Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 National Gallery news
 Studio talk
 Jamaica School of Art
 In review
 News and information
 Back Cover

Title: Arts Jamaica
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101459/00003
 Material Information
Title: Arts Jamaica
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28-44 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Arts Jamaica Ltd.
Place of Publication: Kingston, Jamaica, West Indies
Kingston, Jamaica, West Indies
Publication Date: December 1982
Copyright Date: 1982
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Art, Jamaican -- Periodicals -- 20th century   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Jamaica
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Apr. 1982)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Some issues combined.
General Note: Title from cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101459
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 11269244
lccn - 86644045

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    National Gallery news
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Studio talk
        Page 12
    Jamaica School of Art
        Page 13
    In review
        Page 14
        Page 15
    News and information
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Back Cover
        Page 18
Full Text

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Arts Jamaica is published quarterly by Arts Jamaica. P.O. Box 79, Kingston 8.

Managing Editor
Text Editor
Art Editor
Production Assistant
Financial Controller
Advertising Agent

Peter King
Margaret Bernal
Suzanne Francis-Hinds
Felicity Garrard
Tina Matkovik-Spiro
Carol McDonald
T Squares Inc.
Janet James
Horace Rousseau
Gloria Forsythe

The Managing Committee, composed of journalists, artists, and art lovers,
wishes to stress that Arts Jamaica Is conceived as a publication dedicated
to all that is excellent In the visual arts of Jamaica. The magazine will
aim to analyse and celebrate those things and persons already recognized
as living greatness, while remaining open to new ideas and encouraging
potential wherever It is found.

Christmas 1983 is a special celebration
for Arts Jamaica. It is our first and as
such we are perhaps justified in feeling a
special rapport with the season which
inspires so many of our artists to imagery
of birth creation. Last year at this time
we were still in an embryonic stage. Our
birth in 1982 and our continued pre-
sence through three issues underscores
the determination we expressed in our
first issue .... to document, record and
celebrate Jamaican art and the island's
artistic community. In testimony to this
determination we have incorporated a
subscription form into our current issue
and we hope you will all use this to
extend and maintain the link with us
through the coming year.
This Christmas issue of Arts Jamaica
features the Devotional Image in Jamaica
Art which is so appropriate at this time
of the year, along with our normal
articles . the focus on children,
National Gallery News, Studio Talk, news
from the School of Art, and the Editor's
It's a package of artistic cheer and
persevering hopefulness which we trust
you will enjoy. Happy Christmas from
our team here at Arts Jamaica.










FOCUS Carl Abrahams

INSIGHT Rev. Philip Hart

FORUM Comparison between
Child Art and Primitive Art

STUDIO TALK Prints in the

- Roots Festival

IN REVIEW The Editors Review


Cover illustration: "Angels at the Birth of Christ" by Carl Abrahams. 1979, Oil on Canvas, 171 x 21.",
Collection: Professor Rex Nettleford. Photo: Tell Precision Company.

The Publication of Arts Jamaica has been made possible through the kind assistance of the following companies and organizations: The
Jamaica National Export Corporation, Lenn Happ Supermarket, Mutual Life Assurance Company, The Pan Jamaican Investment Trust Ltd.,
The Royal Bank Jamaica Ltd. and the Jamaica Citizens Bank.

0 Arts Jamaica All rights reserved.

National Gallery News

The work of Kapo, Jamaica's acknow-
ledged master of the intuitive, has been
given pride of place in the National Col-
lection, and indeed marked the first work
to find a home in the new National Gal-
lery of Jamaica, located at the Orange
Street end of the Ocean Mall in down-
town Kingston.
The collection of 17 paintings and 48
sculptures was brought together by the
late Larry Wirth and has now been
acquired by the Jamaican Government,
joining the 12 paintings and five sculp-
tures already in the National Collection.
The paintings, dating from 1960-75
are considered by National Collection
Curator David Boxer to be second only
to those owned by John Pringle in
London, though he points out that
masterpieces such as Kubalee, Be Still
and There She Go, Satan, all with
Revivalist themes, are in the local collec-
tion. The 48 sculptures, however, are
the heart of the Collection. Ranging
through the full range of Kapo's icono-
graphy, the works include Paul Bogle,
The Angel, The Flame, Girl Dreaming,
and Obedience Covers All, combining
elegance with elementality.
"These two groups, the other master-
pieces and indeed the entire collection,
only bear out what I have repeatedly
said" Dr. Boxer concluded. "In this
unique artist we have not only one of the
finest Intuitive painters of our time, but
one of the greatest Intuitive sculptors of
this century."
The four Kapo sculptures which will
form part of the Smithsonian Travelling
Exhibition starting in the Spring of '82
are all from the Wirth Collection.
Mallica Reynolds was born in 1911
in Bynloss, St. Catherine to David
Reynolds and Rebecca Morgan. He recalls
that his parents married when he was nine
years old, and that this was also the year
in which he went to school.

"It was a blessing from God at the age
of 12, I dreamt of the Master" Kapo
recalls. "It was through Revival and out
of Revival that this gift came the gift
of painting and also the gift of carving."
Kapo's present recognition as a master
of the intuitive is the result of a long pro-
gression from the early days in which
tourists and foreign collectors were the
only people who bought his work and the
Jamaica Tourist Board was the only insti-
tution which recorded it.
One recollection of those early days
came from Prime Minister Edward Seaga
who opened the exhibition and who met
Kapo while doing a three year study into
Revivalism during the 1950's.
"I came to know Kapo as a prominent
Revival leader, and then in the course of
the three years that I knew him I came
to discover him as an artist" Mr. Seaga
recalled. "I discovered him in an odd
way: at' that time he was a painter; I
never saw the works that he painted be-
cause they had all been seized by the
police who had taken them away as evi-
dence of the practice of which he was
accused Obeah .... but while this was
going on he did his very first piece of
sculpturing. It was a piece that was done
in lignumvitae and I believe it was sym-
bolic of the man that he chose the
toughest wood to work in. As a tool he
used only a knife, and this piece that he
did he showed to me and I said to him
.... I believe that you should give
more time to developing yourself as a
sculptor ....
Kapo's earliest carvings date from the
period 1948 49. His paintings pre-
ceeded and have postdated his carvings
which stopped coming in the 1970's.
Mr. Seaga also commented on the re-
location of the National Gallery: "Not-
withstanding the fact that Devon House is
an appropriate monument for the exhi-
bition of art, I do not consider it to be
in the mainstream of Jamaican life; it is
out of the way for people who we want
to be able to have the opportunity to
see and view the works of art of Jamaica.

