have long provided inspira-
tional retreats for artists musicians,
authors, painters, sculptors but, until
recently, there was no local showcase for
their output.
This situation is gradually changing.
Harmony Hall was in the vanguard, and
the Frame Centre and St. Ann's Bay
Galleries are continuing the momentum.
The principals of these three establish-
ments are confident that this is just the
beginning of promotion of the arts in this
important resort area. While Kingston
may always be the cultural base of
Jamaica, the capital will never attract as
many foreign visitors as the North Coast.
If the arts are to continue to grow at
the remarkable rate of the past, inter-
national interest and markets are essen-
tial.
Sponsorship is playing an increasingly
important role in the promotion of
Jamaican art, and many leading
companies are providing tangible support.
Harmony Hall's included Wray & Nephew
(Anniversary Show, Dawn Scott and
Intuitives II), Bank of Nova Scotia
("Jamaican Houses a Vanishing
Legacy"), Air Jamaica (Eve Foster) and
Tourwise (transportation for Intuitives
II). This encouragement deserves recog-
nition and commendation.
Annabella Ogden












































































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