Editor's foreword
 On the eve of destruction: People...
 Hell's angel: Eleanor Kinzie Gordon's...
 Early Miami through the eyes of...
 Historical association of Southern...

Title: Tequesta
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101446/00063
 Material Information
Title: Tequesta
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Historical Association of Southern Florida
Publisher: (multiple)
Publication Date: 2003
Copyright Date: 2010
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101446
Volume ID: VID00063
Source Institution: Historical Museum of Southern Florida
Holding Location: Florida International University: Florida History and Heritage
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 2096319
lccn - 42015131
issn - 0363-3705


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Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Editor's foreword
        Page 3
        Page 4
    On the eve of destruction: People and Florida's Everglades from the late 1800s to 1908
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
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        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Hell's angel: Eleanor Kinzie Gordon's wartime summer of 1898
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
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        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Early Miami through the eyes of youth
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
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    Historical association of Southern Florida members
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
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Full Text


Paul S. George, Ph.D.
Sara Mufioz
Managing Editor

Kelly Geisinger
Editorial Assistant



Editor's Forew ord.......... .... ......... ......... ......... ... ................ 3 3
Paul S. George, Ph.D.

On the Eve of Destruction: People and Florida's Everglades
from the late 1800s to 1908.. .................. ...... ... .... ...... 5
Christopher E Meindl

Hell's Angel: Eleanor Kinzie Gordon's
W artim e Sum m er of 1898 ................................. .......... ................... 37
Jacqueline E. Clancy

Early Miami through the Eyes of Youth....................... .... .............. 62
William M. Straight, M.D.

Historical Association of Southern Florida Members........................................ 78

Tequesta is published annually by the Historical Association of Southern Florida. Communications
should be addressed to the Managing Editor of Tequesta, Historical Museum of Southern Florida,
101 W Flagler Street, Miami, Florida 33130. Tel-305.375.1492. The Association does not
assume responsibility for statements of facts or opinions made by contributors. (ISSN 0363-3705)

Cover-Everglades National Park. HASF 1988-212-14.


Historical Association of Southern Florida, Inc.


Richard A. Wood
Edward A. Swakon
Dennis M. Campbell
William H. Holly
William Ho
J. Andrew Brian
Paul S. George, Ph.D.
Sara Mufioz
Rebecca A. Smith

Chairman of the Board
Vice Chair
Past Chair
Editor, Tequesta
Editor, South Florida History
Curator of Research Materials

Donna Abood
Carlos J. Arrizurieta
Neil A. Burell
Jorge Cano
Robert G. David
Michael A. Falke
Gustavo G. Godoy
Gregg P. Guilford
Mark A. Karris
Dean C. Klevan
John Knight
Lawrence Levine
Bruce C. Matheson
Augusto E. Maxwell
Charles Mays
Faith Mesnekoff
Arsenio Milian
Lewis E Murphy
Dr. Edmund I. Parnes
Laura Pincus
Dr. Michael N. Rosenberg
Wallis Tinnie
Ellen Uguccioni
Judy Wiggins

Editor's Foreword

This issue of Tequesta offers readers three diverse essays beginning with
Christopher E Meindl's "On the Eve of Destruction: People and
Florida's Everglades from the late 1800s to 1908." Meindl is an assistant
professor of Social Science and Florida Studies at the University of
South Florida, St. Petersburg. In this article, which chronicles the dis-
cussion and opinions surrounding drainage of the wetlands, Meindl
provides insight into a little known but important aspect of a the state-
sponsored drainage program. The article is especially timely because the
proposed "restoration" of the Everglades is a major news story. I believe
Meindl's article will serve as an important reference for understanding
the buildup to a project that dramatically reduced the size of the "River
of Grass," altered the environment of South Florida, made possible a vast
population surge, and led to the creation of Everglades National Park.
Jacqueline E. Clancy's "Hell's Angel: Eleanor Kinzie Gordon's
Wartime Summer of 1898," offers an interesting look at a heretofore
ignored element in the story of Camp Miami, the jerry-rigged, tented
facility that stood north of downtown Miami in 1898, and served,
briefly, as home to seven thousand soldiers during the Spanish-American
War. Eleanor Gordon, Clancy's protagonist, labored tirelessly in estab-
lishing and administering a convalescent hospital in the camp. Clancy, who
teaches American History at Columbia College, Fort Stewart, gained access
to both the Gordon Family Papers and the Spanish-American War Journal
of Eleanor Kinzie Gordon in preparing this article. Few scholars have
seen this material.
William M. Straight, M.D., Florida's preeminent medical histori-
an, retired internist, and a frequent contributor to Tequesta, brings
us, "Early Miami through the Eyes of Youth," a brief account of
the city's early years by Ethel Weatherly Sherman, who arrived in
Miami at age ten in 1896. Straight has carefully edited and anno-
tated a rough, elliptical manuscript authored by Sherman, and
transcribed an interview with her, to provide readers with an
invaluable look at the nascent city that arose on the banks of
Biscayne Bay and the Miami River at the end of the nineteenth
century. First person accounts of early Miami are rare, which makes
Sherman's observations, and Straight's contributions, even more
valuable to us.


Many thanks to Sara Mufioz, managing editor of Tequesta, for her
inestimable work in preparing this edition of the journal for publica-
tion. Sara has again been ably assisted by Kelly Geisinger, copy editor.
Finally, I encourage our readers to visit the Historical Museum, which
continues to enhance its already splendid offerings. "Tropical Dreams:
A People's History of South Florida," the Museum's permanent exhibition,
remains a popular attraction, especially with the fossils and artifacts that
were added to its "First Arrivals" segment little more than one year ago.
Also available is First Arrivals, The Archaeology of Southern Florida, an
insightful, wonderfully illustrated work that examines the increasingly
more bountiful and complex archaeological heritage of Miami and
southeast Florida. We know you will enjoy and learn from all the
Historical Museum has to offer, as well as from this edition of Tequesta.

Paul S. George
Editor, Tequesta


On the Eve of Destruction:

People and Florida's Everglades from
the late 1800s to 1908

Christopher E Meindl

Florida's Everglades have been the subject of much public discussion
during the past century, and most of the current discourse deals with
efforts to restore parts of the region to some semblance of its pre-
drainage condition. Furthermore, most of the recent scholarly literature
regarding the Everglades treats technical aspects of the region's physical
characteristics such as geology, hydrology, soils, chemistry, and ecology.
Much less has been written about people's historic relationship with the
Everglades (or "Glades"). Certainly the work of Marjory Stoneman
Douglas, Charlton Tebeau, Nelson Blake, and David McCally provides
much needed perspective on the human experience in the Everglades.
These writers agree that few people paid much attention to the Glades
until the late nineteenth century. Accordingly, we could rely upon wet-
land scholars such as William Mitsch and James Gosselink who observe
that "from the middle of the nineteenth century to the middle of the
twentieth century, the United States went through a period in which
wetland removal was not questioned. Indeed, it was considered the
proper thing to do." An editorial originally appearing elsewhere but
reprinted in the Miami Herald in 1911 illustrates the mood of many
people during this era. Referring to the numerous wetlands in the
southeastern United States, one writer comments: "As they are, they are
without value-in fact, they are a menace to health, being breeding
places for malaria-carrying mosquitoes... ."'


Yet something is missing; we still have an incomplete portrait of
people's perceptions of the Everglades from the late 1800s to 1908,
when large scale reclamation gained momentum. Should we assume
that everyone during this time period favored reclaiming all wetlands
everywhere, and that Florida's Everglades were doomed to destruction
as a result of such attitudes? If citizens of Florida and the rest of the
U.S. are now prepared to spend in excess of $8 billion in an attempt to
repair some of the ecological damage inflicted upon the Glades this
past century, we ought to know more about the attitudes of people
who lived on the eve of full scale efforts to reclaim the Everglades. The
objective of this article, therefore, is to learn if clear connections can be
made between popular perceptions of the Everglades and early reclama-
tion efforts (or lack thereof) in the region.
Wetlands posed several problems for nineteenth and early twentieth
century Americans. For one, it was thought that swamps and marshes
produced foul air that caused malaria, a common disease of the time.
Even after it was discovered that certain species of mosquitoes transmit-
ted malaria, wetlands remained frightening environments because they
were home to the insects that spread the disease. Furthermore, inas-
much as many people used to earn their living as farmers, wetlands
were a nuisance because they not only precluded the planting of traditional
crops, they served as a home for birds that consumed crops produced
on adjacent uplands. Of course, for people traveling mostly by horse
and buggy or even early automobiles on crude roads, wetlands hindered
transportation development.'
Despite substantial military activity against the Seminole Indians in
South Florida prior to the Civil War, South Florida-especially the
interior-remained terra incognita for most people throughout the
nineteenth century. Wetlands covered more than half the state and
almost all of South Florida. The general lack of interest in the
Everglades until the early twentieth century was probably the result of
a relative abundance of good farm land in other parts of the United
States, Florida, and even the slightly more elevated coastal ridge of
southeast Florida. Dissatisfied with the state of affairs after joining the
union in 1845, Florida officials begged the federal government to study
the Glades and determine the practicability of reclaiming southern
Florida's swamps. In 1847, the federal government authorized
Buckingham Smith to prepare such a report, which he submitted a year

On the Eve ofDestruction 7

later. In his report, Smith combined personal observations of the
Everglades with testimony from military officers who worked in the
area during the recent Seminole War. He could not think of a solitary
inducement to offer any prospective settler except that the area experienced
frost-free winters, a mistaken assertion highlighted by later boosters. It is
hard to overstate the idea in the minds of upper class white males during
the nineteenth century that land must be made to produce tangible
products for people to be of any value. Accordingly, Buckingham Smith
concluded that the Everglades could and should be drained by digging
canals across South Florida.
In 1850, Congress tried to help by passing the Swamp Land Act
which granted to Florida and other states all of the swamp and over-
flowed lands within their borders. The act stipulated that proceeds from
the sale of these lands were to be used only for the construction of levees
and drains needed to reclaim these wetlands. Florida created an Internal
Improvement Fund to sell wetlands and spend the revenue on drainage,
but due to a lack of interest in the region, there remained little cash
with which to carry out Smith's recommendation. Philadelphia busi-
nessman Hamilton Disston single-handedly rescued the state in 1881
by purchasing four million acres of swampland in central and southern
Florida for $1 million. Disston and his Atlantic and Gulf Coast Canal
and Okeechobee Land Company were initially most active in central
Florida, at the northern end of the Everglades watershed. Yet
he eventually turned his attention farther south, eyeing the Glades.
Because excess water in Lake Okeechobee used to overtop the big
lake's southern shore and then ooze across the Everglades on its way
to the end of the peninsula, Disston and his chief engineer James
Kreamer soon agreed that they must lower Lake Okeechobee if they
wanted to reclaim wetlands in the southern portion of the watershed.
In a war-torn and poverty-stricken South, such activity began to
attract interest.4
According to one newspaper editor in 1882, the Everglades were "a
region mysterious, unknown, beautiful-a terra incognita-ofwhich as
little is known as the center of 'the dark continent.'" Yet Hamilton
Disston's efforts to drain and farm swamp land in peninsular Florida
began to change this attitude. Indeed, Disston's work encouraged two
expeditions into the Everglades by people associated with the New
Orleans Times-Democrat. During the early 1880s, the Times-Democrat


was one of several newspapers actively promoting economic development
in the post-Reconstruction South.5
The first Times-Democrat expedition took place near the end of 1882
and began in the lakes and wetlands at the northern end of the
Everglades watershed, moved down the Kissimmee River to Lake
Okeechobee, through Disston's canals to Lake Hicpochee, to the head-
waters of the Caloosahatchee River and on to the Gulf of Mexico at
Fort Myers. The expedition's
leader, former confederate soldier
f Archie P Williams, could hardly
contain himself: "Concerning the
richness of the soil I make the
broad assertion that its equal is not
within the bounds of the United
SH States." The first expedition whetted
Si the appetites of those interested in
i .( Everglades development, including
S many newspaper editors in the
North and West who reprinted
Williams's accounts in their papers.
At about the same time, Will
Wallace Harney reported on
In 1881, Hamilton Disston saved Florida Disston's reclamation activities in
from bankruptcy by purchasing four the pages of Harper' New Monthly
million acres of swampland in central Magazine, contending that "it
and southern Florida. Courtesy of the needs no scientific acumen to dis-
Florida State Archives. cover that the successful drainage
of such a deposit will develop an
area of fertility unrivaled even by the loamy bottoms of the Mississippi."'
The Times-Democrat sponsored a second trip which began in
late 1883 at Fort Myers. Archie Williams led his group up the
Caloosahatchee River to Lake Okeechobee, and then down the sawgrass
marshes of the Everglades to extreme southwestern Florida. At the end
of this second expedition, however, a disappointed Williams reported
that "in my opinion their drainage is utterly impracticable, and even if
it were practicable the reward for such an undertaking would be lands
that could be utilized for no other purpose than as a grazing ground for
livestock. They are nothing more nor less than a vast and useless marsh,

On the Eve of Destruction 9

and such they will remain for all time to come, in all probability."
Williams's dejection apparently convinced the editor of the Times-
Democrat who lamented in early 1884 that the Everglades were in fact
far different from what had been previously imagined: "We regret to
learn this," the editor observed, "but it is better that it should have
been brought out now, instead of the world being encouraged into the
mistaken belief that the Everglades could be redeemed."7
John W P. Jenks read Archie Williams's assessment of the Glades and
he undoubtedly agreed. In 1884, Jenks privately published a short book
on his experience hunting in Florida and the "miasmatic swamps and
everglades around Lake Okeechobee" ten years earlier. Jenks claimed
that his Florida sojourn was for the purpose of collecting biological
specimens for the museum at Rhode Island's Brown University. After
reaching Jacksonville in early 1874, he inquired as to the best route to
Lake Okeechobee, but found that the lake was terra incognita even to
Floridians. More important, however, is Jenks's recognition that the
learned people of his time read many of the same things. After com-
menting on the raw character of the Florida landscape, Jenks adds:
"Into such a wild region you must go if you would study nature first
hand instead of second. Hence the reason so few naturalists do anything
more than study books and take the observations of others and use them
second-handed." In other words, it is likely that impressions of the region
developed by a handful of people may have become very widespread.'
In a similar vein, Frederick A. Ober-who participated in writing a
series of adventure books about places in Africa, Europe, the Caribbean,
and other parts of the tropics-published a book in 1887 entitled
The Knockabout Club in the Everglades: The Adventures of the Club in
Exploring Lake Okechobee [sic]. Although only two chapters of this
work treat Lake Okeechobee and the Everglades, Ober's comments are
instructive. He correctly relates that at the time, the big lake had no
well defined outlet and that "the accumulated drainage of thousands of
square miles of territory slowly percolates through the Everglades by
thousands of channels with countless ramifications." When his ficti-
tious exploring party finally encountered the southern shore of Lake
Okeechobee, immediately adjacent to the Glades, they found sleep
impossible due to swarms of mosquitoes. Regarding their departure from
the region, Ober notes: "It was a fitting ending to our dreary voyage along
the Everglade shore that we should leave the forsaken stretch of marsh


and swamp, and enter upon the home stretch with the repulsive
features softened and chastened by the moonlight. Farewell, forever,
to the Everglades!"9
Frederick Jackson Turner may have declared that the frontier in the
United States disappeared by 1890, but most of peninsular Florida at
this time remained a virtual wilderness. The 1890 census recorded less
than 400,000 people in all of Florida and less than 2,400 on the penin-
sula south of Lake Okeechobee. Indeed, according to the 1890 census,
"a large proportion of the area of the peninsula of Florida is practically
without settlement. This appears to be due in part to the direction of
the general movement of population, which has been westward from
Georgia and the Carolinas; in part to the want of good harbors, and
other inducements to settle upon the coast, and thus to create starting
points for the settlement of the interior; but also, and very largely, to
the fact that a considerable portion of the area is swampy and difficult
of access, and, consequently, remote from markets."'0
Few people knew much about South Florida (let alone the Everglades)
in the 1890s, but there are some sources that deal with perceptions of
the region. Travel books are one such source of information. As John
Jenks observed earlier, many authors of travel books probably did not
visit such isolated places as the Everglades, but relied on hearsay, opin-
ion, and other published sources to write descriptions of the region. In
1889, for example, James Davidson published his guide for Florida
tourists and settlers and included comments on southern Florida. Of
this region, he believed "there can be nothing but insects, vermin, mud,
malaria, Indians, desolation, abomination, discomfort, disease, black
death, and poverty-where nothing will grow but comptie [from which
an edible starch was produced] and mangroves, and where nobody lives
anyhow." Davidson noted that the Glades were usually covered with
drinkable water from an inch to several feet deep, and that tree islands
dotted the landscape. He acknowledged Disston's efforts in South
Florida, suggesting that friends of the enterprise are hopeful that the
Glades could be drained, while admitting that others were less hopeful.
Davidson concludes that "it does not seem impossible that at least a
part of these Everglades waters may be drained off. It seems to be a
question mainly of canal capacity.""
A year later, Charles Norton produced the first edition of his
Handbook ofFlorida. He contended that Dade County was inaccessible

On the Eve of Destruction 11

Everglades expedition. HASF 76-51-127.

to the ordinary tourist and unavailable to the average settler. Norton
argued that in addition to the remnant Seminole Indian population,
"only the most enterprising and adventurous hunters and cowboys" vis-
ited South Florida's interior. In 1895, Norton produced a third edition
of his handbook. He described the Glades thus: "It is not a swamp in
the ordinary meaning of the term, but rather a shallow lake with a hard
rock bottom, and grass growing to a height of four or five feet above
the surface of the water." Like Davidson, Norton noted the presence of
tree islands and mentioned numerous canoe-width channels, but he
warned that it was easy to become hopelessly lost in South Florida's
uncharted interior.2
During the early 1890s, railroad developer Henry Plant considered
the possibility of extending his lines across the Everglades. To satisfy his
curiosity, Plant told one of his leading lieutenants, James E. Ingraham,
to organize an expedition across the Glades in early 1892. Wallace
Moses (official secretary for the twenty-one men who comprised the
expedition) and Alonzo Church later wrote detailed accounts of their
experience, which were published in separate issues of Tequesta more
than a half century ago. In addition to their own views, Moses and
Church recorded perceptions of the Glades expressed by others.13
In any event, the group began their three week long expedition from
Fort Myers to Miami in March 1892. Moses remembered that some


locals thought the party would turn back shortly while others believed
they would successfully cross the Glades. Church maintains that before
he left, locals offered several accounts of the Everglades. One man
claimed that sawgrass "extended all the way across the Glades and
would be an impenetrable barrier to our advance." Another informant
insisted that the Glades were a "labyrinth of bayous running through a
dense jungle of tropical growth,"and that they would soon become lost
and starve before finding their way out. Still others were aware that
Seminoles cultivated many of the region's more elevated tree islands.
Church also remembered being told of "mosquitoes, red bugs, alligator
fleas... and a thousand other horrors, known and unknown." All of this
frightened Church, but he remained captivated by the prospect of
exploring what he and many others considered a mysterious region.
The fact that the group later verified most of these stories suggests that
most southwest Floridians understood the Glades reasonably well.'4
The expedition's leader, an engineer named John Newman, encouraged
his men before departure: "Should our expedition be successful it may
result in good to the whole country, for if this land can be rendered fit
for cultivation it will be the most productive of any in this state... It
would be a glorious undertaking, for charity could ask no nobler enter-
prise, ambition no higher glory and capital no greater increase than
would result from the redemption of this land."
On March 22, Wallace Moses observed that the land "seems rich and
would be easily cultivated once the water is permanently removed." A
week later, however, Moses conceded that "this has been a terrible strain
on everybody. Locomotion is extremely slow. The bog is fearful and it
sometimes seems as though it would be easier to stay in it than to go
on. Both legs up to the waist in mud...the boats are very necessary to
enable one to pull himself out of the mud, and even then the labor is
most exhaustive." Church concluded that "it is enough to make a man
swear to be contented ever afterwards with a board for a bed and a
clean shirt once a week." Sydney Chase also made the trip and later
asked Church if he wanted to invest in Everglades land, but Church
had had enough: "Not on your life," he responded, "I wouldn't be
caught dead with any of this property." Fifteen years later, Wallace
Moses had moved to West Palm Beach and thought "there is good land
along the east side but doubtful if the main part of the Glades are of
much value.""5

On the Eve ofDestruction 13

In the meantime, Hamilton Disston's company dug several canals in
central and southern Florida connecting many lakes in Florida's heart-
land between the town of Kissimmee and Lake Kissimmee-the southern
edge of which becomes the Kissimmee River-a sinuous waterway
(before channelization in the 1960s) that empties into the north shore
of Lake Okeechobee. He also helped connect Lake Okeechobee to the
Caloosahatchee River. Despite some initial modest success, the nation-
wide Panic of 1893 dealt a crippling blow to this enterprise. The
Florida Legislature attempted to boost confidence in the project by
preparing a pamphlet that outlined Disston's work in Florida. Yet after
a tremendous storm in September 1894 flooded almost all of South
Florida, some farmers on the edge of the Everglades complained that
Disston's canals were responsible for the associated flood damage.
Swamped with financial difficulties, Disston took his own life in 1896,
ending his company's reclamation efforts in South Florida.16
Other persons in the late nineteenth century engaged in what turned
out to be premature efforts to promote Everglades reclamation. In June
1896, John MacDonald commented in the Miami Metropolis that "the
improvements in machinery for draining, dredging and excavating, as
well as of the steam plow, render these rich sugar lands of Florida a very
safe and highly lucrative field for the investment of capital." MacDonald
also noted the relationship between wetlands, mosquitoes, and malaria.
"And it is the universal doctrine," he assured his readers, "that countries
do grow more healthful as drainage progresses, while countries requiring
extensive irrigation grow more malarial." The fact that these comments
appeared on page six of an eight page newspaper suggests that many
South Floridians paid little attention to the Everglades at this time.'
In 1898, the Florida East Coast Drainage and Sugar Company
announced plans to reclaim eight hundred thousand acres of Everglades
land. One of the company's officers, Rufus E. Rose, told the Miami
Metropolis that draining the Glades seemed "wild and visionary." Yet he
insisted that it "requires only a visit to similar lands in the Kissimmee
Valley [where Hamilton Disston had been active], formerly vast marshes,
now fertile fields, to convince impartial minds of their great agricultural
future." Rose later became Florida's state chemist and remained a
constant promoter of Everglades development. Unfortunately, Rose
also helped promote the impression in the minds of many that freezing
temperatures would not visit the Glades. "Frost to damage the most


tropical fruits and tender vegetables," he insisted, "has never occurred."
In any event, little became of the enterprise."'
Meanwhile, Hugh Willoughby explored the Glades in 1897, and
published a book about his trip a year later. He argued that "the popu-
lar impression has always been that the Everglades is a huge swamp, full
of malaria and disease germs." He insisted that "the general impression
of what constitutes the Everglades is absolutely erroneous." Willoughby
noted the explosive development in and around Miami, commenting
that the region's "wilderness has been rudely marred by the hand of
civilization." In the next breath, however, he asserted that it is in the
nature of things that wilderness must gradually be encroached upon. In
all likelihood, Willoughby found people too busy clearing land along
southeast Florida's Atlantic Coastal Ridge to pay much attention to the
Everglades. Indeed, editors of the Miami Metropolis published a list of
"things we would like to see" in a June 1896 issue. They called for
bridges, sewers, new houses, and other infrastructure-but absent from
this list was any mention of Everglades drainage. Turn-of-the-century
South Floridians may have avoided the Everglades beca-se they feared
malaria, but more likely, they were busy with plenty of other profitable
opportunities along the slightly more elevated coastal strip."
While sailing from Miami to the southwest Florida coast, Willoughby
noticed several off-shore springs which he correctly believed originated
in the Everglades. Indeed, while paddling his boat through the water-
covered Glades, he noticed springs everywhere. "All this moving water
cannot be accounted for by the rain alone," he thought. "and the water
is too hard for rain water, so in all probability more comes from below
than above." Willoughby had no idea that he was traversing the
Biscayne Aquifer-one of the most productive aquifers in the world. It
is hard to gauge how much Willoughby's writing influenced others, but
later authors of travel books repeated the misconception that much of
the water in the Glades came from distant groundwater sources rather
than precipitation in South Florida that entered the Biscayne Aquifer.z'
Jacksonville's Times-Union initially expressed approval of wetland
drainage in the Glades and elsewhere in Florida. "Besides the millions
of acres that will be reclaimed in south Florida," the editor argued in
1898, "there are thousands of others only second in productiveness, and
these will be reclaimed from Pensacola to Miami." Hint.ng that some
people did not agree, the editor concluded that "the immediate future