"The Angel (Winged Moon Man), 1963 by
Mallica Reynolds (Kapo). Mahogany, height
26V2". Collection National Gallery of Jamaica.
It is now being restored to its former
glory, and it will be used as a place where
art exhibitions can be held but not as
the home of the National Collection,
not only because of its location but also
because it is not a secure place being
constructed of wood; we would not want
to run the risk of our treasures going up
in flames through any mishap that may
occur. This building has all the security
that one wishes for the National
Collection of art and this building will
therefore be the new home of the
National Gallery. But I hope that this
will only be a temporary home . .
this is the best that we can do at this
stage. Notwithstanding that I hope a
time will come when we will be able to
build a new monument to the country
to accommodate the works of art, to
accommodate the relics of history, to
accommodate all those things that we asso-
ciate with our heritage."

With the Compliments of




Nora Strudwick

A deep reverence for all life underlies
the creative work of Carl Abrahams.
Whether it be his glowing landscapes,
which are often the back-drop of familiar
everyday scenes, or whether it be the
rockets and space-ships in interplanetary
travel, all his paintings reflect, with
amazing consistency, the artist's aware-
ness of an Omnipresence. Both the
magnitude of space and the seemingly
insignificant backyard scene are part of a
pattern that testifies to a creation of
meaning, and mystery.
Born in 1913, Carl Abrahams started
his career as an artist in the late 1930's.
For the past forty years, he has been
painting consistently and exhibiting at
As a sensitive child with a lively
curiosity, there are early memories of
beauty of "sunlight shining on a zinc
fence" in a Kingston setting. As an
impressionable adolescent at Calabar
High School, he felt the influence of
his teachers; some were more than life-
size, reflecting the awe and severity of
the Old Testament prophets that he was
to paint over and over again in later years.
But that same adolescent had a sensiti-
vity that could respond to beauty; to be
overwhelmed by the Jamaican land-
scape. On a cycling adventure across
the island with schoolboy friends,
Abrahams recalls his reaction to his
first glimpse of the north coast when
he trembled "in the quietness of every-
thing." It was this very sensitivity that
later enables him to express in painting
the message of the New Testament.
Abrahams explains emphatically that
"without religion, art is nothing." This is
the philosophy that underpins all his
creative endeavours, and it is in this
widest sense that he must be regarded as
a religious painter, whatever the subject
Like many other artists, Abrahams
returns to favourite subjects and themes
at different periods of his life. Often,
he uses what he calls, "the classical"

Carl Abrahams.
Photo: Jim Treder.

approach, but at the same time he daring-
ly takes the most traditional of subjects
and treats them from some new and
often unusual perspective. One of the
most salient features of his Art is his
original approach to Biblical subjects.
Over the years he has produced a vast
number of paintings, drawing his inspira-
tion from both the Old and New Testa-
The Last Supper is one of his favourite
themes and he has done several interpre-
tations. They are always interesting
studies of group interaction. The paint-
ing in the National Gallery of Jamaica
is well worth careful study. It is often
some small detail that gives each study
its own unique quality and subtle varia-

tion. The presence of the cat in one
painting for example, catches the viewer
off-guard and leads on to many
interesting conjectures.
Abrahams has recently painted the
Anointing of Christ's Feet by Mary
Magdalene. It is a fine example of the
artist's deftness to capture on canvas the
mood of a fleeting moment. The disci-
ples (including Judas clutching the money
bag) look on critically at the unorthodox
scene and the viewer may note, with
surprise, the flower in Mary Magdalene's
hair a human touch that adds a distinc-
tive and speculative quality to Abrahams
art. His creativity refuses to be stereo-
Again, his originality expresses itself

With the Compliments of


with a hint of humour; even religious
subjects do not escape this treatment. A
very surprised Adam, with a somewhat
underdeveloped cranium lies on his back,
still half-stunned from the Fall, while
Elijah, with hair streaming behind him
zooms into space in a rather modern
"Chariot of Fire."
Carl Abrahams' paintings reflect a man
who is seeking to understand human
character. Like the Last Supper paintings,
The Thirteen Israelites (1975) deals with
human interaction. Care has been taken
to show the expression on each of the
twelve faces although the face of the
central figure (Christ) is not visible as his
back is to the viewer. The entire treat-
ment of the subject is novel and again
lends itself to speculation, because the
expression on the face of each disciple
reflects the communication that is
taking place between the group and its
In an interview some years ago
Abrahams is quoted as saying, "I believe
strongly in Christ, he is the only hope for
the world and this troubled island of
ours." (Daily News/Aug. 15/75) Con-
sistently, he returns to paint Christ in
many varying moods; to investigate and
to contemplate this Man of Sorrows.
Though we, the viewers, hide, as it were,
"Our faces from Him," repeatedly the
artist holds him up before us for consi-
deration and contemplation however
painful. Man of Sorrows (1968) depicts
the deep emotions of a suffering Christ.
The symbol of the cross recurs in the
portrait: the cross on the forehead and
mouth as well as the crucifix at the base
of the neck help to convey the passion of
Christ at an almost subliminal level.
Another fine work which portrays
Christ in deep agony is Christ in the
In sharp contrast to Man of Sorrows
is Abrahams' painting of Christ done in
1981. In this, he captures Christ's
thoughtful strength; the piercing gaze of
Christ and the sensitive hands are two
outstanding features in this work.

"Hallelujah, Hallelujah!", 1977. Oil on canvas, 24
Gallery. Photo: Jim Treder.

Hallelujah, hallelujah, hallelujah is
another important work which deals with
an entirely different mood. There is a
feeling of praise and an upward move-
ment. The trumpeter with bright orange
and gold trumpet seems to be playing,
as it were, some magical notes which
are affecting the other dark beings
and raising them to the highest heights.
In the right hand corner is the symbol
of the cross which so often appears

x 57". Collection: Olympia International Art

in Abrahams' work.
Always breaking new ground, finding
inspiration and moving towards new
frontiers, Abrahams' art, like his religion,
is never at a standstill. The Angels of
Annunciation of Christ and The Angels
Weeping are strong classical pieces and
part of a new, strong angel series. In-
cluded in this same series is the painting
of the Three Angels, whose bouyant
locks and subtle shades of blue create

With the Compliments of



"Grief of Mary", 1965. Oil on hardboard, 24
x 19". Collection: Olympia International Art
Gallery. Photo: Keith Morrison.

an almost celestial atmosphere.
At the present time, most of the works
of Abrahams find their way into private
collections in Jamaica and abroad, though
the National Gallery does have a fair
collection of his paintings. Little or no
attention is paid to his work by organized
religion in Jamaica but then it would
be the exception, rather than the rule if
this were so, if fusion were to take place
between the visual arts and the Church in
Jamaica. Unlike the artist in Italy, Haiti,
or St.Lucia, whose work has a place in
ritual and workmanship, such a concept
is outside the Jamaican experience with
its basic Protestant tenets. At this time,
it is also unlikely that organized religion
in Jamaica would be comfortable with an
artist whose approach to the traditional
is unconventional.
At another level, however, Jamaican
tradition is rooted in deep personal
faith and feeling and indeed, at this level,
it would be true to say that the work of
this Jamaican master is very much a part
of the Jamaican religious tradition.