On the Eve ofDestruction 15

will prove an era of phenomenal development for this State, and this
men may retard but cannot stop even when they are so unpatriotic as
to use power or influence to that purpose."2'
Finally, writing in 1899, long-time South Florida resident I. L.
Roberts supported Everglades reclamation. He claimed that he made an
effort to attract businessmen to the Glades in 1876, "and has ever since
stood astounded at the negligence and disinterestedness of capital on
this subject." To him, it seemed incomprehensible. As far as Roberts
was concerned, "it seems as if nature has placed this wonderful cornu-
copia at our hands and merely asks us to empty it at our pleasure."22
On the other hand, the editor of the Miami Metropolis probably came
closest to most people's view of the Glades in the late nineteenth century
when he suggested that visitors to Miami should "not fail to take a trip
up the [Miami] river to the rapids and look upon that vast mysterious
waste known as the Everglades."23
Prior to 1900, the federal government had nothing to do with wetland
reclamation. As part of the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, however,
Congress authorized a survey of the Kissimmee and Caloosahatchee
Rivers with a view to improving navigation. Low water during the win-
ter dry season hindered navigation, a vital concern for people who lived
where there were no roads. WH. Caldwell conducted a preliminary
survey of the region in 1899 for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
Caldwell found many settlers along the Kissimmee River all the way
down to Fort Bassinger. Yet the last twenty to twenty-five miles of the
river were uninhabited and "bordered by an impenetrable marsh, which
extends back from the river for many miles on either side." Caldwell
added that "Lake Okeechobee's borders are similar to the lower end of
the Kissimmee River." He found the lakeshore almost deserted except
for a few orange groves on the north shore near Taylor Creek, the
beginnings of a town eventually named Okeechobee. As for the
Caloosahatchee River valley, Caldwell found fruit and vegetable farms
from Fort Myers inland to Fort Thompson, but he found almost
nobody living between Fort Thompson and the big lake.'4
As a result of this reconnaissance, Caldwell argued against improving
the entire waterway from Kissimmee to Fort Myers. He suggested
improving the Kissimmee River between Kissimmee and Fort Bassinger,
and the Caloosahatchee River from Fort Thompson to Fort Myers. The
intervening area was virtually uninhabited and Caldwell concluded that


A dredge with a team of workers creating a drainage canal. HASF 85-226-4.

it had no immediate future. Furthermore, farmers and ranchers along
the inhabited stretches of the two rivers spoke out against improving
the entire route. Kissimmee River people feared that improving the
lower portion of their river might permanently lower water levels
throughout the river. Caloosahatchee River residents resurrected charges
that improving the upper section of their river would allow excess water
from the big lake to flood them out. Finally, Caldwell contended that
"the only interests demanding a through route from the Caloosahatchee
to the Kissimmee are tourists, but such travel is too insignificant to be
worthy of consideration." Again, it appears that central and south
Floridians rejected moves that would lead to Everglades development,
not because they disapproved wetland development generally-but
because they were trying to develop their own property elsewhere.25
The late 1890s and early 1900s represent the heart of the Progressive
Era, a time when government at all levels abandoned laissez-faire policies
for greater involvement in social and economic issues. For example, most
early twentieth century Progressives believed that the nation could (and
should) make better use of its natural resources. Charles MacDonald,
former president of the American Society of Civil Engineers, made the
case for human intervention in his annual address for 1908: "If it can
be proved that two blades of grass can be grown where one has hereto-
fore been found to be the limit, it is certain that the sources of power
in Nature have been scientifically utilized, and the general wealth of the

On the Eve of Destruction 17

country correspondingly increased." Converting the apparently "useless"
Everglades into productive, tax-generating farmland was a Progressive
dream. Jacksonville's Times-Union appeared to agree when it argued in
1899 that Everglades reclamation would "make us independent of the
sugar tribute now demanded [from foreign sources], and change the
unfortunates of our slums into self-respecting self-governing American
farmers." In South Florida, E A. Hendry made the case for reclaiming
the Everglades in 1906: "Old Dame Nature has been fixing up this
trick for ages. She never does it all, but always leaves something for
man to do. It is here [in the Everglades that] she temptingly invites
man to roll up his sleeves and pitch in."26
At the turn of the century, preservationists-a relatively small but
vocal minority-placed much more emphasis on recreation and aesthetics
than conservationists of the time. On the other hand conservationists,
as Samuel Hays maintains, were "the apostles of the gospel of efficiency
[and they] subordinated the aesthetic to the utilitarian." Everglades
drainage became part of a nationwide movement in the early twentieth
century to eliminate natural resource waste. Imbued with the
Progressive spirit, Congress passed the Newlands Reclamation Act in
1902, legislation that funded irrigation projects designed to make arid
lands throughout the West agriculturally productive. At the same time,
drainage organizations around the country lobbied for a similar national
drainage service to help reclaim wetlands. Congressman Halvor
Steenerson (from Minnesota) introduced such legislation in 1906. The
Pensacola Journal supported the bill: "It means that tens of millions of
acres of the most fertile lands imaginable, which has lain idle for ages,
may be converted from dismal and pestilential swamps and useless bogs
into highly prosperous homes, to become the garden spots of the
nation." The hoped-for drainage service never materialized, but agita-
tion to "make better use" of wetlands continued and Congress created
a Bureau of Drainage Investigations within the USDA's Office of
Experiment Stations in 1902.27
As a result of the Ingraham Everglades exploring expedition in 1892,
Henry Plant lost whatever enthusiasm he may have had for the
Everglades, but Henry Flagler hired James Ingraham to help extend his
railroad down Florida's east coast during the 1890s. The railroad
reached Flagler's intended terminus-the Palm Beaches-in early 1894.
A devastating freeze in early 1895 inflicted substantial damage upon


many Florida farmers, yet Miami had been spared. South Florida pio-
neer Julia Tuttle suggested to Flagler that he extend his line to Miami,
and by April 1896, Miami had a rail connection to New York. Two
months later, Miami's first newspaper, the Metropolis, raved that the trip
from South Florida to New York could be made in forty-four hours.
Before the railroad, it took two days to go from Miami to Lake Worth,
just sixty-three miles to the north. It would be several more years before
Everglades development, but Flagler's railroad began the process of radi-
cally transforming South Florida.28
The pace of change in South Florida accelerated after 1900. People
poured into the region and some of these spilled into the Everglades.
For one thing, fishermen began to settle the shores of Lake Okeechobee.
Commercial fishermen took tremendous numbers of catfish from the
big lake. Hunters also settled the shores of Lake Okeeclobee at the turn
of the century. They pursued higher-priced otter and racoon skins
during the winter months, and plumage-producing birds in spring-
a significant source of income. Plumes were in demand because they
commonly adorned women's hats during the late nineteenth and early
twentieth centuries. Florida passed bird protection laws in 1877, 1879,
and 1891, but these proved ineffective. In 1900, the federal govern-
ment passed the Lacey Act which prohibited interstate commerce in
birds protected by state law. The National Audubon Society provided
wardens for South Florida, the most famous of whom was Guy Bradley
who was shot to death in 1905 after confronting plume hunters.
Kathryn and Alfred Hanna painted this graphic picture of plume hunting:
"To get the most beautiful plumes, birds had to be shot while on their
nests. After they dropped, the plumes were torn off and the bird cast
aside. Back in the nest the young weakened and starved to death or fell
from the nest through sheer inability to stand up and were drowned.
Nesting areas frequently included hundreds of birds. When such a
colony was shot up nothing was left but a scene of desolation with dead
birds strewed about, feathers scattered among the starving young, while
vultures wheeled in for a square meal."2" When Julian and A. W. Dimock
complained to an old "Florida Cracker" about the slaughter of birds,
they received the following response: "Every egret and long white that's
shot in this country is killed on an order from New York. Your rich
merchants send agents down here to hire hunters and Indians to get
plumes for them." Dimock's informant added most plume hunters

On the Eve ofDestruction 19

struggled to survive, while northern tourists "bring with them an automatic
shotgun and a repeating rifle and bang at everything that flies or crawls."30
In 1904, Charles G. Elliott, a drainage engineer within the USDA's
newly created Bureau of Drainage Investigations, made a preliminary
investigation of the Glades in an effort to determine the feasibility of
draining a small tract for experimental use. He noted that Henry
Flagler's Florida East Coast Railroad had already spent a great deal of
money trying to clear and enlarge existing rivers along Florida's lower
east coast. Their operations were intended to enhance winter fruit and
vegetable production by reducing flooding along the short rivers and
adjacent arms of the Glades that extended across the coastal ridge
toward the ocean. Elliott observed that no Glade land had been
adequately drained to produce crops during the entire year. He recom-
mended gradual development of the Everglades as demand for produce
increased, using dikes to protect individual farms. This suggestion met
with little favor among those who had high hopes for Everglades devel-
opment, but in any case, Elliott's report attracted little attention
because relatively few people cared about developing the Glades."
Only with Napoleon B. Broward's decision to run for governor of
Florida did the Everglades attract more widespread attention. It was
Broward, more than anyone else, who forced the issue of Everglades
drainage upon the public. Broward canvassed the state in 1904, promising
(among other things) to drain the Glades. One author contends that
Broward adopted the Everglades issue in an attempt to put some
political distance between himself and other candidates. This same
author adds, however, "in allowing the land question to begin to
dominate his speaking, Broward was faced with all the rhetorical
liabilities surrounding the issue." Despite winning the Democratic
primary elections (and eventually the general election) in 1904,
Broward lost Lee and Dade Counties during both Democratic pri-
maries. Broward's failure in these counties suggests that many of the
region's voters (virtually all white males, most of whom were
Democrats) were uncertain or even apathetic regarding Everglades
drainage. Moreover, there were those who favored Broward but not
Everglades drainage. For example, one South Floridian later wrote the
Fort Myers Press: "I voted for Governor Broward in both primaries,
but not on account of his drainage scheme, as that, to my mind, is
anything but a wise or practical operation.""


Shortly after his inauguration in early 1905, Governor Broward
called for legislation creating a drainage district encompassing much of
South Florida. This district would have the power to levy taxes, but
courts soon declared the legislation unconstitutional. Broward then
went to South Florida to make his own inspection of the Everglades.
Acting as his own engineer, he devised a plan for draining the Glades
and used the few remaining dollars in Florida's Internal Improvement
Fund to obtain a couple of dredges to begin digging canals from the
southeast coast to Lake Okeechobee in July 1906. Broward spent a
tremendous amount of energy supervising and attendir.g to drainage
details and explained his enthusiasm for Everglades development: "This
land would have remained a wilderness and would have been inhabited
by the Indians until the dawn of the millennium had those who
preceded us been as weak as the majority of those who quibble now,
and stand on the bank and shiver and shake, instead of plunging in
and doing something.""
In 1906, the governor backed an amendment to tht Florida consti-
tution, which overcame the court's objections. Broward engaged in
yet another public relations campaign on behalf of his Everglades
drainage project. As part of this campaign Broward made speeches
around the state; he even prepared an open letter to the people of
Florida. He insisted that "it would indeed be a sad commentary on
the intelligence and energy of the people of Florida to confess that so
simple an engineering feat as the drainage of a body of land twenty-one
feet above the level of the sea was beyond their power." Broward
sincerely believed that draining the Glades was a simp e matter, and
that the total cost would not be more than a dollar per acre. Confident
of his plan, Broward claimed, "I can do the whole business in five
years at the outside and turn the everglade swamps into an earthly
paradise... The main canals would lower the level of the lake so that
settlers could move in even before the lateral canals were completed."
When somebody suggested that South Florida's peat soil would burn
after drainage [as it eventually did], Broward retorted ihat "if such a
thing as a large area of land catching fire and burning up as the
opponents claim had been possible, the great bogs of Ireland would
have been ash heaps long before St. Patrick drove out ihe snakes."
Asserting that Lake Okeechobee was twenty-one feet above sea
level and that water would run "downhill" toward sei level upon

On the Eve ofDestruction 21

completion of the canals, he branded those who maintained that the
Glades could not be drained as tools of corporate interests."
Florida's newspapers recorded much of the discussion regarding
Everglades drainage in 1906. Some writers questioned the feasibility of
Broward's plan; others questioned its desirability; still others favored
drainage but not Broward's plan. Finally, many people confessed that
they simply did not know much
about the Glades. For instance, the
Ocala Banner cautioned that "care
should be taken to distinguish ,. r
between the naked proposition
that the Everglades can be
drained...and the method adopted
by the board to accomplish this
gigantic enterprise." One
Kissimmee resident went even fur-
ther, simply ridiculing Broward's
plan. "The profile drawings
attached to the governor's appeal
must have been made in a kinder-
garten. They are absolutely value-
less.... To show one body of water Governor Napoleon Bonaparte Broward
[Lake Okeechobee] higher than (back row, right) on an Everglades
another [sea level] on a plain and drainage project tour in 1906. Courtesy
then draw a straight line from the of the Florida State Archives.
highest to the lowest point and call
that an engineering drawing is something very novel.""3
After initially supporting Everglades drainage, Jacksonville's Times-Union
eventually assailed practically everything Governor Broward called for,
including Everglades reclamation. In March 1906, the Times-Union pointed
out that only one million of Florida's thirty-seven million acres of land were
in cultivation. The paper suggested that the state would be better off
devoting its energy to attracting immigrants from other states to farm this
unoccupied land closer to the heart of Florida's existing population. "It is
not yet certain that the Everglades can be drained," the Times-Union editor
maintained; "it is not yet certain that they are worth draining."''
In August 1906, the Times-Union insisted that draining the Glades
(or any other wetlands) would cost far more than Broward's suggested


average of one dollar per acre. The editor contended that no one can
know how much it will cost to drain the Everglades until they are sur-
veyed-and the state had no plans for a survey. Making the case as
plain as possible, the newspaper drew this analogy: "Now if a stranger
should come along and give you this advice-to drain land you didn't
need, to commence digging without knowing how much it would cost,
without knowing if you could drain it or whether it would be worth
anything if drained... you would leave and not be slow about it.""3
No less a figure than the father of Marjory Stoneman Douglas-
Frank B. Stoneman-had much to say regarding Everglades drainage.
Frank Stoneman helped establish and edited for many years the Miami
Evening-Record, which eventually became the Miami Herald. Like many
people of his time, Stoneman initially supported wetland drainage in
South Florida. In April 1906, he spoke in favor of Broward's activities:
"The wonder is that there should
be found any in the State who
object to it." Indeed, Stoneman
thought that the Times-Unions
change of heart came as a result of
influence from railroad corpora-
tions who believed that they were
entitled to receive the Everglades
in return for constructing lines in
the state. He argued in April 1906
that "the only opposition to the
governor's operations has been
manufactured and festered from
one source. The Jacksonville news-
papers, whose interest in the peo-
Frank B. Stoneman initially supported wet- pie has always been subordinate to
land drainage in South Florida, but soon their interest in receipts from the
became an outspoken critic of the matter corporations...are the center of
after receiving a letter from a civil engineer opposition to the great move-
who argued that Broward's reclamation ment." Claiming that other news-
plan was inadequate. HASF 53-1-10. papers that opposed Everglades
drainage were simply following the
lead of the Jacksonville press, Stoneman insisted that "the sentiment
is manufactured and the factory is located in Jax." Later that year,

On the Eve of Destruction 23

however, Stoneman changed his mind. He received a letter in October
1906 from Alfred Newlander, a civil engineer from St. Augustine, who
argued that Broward's reclamation plan was inadequate. Stoneman
immediately became an outspoken critic of drainage operations and
called for more thorough investigation of the matter. In February 1908,
Stoneman argued that "the ardent advocates of the drainage of the
Everglades show a lamentable ignorance of conditions in this section of
the state.""3
Up to this time, Stoneman's competitor-the Miami Metropolis-
remained relatively quiet on the drainage question and on Broward's
proposed constitutional amendment creating a drainage district for the
Everglades. In April 1906, however, one South Florida farmer wrote the
Metropolis, complaining that he was tired of periodic flood damage. He
favored draining the Glades, admitting that some say it is not possible.
If it is not possible, he asked, why were the railroads still interested in
these wetlands? He viewed corporate interest in the region as a sign that
the Glades could, in fact, be drained. On the other hand, a central
Florida citrus farmer expressed local concerns in a letter to the USDA.
His farmer friends thought that large and deep canals in South Florida
"might lower the groundwater level of practically all of the state that is
adapted to citrus fruits and consequently injure [our] groves by robbing
the of their supply of moisture."'
In September 1906 the Miami Metropolis reprinted articles from
several of Florida's newspapers regarding the Glades. The articles
reprinted suggest that many Floridians remained unconvinced of the
efficacy of Everglades drainage. For example, the Pensacola Journal
commented on the Everglades debate between Broward and Pensacola's
State Senator John S. Beard. Beard argued that the court still had not
decided whether or not the state owned the Everglades. Therefore, it
would be foolish to begin draining the Glades if the court later deter-
mined that corporations were entitled to the land. The Journal insisted
that "we do not say that this point alone should determine the whole
question of supporting or opposing the drainage amendment, but we
do say that it is a question that will cut a large figure in the case and
ought to be answered."'"
The Punta Gorda Herald summarized what was probably true for
many people of the time: "the reason that the Herald has had nothing
to say on the much discussed problem of drainage of the Everglades is


simply and candidly that the Herald knows nothing about it... The
Herald is utterly obfuscated." Continuing, the Herald summarized the
debate: "On one side is arrayed the Governor of the State, a number of
respectable and honest newspapers and many reputable, upright and
intelligent citizens... On the other side, however, there are a number
of capable and honorable newspapers and a good many patriotic, able
and conscientious citizens who contend that the drainage of the
Everglades is impractical, wholly unnecessary and not worth the cost."'
The Tampa Times remarked that the coming election on the drainage
district constitutional amendment "will not reflect any discriminating
knowledge of the subject on the part of the voters, for 95 percent of us
don't know enough about the subject to warrant us in voting one way
or the other." The St. Augustine Record agreed and advocated caution:
"A majority of the newspapers of Florida come frankly with the state-
ment that they are unable to get their bearings on the Everglades
drainage discussion and the constitutional amendment. That being the
case, would it not be very unwise to vote for something admitted to be
an uncertainty?"4
A week after votes were cast on the Florida drainage amendment in
November 1906, the Times-Union reported complete returns for twenty
counties, partial returns from twenty others, and nothing from six
panhandle counties. In addition to being incomplete, these returns
generally reflect the opinion of the relatively few white males who
voted. Furthermore, a person's vote on the amendment was not neces-
sarily a reflection of one's attitude toward drainage or the Everglades.
Nevertheless, these returns do reveal much ambivalence regarding
Broward's plan to drain the Everglades. Throughout Florida, 6,007
voters favored the drainage amendment but 10,725 were opposed. Just
nine counties reported a majority in favor of the amendment, eight of
which lie north of Orlando and the Everglades watershed. Lee County
stood alone among central and southern Florida counties favoring the
amendment, with a lopsided tally of 419 in favor and 14 against. This
may reflect the strong support of the Fort Myers Press which lobbied in
favor of the amendment. It may also reflect the views of Caloosahatchee
River valley farmers as indicated by these comments found in the Fort
Myers Press on September 28, 1906: "The settlers say as a rule they
went there almost penniless and have managed by hard labor to bring
their groves into bearing which now promise them handsome incomes

On the Eve ofDestruction 25

but are liable to be destroyed at any time by overflow and they appeal
to the voters of the state to protect them from this threatening disaster."
Yet Monroe County voted solidly against the amendment (76 in favor,
254 against), as did Dade County (350 for, 487 against). Perhaps this
reflected, in part, Monroe County's relatively small stake in the Glades.
It may also have reflected the opposition of Frank Stoneman and
his newspaper.3
After having similar legislation declared unconstitutional in 1905
and failing to pass a constitutional amendment on the issue in 1906,
Florida's legislature created the Everglades Drainage District (EDD) in
1907-a poorly conceived entity which managed (for a time) to avoid
constitutional scruples. When Governor Broward requested assistance
from the USDA, James O. Wright was instructed to investigate the
Glades. His mission was to ascertain the suitability of soils for agricul-
ture; to determine if the Glades could be drained and if possible, to
prepare a drainage plan; and to estimate the cost of such a project.
Wright found the data Broward used and placed surveyors in the
Everglades during the winters of 1906-7 and 1907-8."
Wright's leader of Everglades field work during the first winter, John
T. Stewart, prepared a report of his investigations shortly after his
return to Washington, D.C., in May 1907. Referring to the Big
Cypress Swamp and land immediately north, Wright's subordinate
insisted that "there can be no drainage of any large section in this area
without affecting that of another as the divides are only noticeable dur-
ing low water." Stewart noted that they needed to do much more work
in order to determine the best routes for canals, estimates of their cost,
and value of land once drained. "There is some doubt in my mind
about the value of the Everglades proper for agricultural purposes if
drained," Stewart concluded, "but the country lying east and west of the
Glades [along the coasts] are the lands which need immediate attention
and will be greatly benefitted by the lowering of Lake Okeechobee."4
Stewart advocated interviewing older residents regarding their views
on draining the Glades as a way of gaining their confidence and learning
how to satisfactorily answer any objections. In fact, he spoke with many
South Floridians before he wrote his own report. Stewart observed that
"many in the vicinity of Miami do not want the Glades drained." He
noted that one surveyor and tax collector in Miami thought that "there
is land enough without the Glades." This person prophetically added


that "they [the Glades] would not be a desirable place to live on
account of the distance from markets and poor roads." Several people
expressed their fear of overproduction if the Glades were drained for
agriculture, and others told Stewart that the Glades warmed the cold
northwesterly winds during the winter. "What they want," Stewart
concluded, "is enough drainage to prevent flooding [along the Atlantic
coast] in the rainy season." 6
As seen earlier, however, residents of the Caloosahatchee River valley
spoke out in favor of Everglades drainage largely because they became
convinced that controlling Lake Okeechobee would prevent flooding
along the river. Yet not everybody in Lee County favored drainage. One
former Indian agent and Fort Myers resident argued that "climate is
really the only thing of which this country can boast." The Lee County
Superintendent of Schools argued that only the lands immediately
south of Lake Okeechobee would be worth draining. Finally, a timber
estimator from Fort Myers shared a belief held by many people on both
east and west coasts that soils of the southern Glades were too thin and
rocky to be worth reclaiming.47
On February 28, 1908, the front page of the Miami Metropolis
blared: "It is not a difficult task to drain the Everglades, said U.S.
Government expert Wright, in an able discussion last night." Apparently
Wright could not resist the temptation to address the region's poten-
tial-even before he had finished collecting data necessary for his forth-
coming report. By this time, the Miami Metropolis had swung solidly in
favor of draining the Glades. Despite the fact that no one had ever tried
to drain such a large wetland as the Glades, the Metropolis assured its
readers that "he [Wright] has done enough work of this kind to show
that there are no engineering difficulties to overcome in the draining of
the Everglades." Almost parenthetically, the Metropolis added that
Wright's opinion of the Glades is at least partially based on drainage
projects he had been associated with in Louisiana, "and he sees no
reason why results should be different here." Wright (like Broward)
unwisely led people to believe that the project was simple and that all
of the soil would be extremely productive when drained.4"
Finally, turn-of-the-century non-fiction writers usually expressed a
combination of attitudes toward the Glades. Some, for example, appre-
ciated the region's beauty and mystery. Writing for Century Magazine,
Edwin Dix and John MacGonigle contend that "no description of the

On the Eve ofDestruction 27

physical features of the Everglades can possibly convey any true idea of
their beauty and their charm... Both charm and beauty blend in a
strange, sweet sense of mystery, which even one least responsive to this
new mood of nature cannot possibly escape." As drainage became
imminent, however, other writers took a different approach. After
crossing the Glades, another author remarked that his experience was
that "one meets delay in the Everglades, but not danger... Crossing
the Everglades of Florida in a canoe is not an adventure, it is a picnic."4'
A utilitarian tone creeps into other discussions of the Glades: "The
demand for the work is so universal, its benefits so obvious and the
engineering difficulties so inconsiderable, that the time cannot be far
distant when the South Floridian will fear the floods that afflict him
to-day no more than the Dutchman dreads the Zuyder Zee." Yet
another author detailed the hardships suffered by the federal govern-
ment's engineers as they collected data while crossing the Glades during
the winter of 1907-8. He maintained that draining the Everglades

Turn-of-the-century non-fiction writers usually expressed a combination of attitudes
toward the Glades, including an appreciation for the region's beauty and mystery.
HASF 81-31-3.


would be a simple matter. "There is no difference of opinion on the
part of the engineers who have investigated the conditions," he incorrectly
contended, adding that "their recommendations are unanimously in
favor of pushing the work.""
In the meantime, Broward's inadequate dredges slowly cut through
the rock comprising the Atlantic Coastal Ridge near Fort Lauderdale
into the Glades. In 1907, after nine months of dredging, the engineer
in charge reported one canal a little over a mile long. Yet when a com-
mittee of state legislators visited South Florida that year, they "could
clearly see that the effect of the canal has been to drain the land for, say,
one-half mile or more on either side of the canal and for a considerable
distance in front of it." They estimated that 750 acres had been
reclaimed. What the committee did not see-what they could not
see-was that water levels more than a half mile from the canal were
probably little changed. Similarly, land promoters later hauled countless
investors up and down South Florida's canals in an effort to convince
prospective buyers that the Glades were being drained."
At the end of 1908, as Governor Broward's term drew to a close, two
dredges had cut canals a little over six miles each from both North and
South forks of Fort Lauderdale's New River into the Glades. Lack of
dredging progress may be attributed to two causes. First, since large
landowners refused to pay Everglades Drainage District taxes, and since
few farmers were willing to purchase swamp land from the state-the
trustees of Florida's Internal Improvement Fund had little cash with
which to pursue drainage operations. Second, dredging was necessarily
slow because most of the digging thus far had been through limestone
rock underlying the Atlantic Coastal Ridge rather than the relatively
soft muck of the Glades proper. As 1908 drew to a close, Broward
made one last attempt to extend the work-he persuaded Richard J.
Bolles to buy five hundred thousand acres of Everglades land for $1
million. Like Florida's earlier deal with Hamilton Disston, the Bolles
sale not only provided much needed revenue for the project, but also
paved the way for radical efforts to change people's perception of
the Everglades. Bolles and other real estate people simply accepted
Broward's pledge that the state would, in fact, drain the Everglades,
and they relied heavily upon this pledge as they launched their
campaign to sell the cheaply acquired swampland for profit starting
in 1909.52

On the Eve of Destruction 29

In conclusion, there appears to be no evidence that would justify
abandoning the generalization that most people in the late nineteenth
and early twentieth centuries took a rather dim view of wetlands. These
environments were viewed as pestilential waste lands in need of
redemption. In terms of draining the Everglades, however, such a gen-
eralization requires much qualification. On one hand, there were many
people who insisted that action be taken to convert the Glades from an
apparently useless marsh into fertile agricultural land. This was particularly
apparent during the late 1800s. Yet very few people lived in South
Florida until after 1900 and even fewer had any idea what the
Everglades were like. Despite this, patchy evidence from the late nine-
teenth century suggests that there is a connection between people's
abhorrence of wetlands generally and their support (or tolerance) of
Everglades reclamation. By the early 1900s, however, several people
raised voices of caution regarding such a project, and for a variety of
reasons. Some, like Miami's Frank Stoneman, called for more thorough
investigation of the task before spending money on Everglades drainage.
In a 1908 editorial, Stoneman explained that "the News-Record is not
opposed to the drainage of the Everglades if draining them will extend
the area of arable land...but it does believe that the great problem
should be carefully investigated by experts and scientists before much
money is spent or possible irreparable damage incurred." This was
indeed a prophetic statement because much of the subsequent flooding
and human suffering in the Everglades during the 1910s and 1920s
stemmed from relatively superficial investigations of the region's
hydrology-and heavy reliance upon early plans to reclaim the
Glades." Others feared that draining the Glades may be problematic
because such activity would stimulate excessive agricultural production
(which would hurt existing farmers on the coastal ridge); others
expressed concern over possible adverse changes in local climate that
might occur in the wake of such a project; and still others believed that
the enormity of such an endeavor would make the cost prohibitive.
Aesthetics and ecological values would not become important issues
until the 1950s and 1960s. The late nineteenth and early twentieth
century discussion regarding Everglades reclamation appears to have
been set squarely within the context of the Progressive Era quest for
efficiency. Even those who spoke out against draining the Everglades
did so for utilitarian reasons; some questioned the project's cost


effectiveness while others were concerned about the creation of too
much farm produce, and still others feared drainage might cause
adverse local climate change. Although many early twentieth century
people remained unimpressed with the Everglades and other wetlands,
these voices of protest against reclamation were ignored. Today, scien-
tists are prepared to spend in excess of $8 billion in an attempt to
restore portions of the Everglades to something resembling their condi-
tion prior to reclamation.

On the Eve ofDestruction 31

See Thomas E. Lodge, The Everglades Handbook (Delray Beach, FL:
St. Lucie Press, 1994) and Steven M. Davis & John C. Ogden (eds.),
Everglades: The Ecosystem and its Restoration (Delray Beach, FL: St.
Lucie Press, 1994); Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Everglades: River of
Grass (New York: Reinhart, 1947); J.E. Dovell, A History of the
Everglades of Florida (Ph.D. Dissertation, University of North
Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 1947); Luther J. Carter, The Florida
Experience (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1974);
Nelson M. Blake, Land into Water-Water into Land (Tallahassee, FL:
University Presses of Florida, 1980); Charlton Tebeau, "Exploration
and early descriptions of the Everglades, Lake Okeechobee, and the
Kissimmee River," in PJ. Gleason (ed.), Environments ofSouth
Florida: Past and Present (Coral Gables, FL: Miami Geological
Society, 1974); Charlton Tebeau, A History ofFlorida (Coral Gables,
FL: University of Miami Press, 1980); Miami Herald, 14 February
1911: 2; Charlton Tebeau, Man in the Everglades; 2,000years of
human history in the Everglades National Park (Coral Gables, FL:
University of Miami Press, 1968); David McCally, The Everglades: An
Environmental History (Gainesville, FL: University Presses of Florida,
1999); William J. Mitsch and James G. Gosselink, Wetlands (New
York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993): 3.
2 Kenneth Thompson, "Insalubrious California: perception and reali-
ty," Annals of the Association ofAmerican Geographers 59 (1969): 50-
64; Roger A. Winsor, "Environmental imagery of the wet prairie of
east central Illinois, 1820-1920," Journal ofHistorical Geography. 13
(1987): 375-397.
3 Thomas E. Dahl, Wetland Losses in the United States: 1780s to 1980s
(Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and
Wildlife Service, 1990); Buckingham Smith's report can be found in
U.S. Senate, 62nd Congress, 1st Session, Document 89: Everglades of
Florida, Acts, Reports, and Other Papers, State and National, Relating to
the Everglades of the State ofFlorida and Their Reclamation, 1911).
4 Ann Vileisis, Discovering the Unknown Landscape: A History of
America's Wetlands (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1997); Nelson
Blake, Land Into Water-Water Into Land, 1980; J.E. Dovell, History
of the Everglades, 1947.
5The quotation in this paragraph as well as the idea for this paragraph can


be found in Morgan D. Peoples and Edwin A. Davis (eds.), 'Across
south central Florida in 1882: the account of the first New Orleans
Times-Democrat exploring expedition," reprinted in Tequesta 10
(1950): 49.
, Morgan Peoples and Edwin Davis, "Across south central Florida in
1882: the account of the first New Orleans Times-Democrat exploring
expedition," Tequesta 10 (1950): 40-50, 80; Will Wallace Harney,
"The Drainage of the Everglades," Harper's New Monthly Magazine
March (1884): 603.
7 Mary K. Winteringham (ed.), "North to South Through the Glades
in 1883: the account of the second expedition into the Florida
Everglades by the New Orleans Times-Democrat, part II" reprinted in
Tequesta 24 (1964): 93, 35.
SJohn Whipple Potter Jenks, Hunting in Florida in 1874 (Privately
Published 1884): 57.
SFrederick A. Ober, The Knockabout Club in the Everglades: the
Adventures of the Club in Exploring Lake Okechobee" [sic] (Boston:
Dana Estes & Co., 1887): 148-149.
0 Frederick Jackson Turner, Annual Report of the American Historical
Association for 1893 (Washington, D.C.: American Historical
Association, 1894): 199-227; U.S. Department of the Interior,
Census Office, Report on the Population of the United States at the
Eleventh Census: 1890, Part 1 (Washington, D.C.: Government
Printing Office, 1895): xxix.
" James W. Davidson, The Florida of Today: a Guide for Tourists and
Settlers (New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1889): 227, 71.
2 Charles L. Norton, A Handbook ofFlorida (New York: Longmans,
Green and Company, 1890): 19; Charles L. Norton, A Handbook of
Florida, 3rd edition (New York: Longmans, Green and Company,
1895): 270.
' Watt P. Marchman edited the journal of Wallace R. Moses, "The
Ingraham Everglades exploring expedition, 1892," Tequesta 7 (1947):
3-43; Alonzo Church, "A dash through the Everglades," Tequesta 9
(1949): 13-41.
4 Alonzo Church, "A dash through the Everglades," 19, 16.
' John Newman as quoted in Alonzo Church, "A dash through the
Everglades," 20-21; Wallace Moses, "The Ingraham Everglades
exploring expedition," 14, 19; Alonzo Church, "A dash through the

On the Eve ofDestruction 33

Everglades," 35; Wallace Moses, "The Ingraham Everglades exploring
expedition," 41 (footnote #4); Wallace Moses as quoted in John T.
Stewart, Report on Everglades Drainage Project in Lee and Dade
Counties, Florida, January to May 1907 (Washington, D.C.: United
States Department of Agriculture, Office of Experiment Stations,
Irrigation and Drainage Investigations, 1907): 43.
'6 Official Report of the Board of Trustees of the Internal Improvement
Fund to the Legislature ofFlorida Relative to the Drainage Operations
of the Atlantic and Gulf Coast Canal and Okeechobee Land Company
(Tallahassee, FL: Tallahassee Book and Job Office, 24 May 1893);
Kathryn A. and Alfred J. Hanna, Lake Okeechobee: Wellspring of the
Everglades (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1948).
7 Miami Metropolis, 5 June 1896, 6.
" Miami Metropolis, 21 October 1896, 2.
" Hugh L. Willoughby, Across the Everglades (1992 edition, Port
Salerno, FL: Florida Classics Library; originally published in 1898):
115, 14, 62; Miami Metropolis, 12 June 1896, 5.
20 Hugh Willoughby, Across the Everglades, 119-120; Abe Kreitman and
Leslie A. Wedderburn, "Hydrogeology of South Florida" in P.J.
Gleason (ed.) Environments ofSouth Florida: Present and Past, Memoir
I (Coral Gables, FL: Miami Geological Society, 1984): 405-423;
Clifton Johnson, Highways and Byways of Florida (New York:
Macmillan, 1918): 162; Nevin O. Winter, Florida: The Land of
Enchantment (Boston: Page, 1918): 299.
2 Jacksonville Times-Union, 5 October 1898, 4.
22 I. L. Roberts as quoted in the Miami Metropolis, 14 April 1899, 5.
3 Miami Metropolis, 30 October 1896, 3.
24 U.S. House of Representatives, 57th Congress, 1st Session,
Document 176: Examination and Survey of the Kissimmee River,
Florida, etc. (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1902): 9.
25 U.S. House of Representatives, Document 176: Kissimmee River
Survey, 14.
26 Samuel P Hays, Conservation and the Gospel ofEfficiency (Cambridge,
MA: Harvard University Press, 1959); Charles MacDonald, "Annual
Address," Proceedings, American Society of Civil Engineers 34 (1908):
256-300; Jacksonville Times-Union, 25 October 1899, 4; E A.
Hendry as quoted in the Fort Myers Press 12 October 1906, 7.
27 Samuel Hays, Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency, 1959: 127;


Ann Vileisis, Discovering the Unknown Landscape, 1997; William D.
Rowley, Reclaiming the Arid West: the Career ofFrancis G. Newlands
(Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1996); Pensacola
Journal, 1 April 1906, 10.
8 Sydney W. Martin, Florida's Flagler (Athens, GA: University of
Georgia Press, 1949); Miami Metropolis, 26 June 1896, 1.
" Kathryn A. and Alfred J. Hanna, Lake Okeechobee: Wellspring of the
Everglades (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1948): 341; Lawrence E.
Will, Okeechobee Catfishing (St. Petersburg, FL: Great Outdoors
Publishing Company, 1965); Stuart McIver, True Tales of the
Everglades (Miami: Florida Flair Books, 1989).
0 A. W and Julian Dimock, Florida Enchantments (London: Hodder
and Stoughton, 1908): 300.
31 Elliott's report can be found in: U.S. Senate, 62nd Congress, 1st
Session, Document 89: Everglades of Florida, Acts, Reports, and Other
Papers, State and National, Relating to the Everglades ofFlorida and
their Reclamation (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office,
1911): 94-97.
2 James T. Brooks, "Napoleon Broward and the great land debate,"
Broward Legacy 11 (1988): 42; H.E Urie as quoted in the Fort Myers
Press, 2 November 1906, 3.
- Joe Knetsch, "Governor Broward and the details of dredging: 1908,"
Broward Legacy 14 (1991): 38-44; Napoleon Broward to C. Horace
McCall as quoted in Samuel Proctor, Napoleon Bonaparte Broward:
Florida's Fighting Democrat (Gainesville, FL: University of Florida
Press, 1950): 260.
SNapoleon B. Broward, Open Letter of Governor Napoleon B. Broward
to the People ofFlorida (Tallahassee, FL: Capital Publishing Company,
1906): 1; Napoleon Broward as quoted in the Pensacola Journal, 6
November 1906, 2; Napoleon Broward as quoted in the Jacksonville
Times-Union, 1 November 1906, 2.
3 Ocala Banner, 27 April 1906, 1; C. Mailing as quoted in the
Jacksonville Times-Union, 1 November 1906, 2.
SJacksonville Times-Union, 3 March 1906, 6.
37 Jacksonville Times-Union, 17 August 1906, 4.
SSee Christopher E Meindl, "Frank Stoneman and the Florida
Everglades During the Early 20th Century" Florida Geographer 29
(1998); Miami Evening-Record, 3 April 1906, 4; Miami Evening-

On the Eve ofDestruction 3'

Record, 20 April 1906, 4; Alfred Newlander to Frank Stoneman as
quoted in the Miami Evening-Record, 27 October 1906, 2-3; Miami
Morning News-Record, 5 February 1908, 2.
39 Miami Metropolis, 20 April 1906, 7; 23 March 1906, 8.
o4 Miami Metropolis, 7 September 1906, 3.
4 Ibid.
42 Ibid.
" Jacksonville Times-Union, 11 November 1906, 1; Fort Myers Press, 19
October 1906, 2; 1 November 1906, 4; 28 September 1906, 2.
4 See Christopher E Meindl, "On the Importance of Environmental
Claims Making: The Role of James O. Wright in Promoting the
Drainage of Florida's Everglades in the Early 20th Century," Annals
of the Association ofAmerican Geographers (in press).
5 John T. Stewart, Report on Everglades Drainage Project in Lee and
Dade Counties, Florida, January to May 1907 (Washington, D.C.: U. S.
Department of Agriculture, Office of Experiment Stations, Irrigation
and Drainage Investigations, 1907): 88.
46 George Butler as quoted in John T. Stewart, Report on Everglades
Drainage, 54.
47 J. E. Brecht as quoted in John T. Stewart, Report on Everglades
Drainage, 41; J.E Shands as quoted in John T. Stewart, Report on
Everglades Drainage, 36; WA. Roberts as quoted in John T. Stewart,
Report on Everglades Drainage, 39.
8 Miami Metropolis, 28 February 1908, 1; Indeed, the USDA never did
publish Wright's report; but Florida Senator Duncan U. Fletcher did
manage to get Wright's report printed as part of a compilation of
documents on the Everglades in 1911. See U.S. Senate, 62nd
Congress, 1st Session, Document 89: Everglades ofFlorida, Acts,
Reports, and Other Papers, State and National, Relating to the
Everglades of the State ofFlorida and their Reclamation (Washington,
D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1911): 140-180; Christopher E
Meindl, "Importance of Environmental Claims Making", in press;
Christpher E Meindl, "Past Perceptions of the Great American
Wetland: Florida's Everglades During the Early 20th Century,"
Environmental History 5 (2000): 378-395.
9 Edwin A. Dix and John N. MacGonigle, "The Everglades of
Florida," Century Magazine (February, 1905): 526; A. W. Dimock,
"Crossing the Everglades in a power boat," Harpers (January, 1907): 220.


50 A.W and Julian Dimock, Florida Enchantments (London: Hodder
and Stoughton, 1908), 264; William A Dupuy, "An air-line across
the Everglades," World's Work 15 (1908): 9897.
51 U.S. Senate, Document 89: Everglades ofFlorida, 110-111.
52 Joe Knetsch, "Governor Broward and the details of dredging: 1908,"
Broward Legacy 14 (1991): 38-44. Christpher Meindl, "Past
Perceptions of the Great American Wetland," 2000.
Miami News-Record, 5 February 1908, 2; Christopher E Meindl,
"Importance of Environmental Claims Making", in press.

Hell's Angel: Eleanor Kinzie Gordon's

Wartime Summer of 1898

Jacqueline E. Clancy

In August 1898, the Chicago Times Herald paid tribute to her: "When
the story of the [Spanish-American] war is written Mrs. William W
Gordon [Eleanor "Nellie" Kinzie
Gordon] will figure in its pages as
one of its heroines." Newspapers
from all over the country praised
this "Heroine of War" and claimed
that Nellie "was a Red Cross camp
in herself."' Yet her contributions
to the war effort at Camp Miami,
Florida, have been hardly men-
tioned in the Spanish-American
War histories. Usually she was
inaccurately depicted as merely a
woman who just "arranged for the
purchase of mosquito netting."
Before she was to meet her
husband, William (Willie)
Washington Gordon II, in Miami, Eleanor Kinzie Gordon. Courtesy of the
Nellie began a journal that would Georgia Historical Society.
reveal her tireless efforts in estab-
lishing and administering a convalescent hospital at Camp Miami.
Willie's brigade suffered from malaria and typhoid fever because of the


camp's location and lack of facilities. To meet this situation, Nellie
organized and, with the assistance of her daughter, Juliette Gordon Low
(Daisy), operated a large convalescent hospital. In a matter of a few
days, the hospital went from a circular tent with twenty-three patients
to a dilapidated warehouse that cared for seventy to eighty sick men at
a time. Nellie's journal entries, newspaper articles published in the sum-
mer of 1898, government documents, and letters from soldiers prove
that she did more than run helpful errands for the soldiers stationed at
the camp, a jerry-rigged facility housing seven thousand men. Her inge-
nuity and tenacity would warrant her the title of the "Good Angel to
the Boys in Blue." If it had not been for Nellie's own written account,
few people would have known of her behind-the-scenes work. It would
take 104 years for historians to discover what contemporaries knew
about her important yet long-forgotten contributions.2
Nellie first mentioned her plans for the "Convalescent Ward" in the
July 13 entry of her journal. But, she had begun recording her war
experience in May 1898 while anticipating news of her husband's offi-
cial appointment as Brigadier General of the United States Army.
She had always used journals to keep a meticulous record of her and
her family's lives. On the first page, Nellie wrote: "What is the record-in
a few words this." Her "record" would detail the many weeks she spent
accompanying Willie and his brigade first to Mobile, Alabama, then to
Camp Miami, Florida, and finally to Puerto Rico. Completely unaware
of what would await her at Camp Miami, Nellie never suspected how
useful this chronicle would be to historians in the future.3
In May 1898 Nellie Gordon was sixty-three years old. She and her
husband had been married more than forty years and had five adult
children: Eleanor Gordon Parker, Juliette (Daisy) Gordon Low, William
Washington Gordon III, Mabel McLane Gordon, and George Arthur
Gordon. Although her own parents had died decades earlier, Nellie still bore
the imprint of their influence. She was born on June 18, 1835, to John
Harris Kinzie and Juliette Magill Kinzie in Chicago, Illinois. The Kinzies
were one of the first families to reside on the area's frontiers. Nellie's memoirs
detail her mother's lessons of "cooking, sewing, housekeeping, nursing,
gardening, clothes-making, shoe-making-in fact everything which might
be required of a woman separated from the conveniences of civilization."
Nellie's numerous experiences nursing family members, as well as
experiences with illness and death, "hardened" her, and prepared her to

Hell's Angel 39

deal with sick and dying men. Her first memories were connected with
the death of her six-year-old brother, Wolcott. Although she was only
three years old at the time, his tragic death made a deep impression on
her. Throughout her childhood she witnessed firsthand the need and
importance for women to act as nurses. Nellie watched her mother care
for her twenty-month-year-old brother, Frank, when he was severely
burned. In the Kinzie's kitchen, he fell into a small green tub, filled
with boiling hot, sudsy water. Instantly Juliette poured cold water on
his head, she then lifted him out of the tub and used a knife to cut off
his clothes. Nellie and her mother began applying "soft linen cloths
dipped in lime-water and sweet oil every few minutes" until the doctor
arrived. To the amazement of doctors, Frank lived, but it took two years
for the burns to heal. Frank died six years later during Chicago's cholera
epidemic of 1850-51. Four of the Kinzies were stricken and only one
recovered: Frank and three servants died. Her parents spent part of
every day nursing the sick at the hospital and made "a big cauldron of
mutton broth" to take to them. Nellie neither contracted nor feared the
disease even though she "went among the cholera patients freely."'
Juliette Kinzie was not satisfied with her Nellie's useful skills and
"wished her daughter to finish her education with a polish, which,
even if not essential to the frontier, would enable her to cultivate her
mind, and enjoy her leisure moments." She made sure that Nellie's
education included both practical skills and the benefits of an eastern
boarding school. As a little girl, Nellie attended a public school,
Kinzie School, named after her father. In her teenage years, Nellie
enrolled in Madame Canda's school in New York where she became
an expert pianist, an amateur artist, and a linguist who spoke French
and Italian fluently.6
While attending Madame Canda's, Nellie met Eliza Gordon of
Savannah, Georgia, and Ellen and Florence Sheffield of New Haven,
Connecticut. Eliza Gordon's mother, Sarah, moved to New Haven
because she wanted her sons, George and Willie, to receive their college
education at Yale. During the Christmas holidays of 1853, Nellie spent
her time with the Sheffields rather than traveling home to distant
Chicago. She claimed that her visit sealed her "fate" in life when she
was introduced to Eliza's "Brother Willie." On December 21, 1857,
Nellie and Willie were married in a Chicago church and moved into
the Gordon home in Savannah, Georgia.


Early in her marriage, Nellie demonstrated her devotion to Willie
and her stubborn refusal to be separated from him, traits that would
play a role in her later accomplishments at Camp Miami. In the sum-
mer of 1858, while Nellie was expecting her first child, Savannah faced
a yellow fever epidemic. Most of the Gordon family fled the city, but
Nellie refused to leave Willie, who for business reasons, was obliged to
remain there. At the onset of the Civil War, Nellie adamantly resisted
her father's advice to go to Chicago where he believed she could be safe.
She remained in Savannah to be near Willie, and she took many diffi-
cult trips to Virginia to visit him. With courage and determination,
Nellie and her two young daughters by her side, followed Willie to
Richmond where she stayed with friends, keeping in touch with him at
his various posts while he was with James Ewell Brown Stuart's cavalry.'
More than thirty years later in 1898, her devotion to Willie remained
strong. In May, with President William McKinley's second call for vol-
unteers during the Spanish-American War, Willie was elevated to the
rank of general. Nellie's euphoria over her husband's achievement was
apparent in her description of the day's events: "Thus came mild
whoops, & laughter, & dancing around the room, till the telegraph
messenger thought he had got into a Lunatic Asylum!" Willie received
orders to repair to Mobile, Alabama. He was to take command of the
Second Brigade, First Division, Fourth Corps, which consisted of the
Second Texas Regiment and the Second Louisiana Regiment. Several
days later, when Willie boarded a train for this assignment, Nellie was
by his side. A large group of Savannahians gathered at the station to say
farewell to the new general. Amidst all the hoopla, it must have been
difficult for them to remember that they were going to Mobile to pre-
pare for war.
Willies orders to Camp Miami came soon after the Gordons arrived
in Mobile. In an entry dated June 19, 1898, she wrote about these and
added: "I do hope they have good water and plenty of shade at this
new Post." Camp Miami's contaminated water caused widespread troop
sickness. Conditions were so horrible that the camp was referred to by
soldiers then as as "Camp Hell".
On July 2, 1898, Nellie arrived at Miami's train station in the north-
ern end of Camp Miami and was touched that her "poor General was
waiting all the time in the depot" for her. Willie and Nellie rode in
Henry M. Flagler's magnificent horse drawn carriage to the Royal Palm

Hells Angel 41

Hotel, near the confluence of Biscayne Bay and the Miami River. The
hostelry housed officers' wives during the war. Pleased with her accommoda-
tions, Nellie wrote that "the hotel is new, & big, & handsome, & well-kept
in beautiful order." Willie secured Nellie a private resort-style corner room
overlooking the grounds, landscaped with "tropical scenery & plants."'
Nellie however, was unimpressed with Camp Miami. She first
inspected Willie's quarters the day she arrived. After "it stormed hard
this A.M. for 2 hours then cleared," Nellie "went in a cab over to the
2nd Brig Hdqts" where she "saw Willie for a few moments." During
this brief visit, Nellie saw the consequences of the camp's hurried con-
struction. She noted her immediate concerns about the camp in her
journal: "This spot is a pleasant spot-not too hot-but there's no
depth in the soil. Tents blow down in high wind. The water is full of
lime, disagrees with the men, & gives them dysentery. Stationing troops
here looks like a 'job' for Mr. Flagler!"'0
In the spring of 1898, Henry Morrison Flagler, whose Florida East
Coast Railway opened Miami to development in 1896, saw the
prospect of war as a means to enhance Miami's visibility and financial
well being. In mid-May 1898, a United States inspection team, led by
Brigadier General James Wade, toured Miami as a potential campsite.
After their analysis was made, the officials refused Flagler's offer of
Miami land for a military base. In June 1898, a second inspection team
visited another proposed area in Miami, but they too hesitated to rec-
ommend it as a campsite because of concerns over the lack of facilities,
of warehouses, and especially of a waterworks system. The inspectors
realized that although Miami accommodated its population of twelve
hundred adequately, adding an influx of soldiers would be a tremen-
dous strain on the city."
Nearby camps in Lakeland and Tampa were not well prepared either,
but there were other reasons for their inadequacies. Although Lakeland
experienced problems with its food supply, Tampa suffered from over-
crowding, and the water supplies of both cities were often contaminat-
ed, Lakeland and Tampa were firmly established cities with well-tuned
infrastructures. And unlike Camp Miami, these camps had support
from the surrounding community in difficult times, and citizens were
not naive to the potential problems for their city. Both cities, Lakeland
and Tampa, possessed a communal identity, and they were not looking
to use the camps as tools for city promotion. Finally, the situation at


_. "L-AM ..a RN

Camp Miami was a collage of tents in the wooded area north of downtown Miami.
HASF x-106-x.