"Elijah in the Chariot of Fire", 1980.
Oil on canvas, 44 x 52". Collection:
Mr. and Mrs. H. McLarty.
Photo: Jim Treder.

Christ with Folded Hands 1981
Collection: Unknown

Norah Strudwick teaches
art at Merl Grove High
School in Kingston.

With the Compliments of




SJ Readers of Arts Jamaica will recall
that an article on Devotional Art in
Jamaica was advertised. The Rev.
Philip Hart, Executive Director of
the Institute of Jamaica, has agreed
to discuss this largely unexplored
aspect of our Art I would like
first of all to ask him how he de-
fines "devotional image" because I
think it will be important for readers
to understand this so that your
opinion will have a context for our
PH Well, to begin with, in discussing the
devotional image I do not want to
touch on a whole section of work
produced in Jamaica which has used
biblical themes and religious themes
but has used them to make per-
sonal, political, or social statements.
SJ So you are making a specific distinc-
tion between religious themes and
objects of devotion?
PH Yes. I think here we should be dis-
cussing objects of devotion.
SJ Well could you perhaps give an
example of this and share with us
what first excited your interest in
this subject?
PH In about 1957, whilst in London, I
attended a very important exhibition
on the 'Byzantine Image' at the
Victoria & Albert Museum. Byzan-
tine Art is, of course, the art of the
Early Christian Church which has
persisted in the Eastern Orthodox
Church to the present day But in
the West to the time of the Renais-
sance. The exhibition was organised
by Professor Talbot Rice and was the
first occasion the English public was
given the opportunity of viewing the
works of this School to any great ex-
tent. Masterpieces from the Greek
Schools, the Constantinople School,
the Great Russian Schools of Vladi-
mir, Moscow and Navograd to men-
tion a few and works from Italy,
Romanesque France and England
were on view. It was a total revela-
tion to me and I think I must have

visited the exhibition on at least
twenty occasions. That started a con-
suming interest in the Byzantine
SJ Did your initial interest spark you to
research this further to search out
the actual images themselves?
PH Very definitely. In 1959 I travelled
for four months through Italy,
Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria and Yugos-
lavia, but, alas I never got to Russia
because the Cold War was on at
the time and visas were difficult to
obtain. The object of the trip was
the search for the Byzantine Image.
My first real taste was of the wonder-
ful mosiacs in the Italian Churches;
Ravenna was, particularly, an unfor-
gettable experience. In Venice there
were the wonderful treasures of
St. Mark's with the exquisite collec-
tions of Byzantine Gold, Silver and
Jewelled works and, of course, the
Ivories. From Venice I travelled to
Greece and here one enters into the
Byzantine world proper. It was in the
Byzantine Museum in Athens that
I was able to study to a large extent
the Greek Schools of Icon painters. I
spent much time in the monastic
churches of Hosias Lucas, Daphni
in Eleusis and Mistra. Undoubtedly
the high point of my Greek sojourn
was in the monastic communities
of Meteora and Mt. Athoas -
Athos being particularly important
as there are monastic settlements
from all over the orthodox world and
this offered the unique opportunity
for comparing the particular charac-
teristics and developments of images
from each area. Undoubtedly the
high point of my whole trip was the
visit to Istanbul or the ancient city
of Constantinople, the centre of the
Byzantine Empire. I was particularly
fortunate in having letters of intro-
duction to the Chief Archaeologists
and Restorers working in the great
Hagia Sophia or the Church of the
Holy Wisdom and also the amazing
Church of St. Saviour in Chora where
some of the most beautiful mosiacs
and frescas of the 14th Century were
being revealed. Through my intro-
duction I was given complete access

"Grief of Mary" by Edna Manley, 1968.
Mahogany, 73" high. Collection: Holy Cross
Church. Photo: Keith Morrison.
to all the work in these two Churches
and was able to study in detail some
of the greatest works on Byzantine
SJ From what you're saying, these are
essentially Christian images. Would
you be prepared to indicate what are
the elements that you consider
make up the Byzantine school and
the Iconography of that school
which in your opinion make devo-
tional images?

With the Compliments of

Henkel Chemicals (Caribbean) Ltd.


PH In considering Byzantine Art one
must always bear in mind that we
are dealing with the visible but
stylized expression of Christian
Theology and its development. The
artists were largely anonymous and it
was opposed to the ancient Greek
spirit whose theme was basically
humanistic and dealt with man and
his natural likeness. Byzantine Art
shows scant regard for earthly man
and aspires to the transcendental, the
divine and the absolute. By the
rigid canon of iconography and sty-
lization man's humanity plays a
purely secondary role and the
work is transfused with the spiritual
quality of symbols. In essence
Byzantine Art is therefore ritualis-
tic and is developed in rigid conjunc-
tion with theological development
and definition. To instance this we
should look at one single image -
that of the Christ. The earliest

Ralph Campbell, 1970.
Oil on hardboard, 24 x
26". Collection: Olympia
International Art Gallery.
Photo: Keith Morrison.

Christian representations show him
as the Good Shpherd and are clearly
taken from the image of the Roman
Shepherd God, Hermas. Gradually,
however, the emphasis on this aspect
of the Christ changes and in the 5th
Century under Justinian, the great
Byzantine law giver, a new image
was established which thereafter was
to become the dominant one. This
was the Christus Pantocrator or
Christ the Eternal God portrayed
with severity of gaze, one hand
raised in blessing and the other
holding the Gospels, the symbol of
the authority of the Church. If you
were to go into Christian Churches
whether in the East or the West
during Byzantine times you would
feel totally comfortable and fami-
liar both with the architectural style
and the images portrayed therein.
You would, in fact, move in a
Christian Cosmos. Often in the

outer Narthex you would find
mosiach or frescos depicting the
life of the Prophets culminating with
images of John the Baptist. On oppo-
site walls you would invariable find
the life of the Virgin portrayed.
Above the door into the main
Church you would usually find the
image of the Theotokos or Mother
of God, holding in her arms the in-
fant Christ with a large dome-like
head symbolic of the Word of God
or Intelligence of the Divine. Once
inside the main Church you would
enter the Cosmos proper with
important scenes from the life of
Christ portrayed in the corners, and
either in the half dome above the
altar or in the central dome of the
Church the image of Christ the
Eternal Judge transfixing all within
his gaze and surrounded by Cheru-
bin and Seraphim (the Hosts of
Heaven), Apostles, Prophets and
Saints. On the great screens or
iconastasis separating the altar from
the main body of the Church would
be the holy painted images or icons
that the faithful on entering the
Church would touch and kiss in
order to identify in a very real and
spiritual sense with the Spirit of the
Divine. Thus we are dealing with
works that go far beyond the mere
representation of religious themes.
What we are in fact dealing with are
holy, divine and deeply devotional
objects that were integral and essen-
tial parts of worship and spirituality.
I hope this explanation has not been
too long but I feel it to be of tana-
mount importance if we are to
understand in any depth the devo-
tional image.
SJ Now are there differentials in that in
so far as the development of the
Eastern Church as opposed to the
Western Church is concerned?
PH While the Eastern Church retained
to a large extent the rigid icono-
graphy of the Byzantine tradition
which persist through until the pre-
sent day, in the Western Church the
real change came at the time of the
Renaissance. The major influence