Camp Miami differed from other camps because of Flagler, who, as
noted, viewed Camp Miami as a great business opportunity-not
merely a training facility. Nellie's comment, "Stationing troops here
looks like a 'job' to benefit Mr. Flagler," demonstrated that she recog-
nized Flagler's intentions."
In spite of the inspection teams' position, Major General Nelson A.
Miles, commander of the army, established Camp Miami. On the
morning of June 24, the Metropolis reported that the first installment of
troops had arrived and, by the first week of July, the entire division,
redesignated the First Division, Seventh Corps, of seven thousand vol-
unteers had settled in the camp. In their report, the inspectors had
specified that "if military necessity requires it, a camp of 5,000" could
be established in Miami. As inspectors feared, the additional two thou-
sand troops compounded the camp's disarray.
Donna Thomas, in an article, "'Camp Hell': Miami During the
Spanish-American War," argued that all military camps at this time had
problems, and that "Camp Miami's record in terms of sickness was
probably no worse than the records of most other camps of the
Spanish-American War." But Camp Miami differed from other posts
because many of its problems could have been prevented. In a letter to
The Florida Times Union, Willie expressed anger that the inspectors'
recommendations were not followed when preparing the camp. Since

Hell's Angel 43

Miamians were unaware of the camp's deficiencies, the Miami
Metropolis and The Florida Times Union succeeded in portraying his
brigade "as troublemakers and spreaders of rumors" because Willie
made his feelings known publicly. Willie's purpose with this letter was
"to protest against communications published" in the newspaper
(Miami Metropolis) and "to state certain facts concerning Miami and
the Encampment there." He stated that "the owners [Flagler] of the
property had underestimated the necessities of a camp for over 7000
men, overestimated the resources of the place and the troops who suf-
fered the consequences had just cause for complaint."4
Willie claimed that when he arrived it was clear that the city was not
prepared to house the camp. More importantly, he believed that pre-
cautions were not taken to ensure the soldiers' health. In July and
August 1898, the Metropolis reported that only a few soldiers in the
area became ill, and the sickness was due to Miami's heat and humidity.
Willie dismissed this explanation, contending that since "the hot sun
had not produced these results in Mobile and elsewhere, it was neces-
sary to seek some other cause," like contaminated water. When his
brigade arrived, the water was "at first almost the color of milk on
account of the quantity of lime in it and it gave everyone diarrhea,
which in some cases ran into more serious complaints." After several
more days and additional reports of illness, the Second Brigade discov-
ered that their drinking water "was not from the water works tower, but
from the railroad tank, which got its water from the two 24 feet wells,
located between the two brigades, and into which was surface drainage
from both brigades." After many failed attempts to supply clean water,
such as using water from the Everglades, "orders were given that no
water should be used for drinking or cooking unless it had been boiled
at least an hour.""
With hundreds of men on sick call daily in both brigades, Willie and
other officers struggled to find ways to care for the soldiers effectively.
Willie tried to make life better for his men in Miami, by turning to his wife
for help. On July 9, Willie mentioned his concerns to Nellie, and they con-
cluded that the men were not receiving sufficient care at the military hospital.
More importantly, Willie and Nellie believed that the men were sent back
to work before they were fully recovered from their illnesses.'
After her conversation with Willie, Nellie wrote in her diary: "We
intended going to Church, but Willy got hold of General [J. Warren]


Keifer & had so many important things to discuss with him about the
sick in his brigade, etc., etc." The couple concluded that the overcrowded
division hospital was not equipped to handle the high number of
patients since it consisted of many tents "crowded together on a lot
covered with weeds in the middle of town." Many men who inspected
the site noticed that "sinks and garbage, emitting a most offensive odor,
surrounded the place, which gets in consequence little pure air."
After Lieutenant-Colonel Curtis Guild, Jr., Inspector-General, Seventh
Army Corps, toured Camp Miami, he observed that, "The men in
quarters sick with measles and other diseases begged me in passing not
to be sent to this place." In his official report, Guild wrote: "I can not
comprehend why such a filthy locality should ever be chosen for any
camp, especially for a hospital."'7
These investigations of the division hospital led to additional
inquiries that revealed the inattentiveness of hospital staff. Owing to
the hospital's overcrowding, hospital administrators had been forced to
release those who were in a less critical state in order to make room for
the seriously ill. As commander of the Second Brigade, Willie witnessed
the hospital's negligence firsthand when soldiers returned to duty before
they had fully recovered. Though not medically trained, the Gordons
were familiar with the care necessary for assisting Camp Miami's ailing
soldiers. During their previous summers in Savannah, Willie and Nellie
experienced yellow fever epidemics, and watched over family and
friends who succumbed to many of the same deadly illnesses that
affected Camp Miami's soldiers. If proper care was not made available
to ill soldiers soon, they knew that the likely prognosis for these soldiers
was death.'8
Nellie decided that she would administer a convalescent ward to care
for the men who were well enough to be released from the hospital, but
not strong enough to return to duty. Soon after General Gordon had
extended his influence, preparations for the convalescent hospital
began. Although it would be in operation for just two weeks, Nellie's
efforts here brought relief to many ailing soldiers."
On July 13, Nellie "had a talk with Major Appel about the sickness."
She "suggested having a 'Convalescent tent' in which the men could get
suitable food for a few days after they were discharged from the
Division Hospital." Nellie wrote that Major Appel, "was delighted at
the idea-said he would give me a big circular tent & have it floored; I

Hell's Angel 45

promised to look after the cooking dept. of it." Since the Army generally
lacked supplies and spare soldiers, Appel, chief surgeon of the division,
must have appreciated Nellie's initiative. He may have also been
relieved that she would be willing to be responsible for this venture
without much assistance from him or from his soldiers.2
On the following day, July 14, Lieutenant-Colonel Louis M. Maus,
Chief Surgeon Seventh Army Corps, Lieutenant-Colonel of Volunteers
Oliver E. Wood, Chief Commissary of the Seventh Corps, and
Lieutenant Colonel Curtis Guild, inspector general, "came down from
Jacksonville on an inspection tour." After receiving complaints about
the troops' health, Maus wanted to examine the camp's conditions for
himself. After inspecting Flagler's wells, he remarked that the water pos-
sessed "a disagreeable taste, an offensive odor, and in my opinion, [the
water] contains a large percentage of organic and vegetable matter,"and
concluded that the water could not be "wholesome in summer." He did
not, however, condemn camp conditions, which disappointed many of
the officers stationed in Miami. Indeed, in a letter to Maus after he left
Miami, some of the First Division's surgeons informed him that they
believed the water supplied by Flagler was "thoroughly contaminated,
infected, and too dangerous to utilize for drinking purposes."2
During their tour, Nellie "got an opportunity to speak to Col. Maus
& Col. Wood about a convalescent tent. They were heartily in favor of
it. Likewise General Keifer." Despite Army supply shortages, these
high-ranking officers helped Nellie to obtain the necessary supplies and
the equipment to open her facility. First, she acquired a "large circular
tent," but was soon forced to adjust her plan because of the rising num-
ber of potential patients in her husband's brigade.2
Nellie quickly found a vacant makeshift building near the Royal
Palm Hotel. "I got a big building 100 by 40 feet...The building was
only slatted but had windows with glass, and a solid roof-I had shades
of waterproof roofing paper hung to keep the sun and rain from com-
ing through the slats." The Metropolis announced Nellie's plans: "Mrs.
Gordon is hurrying forward the work of the building to be used as a
convalescent camp rapidly. In a few days those who are discharged from
the hospital will have a cosy [sic], pleasant place to spend a few days
while they are recuperating." The Metropolis' promotion of Nellie's
efforts sounded more like an advertisement for a Florida vacation spot
than a description of an unconventional recovery area housed in an


abandoned warehouse. In her journal, Nellie itemized what needed to
be done in order to open her "Ward": "It needs a floor-as it really is a
warehouse just built. We can get it ready with electric lights & water in
it & an outside kitchen, in 2 days. The Red Cross will give us 100 lbs.
of ice a day."2
While she waited for the building to be ready, Nellie put her amateur
nursing skills to use. She sent bottles of a homemade remedy to "Dr.
[Major John J.] Archinaud [Brigade Surgeon of the Second Brigade,
Seventh Army Corps] for his sick men-& had a little left over in a tum-
bler which I gave to Chaplain Watts, who is ill with typhoid fever."
This concoction was made with milk, which was always in short supply:
"If I only could get the milk. But it seems impossible!" She ordered
"packages of wine jelly" that were distributed to six ill soldiers. The
wine's alcohol content was thought to ease their symptoms of dysentery.
Nellie wrote that Major John J. Archinaud of the Second Louisiana
Volunteers, who was assigned temporary duty as Second Brigade's sur-
geon, was caring for a man with dysentery "who was said to be dying
yesterday," but after a dose of the wine jelly, the doctor "reports him
better to day [sic]." On the back inside cover of her journal, Nellie
wrote another homemade remedy she frequently used, "1 teaspoon full
of salt, 1 tablespoon full good vinegar to one tumbler of water, and a
tablespoon of gin," and she administered it hourly to the men.4
As Nellie became more involved in caring for the sickly soldiers, she
and Willie discovered that the cause for the division hospital's poor
conditions not only derived from its locale and supply shortage, but
also from the hospital staff's negligence. In a journal entry dated July
18, Nellie wrote: "In the afternoon Willy came over & had a very
stormy interview with the Drs-Appel & Vilas-He and Archinaud &
Col's [Major J.M.] Mood(y], Cox, & Oppenheimer brought up plenty
of proof of the neglect & outrages that exist in the Division Hospital...
The Doctors are getting thoroughly scared at last. Col. Maus had said
now the Hospital must be moved." Willie confronted the doctors using
specific examples of the "outrages" that another officer witnessed in the
division hospital. "Major Hughes was in that hospital & saw a man
lying there dying with the flies crawling all over his face & into his
mouth & the attendants did not pretend to keep them brushed away."
General Gordon claimed Hughes had observed more abuse: "A very
sick man asked for water & Major H-said to one of those Stewards-

Hell's Angel 47

Why don't you give that man some water? 'I'll give him a club!' was the
brutal reply." In what must have been his attempt to downplay the
episode, Appel tried to convince Willie that Hughes failed to see the
obvious humor, and said, "Oh, the steward was just joking!!!" But Appel's
response only further convinced Willie of the crisis at hand.25
When Gordon placed the blame on Appel, the discussion heated as
"Willie did not spare Appel." Nellie recalled: "He told him that he
(Appel) was responsible for all those outrages-That if he attended to
his duties properly the Hospital would not have been carried on in the
shameful way it had been." Appel refuted Willie's accusations by faulting
the federal government for only allowing two hundred beds. "Willie swore
that if the Gov't & Medical Board did not give all the cots needed-or
presumed to dictate how many
sick men should be provided with
cots & how many go without-he
would rouse not only the
Authorities at Washington-but
all the United States. He would
not submit to such outrage!"
Willie later fulfilled his promise
during the government's probe of
Camp Miami. Appel only found
the comments offensive, so Willie
added: "I have stated facts-If they
are insulting you can consider that
they are said, not by your Superior
Officer, but as man to man-and BJ '-.
you can do as you like about it." -
Appel rejected this candor, and
stormed out of the room.26 General William Gordon. Courtesy of
By the end of the day, Willie the Georgia Historical Society.
and Nellie became more deter-
mined to help when they learned three more men died. They viewed
the opening of the convalescent hospital not as a convenience for Camp
Miami's sick soldiers, but as a must in order to save lives. Two days
before Nellie's project was ready, she wrote that more water testing
occurred which meant there was still concern over contamination: "The
water sent to N.O.'s [New Orleans] has returned today-it was full of


typhoid germs & every other horror!" But she and Willie were distrust-
ful of additional tests, and implied that a federal cover-up was possible:
"Some [water] has been sent to the 'Smithsonian' also-I don't know what
they will discover-Possibly they may be bought over & find nothing."27
On July 19, Nellie wrote, "Our Convalescent building is nearly
ready." Finding supplies to furnish the ward was difficult because
necessities were scarce, and because requests took time to be processed,
"Everything is so slow here," she complained. In order to open the
facility quickly, at his own expense, Willie ordered "50 cots & I doz
camp chairs" from a store in Jacksonville, Florida, and Nellie "went to a
Furniture shop here & got 25 cots & 1 doz camp stools & sent them to
the Ward." She also found in town "six wash-basins & a lot of toweling."
These items were purchased by the Gordons at their own expense.
Initially, the couple found enough materials to open the ward, but as
more and more men checked-in, Nellie and Willie found themselves
short-handed again.2
Nellie's self-reliance served her well, but she knew that more help was
necessary in order to give good care to the soldiers who came to her
ward. Throughout the country, soldiers at other camps were also fight-
ing the war on disease without enough experienced medical officers
who had knowledge in military medical training and in preventative
medicine. With only half the manpower needed to work as nurses, or
stewards, the Army began pulling infantrymen from their units to serve
in hospitals. These men lacked motivation and training, and most
resented this assignment because they preferred combat. His options
thus limited, Surgeon General George Miller Sternberg then looked at
employing women as nurses. Requesting of the War Department the
authorization to hire a large number of female nurses. After receiving
permission, Sternberg, with the help of Dr. Anita Newcomb McGee,
established the Nurse Corps Division. Since the Medical Corps' com-
mon attitude towards female nurses "was condemnation at best, con-
tempt at worst," women were sent to serve in the Keys or Puerto Rico.
Without adequate nursing care, infected soldiers in stateside camps rap-
idly lost the battle against diseases like malaria and typhoid because of
the military's poor planning.2
What made matters worse for the sick soldiers at Camp Miami was
not just a lack of nurses, but that the newly chartered city still resem-
bled a frontier community in 1898. The city offered no institutionalized

Hell's Angel 49

health care and no professionalized medicine. It was not until 1908 that
a hospital was organized in Miami. For the relief of mild aches and
pains, most citizens purchased over-the-counter medicine at the Brickell
trading post. Otherwise, women of the community acted as the pri-
mary caretakers of the sick in Miami. If the women' remedies did not
work, actively ill people were taken by boat to Key West where many
highly trained physicians had set up their practices.'
Nellie asked "Dr. McGuire of 1st Brigade to take charge," and he
would act as the men's primary physician. Aware of the need for addi-
tional help, she wrote: "If Watts had a really good nurse he would do
much better-His wife is in the way here." When assistance was available,
Nellie was selective: "Mrs. Cosens writes offering her services-must
write & decline. We need good men-nurses." Although the military did
not assign nurses to Miami, Nellie probably could have found the addi-
tional help she needed from what must have been a well-known net-
work of women caregivers in the city. By discrediting other women's
capabilities, Nellie saw herself as an exception to the negative stereotype
of female nurses, and she wanted others to do the same. Not only did
Nellie believe that she was up to the task, but she also wanted others to
hold that impression.3
Nellie's self-confidence, and her apparent comfort in a man's world,
sometimes caused her to see other women's efforts as less noteworthy:
"Some fool woman trotted herself up to my room to day (sic) to talk to
me about the Red Cross, & the W. C. T. U. Society-was much sur-
prised to find I knew nothing about either!-I could hardly get rid of
her!" Although she finally acquired some help from a few male-nurses,
none of them were satisfactory to her, and they often caused her a great
deal of frustration.3
On July 20, Nellie opened the newly converted warehouse, and "23
men came in & were very comfortable there. The men are of present
fed & from the Div. Hospital." The next evening, Daisy arrived and "is
perfectly delighted with the place & thinks it is the coolest climate she
has felt since leaving England." Intending for Daisy to stay near her,
Nellie reserved connecting rooms at the Royal Palm Hotel before she
left Mobile. Almost immediately, Nellie took Daisy "to look in on the
Ward," where she discovered 14 more men. They "found one man
weak from fever-and all wanting fans." That evening, Nellie wrote
about the day's activities, "Daisy bought a dozen (for $3.00) of fancy


fans," and gave them to the men in the ward. After giving them the
fans, they "made a campaign for 1 tumbler of fresh milk, then whiskey,
then ice, and finally got a milk punch" to help relieve the man with the
fever. Milk was considered the best nutritional food for the sick, but if
soured, the milk could be the most hazardous food causing diarrhea
and dehydration. Most of the milk supply came from Flagler's dairy in
St. Augustine, Florida. He sold eighty quarts per day to the military for
hospital use. Disgusted with what she considered the exorbitant price
Flagler charged, Nellie complained, "He charges us 80 cents a gallon-and
milk sells everywhere else for 20 cents. There's a Shylock for you!" To
keep the milk cool and fresh Nellie bought a small ice box with the
twenty dollars the chaplain gave her."
General Gordon's brigade had about 350 men, or approximately 10
percent, on sick call daily, whereas, the First Brigade usually had about
250 soldiers on sick call. The rampant illness caused City of Miami
officials to worry. Coinciding with Maus and Wood's inspection of the
camp, the Metropolis attacked the camp's critics, attempting to dissuade
its readership from the opinions of military officials regarding the
healthfulness of Miami. "Miami was never in better condition in the

a l M.

..... -.1 1. ,. '- .v .

A rare photograph of soldiers at Camp Miami. HASF 1981-453.

A rare photograph of soldiers at Camp Miami. FIASF 1981-45-3.

Hell's Angel 51

matter of health than it is at present," argued the Metropolis. When the
Metropolis specifically mentioned the situation at Camp Miami, it
maintained that newspapers outside of Florida purposely exaggerated
stories concerning the camp. The Metropolis claimed "...all such twad-
dle-though furnishing sensational news for the saffron-hued journals,"
would not harm Miami's reputation "as the general good health of out
State is too well known to be hurt by unscrupulous attacks." "From our
sources of information," the Journal added, "we are satisfied that there
is no cause for apprehension as to the health of the troops encamped at
Miami; and we are confident that all Floridians feel assured that Mr.
Flagler will do all in his power to remedy any evils-should they exist..."3
Without the help of Flagler, military officials took their own precau-
tions to slow the rising numbers of men on sick call. Believing food
outside the camp could be made with contaminated ingredients,
"Colonel Stevens issued an order forbidding vendors of ice cream, pies
and similar items from entering the camp." The Metropolis maintained,
somewhat disingenuously, that this order was necessary because "physi-
cians have reported that many of the men now ill in the First Brigade
are sick from the overindulgence in food of this kind," while dismissing
charges that the city's negligence was to blame. The newspaper did not
identify these physicians and implied that all physicians, civilian as well
as military, agreed with this diagnosis."
In another article, the Metropolis described instances where soldiers
demonstrated disregard for their health: "Yesterday we noticed walking
through the streets, soldiers...totally unmindful of the torrents of rain
that was falling. This means an increased sick list." Throughout the
report, the newspaper admonished the soldiers for the lack of common
sense in rainy weather, and, with a patronizing tone, added: "The
utmost care should be observed by the soldiers in keeping their feet and
clothing dry, and under no circumstances go out in the rain if it can be
avoided." The Metropolis shifted the blame away from Flagler and
Miami, while focusing it on the soldiers "who brought sickness onto
themselves." Perhaps, the Metropolis' denial of the city's responsibilities
was meant to defend Flagler and his interests against possible charges of
negligence by the federal government.3
Nellie did not write in her journal again until July 26. Her silence
coincided with the escalation of her duties at the convalescent ward.
She wrote: "No time for journaling-my time has all been taken up


with the Convalescent Ward-men keep coming in, & more, & more,
& more cots & [mosquito] nets & camp stools and fans, & dishes &
knives & forks had to be bought." In addition to this pause, the writing
style and the voice of her journal dramatically change at this time. Her
writing now appeared erratic. Instead of communicating in an upbeat
tone with thoughtful, long, descriptive sentences filled with witty com-
mentary, she now wrote short incomplete sentences that ended with
dashes rather than periods or other standard punctuation.
For the first time in the journal, Nellie expressed insecurity and
panic, and a general feeling of being overwhelmed by the size of her
task. Her endeavor was becoming much more than a place to provide a
restful atmosphere and suitable food for a few sick men. Within one
week, the number of patients in Nellie's ward climbed from twenty-
three to seventy. Nellie wrote that "The number of deaths from typhoid
has increased. The number of sick from various causes-malaria, dysentery,
measles, etc.-greatly increased. All the men are demoralized, and the
officers are discouraged." Nellie, too, was disheartened as she became
disillusioned with her "Bright Idea.""37
Nellie nevertheless, continued to carry out her duties. She grew
attached to Willie's men and enjoyed helping the soldiers, as well as her
husband. Health conditions in Camp Miami remained poor because the
drinking water remained contaminated. Nellie complained, "Bringing
troops here, where they had bad water, is what has been a really criminal
piece of jobbery to fill Mr. Flagler's pockets." She "tried to get distilled
water for them to drink-but the machinery of the factory got out of
order." Military officials ordered that all water had to be boiled to prevent
more sickness, but the soldiers did not follow orders because it was con-
sidered inconvenient. "It is almost impossible to make them do so," she
complained, and noted that "Willy has got down casks and kettles from
Jacksonville for their use." The medical situation continued to deterio-
rate: "There are 400 men sick in the 2nd Texas-I have 70 in the C.
W-20 of them too ill to eat solid food-Daisy has spent all her time
making beef tea-jelly, etc for them." Nellie made a milk punch for the
men, which she admitted, was "not much.""
The Metropolis continued to downplay illness in the camp, claiming
in one article, that "The character of sickness now prevailing is a mild
type." Misleading information was a constant problem in the newspaper.
Reports like, "There was a large number of patients discharged yesterday

Hell's Angel 53

morning," led readers to believe that the soldiers were on the mend.
The editors failed to mention that the patients were still sick, and they
had been sent to Nellie's ward because of hospital overcrowding. "In fact
some of them were very sick.""
While the Metropolis' articles downplayed the camp's predicament,
Nellie's journal entries, instead documented the camp's "horrible state
of things." Since her ward opened, she spent every day "ransacking
these wretched stores for things-the most simple things-and can't
find them." When she did find supplies, Nellie locked them up in a
storage closet inside the ward. She tried to control the unhealthy envi-
ronment of the ward on her own by using whatever means she could to
ensure that her patients did not contract more disease: "I have got it
arranged so that all [water] we use is boiled. I have a man detailed to
see to it, & keep two large casks filled-I insist on ice water for them
day and night." Contradicting the Metropolis' reports, Nellie explained
in a letter to her uncle that the sickness was worse. "There are 75 cases
of typhoid fever and 12 more have died from it. Any number have
dysentery & measles & mumps. The two latter we don't mind much-
They are easily managed. It is the typhoid that worries us.""
As the number of sick increased daily, inspections carried out by
high-ranking military officials from Washington continued. Army sur-
geons surveyed the camp and made recommendations to stop the
spread of typhoid fever, but all of their suggestions were ignored.
Washington officials received conflicting reports from soldiers,
reporters, and even Henry Flagler concerning the camp. Accordingly,
some of them believed the medical situation was exaggerated. Flagler
wrote to Secretary of War R. A. Alger to explain the "very unfavorable
reports" that were sent to him "regarding the sanitary conditions, as
well as discomforts of the camp at Miami, Florida." Flagler claimed that
the reports "if not wholly untrue they are grossly exaggerated," and he
asked, "as a personal favor that you suspend judgment until Secretary Bliss
returned to Washington, whom I saw yesterday, and who is thoroughly
posted." Flagler's letter only caused more inquiries, and judgment continued.
It was suggested that an officer be sent to Miami "for the purpose of inves-
tigating and reporting upon the sanitary conditions of the camp."
Implying Flagler's influence over the situation, "this officer should be dis-
patched promptly and quietly, in order to avoid all advice and suggestions
from the agents of those who have financial interests at stake." 4


Nellie was aware of all the potential here for a "whitewash". After she
learned that Major-General Fitzhugh Lee, Commander of the Seventh
Army Corps, was expected to examine Camp Miami again, Nellie
wrote: "Genl Lee is expected to come here-I trust the wicked & cor-
rupt officials who are trying to fool Keifer (and is he fooled, or only
indifferent or wicked?) won't be able to fool Genl Lee." It seems that
conditions did not improve as a result of the inspections, which infuri-
ated Nellie: "Oh, this is such a damnable hole for a camp-I hope
everyone who had a pull at sending troops here will go to Hell!"
Whether it was because of supply problems or the administration's mis-
takes, the division hospital's conditions worsened, and "the men won't
go there if they can help it." As Nellie observed, "The Army regulations
provide Hospital accommodations of [with] 200 beds to each Division.
There are now here only two-thirds of a Division and we have a thou-
sand men sick! Think of it!" The nurses assigned to the hospital were
"only men the Surgeons pick up from among the soldiers." As nursing
duty was given to "the privates in the regiment" or as a form of punish-
ment, the soldiers assigned to the division hospital were "the most
worthless and troublesome men in the company." They often resented
being placed in a hospital instead of on the battlefield, which may have
made them more abusive and unsympathetic.42
When the division hospital was grossly overcrowded, sick soldiers
were sent to Nellie's ward, which now acted more as an intensive care
unit than a place for convalescence. On July 27, she and Daisy were
caring for eighty-six men, and they "had to buy & buy & buy to keep
with the increase of men." Nellie received two hundred dollars from the
Colonial Dames of Georgia, which she helped establish in 1894. With
these funds, she could provide each patient with "a mosquito net and a
nice cot." Since the converted warehouse "only holds 90 men," Nellie
was granted "permission to use the new Episcopal church which has
never been consecrated-and we will overflow into that if necessary."
Every morning for two weeks, Nellie went to her ward "right after
breakfast." "I got everything going there; fed several people who had
not had enough, [and] made a list of supplies." Relieved to have her
daughter's help each day, Nellie wrote: "Daisy spent two hours making
& distributing cups of chocolate which the men greatly enjoyed."
Although much of the treatment was improvised, the medical care the
soldiers received from the Gordon women must have been effective. On