With the Compliments of


of this period was ancient Greek
thought and art forms. Western man
moved away from the rigid styliza-
tion, and at times the almost atro-
phied forms established over the
many centuries of the Byzantine
tradition, towards a new humanism
which drew its initial influence from
ancient Greek thought. The hinge
personality upon whom we can
hang the door of the new thinking in
the plastic arts is in my view, the
great Italian painter Cimabue. Here
we see the Byzantine image at break-
ing point in an atmosphere so rare-
fied, and being drawn as if by a
magnet towards a more humanistic
approach. It is clear a new form is
about to emerge. His pupil Giotto
completes the transformation and we
see the personality of the artist being

"Fertility" by Christopher
Gonzalez, 1980. Beaten sheet
iron, 5' square. Collection:
Olympia International Art
Galery. Photo Keith Morrison.

expressed in a fashion hitherto
denied by the strict iconography of
the Church. Many scholars agree, and
I would totally concur, that the
deathnell of strictly Christian art
was sounded at that point. This is
why in talking about Michaelangelo
and the amazing frescos in the Sistine
Chapel I would see these more as
Eclessiastical decoration than objects
of devotion or integral parts of
SJ Now relating that to something that
you said earlier of our own art, you
were making the distinction, which I
think you are reinforcing, stressing
here as to the distinction between
things that have biblical themes
as opposed to things that are devo-
tional. Now'we were largely in-
fluenced by the European schools -

so when one looks at what happens
now in what was the colonies of
Europe the Dutch, the French, the
Spanish and in our case the English
how do you see the transition from
Europe to these colonial places?
PH We have been largely influenced by
the English and the other European
Schools of the late 19th and 20th
Centuries. When, for example, one
views the work of the great French
painter Rouault whose early training
was in stained glass and which disci-
pline was to have a lasting influence
on his work as a painter, if you look
at his religious work they are icons
and even when he paints the Pierrots,
the Clowns and the Prostitutes he is
making a very strong religious state-
ment. Then you come to the English
painter Graham Sutherland whose
great tapestry in the new Coventry
Cathedral is an image which would
be totally understood by the Byzan-
tine and Romanesque Ages of
Christian Art. There he portrays
Christ, the Eternal Judge, seated and
surrounded by the symbols of the
four Gospels in a very traditional
SJ Do you think their are other im-
portant devotional influences in
Jamaican Art?
PH Yes the African influence. This has
come largely through the revival cults
and so forth. Kapo is of course the
outstanding example and much of
his work is largely derived from cult
images. I do not want to discuss at
lengths this aspect of our artistic
heritage as I feel these devotional
images are too confined to the
understanding of the particular cult
from which they emerge, but fail to
communicate themselves readily or
generally as objects of devotion.
SJ Let us take certain of the Jamaican
artists and in your view categorize
them into the ones that you feel
have done works which are "devo-
PH As far as devotional images are con-
cerned let us take a look at the
work of Edna Manley. Although

With the Compliments of



Edna Manley has used on many,
many occasions and particularly in
recent years, religious themes for her
work, on the whole she is making
personal, social and political state-
ments. 'Angel' in the Kingston Parish
Church is a fine example. Although
it can be considered one of her very
important pieces and in the con-
text of the Church conveys a
message, nevertheless its original in-
tention was that of a personal state-
ment. The same can be said of
'Phoenix' from the same period.
SJ What about 'Journey'?
PH 'Journey' too is a personal statement
but could easily find a place in the
context of the Church and convey a
message. There are, however, several
pieces of Edna Manley's works that
were specifically commissioned by
the Church and should be considered
as devotional in character. The great
example of this is the 'Crucifixion' in
All Saints Church in West Street,
Kingston. It is monumental and sig-
nificantly important work. The
image harks right back to the tradi-
tional image of Christ reigning from
the tree. The other very important
piece is her 'Grief of Mary' in Holy
Cross Church.
SJ How would you catigorize work
such as her 'Moses'?
PH I regard 'Moses' as a political state-
SJ That's quite fascinating. Now let me
test your theory, or if not theory,
observations. What would you say
about the work of Carl Abrahams?
PH Ah, now we are talking about one of
the two artists I would like parti-
cularly to discuss, Carl Abrahams
and Osmond Watson. A very large
body, and in my estimation, the
most important, of Abrahams' work
is religiously inspired. He used bibli-
cal themes but not to make social
statements. Sometimes he does as in
his picture of 'Angels in Grief'. This
particular work could probably be
described as a political statement.
SJ Indeed, when one saw him work in

the Passion of Christ exhibition that
the National Gallery put on about
four years ago, there was a series of
paintings from which the viewer
really got a sense of the sacred, a
feeling of great tranquility and devo-
PH While it is true to say that Abrahams
does not allow himself to be con-
fined to a strict inconography, it is
clear that his intention is a religious
and a devotional one. In the exhibi-
tion you mentioned, 'The Passion of
Christ', there was a large array of
compelling and moving pictures illus-
trative of the theme. I recall the
small work "The Mocking of Christ"
showing the central serene figure of
the Saviour surrounded by terrify-
ing, absurd and in some ways tragic-
comic figures of mockers. Then there
was the wonderful 'Agony in the
Garden' which clearly speaks for
itself. 'Man of Sorrows' and 'The
Grief of Mary' are clearly modern
icons and are totally understood in
the main stream of the Christian
devotional image. It is like a finger of
time- a thin thread which traces a
line right back. His many faces of
Christ numerous Crucifixions his
penetrating Last Supper (I recall
three versions), his whole series of
Angels, the numerous incidents
from the life of Christ and his
magnificent Ascension altogether
make Abrahams our most important
religious and devotional painter.
SJ Now don't you feel that a lot of
David Boxer's work achieves that
intimacy and intensity and impact.
Would you not categorize his work as
being devotional? Look at his White
Crucifixion, his Gethsemane Scenes
with their beautiful tortured gauze
heads, his 'Pietas' and so on. Don't
you feel that that is in fact the focus
of his work?
PH No. I feel that, while David Boxer
must be considered one of our most
important painters, I do not regard
his so called religious work as devo-
tional in character. The statements
are too personal and do not com-

"Second Station of the Cross (Jesus takes up
the Cross) by Fitzroy Harrack, 1977/78.
Yoke Wood, 30V2 x 15%". Commission for
Holy Cross Church, Half Way Tree. Photo:
Arthur Smith.
municate themselves devotionally.
Clearly in some of his Crucifixions
he was greatly influenced by the
Isenhiem altar piece by Grunwald,
but it should be understood that the
Grunwald work was commissioned
for a very special setting by a reli-
gious order dedicated to care of per-
sons suffering from revolting diseases
and inthat context conveyed a devo-
tional message which otherwise
would have been out of place in the
usual parish church setting. Boxer's
work speaks of Holocaust and his
deeply felt reaction to human suffer-
ing. The Christ figure is therefore a
natural image through which to con-
vey his message which I believe to
be essentially social and political.
SJ Well why do you say that Osmond
Watson's work communicate itself
in this way?
PH Ah well there are moments when
Osmond is a wonderful icon painter
you only have to look at a work
in the National Gallery called 'Peace.


Arts amaica



and Love'. True it is a Rasta image
but the way in which the image
is portrayed it's looking directly
at you, there is a hand up in the
traditional form of blessing. It is
a Christ. Knowing Osmond Watson
personally I find him to be an in-
tensely religious person who is very
much in sympathy with religious
images. Take for instance a very
small work The Baby Marcus Garvey'
which is an icon portraying the child
in a Christ-like form with the tiny
hand raised in blessing.
The Madonna and Child which I
commissioned when I was at the
Kingston Parish Church. I regard as
wholly devotional in nature.
SJ It's very controversial.
PH Very what is interesting in that
controversial as the work is, he has
portrayed the Madonna as a negro
peasant woman with a bandy legged
child; nevertheless, he has used in his
portrayal a strict iconography. You
have his wonderful standing figure of
the Madonna with the child clutching
to her bosom. If you look very
closely the child has its tiny hand
up in the traditional form of blessing;
it's also a Christ of the Passion, be-
cause there are great tears rolling
down this child's eyes a most
poignant and moving piece.
SJ Something that you said earlier im-
pressed me, your insistence that one
stops and looks at things, because
of the details, the themes, but is not
impelled to a sense of worship. I
for one would never have realized
that the child in the Osmond
Watson's 'Madonna and Child' has a
hand raised in the traditional bless-
ing. I would not have been looking
for that I was not fully aware of
the rigidity of the schools and the
symbolism of the hand. You had
put it on one occasion that the
test of 'devotional' is that the work
must say 'stop look worship'.
Let us look at the work of the fine
sculptor Fitz Harrack. How do you
see his work and the series that he
has done Stations of the Cross -

that I consider devotional.
PH I would agree He has done others
but his Stations of the Cross are
very significant works.
One of the important things to rea-
lize is that many of us have for a
long time been fighting with the
Church in Jamaica to stop importing
pale pallid plaster Christs and really
rather bad stained glass and to com-
mission works from our local artists.
I think the message has come
through to a certain extent and we
do see in many of our Churches to-
day significant and compelling works
of Jamaican artists. I cannot over
emphasize the importance of this, as
I feel if the Church is to indigenize
herself into the life of the people she
must use the people's images and in-
sights in order to convey her mes-
SJ Let us just test this a moment.
Christopher Gonzales has been com-
missioned on a number of occasions
to do work for Churches, places of
worship. Do you consider that the
work he has produced is devotional
in tone or intent?
PH There's one piece of his work that I
feel achieves that and I think it
was a great mistake that it was not in
fact used by the Church. It was com-
missioned for the Church of Holy
Cross as a companion piece to
Edna Manley's 'Grieving Mary'. It
was to be the figure of the Risen
Christ it was rejected for certain
reasons which I personally cannot
accept but I feel it to be a very signi-
ficant work that devotionally says a
great deal. I question though whether
his Crucifixion cum Resurrection
cum Ascension a strange figure in
St. Jude's Church, Stony Hill, can
truly be seen as a devotional work.
Powerful and outstanding as the
piece is, if taken out of the context
of the Church it would, in my view,
be a social statement.
SJ Where would you then place Ralph
Campbell's work, and is strict icono-
graphy to so called Christian art.
PH From a devotional point of view

"Madonna and Child" by Osmond Watson,
1972. Oak, 54/2" high. Collection: Kingston
Parish Church. Photo: Keith Morrison.
Ralph has produced one or two im-
portant works. I think first of his
"Ecce Homo' and a beautiful 'Ma-
donna and Child'. He has also pro-
duced a very interesting 'Descent
from the Cross'. All these works
immediately communicate as devo-
tional and religious in character. I


Forthcoming:- Orts Jamaica


think it important to stress that
a strict iconography is not unique to
Christian artistic schools but is de-
manded in most of the great world
religions. I was in Nepal last year
and one of the things which ex
cited me tremendously was having
an opportunity of studying hundreds
of Tibetan Buddhist Thangka paint-
ings. Many of these were superb
masterpieces of this school and one
could not help but be struck by the
rigid iconographic dictates of this
tradition. The artists are totally
anonymous and see themselves
purely as vehicles for the divine
image. Certainly with the image of
the seated Buddha in the lotus posi-
tion the figure must be traced so as
to ensure absolutely accuracy in por-
SJ In that way you are saying that, in
that part of the world the artist is
subservient to the image they are
vehicles for a school of art rather
than trying to be individualistic and
gain recognition for themselves.
PH Precisely.
SJ Now there is an interesting and to
my mind beautiful icon that you
yourself have produced, a very
beautiful piece I noticed that's in the
National Exhibition I know that
you have painted and embroidered
a number of icons. Why is it that
you feel that that ancient school is
still relevant, attractive and some-
thing that you wish to continue to
work with yourself?
PH I suppose that you must take into
consideration the fact that as a priest
these images mean a tremendous
amount to me and coupled with this
the fact that the Byzantine Schools
have been of consuming interest to
me for the last twenty five years. I
feel that the message conveyed
through these images is still valid
today. I have for the past twenty
years been working on a series of
small embroidered icons in silk, six of
which have been completed to
date. It is not up to me, however, to
judge whether they are good, bad or

indifferent. Again, I have been re-
cently working on the panel icon -
on wooden panels using the tradi-
tional technique of gold leaf and a
build up of paint from a basic green
base which gives a lovely lumini-
ousity particularly in flesh tones. I
find it interesting, relevant and
exciting for me personally.
SJ Do you feel that the younger artists
in Jamaican could derive a benefit
from giving a greater amount of
study to the ancient strictly icono-
graphic schools through the Huma-
nistic into the modem. There is a
tendency to look from the time of
the Renaissance forward when one
is teaching younger students. Do you
feel that in Jamaica it is relevant and
important to have an immersion or
exposure to the ancient forms, parti-
cularly to iconography and devo-
tional imagery.
PH I think it important for artist to be
exposed to all these various influ-
ences. Our younger artists today are
exposed to European and American