Hell's Angel 55

July 28, Nellie sent thirteen men back to duty-"well." She wrote: "It is
quite flattering I declare, to meet so many who tell me what a God-send
the C. W is-& 'bless me'-and say how the men love me-etc., etc-I
shall be quite spoiled!" Nellie was proud that she and Daisy helped the
soldiers recover: "The change in their looks since they came there, is
wonderful. Such a hopeless, sad, indifferent, weak lot as they were!
Now they are alert, cheerful, hungry, satisfied, and interested in the
books & papers on supply to them."4
Years later, in her "Reminiscences," Nellie explained why she never
became infected: "In fact I am not afraid of disease, and never catch
anything. I went through a violent epidemic of cholera in Chicago in
1852 and of Yellow-fever in Savannah in 1858 [and in 1876] and was
never ill a moment, so I consider myself'immune.'" By late July 1898,
newspapers from all over the country praised her efforts. In a letter to
Nellie, her close friend, Lizzie Nicholas, wrote, "You are every bit as great
as Miss Nightingale & everybody has heard of [the] Miami tent convales-
cent hospital! It has been mentioned in New Haven papers & ever so
many others." Proud of her mother's work, Arthur wrote, "I hear all sorts
of good reports about you and your invaluable help to Papa.""4
In the last days of July, Willie's brigade was ordered to Camp
Fairfield in Jacksonville, Florida. As Nellie concluded her July 28 entry,
she wrote: "The great news I kept for the last item! We are to move!"
Although Willie and Nellie couldn't wait to leave, they emphatically
told Keifer, "we could not leave our sick men here, & if they do not go,
we would stay here with them." Keifer agreed to send the men by hos-
pital cars to wherever the Gordons requested. Nellie wrote of her and
Willie's decision: "All the Convalescents will be sent by Hospital train.
The very ill will be left here in charge of competent physicians-and
the sick who can safely be moved, will go on a Hospital train."
Demonstrating her sincere dedication to her patients, Nellie was willing
to go "a day or so in advance to secure accommodations for the
Convalescent Ward" without Willie.45
The military arranged for Nellie and Daisy's transportation to
Jacksonville. She filled her journal with details of her trip, but her main
concern was still the convalescent hospital: "I hope the Ward is doing
well. Dr. Maus has rented a good sized hotel at Pablo Beach, on the
ocean-an hour from here by train where all the convalescents are to
go-It will be fine." A soldier's wife wrote to Nellie pleading to have


her sick husband moved with his regiment soon from that "Pest-hole
Miami." The worried wife believed Nellie could help her. "Seeing by
the papers you and your noble work of seeing to the sick soldiers. I
hope you will pardon me for addressing you." She begged Nellie "to
please let me know what kind of care he [was] left in or if he should be
able to be moved to Jacksonville." If Nellie could do her this favor, "I
will be under lasting obligations to you to see how he is & if he has all
that is needed for a speedy recovery.""
Except for entries consisting of two or three short sentences, there
was another break in Nellie's journal because of her work. For a little
over two weeks, Nellie spent most of the day overseeing the sick sol-
diers' transfer to the convalescent hospital at Pablo Beach, which meant
one-hour train rides each way. Unlike her experiences in Miami, Nellie
appeared to be assured that the new convalescent facility was adequate.
On August 5, she made her first visit to Pablo Beach with Daisy "where
we found every thing delightfully & conveniently arranged for the
Convalescent Ward." This time Nellie also had capable help in estab-
lishing the ward, and full support with its maintenance. A committee
of the medical officials' wives, which included Nellie, was elected by
Maus' wife to inspect the daily operations of the brigade's hospital. The
committee also went with Nellie to oversee the daily operation of the
ward. Despite her appreciation for their assistance, Nellie still wanted to
be the heroine of her ward: "A Mrs. Guest from Cincinnati has been
here on this Ward from some Relief Society. She has a son-a private in
the 2 La. [Second Louisiana]. When she told him she was coming out
to inspect the Brigade Hospital, he told her she needn't trouble herself
with that; Mrs. Genl Gordon was taking care of them, & no one could
do anymore for them than she did!"47
Nellie remained in Jacksonville with Willie until he received orders
for Puerto Rico. For months after the men left the ward, the Gordons
looked after the soldiers by telling all who would listen about the "out-
rages" at Camp Miami. In late August, newspaper reporters told Nellie's
story in published articles that helped to bring more inquiry into Camp
Miami's medical history. She also sent letters to several people in
Washington, including the president, explaining the trying conditions
that soldiers endured at the camp. Willie published an editorial, "The
Truth About Miami. General Gordon's Conservative Review of the
Conditions There," that appeared in newspapers across the country.

Hel's Angel 57

Earlier, during their heated argument, Willie had warned Appel, chief
surgeon of Willie's division in Miami, if the camp's situation was not
improved, he would "rouse not only the Authorities at Washington-but
all of the United States." Together the Gordons were committed to fulfill-
h 48
ing his promise."
Before Nellie left Jacksonville for
her home in Savannah on August
22, she finished one last journal
entry. "This page ends my Army
life for the present..." This last
reflection did not mention any of
the pride she must have felt for
what she did for the soldiers in
Miami or the attention she was
receiving at the time. Instead, she
wrote about Willie without a
remark about herself: "The papers .
are full of complimentary notices
of him across the country. Bless
him!" Nellie's loving words Eleanor and William Gordon on their
revealed that "my General" was "Golden Anniversary," Ca.1907. Courtesy
still foremost in her life. Nellie of the Georgia Historical Society.
may have been remembering the
end of the last war, and Willie's dire sense of loss as she wrote: "The
Recognition has come at last & in such complimentary form!" Perhaps
it was important to Nellie that the last page of her "record" paid tribute
to her "General." In the afternoon of August 22, General Gordon
accompanied his wife to the train station, and "bid me goodbye." On
August 24, believing that only peaceful times lay ahead, Nellie began a
new journal.49
Years later, Nellie's son, Arthur, averred that the best words to
describe his mother's traits were "Like a flash." In his memoirs, he
added: "With her, action followed thought at once, and inevitably.
Obstacles and difficulties merely stimulated her." At Camp Miami,
Nellie just did what had to be done "like a flash."


"Heroine of War, Mrs. WW. Gordon,"Massachusetts Times Union e
Citizen (Boston, Massachusetts), 26 July 1898.
SDonna Thomas, 'Camp Hell': Miami During the Spanish-
American War," Florida Historical Quarterly 57 (1978), 150; "Good
Angel to the Boys in Blue, Chicago Times Herald, 25 August 1898.
The Spanish-American War Journal of Eleanor Kinzie Gordon, May
1898, Gordon Family Papers, Box 12: Folder 126, Item 2844,
Georgia Historical Society, Savannah, Georgia.
Nellie Kinzie Gordon, "Reminiscences" (unpaginated manuscript
notes), Gordon Family Papers, Box 13: Folder 131, Georgia
Historical Society, Savannah, Georgia.
Juliette Magill Kinzie to Eleanor Kinzie Gordon, 12 April 1858,
Gordon Family Papers, Box 1: Folder 3, Item 101, Georgia Historical
Society, Savannah, Georgia; Mary D. Robertson, ed., "Northern
Rebel: The Journal of Nellie Kinzie Gordon, Savannah, 1862,"
Georgia Historical Quarterly 60 (1986), 481; Mrs. Clarence Gordon
Anderson, "Eleanor Ke(i)nzie Gordon," Georgia Historical Quarterly
42 (1958), 166.
The Spanish-American War Journal of Nellie Kinzie Gordon, 3 July 1898.
1I Ibid.
" The Flagler Museum [online] (Palm Beach, Florida, accessed on 26
December 2001); available from http://www.flagler.org/biography.html;
Internet; Paul S. George, "Miami and the Spanish-American War:
The story of the Magic City during a Splendid Little War," Historical
Museum of South Florida [online]; available from http://www.histori-
cal-museum.org/history/war/campmiami.htm; Internet; accessed on
11 April 2001; Miami Metropolis, 17 June 1898; Donna Thomas, "
'Camp Hell': Miami During the Spanish-American War," Florida
Historical Quarterly 57 (1978), 143-144.
I Hal Hubener, "Army Life in Lakeland, Florida, During the Spanish-
American War," Tampa Bay History 20 (1998), 43; The Spanish-
American War Journal of Nellie Kinzie Gordon, 3 July 1898.
" Miami Metropolis, 24 June 1898; United States Senate, Document
221, 56th Congress, 1st sess., Report of the Commission Appointed By

Hell's Angel 59

the President to Investigate the Conduct of the War Department in the
War with Spain, 8 vols. (Washington, 1990), VII, 3364.
14 Thomas, "Camp Hell," Florida Historical Quarterly 57, 152; William
Washington Gordon II to George W. Wilson, 15 August 1898,
Gordon Family Papers, Series I, Subseries 1.5, Folder 143, Southern
Historical Collection, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
15 Ibid.
'" The Spanish-American War Journal of Nellie Kinzie Gordon, 9 July 1898.
7 The Spanish-American War Journal of Nellie Kinzie Gordon, 9 July 1898;
Senate Document 221, VIII, 82.
The Spanish-American War Journal of Nellie Kinzie Gordon, 9 July 1898.
19 Ibid.
20 The Spanish-American War Journal of Nellie Kinzie Gordon, 13 July 1898.
SThe Spanish-American War Journal of Nellie Kinzie Gordon, 13 July 1898;
Senate Document 221, VIII, 78-79; Wright, "Medicine in the
Florida Camps During the Spanish-American War," 21-23.
SThe Spanish-American War Journal of Eleanor Kinzie Gordon, 14 July 1898.
2 Eleanor Kinzie Gordon to David Hunter, 28 July 1898, Gordon
Family Papers, Series 1, Subseries 1.5, Folder 142, Southern
Historical Collection, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Miami
Metropolis, 16 July 1898; The Spanish-American War Journal of
Eleanor Kinzie Gordon, 17 July 1898.
SEleanor Kinzie Gordon to David Hunter, 28 July 1898, Gordon
Family Papers, Series 1, Subseries 1.5, Southern Historical Collection,
Chapel Hill, North Carolina; The Spanish-American War Journal of
Eleanor Kinzie Gordon, no date.
SThe Spanish-American War Journal of Eleanor Kinzie Gordon,
18 July 1898; Ibid., 19 July 1898.
2' Ibid.
27 Ibid.
29 Ibid.
22 Mary T. Sarnecky, "Nursing in the American Army from the
Revolution to the Spanish-American War," Nursing History Review 5
(1997), 52-59; Lieutenant Colonel Connie L. Reeves, United States
Army (Retired), "Nurses Spell Relief," Naval History 12 (1998), 40.
30 Christine Ardalan, "Professional Nurses in Early Miami, 1896-1925,"
Tequesta: The Journal of the Historical Association of Southern Florida
57 (1997), 53-54.


SThe Spanish-American War Journal of Eleanor Kinzie Gordon,
19 July 1898.
32 Ibid.
SThe Spanish-American War Journal of Eleanor Kinzie Gordon, 21
July 1898; Lucy Ridgely Seymer, compiled by, Selected Writings of
Florence Nightingale (New York: The MacMillian Company, 1954),
169; Eleanor Kinzie Gordon to David Hunter, 28 July 1898. A
"Shylock" is a relentless, revengeful moneylender in Shakespeare's
Merchant of Venice.
34 Miami Metropolis, "Healthfulness of Miami," 16 July 1898.
SIbid., 15 July 1898.
6 Ibid., "Soldiers Beware," 15 July 1898.
37 Ibid.
3 Miami Metropolis, "At the Division Hospital," no date; Eleanor
Kinzie Gordon to David Hunter, 28 July 1898.
Senate Document 221, VII, 92; Ibid., 73.
42 The Spanish-American War Journal of Eleanor Kinzie Gordon, 26
July 1898; Eleanor Kinzie Gordon to David Hunter, 28 July 1898;
Senate Document 221, VII, 92-93.
SEleanor Kinzie Gordon to David Hunter, 28 July 1898.
4Gordon, "Reminiscences;" Elizabeth Byrd Nicholas to Eleanor Kinzie
Gordon, 10 August 1898, Gordon Family Papers, Box 4: Folder 50,
Item 1201, Georgia Historical Society, Savannah, Georgia; George
Arthur Gordon to Eleanor Kinzie Gordon, 11 September 1898,
Gordon Family Papers, Series 1, Subseries 1.5, Folder 144, Southern
Historical Collection, Chapel Hill, North, Carolina.
The Spanish-American War Journal of Eleanor Kinzie Gordon,
28 July 1898.
4 Eleanor Kinzie Gordon to George Arthur Gordon, August 2, 1898,
Gordon Family Papers, Series 1, Subseries 1.5, Folder 143, Southern
Historical Collection, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Mrs. M. S. Bledsoe to
Eleanor Kinzie Gordon, 2 August 1898, Gordon Family Papers, Box 4:
Folder 51, Item 1200, Georgia Historical Society, Savannah, Georgia.
The Spanish-American War Journal of Eleanor Kinzie Gordon, 5
August 1898; Ibid., 11 August 1898.
4Senate Document 221, VIII, 92-93; William Washington Gordon II,

Hell' Angel 61

"The Truth About Miami. General Gordon's Conservative Review
of the Conditions There," New Orleans Picayune, 27 August 1898;
The Spanish-American War Journal of Eleanor Kinzie Gordon,
19 July 1898.
4 The Spanish-American War Journal of Eleanor Kinzie Gordon,
22 August 1898.

Early Miami Through the Eyes of Youth

William M. Straight, M.D.

The following account of early Miami is composed of an edited face
to face interview with Ethel Weatherly Sherman who came to Miami
as a child of ten in 1896, and an unsigned, undated manuscript
undoubtedly written by her perhaps to be used for a talk or paper by
her.' The audiotaped interview was done by Valerie Fisher Lassman,
Ph.D., on July 25, 1978, and transcribed by this author. Present at
the interview was Hal Mordaunt, Jr., Sherman's son by her previous
marriage to Hal Mordaunt, Sr. Apparently he was sitting a distance
from the microphone so that often I was unable to perceive what he
was saying on the audiotape. To indicate this, I have left a short blank
line followed by [H. Jr.]. A copy of the undated manuscript was given
to me by Christopher Eck, Administrator of the Broward County
Historical Commission, in August 2001, when he was Director of
the Office of Historic Preservation, Miami-Dade County. Copies of
both of these sources may be found in the archives of the Historical
Museum of Southern Florida. I have quoted from each of these
sources material that is not easily available; this material focuses on
day to day events as seen through the eyes of a youth. Further, I have
deleted interjections, and repetitious expressions, and I have included
in brackets and the endnotes, missing words, corrections and supple-
mental information. Although quotation marks do not appear, the
whole of this narrative is contained within a quotation; I have left
misspellings, as well as lack of capitalizations and punctuations in
the narrative which follows.

Early Miami through the Eyes of Youth 63

Mama, small sister Edna and I arrived in Miami, from Kissimmee in
the Fall 1896 [Miami was incorporated a few months earlier]. To get
here we had to go to Palatka to change trains then lay over and spend a
night in New Smyrna, then on to Miami.
When we came from the train it really looked hopeless-no depot,
no paved streets, shacks and shanties lined the rocky road [now Flagler
Street]. We walked over to the site of the 2 tents my father [Capt.
William Henry Weatherly] had provided for us. Mama was disgusted
and heartsick-we had left a lovely little home in Kissimmee, with nice
flower & vegetable gardens, a cow & lots of room, beautiful old oak
trees, not far from the lake and to come to this awful camp, our new
"home" was a shock. If our home in Kissimmee had not been sold, I'm
sure mama would have returned to it the next day. Our tents were situ-
ated on the NE corner of what is now East Flagler St. and NE 1st
Avenue, under huge old oak trees, surrounded by a thicket of wild
growth, papayas-palmettos & vines, etc. Twelfth St. [today's Flagler
Street] had not been paved, it was a rough tangle of rocks and roots-
but there were a lot of people living along both sides in tents & Shacks
(built mostly of scrap lumber mostly from the Royal Palm Hotel which
was under construction a few blocks away). Each shack had its own
water pump, and sometimes the pumps brought up water thick with
lime, and a terrible taste.
Our furniture consisted of a cot for each of us, a few Kitchen chairs,
a Kitchen table and a 2-burner Kerosene oil stove and other camping
inconveniences. Life was really rough-the mosquitoes devoured us day
& night-the only way you could sit out doors afternoon & at night
was by huddling in the smoke over a tub of smudge [made of] dried
coconut hulls sprinkled with "mosquito powder" [possibly pyrethrum]
we bought from the Townley Bros. little drug store across the street,
and rags. The Townley brothers, John, Tom & Vernon also came from
Kissimmee as did John & Ev Sewell. The Sewells opened the first shoe
store here in the Miami Hotel a small wooden bldg. which was situated
on Avenue D (now Miami Avenue) not far from the [Miami] river. The
hotel burned, [December 25, 1899] when it was only a few years old,
in a big fire that destroyed several small businesses in the vicinity.
We'd been living in tents for months and months and months before
we got into the house because there was no other place to live. My
father had these tents built for us and after the houses were built [the


Looking west on Flagler Street, ca. 1899, from near First Avenue. HASF 62-24-23 (n).

Flagler cottages along today's southeast first and second streets], of
course, they let us move into one of the houses. We had two tents, both
of them together were not as large as this patio. Just ordinary like sol-
diers tents but he did have wooden floors in them and they had what
they called a fly over 'em-one big sheet of canvas to keep the hot sun
from getting on the roof of the tent itself, you know. Just with screen-
ing all around. It was just the roughest rawest kind of living.2
We were capsized when we were living in the tent. I went out just for
the fun of sailing. I had never been on a boat and I know my mother
hadn't and probably papa either. This Mr. [A. L.] Gravelle that was a
friend of his, he was a carpenter on the Royal Palm, had a little sailboat
so he took us out sailing and we capsized and were not rescued until
the following day. We were out there twenty-two hours. We just clung
to that boat-it was under water. You know the boat would have a
curve like this, it was on it's side. So my mother and father, my mother
holding my little baby sister, we were all just crowded together on that
rounded part of the boat that was...well, we were still in water up to
our necks, the boat was so far under water. And there we...well, we
couldn't do anything. I remember seeing the sun go down and I'll never
forget that as long as I live. The only outline of Miami that we could
see was the framework of the Royal Palm Hotel. It was up about two
stories it wasn't even anywhere near finished. But luckily my mother

Early Miami through the Eyes of Youth 65

had a brother [Charles Wynne] living in Miami, young fellow, he was
about eighteen years old, and when we didn't get home that night, he
was alarmed and began telling everybody Weatherly and his family
didn't get back from this sailing trip and he knew where we were sup-
posed to go across the Bay to see if we could find shells on the beach.
By the next day people were alarmed enough to began getting in what
boats there were. There were only probably five or six boats, not very
many. And one of them belonged to a Mr. [Wesley M.] Featherly as
luck would have it. So we were Weatherlys being rescued by Featherly.
Featherly was the owner and editor of the old Miami Metropolis. I've
got the newspaper with that account in it.3 It was Charlie, Charlie
Wynne, got so frightened and worried. Somebody suggested that if any-
body has binoculars, get up as high as you can go on the framework of
the Royal Palm and see if you can find them out there in the Bay some-
where. Somebody said well Mr. [A. L.] Knowlton had this surveyor's
instrument, you know the telescope. Mr. Knowlton plotted the layout
of Miami. So they got hold of Mr. Knowlton, he was a very old man
even at that time. Had a long white beard; I'll never forget it. And they
got Mr. Knowlton up there and with that instrument he spotted us out
there. He said it looked like just coconuts out there because we were in
the water up to our necks. But he said go there and see if that's what it
is. So it happened it was all of us perched on that capsized boat. He
located us with that instrument and sent the Featherly boat out there
after us. But it was very windy and chilly, I don't remember exactly
what date it was and what month but it's in the newspaper. They had
to send a rowboat over to pick us up. The Featherly boat was named
The Ethel Pearl, I think, But they sent the rowboat out and picked us
up and took us on there [on board] and then they took us back to
shore and a lot of people were living on houseboats at that time. And
they were anchored along just little makeshift homemade docks that
ran out from the shore.
There was a family named [N. D.] Coates, I think some of them are
still around, it was a large family. The Coates people invited us to come
aboard their houseboat because my mother was in terrible condition.
She had been badly hurt in sitting astride this overturned boat. She had
to sit astride of it and hold Edna in her arms, so the movement of the
boat wore off the flesh of her ankles right down to the bone. It took her
a long time before she was able to get around. Dr. [James M.] Jackson


[the new city's first physician] took care of her, got her back
and straightened out again. But, anyway the Coates kept us there
on their houseboat for several days, maybe a week and just made
everything wonderful for us. That's one thing at that time every-
body was neighborly and they did everything they could for each
other, you know.
I've got pictures of Hal's father, [Hal Mordaunr, Sr.] he was an actor,
a very handsome wonderful looking man. He had I guess the first plays
ever presented in Miami. He was a professional actor and later I went
on the road with him. He was born in San Diego.
He had recruited a group of amateur actors here. There was Charlie
Dillon and Redmond Gautier, that was Bunn's [R. B.] father and
Charlie Dillon who was the son of Captain [G. W.] Dillon, the captain
on that Key West boat, and Cecil Watson and [Gustav] Von Moser, the
German who was such a character here in Miami and oh I don't know,
there were eight or ten of us. Hal and my mother made the scenery,
stitched it together and Hal painted it. If it was a forest scene, a living
room scene, whatever, and then these plays were put on in the school
auditorium, just a little bitty stage. What school was that? It wasn't the
high school-the Central Grammar School. Where the Federal
Building is [on today's Northeast First Avenue between Third and
Fourth Streets]. This was a wooden building, just a big old wooden
frame building. We went to school there and later on and that's where
Hal's father's company had come to Miami to put on some plays,
Gagnon Pollack Stock Company (?). That was the first thing the
Picketts and the Gagnons, that put on the first plays here then Hal put
on these amateur plays where he had all these young amateurs, Priscella
Budge and all the kids. He taught them how to dance and he put on
these plays-later on we put on plays with two or three acts in them. I
was in an amateur play with Von Moser and Cecil Watson and all these
people and Hal's company was here, they were to use that theater and
they were delayed one day because we had engaged that night for our
show. So Hal's father was sitting in the audience with the rest of his
company and watching these amateurs play. So he came back stage and
introduced himself to me and that's how I met your father. And I went
home-he stayed and took me home from the play. And he took me to
his home which was also my home, he had rented a room in mama's
house. Across from the San Carlos Hotel.