Schools and, of course, to a large
extent to African Art forms. Cer-
tainly, as far as sculpture is con-
cerned the African forms are largely
ritualistic and devotional in nature,
but devotional only to the com-
munity from which they come and
not to the general viewing public at
large. There is, however, another
point to be taken into considera-
tion. Any artist who produces a
devotional work or image must first
fully understand the image and from
whence it has come. All Devotional
images have been developed over a
very long period of time and have
thus found their way naturally into
man's consciousness and understand-
ing. Any artist working on a devo-
tional theme who breaks too severely
with this development or through
lack of understanding produces a
work that conflicts with the essence
of the image will not be able to
lead the viewer through to worship.
This after all should be the meaning
and objective of the devotional work
of art.
Sonia Jones is, a local attorney and
art lover

"Pieta" by David Boxer, 1978. Collage on paper, 12 x 17". Collection: Mr. H. Dunphy. Photo: Arthur

With the Compliments of

8 Waterloo Road, Kingston 10, Jamaica. Tel: 92-61680-5, 92-61200-3 Telex: 2124


Hope Wheeler

G.A. Stevens, in his book "Educa-
tional Significance of Indigenous African
Art" published in 1935, writes that
". . Primitive. Art is the most pure,
most sincere form of Art there can be,
partly because it is deeply inspired by
religious ideas and spiritual experience,
and partly because it is entirely un-self-
conscious as Art; there are no tricks
which can be acquired by the unworthy
and technical exercises which can mas-
querade as works of inspiration."
We could say that Child Art is very
similar to Primitive Art in that the child
works in very much the same fashion.
The desire for emotional outlet produces
un-self-consciously pure works, free from
gimmicks. The child might not be influ-
enced by religion as the primitive is, but
the same universal, spiritual and eternal
laws seem to be at work when the child
draws, paints or works with clay. Many
teachers confirm that there seem to be a
sense of "wholeness" radiating from each
child which coincides with a quietness
in the room. The sensitive teacher knows
it is time to move out of focus and let

"Brushing my Teeth" by Wang Van Chao,
aged 8 years, Republic of China. From
Shankars Childrens Art, Vol 25.

with Statue
mante" by

of Sir

the children get on with it.
Like the primitive the child seems to
have no need for perspective or the third
dimension. Nonetheless he quite uncon-
sciously produces perfect compositions
with a natural understanding of balance,
colour, harmony and contrast. Primitive
people and children work from the
images formed in the mind and they
have no wish to copy nature. They draw
and paint what they know rather than
what they see. Children's drawings of
houses which show the detailed interior
of the house through the walls are similar
to the X ray drawings of some primitive
Australian tribes.
Children and primitive artists do not
concern themselves with the rights and
wrongs of proportion because telling the
whole story in picture language is the
most important thing to them. This
then might mean emphasis on one part
of the body, ignoring or subduing another
part. An example of this would be a
person carrying a heavy basket in one
hand. To the child the hand which is
carrying the heavy basket should be
larger and more pronounced because
the child knows the feeling of weight and
must convey that message in the picture.
Child Art and Primitive Art are an expres-
sive picture language and not merely a re-
presentation of things or of nature.
The Art Teacher has to use every
means at his disposal to encourage the
imaginative and creative impulse of the

children. Many teachers do not under-
stand the relevance of child art to the
total development of the child. Not
realising that child art is indeed a part
of Art they try to hurry the child through
the early stages on to the representative
stages of Art so that they can recognize
and understand what the child is drawing
or painting. They become very uncom-
fortable with the almost abstract colour
and shape that the child uses. Too often
we see a marked preference by teachers
for the 14 year olds representational
painting of an object to the 8 year olds
conceptual painting of the same object,
only because the 14 year olds object is
more recognisable. The teacher has to be
trained to understand that the child must
speak in clays, paints and crayons before
he learns the grammar of Art, i.e. perspec-
tive, representation and proportion. The
teacher who will not accept child Art as
valid Art will find it very difficult to
understand and appreciate any abstract
form of Art when recognisable shapes
are absent. The Art teacher cannot be
too severe, rigid, overly critical and un-
friendly because he has to create an
atmosphere in the Art Room where
the child can be happy and relaxed. The
Art Room has to be cheerful and bright
with lovely displays of the children'
work on the walls. Not only the best
pieces should be displayed but also the
average and the mediocre, and even the
poor. Every child should be able to see
his or her work on the display board.
It is good for the self image and makes
him realise he has a place in the room
and among his friends.



Studio Talk

Judith Salmon


Before the advent of the printing press
in Europe the early wood-cuts were used
to illustrate texts from the Bible and for
making designs on playing cards. The
simple and direct methods of making
the wood-cut or relief print can be easily
adapted for use in the home by both
adults and children. With Christmas
approaching our children can spend
enjoyable hours making hand-printed
greeting cards, wrapping paper, book-
marks, scarves or simple printed pictures
for gifts or to decorate the home. These
activities will not only encourage children
to think creatively about using everyday
materials, but will also help to develop
a sensitivity to the shapes and rhythms
of their natural environment.
Starting with a simple design in mind
and an Irish potato let us try to make a
relief print. Cut the potato in half and
draw your design on one of the cut sur-
faces. If this is a simple star shape, then
cut away the areas outside of the star.
Your design is now left in relief on the
surface of the potato. Brush on thick
powder paint and press the potato onto
paper. You have made a print. Any fairly
smooth paper can be used for printing,
thinner ones can be printed as wrapping
paper while heavier ones can make cards,
book marks and pictures. Cartridge paper
and bond paper are available in art
supplies stores and in the stationery and
office supplies section of some depart-
ment stores.
Your one star-shaped potato block can
be used in a variety of ways. It can be
repeated side by side to produce a border
design suitable for scarves or stationery.
Placed in the centre of a folded card, the
card can be an effective Christmas motif.
An over all pattern can be made on
fabric by staggering the design (as bricks
are laid). Instead of powdered paints
coloured dyes can be substituted for
permanency on fabrics. Dyes and thick-
eners are also available at local art sup-
plies stores. Other materials such as

"Angel" by Yasmin Spiro, aged 8 years. Potato

linoleum, styrofoam, heavy cardboard
can all make very effective blocks but
require more dexterity in cutting.
A relief block can be made by build-
ing up a surface rather than cutting it
away. You will need for this, some glue
and a piece of stiff paper or cardboard
and string. Draw the outline of your star

again on the paper. Use the string dipped
in glue to follow the outline of the design
completely around. Glue another piece of
string next to the first on the inside of
the shape. Fill in the space completely
with string. Ink your design carefully
with a brush: lay your paper on top of
the inked surface and rub gently on the
back with your fingers or a spoon. Your
printed image will now have the added
dimension of texture. Match sticks and
rice grains glued on cardboard as well
corrugated cardboard can make very
interesting textured prints.
Unfortunately we in Jamaica are not
as familiar with prints and the printing
process as we are with paintings and
sculptures, even though the earliest
visual art form depicting Jamaican life
were prints. Example: The views of
Westmoreland by George Robertson and
the French Set Girls and John Canoe
Characters depicted by Belisario. Never-
theless many of our artists have ex-
pressed themselves in this medium from
time to time and original signed prints
as well as copies can be found in local
Judith Salmon
is a local artist and
art teacher.

"The Brethren" by
Judith Salmon,
1982. Linocut print
8/30, 4 x 5/".
Collection: The
Artist. Photo: Cecil

With the Compliments of


Jamaica School of Art

iOOT -

The Jamaica School of Art, in colla-
boration with the other divisions of the
Cultural Training Centre, will ring in
Christmas 1982 with a Roots Festival
during the second week of December.
The three day event is scheduled to coin-
cide with the end of the Christmas term,
and is aimed at raising funds for scholar-
ships and for replenishing an emergency
fund set up so that needy students can
apply for loans at times of crisis.
The Festival will be kicked off by an
Open Day which will give the public
an opportunity to see just what goes on
in "that strange, multi-coloured build-
ing across the street". The School of Art
students also plan a special treat for a
group of orphans on that day. The second
day will see the sale of art objects made
by students of all seven departments
during the Christmas Term. Drawings,
textiles, ceramics, jewellery, all for under

$100 will be on offer. Performances
staged that day will incorporate a wide
cross section of CTC students from the
Schools of Art, Dance, Music, and Drama,
and will include mime and juggling, as
well as a fashion show in which all the
inputs are indigenous with even the cloth
being produced in the Textile Depart-
ment. A full scale concert is scheduled
for the third day of the festival.

Negotiations are currently underway
in an effort to augment the teaching body
of the School. Meanwhile Isaac Dodo
who recently joined the staff has been
made Head of the Graphic Department.
The Head of the Painting Department,
Cecil Cooper is joining with fellow
past student Gene Pearson to do a series
of exhibitions over the next several
months. The first, at the Frame Centre
in November, showed recent works by
the two artists, the one using the walls
for a series of drawings on the theme
'The Horse', the other showing his

sculptured creations, in the central area.
The next show is" slated for Harmony
-Hall in February, with exhibitions in
Trinidad and New York also in the offing.
According to Cecil Cooper, the idea of a
joint venture has several reasons the
fact that they went to Art School
together, the sharing of expenses possible
in a shared show, and the fact that "we
work nicely together."

"Lamentation" by Justin
"Ricky" George. 1982.
Ciment fondu, simulated
bronze finish. Life size.
On loan to Jamaica
School of Music by the
artist. Photo: Keith

With the Compliments of




In Review

Local art was sparkling in 1982 and
the National Exhibition, in any year a
focal point for Jamaican art and artists,
was an undeniable gem and as such it
perhaps best reflected the multi-faceted
activity of recent months.
The '82 Exhibition was historic in
many respects a first move towards a
curated show representing the National
Gallery's view of Jamaica's artistic
development for the year rather than
the cumulative opinion of five or six
judges, however learned; and a last big
show for Devon House whose stately
if somewhat fragile structure has housed
the Gallery and its collection since the
The new downtown quarters have
already been launched with the opening
of the Kapo Room during Heritage Week,
though the move to the Ocean Mall will
not be completed until early in 1983...
in ample time for the next National
One thing is sure. That final Devon
House show will take some surpassing.
The old and the new crowded together
in celebration of excellence. It was what
might be called a full, though not a
cluttered, exhibition with Edna Manley's
Brother Levi showing that Grand Old
Lady's continuing spirit, David
Pottinger, Kapo, and Roy Reid exhibiting
continuing excellence, special gems such
as Prudence Lovell's meticulous yet so
characterful Newcastle Triptych, Carl
Abrahams' somehow humourous artistry,
Colin Garland's exotic Girls, Raymond
Watson's very human sculpture, the Rev.
Phillip Hart's golden icon, David Boxer's
relicaries, Dawn Scott's batik canvasses,
the talented work of the younger artists
such as Everald Robinson and Pet Archer
..... So much.
These and those many talented others
have been represented in the prolific exhi-
bitions which have been set before the
public during the second half of 1982 ...
artists whose reputations are already con-
solidated and those seeking to make
place are all represented.

"Pocomania" by David Pottinger, 1982. Oil on canvas, 261/2 x 37%". Collection: Dr. and Mrs. Owen
Minott. Photo: Cecil Ward.

The newest, some of whom have
already begun to make their names,
showed their work at the School of Art's
graduation exhibition. .Arts Jamaica
highlighted one such artist in its last
issue Everald Robinson whose Pin
Safety went on to be chosen for the
National Exhibition.
A young artist and one who has
already begun to establish himself a re-
putation as a landscapist, is Royan Gray,
who exhibited at the Frame Centre;
more established artists exhibiting solo
in recent months have included Milton
George, George Rodney, Anna Marie
Hendricks, Ralph Campbell and Judy
McMillan, who has been painting
professionally for 15 years has spec-
cialized in portraits and figure studies,
but has more recently turned her hand to
landscape work with considerable success.
Of course the past master of the land-
scape, but an artist also known for por-
traiture, is Ralph Campbell, who was
recently honoured by a citation at the
Festival Fine Arts Exhibition for his con-

sistent contribution to the profession
over the years. Born in Kingston in 1921,

"Gad" by Gene Pearson, 1982. Terracotta,
height 15". Collection: the Artist.

With the Compliments of


Campbell began his artistic career prag-
matically as an apprentice in a com-
mercial studio doing sign painting,
wall ads and bar murals.
Anna Marie Hendricks, an Art Teacher
of some years who recently returned to
Jamaica after an eight year spell in
Canada, exhibited with considerable verve
and versatility in a variety of media
ranging from oil and acrylic through pen
and pencil. Attractive flower studies and
moody landscapes hung side by side with
humorous studies of cows and clowns.
Many of the solo exhibitors have also
shown their work in group exhibitions,
several of them excellently mounted at
the Upstairs Downstairs Gallery -
notably the Festival Arts Exhibition,
Susan Alexander's Anniversary show, and
the Heritage Week Show Out of Many...
Land We Love.

Some 59 artists translated their feel-
ings for the land and people of Jamaica
into wood or clay, batik, watercolour
and oils in over 150 works, the exhibiting
of which was sponsored by the Royal
Bank of Jamaica Limited, the established
Osmond Watson, Cecil Baugh, Kapo,
George Rodney, Carl Abrahams and
the younger established, Michael Ho
Shing, Kay Sullivan, Errol Lewis, Patrick
Waldemar, Heather Sutherland-Wade.
Jamaican artists have also been getting
good response overseas, notably Judy
Salmon who exhibited several gentle yet
forceful works in Washington D.C. re-

cently, and Prudence Lovell who was
offered an exhibition of her watercolours
by the Commonwealth Institute :in
These initiatives will, of course, be
underpinned when the Smithsonian Tra-
velling Exhibition of Jamaican art since
1922 gets underway in Spring 1983. The
eighty works by a total of 41 artists,
mainstream and intuitive, will be at the
Smithsonian before year-end for pre-
paratory work. The exhibition, which
will be on the move initially in North
America for some two and a half years,
will include 52 paintings and 24 pieces of

"Sandra and Baby"
by Mallica Reynolds
(Kapo), c 1950. Lig-
numvitae, height
11". Collection: Na-
tional Gallery of

"Black River Gingerbread" by Susan Shirley, 1982. Ink and wash,
25 x 29". Private Collection.