Early Miami through the Eyes of Youth 67

In clearing land for [the] grounds of [the] Royal Palm Hotel, a large
Indian Mound had to be removed-Papa was in charge of a crew of
laborers who began at the eastern base and gradually brought it down.
They found a great many skeletons, lots of items which may have
belonged to soldiers stationed at Ft. Dallas such as handmade metal
canteens, odds and ends of pottery jars-glass beads and other objects.
We had several of these but over the years have lost all except some blue
& white glass beads and a handmade flattened gold earring found in a
grave occupied by a small skeleton. This mound no doubt had been
started many years before even the Brickells settled on the point across
the river as papa found among bones of a skeleton near the bottom of
the mound a beautiful gold crucifix, evidently belonging to a Catholic
priest. He presented this wonderful find to Mr. J. A. McDonald who
was in charge of all of the Flagler development, a contractor who super-
vised [the] building of [the] Royal Palm. Other skeletons found higher
up in layers near [the] top of the mound were removed and [the] bones
deposited in barrels, the Skulls ranged up on boards placed on [the] top
of barrels. After all bones were removed and placed in barrels, they were
buried in a deep sink-hole not far away. This was a natural deep pit,
with a large wild fig tree growing tall with its top many feet above the

Clearing the grounds for the Royal Palm Hotel, March 1896. Miami River, Brickell
Point and the Brickell family home are in the background. HASF 62-24-185.


rim. The pit was gradually filled and [the] ground leveled. As near as I
can recall, this pit was located about what is now SE Second Street &
Second Avenue. The Watson [John W Watson ] home in later years
was built on this spot. The gold earring and beads mentioned are now
deposited in the Loxahatchee Historical Museum, 805 North US 1,
Jupiter, Florida.
I was at the opening [of the Royal Palm Hotel] and it was a beautiful
event [January 17, 1897]. They had a wonderful Italian orchestra. The
hotel itself was just magnificent, it was beautifully carpeted and fur-
nished with handsome wicker furnishings and big mirrors everywhere
and the most beautiful ballroom. I was just a kid, I guess I was ten
years old then. It was on the river side of the hotel but before we got to
that ballroom we went through a big rotunda and the place for the
orchestra and then there was the dance floor. And at this opening
everybody in Miami was invited. They were very gracious and nice. The
manager was-his last name was on the tip of my tongue-it'll come to
me [Henry W Merrill]. But anyway they just issued a blank invitation
to all the-everybody come. And there was more scurrying around for
people trying to buy material, to buy a new dress, to wear to this thing.
I remember mine quite well, it was a very stiff blue organdy and I'll
never forget when I sat down, it was all just sticking to me, wrinkled
up, and you know how some cloth will just crinkle up and just stay like
that. But everybody got new clothes, new shoes, and all got fixed up for
this thing and it was the first orchestra I think I'd ever heard in my life
and I was completely fascinated like all the children were. And they let
the children ride in the elevators, the beautiful hallways with all these
elevators running up. They had young women operating the elevators
and they were so nice to us. I guess they all had their orders to take
these poor little crackers and give 'em a good time. But they'd run the
elevators up and down and let us ride them and we'd go in these
beautiful rooms where all the mirrors were and beautiful furniture that
we'd never seen before.
What kind of things did your mother used to do for you at home?
Everything, sewed, cooked, kept house-just did everything except
the laundry. What kind of things did she like to cook? Everything
southerners like. We had ham and bacon, plenty of eggs, cereals,
vegetables-turnip greens, collard greens, corn-just everything that
southerners like. Did you have a little garden in the back? Oh no,

Early Miami through the Eyes of Youth 69

there was no room for the garden because the Flagler houses were built
back to back around the street so there was not much space. I don't
remember anybody having a garden.
How did you get your dairy products and your groceries? Well,
there were two grocery stores, little things. I think the first one was
operated by a Mr. Brady, E. L. Brady, who moved here from
Titusville and J. E. Lummus-and later on T. N. Gautier. There
were three just general like old country stores, they had everything,
you know, but pretty good supplies.
Were they delivered to your house? Oh yes, in those days Mr.
Lummus came to the back door to take my mother's kitchen order and
Bradys never did that. Mr. Lummus, I think, came after Brady and he
had to build up business. So they'd come around-I can remember
seeing Mr. Lummus with his little book jotting down the things
mama wanted. And in those days you bought a barrel of flour and a
great big strip of bacon, just everything in big quantities. And it was
a long time before we had ice. A man named L. C. Oliver had a little
ice factory up about where Sixth Street-it was Sixth Street then, I
believe, it stayed Sixth [the only street in Miami that retained its
original number name after the new system of numbering and name
streets was adopted in 1920].
The streets, of course, were just this coral rock just pounded up and
the streets were just snow white, they'd put your eyes out. And they
were pounded down. They put down coarse rock first then the fine
rock and then the colored workers would string out across the street
with their tamps [an instrument for packing dirt or sand in a hole] and
sing these beautiful Negro spirituals and they tamped [and] they kept
time. People all over town, the few lawyers that were here like Mr.
[H.E] Atkinson, Bob [RH.] Seymour and Robert [R.] Taylor and people
like that, they kinda just .-.it was like going to a show. Just stand
there and watch these men work and hear them singing. It was really
wonderful. But of course I was so young, it was a wonderful experience
for me. I was a roamer, I was everywhere, I went all over town. I had a
little bicycle and as the streets were paved and there was some place to
go I went there I wanted to see what it was.
What do you recall about the Seminoles in particular? The only thing
I remember about them was their costuming, really, and their shirts and
the beautiful turbans. They wore these turbans that they made and


the-you've seen the Indian women, the women's clothes. They used
to put so much work on those beautiful shirts it was just amazing the
colors that could combine. And the men, of course, the shirts came
down to their knees, and they were barefoot, they didn't wear shoes or
socks or anything like that, they just had real tough soles with their
feet. But those costumes were wonderful. They used to have these
long canoes that were hollowed out of big trees, big pine trees. And
they poled them, they didn't have oars. The man would stand in the
stern of the boat and put the pole down and push it, push the boat
ahead. I remember seeing those, a great many of them especially
around the Brickell Point where they used to do a lot of trading [at
the Brickell family's trading post]. It was across the river from the
main part of Miami."
Did you ever see the Indians come into town much for any reason?
Oh, yes, they came in all the time. You could hardly go out on the
street, especially down on the river across from Brickells but what you'd
see them. Oh, it wasn't a rare sight at all. They were friendly. There was
a family here named Girtman, they had a little grocery store [Girtman
Brothers: Grover C. and James D.] on Twelfth Street between the rail-
road and Avenue D. and the Indians used to do a lot of trading there.
You couldn't go into the Girtman grocery, hardly, without seeing
Indians. They were just a fixture in that store and great friends of the
Girtman family. They had a daughter named Rosebud, Rosebud
Girtman, and-I've forgotten the names of the males in the family,
there were several that comprised the grocery business."
During the Spanish American war everybody kept boarders and on
13th Street, in the first Flagler house that we lived in when I was a
child, we lived next door to Burdines and all the houses were built with
nice big attics. When there was a chance to rent a room the family
moved into the attic and rented that room. Burdines did, we did, the
Hahns, everybody did it.
A little while ago we were talking about what Miami was like during
the Spanish American War. It was just a quiet little town and the sol-
diers were camped up on the Bay. They were orderly, they behaved
themselves. We knew people in one of the Texas regiments we were
quite friendly with. And I don't know how many regiments there were
but there were several because they occupied a lot of ground there. It
must have been several blocks. They were here, I think, on account of

Early Miami through the Eyes of Youth 71

being close to Cuba-they might have to go over there anytime, you
know. They used to drill in the streets-it was like a show for the peo-
ple, they enjoyed it. The town, itself, was just a nice quiet town, every-
body was behaving themselves. Everybody knew everybody else we were
all friendly. There were stores cropping up and businesses going here
and there. The town was growing very fast.12
I went to the East Florida Seminary in Gainesville and learned ste-
nography, learned shorthand and typing. And I went to work for this
old friend, Bob Seymour, who was from Kissimmee, and a lawyer
named Atkinson and for the whole big sum of three dollars a week.
And I wasn't any more of a stenographer than one of these puppies
around here. But I could after a fashion write what they told me to
write, but I was far from a good stenographer. Anyway the Brickells
were clients of Seymour and Atkinson, the law firm. And I often had to
take papers over for Mrs. [Mary] Brickell to sign. Mr. Seymour had a
rate with a stable, Correll's, Adam Correll's Stable. They would rent a
horse and a little buggy, a little single-seater buggy, and I'd go over
there and get a horse and buggy and drive across the little old wooden
bridge to the Brickell's. house.3 There was just this little old narrow
paved road that the bridge joined up with, and 'cause that was the only
way you could get across except with a boat. When Mr. Seymour had
papers for Mrs. Brickell or some of the family to sign why they would
send me over there with them.
You know as I think of Mrs.
Brickell she looked to me more
like some pictures that you see of
Ssa t Queen Victoria. Really? Yes, that
Stype. She was English and a very
nice person. And there were two
or three sons, there was Charles
and William, I remember, and
there was Edith, I think she was
the oldest and Belle and Maude
was the youngest. One of them
was killed I think after the 1926
storm [September 12, 1924]. She
Mary Bulmer Brickell, ca. 1870. HASF, was electrocuted in her own gar-
Stan Cooper Collection, 1990-521-1. den walking around and she ran


The Brickell family graveyard on their homestead prior to 1924. HASF x-759-26.

into a live wire-that was Belle [Alice]. Miss Edith was really the busi-
ness manager for the Brickells. As they grew older and didn't want to
have anything with anything but just trying to rest, you know. But any-
way, that's how I knew Mrs. Brickell and I admit if there was any of them
in the room she'd introduce me to them. So I met a good many of
them. Do you recall Mr. Brickell personally? No. I just remember how
he looked. I met him but that's all.
How was their house? Well it was like pictures that you see of the
old Victorian houses full of bric-a-brac and beautiful old furniture.
And, as I recall, I never saw Mrs.[Mary ] Brickell standing. I don't
know whether she could walk or not because she was always sitting
in the big easy chair. She was always nice to me, they always had
crackers and cookies and tea. So I had quite a little visit there while I
was waiting for her to read and sign the papers and everything like
that. And I used to wander around the place. I saw a good deal of it.
They had a family graveyard in the ground and I don't remember
who was in it but I know it was just a family graveyard. I think the
mausoleum is still there. They may have built the mausoleum on the
spot where these people are buried, but at that time I know they
were just buried, you could see the headstones. I never examined
them 'cause I didn't want to get called down about prowling around
other people's property.'

Early Miami through the Eyes of Youth 73

I knew Mrs. Tuttle; I used to steal pansies from her pansy bed and
I got scolded many a time. They had a pansy bed along in back of
the old building, the Fort Dallas barracks. You've seen pictures of
that haven't you? Yes. She had this beautiful pansy bed and it was
easy to get to because it wasn't too-I'm getting my cart before the
horse. There was a street that ran down into the Fort Dallas property
and her home was off to the left and all the rest of it was just palm
trees and flowers and shrubs-a beautiful landscaped place. And she
had these flower beds all over the place but the pansy bed was my
favorite because it was easiest to get to. 'Cause I could come in
across the railroad [Florida East Coast Railway]-there was a rail-
road spur that went down behind our houses and to the Royal
Palm. East and West into the Royal Palm-right into the Royal
Palm building to unload groceries and supplies and everything for
the hotel. So all you had to do was cross that railroad track and go
in and there you were in Mrs. Tuttle's property. And she had all
these beautiful flower beds everywhere but the pansies were my
favorite and I used to steal pansies. Once in a while she'd catch
me-she'd just yell at me, "Be careful don't get too many." But she
was nice, she was a wonderful person, just as nice, everybody loved
her. When she was very sick, in fact when she died, there were no
professional nurses in Miami so people volunteered. There may have
been one or two that knew a little about nursing but no real profes-
sionals. And Aunt Edith was one of the people that volunteered to
nurse Mrs. Tuttle during her illness. So in that way we got into the
house quite often, going over with Aunt Edith to take her some-
thing. The house that Mrs. Tuttle lived in was just a typical, old
Bahamian, stone house with a concrete corridor running in front of
it. And it was just a plain, big, old comfortable house. 'Course she
brought all her beautiful furniture from the home in Cleveland, I
believe it was, Cleveland, Ohio.'5
Do you recall Dr. [James M.] Jackson? Very, very well. He was one
of the most wonderful men that ever lived. And he was so good to
everybody. You know there were people that were unable to pay but
it didn't make a bit of difference to Dr. Jackson. You got his best care
and you never got a bill. He was just one of the most wonderful
people that ever lived. He was a nice looking man. He was blond
and blue-eyed and I remember exactly his features and his wife, his


lovely wife-he married her, a Gainesville girl [Bronson, FL], her
name was Ethel Barco and she and my mother were great friends.
Did he have any children? Let's see, Ethel Jackson and Helen
Jackson, two daughters he never
S: dagte Jhad a son. It was Ethel Jackson
Hote that the little tub was painted for,
.. you know that I told you about.
There was no plumbing in
Miami at that time and when
Mrs. Jackson's first child, Helen
[Ethel was the first born]
Jackson, was getting ready to be
born, they couldn't get a suitable
baby bathtub for her. So Frank T.
Budge had this big hardware
a store [on today's East Flagler
SStreet and North Miami
Avenue]--it was really a big
business 'cause everybody was
building something. Mrs.
Dr. James M. Jackson with his daughter, Jackson bought a big oval dish-
Helen, in front of the Royal Palm pan and she and my mother
Hotel ca. 1905. Courtesy of the Journal enameled it with white enamel.
ofthe Florida Medical Association. That was that baby's, Ethel
Jackson's bathtub.'6
Other doctors soon came to Miami-Dr. [R. H.] Huddleston,
from Kissimmee, Dr. Peter [Thomas] Skaggs, Dr. [Samuel Mills]
Fowler, his wife [Dr. Corrie Harriet Rogers Fowler] also a doctor,
and their 3 children,-Frank, Fay [who as Fay Cunningham served
many years as Secretary of Miami Pioneers] and Corrie who married
Harry Tuttle, son of Mrs. Julia D. Tuttle The 2 doctors Fowler were
Julia Tuttle's doctors during her last illness.'7

Early Miami through the Eyes of Youth 75

Unsigned manuscript of Ethel Weatherly Sherman, 1.
SIbid., 2-3.
3No author, "A Day of Horror," The Miami Metropolis, May 14, 1897, 8.
Manuscript of the Ethel Weatherly Sherman interview by Valerie
Fisher Lassman, Audiotaped, 25 July 1978: 15-17.
Manuscript of the Lassman interview, 19-20.
SUnsigned Sherman manuscript, 6-7. Eck, Christopher. "A
Picturesque Settlement: The Diary of Dr. Jeffries Wyman's Visit to
Miami and the First Archaeological Excavations in South Florida,"
The Florida Anthropologist, 53: No. 4, December 2000, 286-293.
Manuscript of the Lassman interview, 6-8.
Lassman interview, 21-23. This portion of the narrative contains,
somewhat awkwardly, a series of questions and answers, which, how-
ever, provide valuable information on the nascent city.
Ibid., 8.
o Ibid., 25-26.
SIbid., 26
2 Ibid., 26-27. Miami, a town of perhaps 1,200, was host to more than
7,000 troops from June 1898, to early September of the same year.
They brought with them a fearful epidemic of typhoid fever with
twenty-four deaths among the troops. In addition there was a con-
comitant measles epidemic that spread to the civilian community and
at least two deaths. Because of her youth, Ethel Weatherly Sherman
was eleven years old in 1898, and because The Miami Metropolis edi-
tor minimized the extent of the sickness, she probably didn't realize
the calamitous effects among the troops and civilians. Ethel
Weatherly Sherman also failed to recall the tension and occasional
incidents of violence on the part of the troops. William M. Straight,
"Camp Miami, 1898," The Journal of the Florida Medical Association,
74: No. 4, 504-513, July 1987.
3 The first bridge over the Miami River was a wooden bridge that opened
for traffic on December 8, 1896. It crossed the river at the foot of
Avenue G [today's SW 2nd Avenue]. It was in use until after 1903 when
an iron bridge at Avenue D [today's Miami Avenue] opened.
SThe Brickell mausoleum was built thirty yards southwest of the family
graveyard located near the swimming pool at today's Sheraton
Biscayne Bay Hotel at 495 Brickell Avenue by the Thurmon


Monument Company in 1924. Subsequently, the burials in the
graveyard were transferred to the mausoleum. Beginning August 8,
1924, Brickell burials were directly into the mausoleum. However, on
August 30, 1951, the Brickell mausoleum was emptied and the bod-
ies were transferred to the Woodlawn Park Cemetery, North. Ann
McFadden, Woodlawn Park North, Vol. I, (Privately printed, Miami,
2000), 113-114.
SManuscript of the Lassman interview, 13-14. Mrs. Turtle's house was
one of two stone buildings standing on the north bank of the Miami
River built by William English as his manor house in late 1848. It
stood parallel to the north bank of the river and just west of the slave
quarters building, the other stone structure, which is now preserved
in Lummus Park and known as the William English Slave Plantation
House/Fort Dallas.
16 Manuscript of the Lassman interview, 9.
7 Unsigned manuscript of Ethel Weatherly Sherman, 6. Sherman's
account ends abruptly here. The value of this incomplete essay lies, of
course, in the plethora of information found in it. Despite its youth-
fulness, today's Greater Miami has relatively few pioneer remaining
thus making the Weatherly Sherman essay even more important.

This Page Blank in Original
Source Document


Historical Association of

Southern Florida

Membership List

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The following listing is in descending gift order, as of
October 10, 2003. Any changes on your category or
gift level transacted after that date will appear in the
2004 Tequesta. Thank you for supporting the
Historical Museum of Southern Florida through your
membership and endowment gifts.

~~~~_____ __._

List of Members 79

The Comptie Constituency

The Comptie Constituency is a distinguished society established to honor donors who have
already supported the endowment in a significant way, or who have made specific provisions in
their estate plans that will benefit the future of the Historical Museum of Southern Florida.
The museum created this society as a way of recognizing and thanking donors for gifts that will
impact the museum for years to come.

Charter Members

Mr. Mitchell Wolfson, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Louis N. Tilley
Mr. & Mrs. John C.
Harrison, Sr.
Mr. & Mrs. William A. Graham
Mr. & Mrs. Arnold C.
Mr. & Mrs. Lewis M. Kanner
Mr. & Mrs. David Mesnekoff
Ryder System Charitable
Foundation, Inc.
John S. & James L. Knight
Mr. & Mrs. Allen Corson
Estate of Thomas B. Haggard
Estate of Phyllis M.G.
Mrs. Avis Kent Goodlove
Northern Trust Bank of
Dr. Charlton W. Tebeau
Mr Peter L. Bermont &
Mr. & Mrs. Charles P.
Barnett Bank of South
Florida, N.A.
The Miami Herald
Knight Ridder, Inc.
Miss Lamar Louise Curry
Mrs. John W. Prunty
Mr. & Mrs. Teofilo A. Babun
Burger King
Estate of John M. Frohock
Sun Trust
Estate of Elizabeth H. Peeler
Mr. & Mrs. Douglas Erickson
Mr. & Mrs. Clifford Russ

Mr. & Mrs. Henry Z. Norton
Mr. & Mrs. Hunting
E Deutsch

Mr. & Mrs. David Younts
Deloitte & Touche
Mr. & Mrs. William D.
Mr. & Mrs. R. Layton Mank
Mr. & Mrs. Alvah H.
Chapman, Jr.
The Dunspaugh-Dalton
Foundation, Inc.
First Union Foundation
Greenberg, Traurig,
Hoffman, Lipoff, Rosen
& Quentel, PA.
Miller Family Foundation
Mr. & Mrs. Cal Kovens
Mr. David C. Neale
Dr. & Mrs.T. Hunter Pryor
Mr. Samuel J. Boldrick
Mr. & Mrs. Marshall S.
Mrs. Shirley Haverfield
Mr. & Mrs. Lee Hills
Sears Roebuck & Co.
Mrs. Peyton L. Wilson
Mr. & Mrs. James A. Wright III
Mr, John S. Sherman
Mr. & Mrs. Randy E
Mr. & Mrs. Jack Lowell
Blackwcll & Walker, PA.
Estate of Dr. Herman
Mr. & Mrs. Raul Rodriguez
Mr. & Mrs. Carlton W Cole
Mr. & Mrs. William G. Earle
Mr. & Mrs. Robert C. Hector
Mr. & Mrs. Arnold L.
Mr. Walter R. Ferguson
Ms. Sally M. Kennedy


Dr. & Mrs. Michael Rosenberg
Dr. & Mrs. Edmund Parnes
Mr & Mrs. Lewis Ress

Ms. Lamar J. Noriega
Silver Springs Foundation
Dr. & Mrs. Joseph H.
Mrs. Tom Lynch
Mr. & Mrs. Walter Shockey
Mr. John W. Thatcher
Dr. & Mrs. Howard Zwibel
Mr. & Mrs. C. Frasuer
Mr. & Mrs. Lon Worth Crow
The Batchelor Foundation
Mr. & Mrs. John M.
Mr. & Mrs. Dennis M.
Mrs. Sue S. Goldman &
Mrs. Leatrice Aberman &
Mrs. Rosemary Dommerich
Mrs. Eleanor Bristol
Ms. Judith A. Hunt &
Dr. Ronald K. Wright
Ms. Linda Lubitz
Mrs. Cynthia Lawrence
Mr. Earl Mizell
Estate of Evalene K. Angus
Dr. Ronald K. Wright
Dr. & Mrs. Lon Dowlen
Mr. & Mrs. Alan Lubitz
Mr. Dan Laxson
Mr. & Mrs. Stuart Block
Mrs. Ruth D. Myers
Mr. Sam La Roue, Jr.
Mr. Mitchell S. Green
Mr. & Mrs. Ben Battle, Jr.

Ms. Faith Adams Young
Ms. Sue Adams Andrews


Citigroup Foundation
D. Richard Mead Charitable
J.N. McArthur Foundation

Alaska Airlines
Brandsmart USA
Club Med

Brookwood Financial Partners, LP
Catering Shop, Inc.
Citigroup Private Bank
FMT Aircraft Gate Support
Systems Canada, Inc.

Alexander All Suite Luxury
Allegro Resorts
American Airlines, Inc.
Barry Lawrence Ruderman
Best Tourist Publications, Inc.
Biltmore Hotel
Borders Picture Framing
Bureli & Associates
Carroll's Jewelers
Charles Group Hotels
Christy's Restaurant
Complete Fitness
Curbside Florist
DMJM Harris

Advanced Business Valuations
Anthony Baradat Iglesias
Advertising & Public
Antiquariat Reinhold Berg
Astigarraga, Davis
Balcony Door Repair
Bierman, Shohat, Loewy &
Klein PA.
The Cardiology Center
Care Pest Management
Cellar Club at the Biltmore

Lewis Family Foundation
Nichols Foundation, Inc.
Nina & Ivan Selin Family
Peacock Foundation, Inc.

Corporate Benefactor
Florida Power & Light Company
Keen Battle Mead & Company
National Distributing Co., Inc

Corporate Patron
Holly Real Estate
MK Tours
Martayan Lan
Morrison Brown Argiz &

Corporate Member
Dale Carnegie Training
Dynacolor Graphics, Inc.
Greater Miami Convention &
Visitors Bureau
Integrated Health Providers
Network, Inc.
Jupiter Beach Resort
M & M Backhoe
Mobile Chiropractic, Inc.
Old Print Shop
Palm Beach Gardens Marriott
Penn House Productions
Pfleger Financial Group
Rama Air Conditioning

Corporate Contributor
Coral Gables Plumbing
Coro Orthodontics
Diversified Networks, Inc.
Don Shula's Hotel & Golf
EAS Engineering, Inc.
Esslinger Wooten Maxwell, Inc.
Florida Fire & Burglary
Florida LeMark Corporation
Frank's Lawn Service, Inc.
HeshoffLupino & Mullick, LLP
Infill Development Group
Jenny Wastaff Antique Maps

Ruth and August Geiger
Charity Foundation
Sears-Swerland Family

Southern Wine and Spirits

Salomon Smith Barney
Vista Magazine
WLRN Public Radio &

Ron Flor de Caria
Skags Office Products
Salomon, Kanner, Damian &
Rodriguez, PA.
South Dade Coca-Cola
Bottling Company
Vick Farms-Fred and Pam
Westin Key Largo Resort
Ms. Judy Wiggins
Withers/Suddath Van Lines
WorldView Antique Maps
Wyndham Miami Beach

Lubitz Financial Group
Palmetto Ace Hardware
Performance Executive Search
Perry Ellis International
Scan Lilly Roofing Company, Inc.
Spray Rite Pest Control, Inc.
Steinbauer Associates Inc.
Strategic Energy Efficiency
Associates Inc.
Sunbrite Outdoor Furniture, Inc.
SunTrust Bank
Mr. Richard D. Swanson
Thompson Legal Services

List of Members 81

Mr. & Mrs. Gregory M.
Mr. & Mrs. Alvah H.
Chapman, Jr.
Mrs. Edna Cox
Miss Lamar Louise Curry
Mr. Walter R. Ferguson
Dr. & Mrs. Joseph H.

Mr. Benjamin Bohlmann &
Ms. Ellen Kanner
Ms. Beryl L. Cesarano
Mr. & Mrs. Carlton W. Cole
Mr. & Mrs. William G. Earle
Dr. & Mrs. Albert J. Ehlert

Mr. & Mrs. Carlos J.
Mr. & Mrs. Robert B. Battle
Mr. & Mrs. Steve Benson
Mr. Samuel J. Boldrick
Mr. & Mrs. J. Andrew Brian
Mr. & Mrs. Eric Buermann
Mr. & Mrs. Dennis M. Campbell
Mr. Jorge Cano & Mrs.
Soledad Schneegans Cano
Mr. & Mrs. Barton Corredera
Mr. Robert David &
Dr. Lorette David
Mr. & Mrs. Hunting E Deutsch
Mr. Richard W. Ebsary
Dr. & Mrs. Lawrence M.

Mr. & Mrs. John Bartosek
Mr. & Mrs. Richard B. Bermont
Mr. & Mrs. Stuart Block
Mr. Jonathan Blum & Ms. P
Ramsey Sullivan
Mr. George H. De Carion
Ms. Pamela Garrison
Mr. & Mrs. Charles G. Grentner

Fellow Humanitarian
Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin B. Battle, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Peter L. Bermont
Mr. & Mrs. William A. Graham
Mr. & Mrs. William D. Soman
Mr. & Mrs. Robert H. Traurig

Fellow Benefactor
Mr. & Mrs. Jerrold E Goodman
Mr. & Mrs. Tom Huston, Jr
Ms. Linda S. Lubirz CFP
Mr. Finlay L. Marheson
Mrs. Betty McCrimmon
Mrs. Nancy McLamore
Mr. & Mrs. David Mesnekoff
Mr. & Mrs. William T. Muir
Dr. & Mrs. John C. Nordt, III

Fellow Patron
Mr. Samuel D. La Roue, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. JayW. Lorspeich
Mr. & Mrs. Jack Lowell
Mr. & Mrs. D. R. Mead, Jr.
Dr. & Mrs. Michael Rosenberg
Ms. Phyllis A. Shapiro

Fellow Member
Mr. & Mrs. Gustavo Godoy
Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Mr. & Mrs. Robert C.
Hector, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Louis J. Hester
Mr. & Mrs. William Ho
Mr. William Holly &
Mrs. Allison Holly
Mr. & Ms. Charles Intriago
Mr. & Mrs. Lewis M. Kanner
Mr. & Mrs. Mark Karris
Dr. Vincent M. Kelly
Mr. & Mrs. Dean C. Klevan
Mr. R. Kirk Landon
Mrs. & Mrs. Marc H.

Mr. & Mrs. Louis J. Hector
Mr. & Mrs. Howard Kleinberg
Dennis & Maureen Lefebvre
Mr. & Mrs. Raul P. Masvidal
Mr. Luis Maza
Mr. W Sloan McCrea
Mr. John H. McMinn
Mr. Fred C. Newman

Dr. & Mrs. Robert M. Oliver, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Preston L. Prevatt
Dr. & Mrs. T. Hunter Pryor, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Gerald E. Toms
Mr. & Mrs. J. Calvin Winter
Ms. Jody M. Wolfe
Mr. & Mrs. David Younts
Dr. & Mrs. Howard L.

Mr. & Mrs. George R Shelley
Mr. & Mrs. Edward A.
Mr. Monty E Trainer
Mr. & Mrs. James A.
Wright, III

Mr. & Mrs. Lewis J. Levey
Mr. Bruce C. Marheson
Mr. & Mrs. Arsenio Milian
Mr. & Mrs. Randy E
Mr. Manuel Nogueira &
Ms. Cuqui Beguiristain
Dr. & Mrs. Edmund I.
Mr. & Mrs. James C.
Mr. & Mrs. Will Sekoff &
Mrs. Laura Pincus
Dr. & Mrs. Stanley Shapiro
Ms. Ellen Uguccioni
Ms. Nancy B. White
Mr. & Mrs. Richard A. Wood

Bob & Lyn Parks
Mr. Walter Scott Murphy &
Ms. Hazel Rothfeld Goldman
Ruth & Richard Shack
Dr. & Mrs. William M. Straight
Mr. John W. Thatcher
Dr. & Mrs. Michael B. Troner
Mr. & Mrs. Otis O. Wragg, III


Ms. Margery R. Abel
Mr. & Mrs. Emerson
Mr. & Mrs. Sheldon T.
Mr. Larry Apple &
Ms. Esther Perez
Mr. & Mrs. Mario J.
Mr. & Mrs. Leslie J. August
Mr. & Mrs. Leonard A. Baker
Mr. & Mrs. Ivan E. Ball
Mr. & Mrs. Michael A.
Mr. & Mrs. Jeffrey A. Barnes
Mr. Roger S. Baskes
Dr. & Mrs. Robert T. Bass
Mrs. Joe Ann Batcheller
Mr. & Mrs. Charles H.
Mr. & Mrs. Gregory Bellamy
Ms. Jacquelyn Biggane
Mrs. Bernard Blanck
Mrs. Joan Blank
Ms. Judith A. Bolanos
Mr. & Mrs. Mark
Ms. Caridad Carmona Perez
Mr. Michael Carricarte
Mr. Charles D. Carter
Mr. & Mrs. Don Caster
Mr. & Mrs. Pedro Castillo
Charlotte Harbor Area
Historical Society
Mr. & Mrs. Charles L.
Clements, III
Ms. Cathy H. Coares
Mr. & Mrs. Ignacio Coello
Mr. Richard P. Cole
Mr. & Mrs. William H.
Mr. Blair D. Conner
Mrs. Patricia Crow
Mr. & Mrs. Roger B. Davis
Mr. & Mrs. J. Leonard
Dr. & Mrs. Leonidas W.
Dowlen, Jr.
Dr. & Mrs. Maurice Downs
Ms. Gayle Doyle
Mr. Dennis Edwards &
Mr. Mark Steinberg
Ms. Sara S. Ellenburg
Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Dr. Maria Dolores Espino
Mrs. Audrey Finkelstein
Dr. & Mrs. J.M. Firzgibbon

Mr. Richard E. Ford
Mr. William Freeman
Mr. & Mrs. Philip Freidin
Mr. & Mrs. Ron Gabor
Mr. & Mrs. Robert E.
Gallagher, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Tomas E Gamba
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph H.
Ms. Janet P. Gardiner
Mr. & Mrs. Donald E
Mr. & Mrs. Arthur Goldberg
Mr. & Mrs. Martin B.
Mr. & Mrs. Reed Gordon
Mr. & Mrs. Richard Gossetr
Ms. Dorothy W. Graham
Ms. Helen R. Grier
Mr. & Mrs. Phil Guerra
Mr. & Mrs. Robert D.
Mr. & Mrs. Edward P.
Mrs. Martha R. Haas
Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Ms. Anne E. Helliwell
Mr. & Mrs. Arthur
Mr. Arthur H. Hertz
Mr. & Mrs. James C. Hobbs, II
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Hudson, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Ray N. Hunt
Mr. & Mrs. Dan Hutton
Dr. & Mrs. Francisco
Mrs. Marilyn Jacobs
Mr. & Mrs. Larry Jacobson
Mr. Andres Jimenez
Mr. Juan E. Jimenez
Mrs. Betsy H. Kaplan
Ms. Susanne Kayyali
Mr. FrederickJ. Kent
Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth E
Dr. & Mrs. Samuel
Mr. & Mrs. Irving Kreisberg
Mr. & Mrs. Ralph E.
Mr. & Mrs. Richard Lampen
Dr, & Mrs. Roswell E. Lee, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Sidney Levin
Mrs. Gabriella E. Loetterle
Ms. Judy Loft
Mr. & Mrs. Erik Long
Mr. & Mrs. Cesar Lopez

Mrs. Jaywood Lukens
Mr. & Mrs. John MacDonald
Dr. & Mrs. Anthony E
Mr. Ray Marchman
Dr. Dignora Martinez
Ms. Eneida Martinez
Mr. Arnold C. Matteson
Mr. Ricardo Mayo
Ms. Gloria Mesa
Mr. & Mrs. Christopher
Mrs. Claire W. Mooers
Mr. Gerald W. Moore
Mrs. Arva Moore Parks &
Dr. Robert McCabe
Mr. Stephen J. Moorman
Mr. Wolfgang Mourino &
Ms. Sylvia Barreto
Dr. Mervin H. Needell &
Dr. Elaine F Needell
Mr. Bryan Norcross
Mr. Ken Nudelman
Mr. Robert Olemberg
Ms. Carmen Oquendo
Dr. & Mrs. Omar Pasalodos
The Hon. Ray Pearson &
Mrs. Georgia Pearson
Ms. Rosa Perdroso
Mr. & Mrs. Roderick N.
Mr. & Mrs. Bernard Plotkin
Ms. Olimpia Pons
Ms. Eva-Lynn M. Poweli
Mr, & Mrs. George
Mr. J. David Puga
Ms. Jacqueline Riley
Mr. Thomas L. Robison
Mr. & Mrs. Ernesro S.
Mr. & Mrs. Raul L.
Dr. & Mrs. Theodore
Ms. Renee Schafer
Mr. & Mrs. Michael Scheck
Ms. Martha M. Scott
Mr. & Mrs. Charles Seitz
Mr. & Mrs. Frank Shumway
Mr. David A. Siegel
Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence Singer
Mr. & Mrs. Murray Sisselman
Mr. & Mrs. Manuel Sola
Sons of Confederate Veterans
Mr. & Mrs. Robert P. Soper
Mr. & Mrs. Theodore Spak
Mr. & Mrs. James P Spillis

List of Members 83

Ms. Edeane W Stirrup
Mr. & Mrs. Raul R. Suarez
Mr. David W. Swim
Mr. & Mrs. Michael Tapia
Mr. David M. Thornburgh
Mrs. Fran H. Thorpe
Mr. & Mrs. Eugene Threadgill
Mrs. Roberta H. Turner

Mr. Elias Benabib
Mr. & Ms. Harvey Bilt
Ms. Patricia Birch Blanco
Mr. & Mrs. Daniel T. Brady
Mr. Doug Broeker
Mr. & Mrs. Richard Cohen
Ms. Lillian Conesa
Ms. Cristina Coronel
Ms. Diane Dorick
Dr. & Mrs. Robert Feltman
Mr. Alex Gilson
Mr. & Mrs. Franklyn B. Glinn
Mr. & Mrs. William
Goodson, Jr.
Ms. Rosemary E. Helsabeck
Mr. & Mrs. James R Jorgenson
Mr. & Mrs. Ralph A. Juncosa

Mr. John Adornato &
Mr. David Bogardos
Ms. Eva Arronte
Mr. & Mrs. B.G. Atchison
Mr. & Mrs. Raciel Badell
Mr. & Mrs. Bruce Baldwin
Mr. & Mrs. Tommy Balzebre
Mr. Paul D. Barns, Jr.
Dr. & Mrs. James W. Barrow
Mr. & Mrs. William E. Beckham
Mr. & Mrs. Ron Bernstein
Dr. Ricardo Blonder &
Ms. Natacha Orero-Santiago
Mr. & Mrs. John W Bolton, Jr.
Dr. Shael Brachman & Mr.
Mohan Thanikachalam
Mr. Michael Brooks &
Ms. Gigi Olah
Mr. & Mrs. Patrick Campbell
Mr. Miguel Carson &
Ms. Marta Gheezi Carson
Ms. Amy Cox Baxter &
Mr. Jeff Baxter
Mr. & Mrs. John R. Davis
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph M.
De La Viesca
Ms. Diane Deighton
Mr. & Mrs. Alex Diaz

Mr. & Mrs. Christopher
G. Tyson
Dr. & Mrs. Alfied H. Underwood
Ms. Julieta N. Vails
Mr. Pedro L. Velar
Mr. & Mrs. Carl D. Ward
Mr. Lewis Whirworth
Mrs. Gaines R. Wilson

Mr. & Mrs. C.M. Keppie
Ms. Susan Klock
Dr. & Mrs. Thomas Mark
Mr. Chuck McCartney
Mr. & Mrs. David M. Morris
Mr. Theodore R. Nelson
Dr. & Mrs. Richard E Newman
Mr. & Mrs. Samuel Oroshnik
Mr. & Mrs. John Perez
Mr. & Mrs. William W
Ms. Janet Reno
Ms. Rona Sawyer &
Mr. David Lorz
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Schloss
The Hon. Judge Eleanor

Tropee Family
Mr. James Doten &
Ms. Julien Yuan
Mrs. Susan Elson Price
Mr. & Mrs. Philip R.
Mrs. Alice J. Evans
Mr. & Mrs. David Ferris
Mr. Jeremy H. Finer
Dr. & Mrs. Luis H. Fonseca
Mr. & Mrs. Seth Gadinsky
Mr. & Mrs. Arnold B.
Mr. & Mrs. Michael George
Mr. & Mrs. Jorge Gonzalez
Mr. & Mrs. Jose Gonzalez
Mr. & Mrs. Barry N.
Mr. & Mrs. William E.
Mr. Stephen E Hackley
Mr. & Mrs. Jack D. Hahn
Mr. & Mrs. Kent D. Hamill
Mr. Daniel Herran &
Ms. Maria San-Emeterio
Ms. Lucinda A. Hofmann &
Mr. William T. McCauley
Mr. & Mrs. Lee Irvin
Ms. Shirley A. Jackson

Mrs. Peyton L. Wilson
Mr. Mitchell Wolfson, Jr.
Ms. Edna Wolkowsky
Ms. Melinda Woskow
Dr. Ronald K. Wright &
Ms. Judith A. Hunt
Mr. & Mrs. Stuart S. Wyllie

Mr. & Mrs. Ivan Selin
Mr. & Mrs. Gerald Silverman
Mr. & Mrs. Saul H.
Mr. David Skolnick &
Ms. Marilee Morris
Mr. & Mrs. James B.
Tilghman, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. J. Thomas
Ms. Jo Wilder
Mrs. Warren C. Wood, Sr.
Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence G.
Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence J.

Ms. Liselort Johnsson &
Mr. Jorge Armenteros
Mr & Mrs. Craig Kalil
Mr. & Mrs. Neal Kingshury
Mr. Adrain Lechter &
Ms. Sandra Terbonne
Ms. Vilma Llerena
Ms. Melissa Lotus
Dr. & Ms. William Ludwig
Mr. & Mrs. Fred Macia
Mr. & Mrs. Christopher R.
Dr. & Mrs. Michael Marmesh
Mr. Raul Martinez, Jr.
Ms. Janeau C. McKee-Vega &
Mr. Javier Vega
Ms. Laura McKinney &
Mr. Allyn McKinney
Ms. Enid Miguez
Mr. Ralph Miles & Mrs.
Helen O'Quinn Miles
Mr. & Mrs. Karlsson Mitchell
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas R. Mooney
Mr. & Mrs. Patrick Morris
Mr. & Mrs. Charles Munroe
Mr. & Mrs. Mehrdad Nadji
Dr. Thomas Natidlo &
Ms. Hilary Natiello


Mr. Douglas O'Keefe &
Ms. Alison Gunn O'Keefe
Mr. James Orovitz
Ms. Belkist Padilla &
Mr. John Holcombe
Mr. Constantino Papadopulos
& Ms. Rocio Gallaste
Ms. Barbara J. Parker
Mr. & Mrs. J. Michael
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas E.
Mr. & Mrs. James M. Pfleger
Ms. Michelle Pivar &
Mr. Jack Barr
Mr. & Mrs. John D. Portal
Mr. & Mrs. Peter Raffalski
Mr. & Mrs. Randolph Reich
Mr. & Mrs. Frederick
Ms. Maria Elena B. Richardson

Mr. & Mrs. Joseph P Adams
Mr. & Mrs. Nathan Adler
Mr. James Adt & Ms. Pat
Ms. Susan Agia
Mr. Zafar Ahmed
Mr. & Mrs. Frank Alayon
Mr. Tom Albano
Mr. David T Alexander
Ms. Terry Alfonso
Ms. Martha Allen
Mr. & Mrs. Herbert E.
Mr. Al Alschuler
Mr. & Mrs. Greg Anderson
Ms. Judy Anderson &
Dr. Donald Gerlock
Ms. Tighe Anderson
Ms. Rosa M. Andreu
Mr. Graham Andrew
Mr. & Mrs. Louis Andrews
Mr. & Mrs. Theodore Andros
Mr. & Mrs. Charles Angell
Dr. Andres Anglade
Ms. Vivian Anrunez
Mr. & Mrs. Edward M. Archer
Mr. & Mrs. Frederick J. Arnold
Mr & Mrs. William Arringron
Ms. Bonnie Askowitz
Mrs. C. Clyde Atkins
Ms. Lorna Atkins &
Mr. John Bennett
Mr. & Mrs. Jeffrey Austin
Mr. & Mrs. Manfred A. Bahr
Ms. Celeste Bak

Mr. & Mrs. Will Robbins
Ms. Paige A. Roden
Dr. & Mrs. Howard A.
Mr. & Mrs. A.A. Sakhnovsky
Mr. & Ms. Julio Sandoval
Dr. Stephen Sapp &
Dr. Mary Sapp
Mr. George Savage &
Ms. Maria Claudia Moreno
Ms. Christina Sherry &
Mr Gardo Gomez
Mr. & Mrs. Glen Simmons
Mr. David Sissman &
Mrs. Daryl Sissman
Mr. & Mrs. Ted C. Slack
Mr. & Mrs. Michael C.
Mr. Daniel E. Smith
Mr. & Mrs. Nick W. Stieglitz
Mr. & Mrs. Max Strang

Mr. & Mrs. David R. Baker
Mr. & Mrs. John W. Baker
Mr. & Mrs. Scott Baker
Mr. & Mrs. Ted Baker
Ms. Gail Baldwin &
Ms. Antoinette Baldwin
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Baldwin
Ms. Carolann W. Baldyga
Mr. & Mrs. Rod C. Ball
Mr. & Mrs. Henry Ballate
Mr. & Mrs. Paul Banazak
Mr. & Mrs. Russ T. Barber
Mr. & Mrs. Charles W. Bare
Mr. & Mrs. James W. Barfield
Mr. & Mrs. Stephen Barker
Mr. & Mrs. Paul J. Barko
Ms. Beverly Barnett Allen
Mr. & Mrs. Jon Batchelor
Mr. & Mrs. Michael Bates
Mr. & Mrs. Joe Bauer
Mr. & Mrs. Allen M. Beck
Mr. Harold Becker
Mr. Michael Beeman &
Mr. Javier Vergara
Ms. Lawren Bellamy
Mr. & Mrs. Claudio Benedi
Ms. Flora S. Benitez
Ms. Sarah L. Bennett &
Ms. Erma J. Johnson
Mr. Ronald Berding &
Ms. Geri Diaz
Ms. Ellen Berger &
Mr. David Berger
Mr. & Mrs. Niels Berger
Mr. & Mrs. Robert E. Berkoff

Brian & Lisa Tannebaum
Mr. & Mrs. Anthony
Dr. & Mrs. Alberto E. Vadillo
Mr. Ernesto Vega &
Mrs. Melissa Vega
Mr. & Mrs. Heber Vellon
Mr. Michael D. Wallace
Mr. & Mrs. Juan Werner
Mr. & Mrs. Craig Wheeling
Mr. & Mrs. Rhys Williams
Mr. Trae Williamson &
Mr. Daniel Carter
Ms. Dianne G. Wright
Ms. Valerie Yaeger &
Mr. Timothy Clark
Mr. Mario Yanez &
Mrs. Sara Valle-Yanez
Mr. & Mr. Stefan H. Zachar, II
Mr. & Mrs. Paul D. Zamek

Mr. & Mrs. Arthur Bernard
Mr. & Mrs. Bruce Bernstein
Mr. & Mrs. Ronald Bernstein
Ray & Roslyn Berrin
Ms. Eiieen Bicaba
Mrs. Florence Birch
Mr. Anthony J. Bischoff
Dr. & Mrs. Alan Bisno
Mr. & Mrs. Ace J. Blackburn, Sr.
Ms. Carol Blades &
Mr. John Softness
Mr. & Mrs. Chuck Blanchard
Mr. & Mrs. Jose Blanco
Ms. Nance E. Blattner
Ms. Pam Blattner
Mr. & Mrs. Juan Carlos
Mr. & Mrs. Ted R. Blue, Jr.
Mr. Robert Bolt
Mr. & Mrs. Greg Bond
Mr. David Bonner &
Ms. Liana Saenz
Mr. Peter Boswell &
Ms. Julie Yanson
Ms. Jacqueline A. Botill
Mr. & Mrs. George Bowker
Ms. Dorene Bradley &
Mr Steve Immasche
Mr. & Mrs, Michael Bratz
Mr. Timothy Britton
Mr. Jeffrey P Brosco
Ms. Patty Brower
Dr. & Mrs. Bradford E. Brown
Dr. Harvey Brown &
Dr. Marjorie Brown

List of Members 85

Mr. & Mrs. Jack N. Brown
Mr. & Mrs. E.R. Brownell
Mr. Robert K. Brownell
Mr. & Mrs. John M.
Mr. & Mrs. Herbert H.
Mr. & Mrs. Robert P Bryant
Mr. John J. Buckard
Mrs. Evelyn J. Budde
Mr. & Mrs. Jean E. Buhler
Mr. Hobart Buppert &
Mrs. Christina Buppert
Capt. & Mrs. Thomas J.
Ms. Sandy Burnett &
Mr. Worth Auxier
Mr. David Butt &
Dr. Prudence Huff-Butt
Mr. & Mrs. Martin Calano
Mr. & Mrs. Allen G.
Mr. Brian Call & Ms. Laura
Mr. Julio Calle
Mr. & Mrs. Edward Cale
Mr. & Mrs. Ramiro Calvo
Mr. & Mrs. Humberto J.
Robert Campbell & Ruth
Ms. Jane Caporelli
Mr. Antolin Carbonell &
Mr. Gary Brown
Mr. & Mrs. Jesus Carmenate
Mr. Oscar Carrazana &
Mrs. Conchita Carrazana
Dr. & Mrs. Thomas Carroll
Mr. Hodding Carter &
Ms. Patricia Derian
Dr. & Mrs. Chiliano E. Casal
Ms. Sara Case
Mr. & Mrs. Robert B. Cast
Mr. Frank Castro &
Ms. Nora Wetzstein
Mr. Lance Chaney &
Mr. Terry Conn
Dr. & Mrs. Arthur E.
Mr, & Mrs. Carlos Cheesman