With the Compliments of


. Galvon

News and Information

Peter King is the true incarnation of
that Shakespearean prescription for "a
man of many parts." A vigorous combina-
tion of business acumen and creative flair,
-Arts Jamaica's new Chairman brings to
the position a lifelong sensitivity towards
the creative arts. He heads a team of ver-
satile, determined people and by his very
presence underlines Arts.
Watercolourist Margaret Rhodes, who
lived in Jamaica from 1954-76, died in
the United Kingdom last September.
Miss Rhodes painted landscapes and sea-
scapes, but also made a speciality of por-
traying Jamaican flowers some examples
of which she gathered together in a small
booklet which was published locally.


Works of art by Jamaican children
aged 8-12, will be on show along, with
their counterparts from around the
world during 1983, as part of the activi-
ties of the United Nations Water and
Sanitation Decade. The paintings, chosen
by a panel of judges from works sub-
mitted by 16 schools which won prizes
in last year's National Exhibition for
Art and Craft in Primary Schools, are on
the theme "Clean Drinking Water and
Personal Hygiene". The successful paint-
ings will go on show in Vienna next
January and at the United Nations in
New York during May, both shows being
sponsored by the United Nations
Children's Fund. (UNICEF).
Since 1981, members of the Cecil
Baugh project have been collecting photo-
graphs and information for a book on the
life and work of Jamaica's celebrated
potter. This is but one part of this multi-
purpose project; another objective is to
complete a comprehensive catalogue of
Baugh's work.
If you can provide information on his
works, please send this, along with

photograph of his work, if possible to:-
Cecil Baugh Project
c/o Michelle Orane
23 Norbrook Mews, Kingston 8.

Congratulations to the Alexander's on the
opening of their new Upstairs Downstairs
Gallery in St. Ann's Bay a welcomed
addition in the Northcoast chain of art
Welcome too to the new Round House
Gallery in Montego Bay.

Two years ago Bolivar Gallery
organized a large exhibition of Jamaican

artists at the Curacao Museum which was
opened by Graham Davies in September
1980 and at which a total of fortyfive
paintings were shown. Since then pre-
parations continued steadily up till the
opening of the Old Barn Gallery at
Landhuis Siberie.
This opening, last August included
quite a few Jamaican paintings by artists
such as Boxer, Campbell, Garland,
Parboosingh and several Jamaican artists
have already visited Curacao to paint.
It is hoped that in future years artists will
visit to work and exhibit subsequently
at the Old Barn Gallery.
An old Coach House has been con-
verted into a Studio Apartment which is
completely self sufficient and this will
be lent to artists who are invited and can
be rented by others at very reasonable
rates ( a descriptive leaflet is available at
Bolivar Gallery).

Stoneware vase by Master Potter
Cecil Baugh. Photo: Bob Kerns.

With the Compliments of



Kingston Mall
Mon. Sat. 10.00 a.m. 5 p.m.
December: "Art and the Dance" opens
"Kapo" continues.
1D Grove Road, Kingston 10.
Monday Friday, 8.30 a.m. 4.30 p.m.
Saturday 9.00 a.m. 1.00 p.m.
December "West Indian Antique Prints"
January "Winston Patrick Exhibition"
Tangerine Place, Kingston 10.
Monday Friday 9.00 a.m. 5.00 p.m.
December "Susan Shirley Exhibition"
Spanish Court, New Kingston.
Monday Friday, 9.00 a.m. 5.00 p.m.
2 Oxford Road, Kingston.
Monday Friday, 9.00 a.m. 5.00 p.m.
December Crafts Fair.
33 University Crescent,Kingston 7.
Monday Friday: 10.00 a.m. 12 noon
2.00 a.m. 5.00 p.m.
December: Regular Exhibition.
108 Harbour Street, Kingston.
Monday Friday: 9.00 a.m. 4.00 p.m.
January: "Gloria Escoffery'Show"
February: Graham Scholes Canadian Water-
colours and Workshops.
March: Three Senegalese Artists exhibit craft,
plus Workshops in Art and Drumming.

1 Mannings Hill Road.
December Bro. Everald Brown/Eric Smith
Westgate Shopping Centre, Montego Bay.
Montego Bay
Montego Bay
Montego Bay
Orange Street, Montego Bay.
December "Group Show"
Plantation Inn, Ocho Rios
Near Ocho Rios
December: Dawn Scott batiks
Jamaican Houses by Ancehelen Arrington Philip
January Eve Foster Exhibition
February Gene Pearson
March The Intuitives
Rio Bueno, Trelawny
Mandeville, Manchester
Brown's Town, St. Ann.

Trident Hotel, Port Antonio.

Port Antonio

"In the Spirit" by Susan
Alexander, 1982.15" square,
bronzed polyform. Collection:
the Artist.

This influence is manifest not only in
The National Dance Theatre Company the rich themes of heritage which their
(NDTC) has just ended its 20th year, and works celebrate, but in the company's
Arts Jamaica joins in saluting the dyna- persistent commitment to the vibrant
mic presence which they have created and intersupporting of costume and set, of


Vera Hyatt. Registrar for Scheduling
Smithsonian Institution travelling Exhibi-
tion Services writes
"Thanks for sending me the current
issue of Arts Jamaica ... Congratulations
on the new format, not only is the cover
impressive but the size is in keeping with
other local art publications ie. the
Jamaica Journal and the National Gallery
Catalogues ....
Jamaican Art: 1922-1982 is being
circulated through the Smithsonian In-
stitution. I hope that you'll arrange to
cover the opening in the spring.
All the very best.

When you spoke about your new
magazine, I was looking for something
stimulating, beautiful, etc, etc.
How can I tell you my reaction when
I saw it? Well, I bought myself a copy,
of course, and several copies are on their
way to friends abroad.


Two slightly imperfect canvases. Portrait grade
Linen prepared with rabbit skin glue and four
coats white lead primer.
34' x 54' & 44' x 44' on stretchers.
Phone: 0942-2253. $100.00 each


I never really thought about being a
painter. I didn't even understand about
colour until all of a sudden it came to
me. But you never know what you're
going to do unless you keep working.
People come to me and say, "Tell me
how to paint". I say, 'I cant' It comes
from inside you. You have to expose
yourself. Nobody taught me how to
paint. I had to do it myself".
Alma W. Thomas Artist
1892 1980
Born Columbus, Georgia


staging and sound.



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