Dr. & Mrs. Jim Cimera
Mr. & Mrs. Don Clark
Mr. & Mrs. James K. Clark
Ms. Lydia S. Clark
Dr. Armando E Cobelo
Ms. Tessie Coello &
Mr. Pedro L. Doimeadios
Mr. Rafael Cohen
Mr. & Mrs. Ronald F. Cold

John & Christine Cole
Mr. & Mrs. Steven Cole
Mr. & Mrs. Carl Collier
Mr. & Mrs. Gary Collins
Ms. Roxana Colongo
Mr. & Mrs. Fred W. Colucci
Ms. Sally Conary
Ms. Diane M. Congdon
Mr, & Mrs. Richard Congdon
Mr. Michael Conlon
Ms. Madeline Conway &
Mr. Stanley Rubenfeld
Dr. Jorge Coronado &
Ms. Maria Eugenia Nunez
Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Mr. Hal Corson & Mrs. Gerri
Campbell Corson
Ms. Martha Corvea
Mr. & Mrs. Paul Corner
Mr. John L. Couriel
Mr. & Mrs. William G.
Ms. Addle Cregan
Mrs. John E. Culmer
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Curbelo, Jr.
Mr. Donald W. Curl
Mr. & Mrs. JeffCynamon
Mr. Samuel Danon &
Ms. Lucy Minehan
Mr. & Mrs. Bennett David
Mr. & Mrs. John Davies
Ms. Edna Davis &
Ms. Edna Carey
Mr. & Mrs. Edward H.
Davis, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. William L. Davis
Ms. Winifred S. Davis
Mrs. Marilyn Davison &
Ms. Lisa Ann Davison
Ms. Marguerite Dawson
Ms. Sandy Dayhoff &
Mr. Fred Dayhoff
Mr. & Mrs. Richard A.
De Aguero
Mr. & Mrs. Jorge L. de
Mr. & Mrs. Raul de la
Dr. Lionel A. de la Cuesta
Ms. Ana De la Torre
Ms. Lynda de Velasco &
Mr. Paul de Velasco
Mr. & Mrs. Eduardo de
Mr. & Mrs. Javier Del Rio
Mr. Francisco L. del Valle
Ms. Elaine DeLeonardis &
Mr. Jim DeLeonardis

Mr. & Mrs. Floy B. Denton
Mrs. Mary Ellen Devine &
Ms. Colleen Mosel
Mr. & Mrs. David Dewitt
Ms. Donna Dial &
Mr. Art Buckelew
Mr. Juan Diaz
Ms. Yvonne M. Dietrich
Mr. & Mrs. Fred Dion
Mr. & Mrs. Ed Donaldson
Mr. John Dorschner &
Ms. Kathy Martin
Mr. Kevin M. Dougherty
Mr. & Mrs. William Downs
Mrs. Faye Dugas
Mr. & Mrs. Norman Duncan
Ms. Barbara Dundee
Mrs. John E. Duvall
Mr. & Mrs. Andrew Earle
The Hon. Joe O. Earon &
Mrs. Patricia M. Eaton
Mr. Jorge Echenique
Mr. & Mrs. Remo Egloff
Ms. Sharon Elliot &
Mr. Michael Karl
Mr. Charles Elsesser
Ms. Leigh Emerson-Smith &
Mr. Glenn Smith
Ms. Jacquelyn J. Esco
Mr. & Mrs. Irving R. Eyster
Ms. Annie Facey
Mr. & Mrs. Gordon Fales, Jr.
Ms. Barbara Falsey &
Mr. Sid Reichman
Mr. & Mrs. Charles E.
Fancher, Jr.
Dr. & Mrs. Alfred Feingold
Mr. J. W. Fell & Ms. Pamela
Mr. James Felkman &
Ms. Allison Day
Ms. Hilda M. Fernandez
Ms. Isabel M. Fernandez
Mr. & Mrs. Jose S. Fernandez
Mr. Jose Fernandez de Castro
Mr. & Mrs. Frank Ferraro
Ms. Jean Ferris
Ms. Matilde Ferro &
Ms. Alicia Diaz
Mr. & Mrs. C.S.B Field
Ms. Tracy Fields & Mr. Steve
Ms. Betty Filgueira
Ms. Gianina Finamore
Ms. Carol Fink &
Mr. David Smith
Mr. & Mrs. James Fish
Sue & Ray Fisher
Ms. Claudia Fleming


Mr. Alien Fogel & Ms. Lynn
Mr. & Mrs. Edward T Foote
Ms. Mary Foreman &
Ms. Kathryn Foreman
Mr. Orlando Forrun &
Ms. Isis Aquino
Mr. & Mrs. Lewis Freeman
Mr. & Mrs. Stephen Freeman
Mr. & Mrs. Richard E.
Mr. Milton A. Fried
Judge Ronald Friedman &
Mrs. Janyce Friedman
Ms. Ramona Frischman
Ms. Jill Frizzell-Martin &
Mr. Carlos Martin
Mr. & Mrs. David Frum
Mr. Roger D. Fuentes
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
Ms. Barbara Gabelman
Mr. & Mrs. Mike Gaines
Ms. Elizabeth Garard
Mr. & Mrs. Emilio Garcia
Mr. & Mrs. Gonzalo Garcia
Ms. Lottie Garcia &
Mr. Richard Hurtig
Mr. Santiago Garcia &
Mrs. Jan Burlinson
Mr. & Ms. Tony Garcia
Dr. Bruce Garrison
Mr. & Mrs. Peter B. Garverr
Mr. Harold Gelber & Ms. Pat
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Gelberg
Mr. John Genovese &
Ms. Lauren Harrison
Mr. Joseph George &
Mrs. Elena Herrera
Dr. & Mrs. Paul S. George
Mr. & Mrs. Samuel Getz
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph Giambrone
Mr. & Mrs. John Gillan
Ms. Barbara Gillman
Mr. & Mrs. Mark Gilmore
Mr. & Mrs. Vincent Gilpin, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. John Gladstone
Mr. & Mrs. Dale Glasco
Mr. & Ms. John Glass
Dr. & Mrs. Paul Gluck
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Goeser
Ms. Lori Gold &
Mr. Allan Hall
Mr. & Mrs. Harold Goldberg
Mr. William T Golden
Ms. Sue Searcy Goldman
Ms. Billie Jan Goldrein &
Mr. Scott Lewis

Mr. & Mrs. Seymour
Mr. & Mrs. Charles Gomes
Mr. & Mrs. Alvaro Gonzalez
Ms. Astrid Gonzalez &
Mr. Jon Sorensen
Mr. & Mrs. Faustino
Mr. Luis Gonzalez &
Ms. Yolanda Gamboa
Mr. Sergio Gonzalez &
Ms. Ines Marrero
Mr. Ken Goodman
Mr. Herberr Gopman
Mrs. Carol-Jane Gottfried
Dr. Richard Gottlieb
Ms. Julie Gouldener
Ms. M. P. Grafton
Mr. Kevin Graver &
Mr. Orlando Valdez
Ms. Donna M. Green
Mr. & Mrs. Jerry Grey
The Rev. & Mrs. Robb
Dr. & Mrs. Lawrence Grobman
Dr. & Mrs. K. Randall Groh
Ms. Sharon Grosshart &
Mr. Frederick Newman
Mr. & Mrs. Carl Grozan
Mr. & Mrs. George C.
Ms. Carol Guzman
Mr. & Mrs. John R. Hall
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Halley
Mr. Thomas L. Hambright
Mr. James Hamilton
Ms. Lucy H. Hanafourde &
Mr. Bradley K. Hanafourde
Ms. Susan Hangge &
Mr. David Collings
Mr. Jeff Harbook
Mrs. Eoline M. Harrington
Mr. & Mrs. John C.
Harrison, Jr.
Ms. Lanell Harrison &
Ms. Norma Wingo
Mr. Albert Harum-Alvarez
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph J. Hatton
Mr. & Mrs. Maurice B. Hawa
Mr. & Mrs. James Hayes
Mr. & Mrs. W Hamilton
Mr. & Mrs. Geoffrey Heath
Mr. Robert C. Hector, Sr.
Ms. Chantal Heeb
Mr. & Mrs. Charles R.
Mr. David Henderson &
Ms. Kim Ogren

Mr. Alberto Hernandez
Mr. Richard Hernandez
Mr. & Mr. Carl Hersh
Ms. Helena Hershfield &
Mr. Alan Hershfield
Mr. & Mrs. Steven Hess
Mr. & Mrs. Ron Hill
Mr. & Mrs. Jack Hodus
Ms. Carol Hoffman
Dr. & Mrs. William Hoffman
Mr. & Ms. Neal Holmes
Mr. Larry Hopkins &
Mrs. Susan B. Hopkins
Ms. Cynthia Hori
Mr. & Mrs. James A.
Dr. Laurie R. Householder
Ms. Stephanie Howe &
Mr. Jerry Taksier
Mr. & Mrs. William Huggett
Mr. Gary Hunt & Ms. Linda
Mr. Jack Hunter & Ms. Irma
Dr. & Mrs. James J. Hutson
Mr. & Mrs. James Hutton
Dr. & Mrs. George L. Irvin, III
Mr. Charles Iselin &
Ms. Helen Decora
Mr. & Mrs. Jay Jackaway
Mr. & Mrs. Ed Jackowitz
Mr. & Mrs. Richard Jacobs
Ms. Terry Jacobs
Mr. & Mrs. T.M. Jacobsen
Dr. & Mrs. George Jacobson
Mr. Rick Jacobson &
Ms. Lisa Weier
Mr. & Mrs. James R. James
Mr. Richmond A. James, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Scott Jay
Mrs. Mary D. Jenkins
Mr. & Mrs. John Jensen
Ms. Joyce Johnson
Mr. & Mrs. Lester R.
Mr. & Mrs. Lester R.
Mr. & Mrs. Lyle Johnson
Mr. Douglas Jolly
Dr. & Mrs. Stanley Jonas
Mr. & Mrs. Daniel C. Jones
Mr. & Mrs. Michael Joyce
Dr. & Mrs. J.R. Jude
Ms. Sonia Jung
Mr. & Mrs. John E. Junkin, III
Mr. Dennis G. Kainen, Esq.
Capt. & Mrs. Kit S. Kapp
Ms. Ann R. Kashmer &
Mr. Lee Price

List of Members 87

Mrs. Sue Kayc-Martin
Mr. & Mrs. Edward Keith
Mr. & Mrs. Norman Kelleher
Mrs. Barbara E Keller &
Mrs. Deborah Keller Prager
Dr. Robert L. Kelley
Dr. & Mrs. Norman M.
Dr. & Mrs. Kenneth Keusch
Mr. & Mrs. Al A. Key
Mr. Neal S. Keys
Mr. & Mrs. Timothy
Mr. & Mrs. Donald King
Mr. & Mrs. Randy King
Ms. Chris Kirchner &
Mr. Michael Malone
Ms. Deborah Klem &
Mr. Paul Pergakis
Ms. Nancy Klingener &
Mr. Mark Hedden
Mr. & Mrs. C. Frasuer
Ms. Jenny Knight
Mr. Homer W Knowles
Ms. Patricia Knox
Mr. Joel Kolker & Ms. Joanne
Mr. & Mrs. Jeffery Kramer
Mr. & Mrs. Neal Kropff
Mr. & Mrs. Eugene Lakin
Mr. & Mrs. Mark Lamb
Ms. Donna Lancaster
Ms. Dorothy Lancaster
Ms. Robin Landors &
Mr. Rick Hirsch
Mr. & Mrs. Chris Landsea
Ms. Corinne Lang-Verano
Mr. & Mrs. Marshall Langer
Ms. Karen Langhauser &
Mr. Mike Paluch
Mr. William Larzeiere
Ms. Nan Lawrence
Mr. & Mrs. Tom Layman
Ms. Olga Lazo
Ms. Susan Leaventon &
Mr. Marc Sternbaum
Mr. & Mrs. Mark Leckband
Mr. Michael Lederberg &
Ms. Linda Barocas
Mr. & Mrs. Brian E. Lee
Mr. & Mrs. Terry R. Lee
Mr. Paul A. Lester
Mr. & Mrs. Eric Levin
Mr. Oscar Levin
Dr Judith Levinson &
Mr. Steven Levinson
Dr. & Mrs. Richard Levitt
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Lewis

Mr. Gary A. Licko
Ms. Ann Liebla
Dr. & Mrs. Martin E. Liebling
Mr. Lawrence A. Liggett
Mr. Craig Likness &:
Mr. George Thompson
Mr. & Mrs. Dan Lincoln
Mr. & Mrs. Gary Lindsay
Mr. Nicholas Linfield
Mr. & Mrs. Leigh Livesay
Mr. Grant Livingston &
Ms. Glenna Allman
Mr. Don R. Livingstone
Mr. & Mrs. Tom Logue
Mr. & Mrs. Joe Longo
Mr. & Mrs. Rafael T, Lorie
Mr. & Mrs. James Love
Mrs. Nereida Lowery
Mr. Howard Lubel &
Ms. Rose Flynn
Mr. & Mrs. Philip E Ludovici
Mr. & Mrs. Yaly Luna
Ms. Karhryn R. Lynn
Mr. & Mrs. David Lysinger
Mr. & Mrs. James K.
Mr. Don MacCullough
Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Ms. Josefina Machado
Mr. & Mrs. Alexander C.
Mr. & Mrs. James L. Mack
Ms. Valerie MacLaren &
Mr. Robert English
Dr. Frank Maderal
Mr. & Mrs. Richard M.
Mr. Neil Maizner
Mr. & Mrs. Edward K.
Ms. Mary Jane Mark
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Mark
Mr. & Mrs. Bill Markus
Mr. Ken Marquis &
Mr. Michael Chetta
Ms. Ana Marrero
Mr. & Mrs. Frank C. Martin
Major & Mrs. J. William
Ms. Alba Martinez
Mr. & Mrs. Ygnacio Martinez
Mr. Alberto Martinez-Ramos
& Ms. Carmen Blanco
Mr. & Mrs. Finlay B.
Mr. & Mrs. Edward M.

Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Mackov
Mr. & Mrs. Michael Maxwell
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Maxwell
Mr. Thomas C. Maxwell
Dr. & Mrs. John Maxwell
Mr. David Mayer & Ms. B.
Laurel Casey
Mr. Robert Mayland &
Mrs. Valen Mayland
Mr. & Mrs. John A. Mayo
Ms. Roxann Mayros
Mr. & Mrs. Charles Mays
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas E
McAuliffe, III
Mr. & Mrs. Don McClune
Dr. & Mrs. Donald
McCorquodale, Jr.
Ms. Jane McCraw-Mongul
Mr. & Mrs. John McCready, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. John E.
Mr. & Mrs. Carlos
Mr. & Mrs. David McDonald
Mr. J. Gordon McDonald
Mr. & Mrs. Robert
McDougal, IV
Mr. & Mrs. Ralph E.
Mr. & Mrs. Michael E
Mr. Brian McGuinness &
Ms. Linda Koenigsberg
Mr. & Mrs. Stuart B. McIver
Ms. Beth McLaughlin
Dr. & Mrs. Robert A.
Mr. & Mrs. John McQuale
Ms. Gall Meadows &
Mr. William Robertson
Mr. & Mrs. Fernando G.
Ms. Blanca Mesa &
Mr. Johnathan Ullman
Dr. George Metcalf &
Dr. Elizabeth Metcalf
Ms. Gwyn Michel
Mr. & Mrs. Donald
Mr. & Mrs. Elio Milian
Dr. & Mrs. Max Millard
Mr. & Mrs. Aristides J. Mills
Mr. Alex Miller
Mr. & Mrs. Gordon Miller
Mr. & Mrs. H. Dale Miller, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. William Jay
Mr. & Mrs. Sanford B. Miot


Mr. & Mrs. Larry Mizrach
Ms. Lori Mohr &
Ms. Hope Mohr
Mr. & Mrs. Fawdrey A. Molt
Ms. Ernestine Monroe
The Hon. & Mrs. Joseph
Mr, & Mrs. Charles H.
Mr. & Mrs. William Moore
Mr. & Mrs. Santiago D.
Mr. & Mrs. Juan Moreiras
Mr, Robert Morison &
Ms. Lynne Barrett
Ms. Carmen Morrina
Ms. Joan Morris &
Mr. John Powers
Mr. & Mrs. Theodore
Mr. & Mrs. Doug Mozealous
Mr. & Mrs. Charles P.
Munroe, Sr.
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph T. Munroe
Ms. Mary Munroe &
Mr. Bruce Seabrook
Mrs. Elizaberh Murray &
Mr. Daniel Murray
Mr. & Mrs, Jim Murton
Mr. & Mrs. Stephen Myer
Ms. Lillian G. Myers
Ms. Barbara Neil Young &
Mr. Robert Huff
Mr. Burnham S. Neill &
Mrs. Mildred C. Neill
Mr. & Mrs. Victor Nenclares
Mr. Robert Newmann &
Ms. Jeannie Romero
Mr. & Mrs. Frank O. Nichols
Mr. & Mrs. Edward Nolan
Mr. & Mrs. Sam Normandia
Ms. Rebecca Novo
Mr. Alan P. Nowell
Mr. & Mrs. Ronald Nuehring
Mr. & Mrs. Sandy Nusbaum
Ms. Barbara J. O'Connel
Ms. Jo Ann O'Neill
Mr. & Mrs. Cesar Odio
Mr. & Mrs. Bob Oliver
Mr. & Mrs. Kenny Oliver
Mr. & Mrs. Jerry Ontiveros
Mr. & Mrs. Frank Orifici
Mr. & Mrs. David Owen
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Owen
Mr. & Mrs. Sergio Pagliery
Mr. & Mrs. David Palmer
Dr. & Mrs. Robert T. Pane,
Mr. Paul W. Parcell

Mr. Paul Parisi
Ms. Janet Parker &
Mr. David Mycko
Robin & Judy Parker
Mr. Joseph F. Parrouch
Ms. Marcia Pawley &
Ms. Anita Pawley
Mr. David Payne &
Mrs. Sherry Lanthier Payne
Mr. & Mrs. Alexander Paz
Ms. Idania Pazos Garcia &
Mr. Guillermo Garcia
Mr. & Mrs. Walter Peacock
Ms. Barbara Peacon &
Mr. Bob Peacon
Mr. & Mrs. David Pearson
Ms. Mary Pecora
Mr. Vernon Peeples
Mr. & Mrs. William A. Pena
Mr. John D. Pennekamp, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Jorge E Perez
Mr. & Mrs. Michael Perlman
Mr. Frank L Perrulli
Mr. & Mrs. Sam Peters
Mr. Donald Phillips &
Ms. Maydeline Alfonso
Dr. & Mrs. Jerry Pinnas
Dr. & Mrs. Paul Plotkin
Mr. & Mrs. Fred Pollack
Mr. & Mrs. William R. Poison
Mr. & Mrs. William
Ms. Teresa Pooler
Mr. Jim Post
Ms. Jeanne Potter
Mr. & Mrs. Rick Preira
Mr. & Mrs. Antonio Priscal
Mrs. Adrienne E Promoff
Dr. & Mrs. Eugene F Provenzo
Mr. Peter T Pruitt
Mr. Joaquin Pujol &
Ms. Aida Barana
Mr. & Mrs. Steven Pynes
Mr. & Mrs, Michael
Mr, & Mrs. Herbert S. Quartin
Mr. Frank Quebbemann &
Mr. Hector Mesa
Mr. & Mrs. Henry Raairama
Mr. & Mrs. Constantine
Dr. & Mrs. Salvador M.
Mr. Guillermo Rammos
Mr. & Mrs. David Ramras
Mr. & Mrs. Stuart M. Rapee
Dr. Alan S. Rapperport
Dr. & Mrs, Charles Rarick
Mr. & Mrs. Bob Ratiner

Mr. & Mrs. Sceve Rawlins
Ms. Gerri Reaves &
Mr. James Brock
Dr. & Mrs. Philip J. Reckford
Ms. Ann Redt
Mr. Barry Reese
Mr. & Mrs. Darius Reid
Mr. Keith Reilly
Dr. Kenneth Relyea &
Dr. Tamela Relyea
Mr. & Mrs. Lewis M. Ress
Ms. Mollie C. Reubert
Mrs. D.E. Richards
Dr. Alan J. Richer
Mr. & Mrs. Camillo Ricordi
Dr. Dorothy A. Rider &
Mr. Mark Bonaparte
Mr. & Mrs. Norman C.
Mr. & Mrs. Karsten A. Rist
Mr. & Mrs. John Ritter
Mr. & Mrs. Alex Rivero
Ms. Grisell C. Rivero
Mr. & Mrs. Patrick Roach
Mr. & Mrs. Rafael L.
Dr. & Mrs. James A. Robb
Mr. & Mrs. William R.
Robbins, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Neil P Robertson
The Hon. Judge Steven D.
Mr. & Mrs. Pedro 1. Roca
Mr. & Mrs. Ricky Rodriguez
Mr. & Mrs. Victor Rodriguez
Mr. & Mrs. James P. Roen
Mr. Richard Roetz &
Ms. Susan Roetz
Mr. & Mrs. Frank Rollason
Mr. & Mrs. Alfredo Romagosa
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Roman
Mr. & Mrs. Ernesto Romero
Mr. & Mrs. Keith Root
Mr. & Mrs. Mack Roper
Mr. Mario Roque de Escobar
Mr. & Mrs. Alec Rosen
Ms. Marcia Rosenberg
Mr. & Mrs. Stanley Rosenblatt
Ms. Fredlyn Rosenfeld
Mr. & Mrs. Jeffrey C. Roth
Dr. & Mrs, Eugenio M. Rothe
Mr. & Mrs. Howard
Ms. Julie Ruben
Mr. & Mrs. Bill Rutherford
Mr. & Mrs. Charles E Sacher
Dr. & Mrs. Gerard Sais
Mr. Israel Jose Sala &
Mr. Ricardo Sala

List of Members 89

Dr. Luis Sanchez
Mr. & Mrs. Richard Sanchez
Mr. & Mrs. Randy Scarberry
Capt. John Scarborough &
Mrs. Kathy Kegan
Ms. Becky Schaffer &
Mr. Darryl Blacksrone
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Scharnagl
Mr. & Mrs. Horace Scherer
Mr. & Mrs. Leo Scherker
Mr. Timothy Schmand &
Ms. Janet Kyle Altman
Ms. Melanie Schoninger
Dr. & Mrs. Paul Schumacher
Mr. & Mrs. Allan Schwartz
Mr. & Mrs. James H. Scott
Mr. & Mrs. Bert Segor
Ms. Caridad Serrano &
Ms. Nuria Serrano
Mr. & Mrs. Francis X.
Sexton, Jr.
Ms. Sandy Sharp &
Mr. Stuart Newman
Mr. & Mrs. Martin L. Shaw, III
Ms. Tamra Sheffman &
Mr. Ron Mayer
Drs. Carlos &
Melanie Shell-Weiss
Mr. & Mrs. David Sherman
The Hon. Judge &
Mrs. Robert Shevin
Dr. & Mrs. Robert W. Shippee
Ms. Audrey Sicilia &
Mr. William Kneeland
Mr. & Mrs. Whit Sidener
Mr. & Mrs. David Siljee
Ms. Helga Silva
Mr. Bernard Silver &
Ms. Susan Werth
Mr. Scott Silverman
Dr. & Mrs. Steven A. Simon
Mr. Jose Simonet &
Ms. Rema Comras
Ms. Judy Simpson &
Mr. Dwaine Simpson
Mr. & Mrs. Howard W. Sims
Dr. & Mrs. Joseph A. Singer
Ms. Martha Singleton &
Mr. Waiter Walkington
Mr. & Mrs. Johnathan Skipp
Mr. & Mrs. Donald Slesnick, II
Mr. & Mrs. Bill Smart
Dr. & Mrs. Karl Smiley
Dr. Donald G. Smith
Mr. & Mrs. McGregor Smith, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Robert G. Smith
Mr. & Mrs. James M. Snedigar
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Snook

Mr. & Mrs. Larry R. Snyder
Ms. Lydia A. Solernou
Mr. & Mrs. Cesar J. Sorelo
Mr. & Mrs. Jose Sorolongo
Mr. & Mrs. Carl A. Spaz
Mr. & Mrs. Martin Spector
Mr. John Spielman &
Mr. Jerold Knight
Mr, James M. Stamps &
Ms. Ami Krslov
Dr. & Mrs. L.M. Stanfill
Mrs. Mary Stanley &
Mr. Donald Stanley
Mr. Axel Stein
Mr. & Mrs. Adolph Sreinhauer
Mr. & Mrs. Robert A. Stern
Mr. Christopher Srerser
Ms. Nancy Stevens &
Mr. Gary Pappas
Mr. Edwin Srieve &
Mr. Otto Paier
Ms. Martha M. Stobs
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas J. Stokes
Mr. & Mrs. Sandy Stover
Ms. Alison Strachan &
Ms. Kathy Barber
Mr. & Mrs. Saul Strachman
Mr. & Mrs. Morron D. Stubins
Ms. Stella Stutz
Ms. Sandy Subject
Mr. & Mrs. Clifford L.
Mr. Daniel Suman
Ms. Lynn M. Summers
Ms. & Mrs. John Swain
Bill & Kathy Swank
Ms. Maria Luisa Taleno
Mr. Thomas W Talmadge
Mrs. Barbara W. Tansey
Ms. Jane 1. Taylor
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas T. Taylor
Mr. & Mrs. Ronald E. Temkin
Mr, & Mrs. William D. Tenney
Ms. Peggy L. Test Frankel
Mr. & Mrs. Mark R. Thaw
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas V.
Mr. & Mrs. John Thornton
Dr. & Mrs. Richard J. Thurer
Mr. & Mrs. Tom Thurlow, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Robert C. Tipron
Mr. Paul Tisevich &
Ms. Gwen Burzycki
Mr. & Mrs. George
Mr. & Mrs. Robert E. Todd
Mr. Joseph Traba, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. John G. Troast
Mr. & Mrs. Alan Troop

Mr. & Mrs. Douglas S. Tyre
Mr. & Mrs. Robert S. Tyre
Mr. & Mrs. Jorge Ubieta, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Terrance Underwood
Mr. Ignacio Uriarte
Mr. & Mrs. Franklin Valdes
Mr. Rolando Valdes
Mr. & Mrs. Gustavo Valle
Mr. & Mrs. William Vallier
Ms. Ana L. van Gilst
Mr. & Mrs. Antony Van Smith
Mr. & Mrs. William P
Mr. & Mrs. Alvaro Varela
Mr. & Mrs. Manuel G. Vera
Mr. Roberto Vizcon
Mr. & Mrs. Andrew Vladimir
Mr. & Mrs. Richard Waas
Ms. Susan Walcutt
Mr. & Mrs. Daniel Wall
Mr. & Mrs. Tom Walters
Ms. Tracey Walters
Ms. Diane Ward
Mr. & Mrs. Stanley Waters
Mr. & Mrs. George E. Watson
Ms. Michelle Weber
Mr. & Mrs. James Weidener
Mr. & Mrs. A. Rodney
Mr. & Mrs. Tom Weller
Ms. Carolyn West &
Mr. Evan Marks
Mrs. Grayce West
Ms. Patsy West
Mr. & Mrs. Michael P
Mr. & Mrs. Joe Wieselberg
Mr. Anthony Williams
Mr. & Mrs. Eric Williams
Mr. Shawn Williams
Mr. & Mrs. Norman Willis
Mr. & Mrs. George M.
Mr. Gordon Winslow
Mr. & Mrs. John C. Witty, Jr
Mr, & Mrs. William Fred
Mr. & Mrs. Bernard Wolfson
Mr. Mike Worley
Mr. & Mrs. James G. Worth
Mr. & Mrs. Hans Wrage
Ms. Phyllis Wright
Mr. & Mrs. Steve Wright
Dr. & Mrs. Lloyd L Wruble
Mr. & Mrs. Mark Yaeger
Mr. & Mrs. Mario Yanez, Sr.
Mr. William Yardley
Mr. Robert Yates
Ms. Jean T Yehle


Mr. David Yoblicka &
Ms. Marilyn Volker
Mr. & Mrs. Joe Young
Mr. & Mrs. John E Young

Mr. Robertson Adams
Ms. Alixa Alvarez
Mr, Jose Antonio Arcila
Ms. Nicoletta Ascari
Ms. Maria Bale
Mr. Stephen M. Bander
Ms. Janice C. Barnes
Mr. Peter S. Baumberger
Ms. April Bayer
Ms. Carol Bell
Mr, Javier Betancourt
Ms. Anna Blackman
Ms. Helen Bonos
Ms. Pilar Bretos
Ms. Jocelyn Brewster
Mr. Alejandro Brito
Mr. Alan Brown
Ms. Julia C. Brown
Ms. Kathleen Byrnes
Mr. Carlos Carbonell
Ms. Mia Cavaco
Ms. Karen Chinander
Mr. Scott Cole
Mr Jose Collazo
Mr. Jeffrey Cook
Ms. Alexis Cooper
Ms. Camilla Corbitt
Ms. Maria C. Cosio
Mr. Gary A. Cosrales
Ms. Lourdes Couce Padron
Mr. Elvis W. Cruz
Mr. Frank E. Davis
Mr. Erich de Ia Fuente
Ms. Maria de los Angeles Perez
Ms. Liz Deladecana
Ms. Donna Delgado
Ms. Susanne Derby
Mr. Dan Desmond
Mr. Al Diaz
Ms. Sabylizst Diaz
Mr. Scott Diffenderfer
Mr. Craig Downs
Mr. Roger Dunetz
Mr. Thomas Dye
Mr. Nick G. Efthimiou
Ms. Monica Eichmann
Mr. Marvin E. Ellis
Ms. Kirrin Emary
Ms. Maria R. Estorino
Mr. James Ezrine
Mr. Emerson Fales

Mr. & Mrs. Alfred Zeledon
Mr. Chi Zhang &
Ms.Dongmei Han
Mr. Joseph T Zibelli

Tropee Individual
Ms. Yelena Fernandez
Mr. Kevin Fine
Mr. Karl Fitzgerald
Ms. Denie Freyer
Mr. Peter Fullerton
Mr. Phil C. Gallagher
Ms. Denise Galvez
Ms. Kharin Gibson
Commander Paul J. Gilson,
Ms. Lori Goldstein
Ms. Michele J. Gonzales
Mr. Adrian Gonzalez
Mr. Alfredo J. Gonzalez
Ms. Gayle L. Grossman
Mr. Raul Guerra
Ms. Sylvia Gurinsky
Mr. Peter J. Halpern
Ms. Sarah Hammill
Ms. Abbey Hand
Mr. Charles Hand
Mr. G. Douglas Harper
Mr. WalterJ. Harvey
Ms. Ana Herrera
John H. Hickey, Esq.
Ms. Victoria Hoffman
Mr. John H. Holly
Mr. John C. Houlsby
Ms. Leah Jackson
Ms. Wendy Jacobs
Ms. Alise Johnson
Dr. Brian J. Kiedrowski
Ms. Wendy Kirby
Mr. Robert L. Kirstein
Ms. Carolyn Klepser
Mr. Craig Kolchoff
Mr. Carl Kruse
Dr. Nicholas Lambrou
Mr. Michael W Larkin
Ms. Elizabeth Leeds
Ms. Nancy Leeds
Mr. Robert M. Levy
Ms. Neca M. Logan
Ms. Grace C. Lopez
Ms. Christina Lunsford
Mr. Marc Manfredi
Miss Hilda C. Masip
Ms. Deborah Matthews
Mr. Peter McEIwain
Ms. Gina Melin
Ms. Alicia M. Menendez

Dr. & Mrs. Peter Zies
Dr. Sanford Ziff & Mrs.
Dolores Maria Barwell-Ziff
Mr. & Mrs. Craig A. Zimmett

Ms. Ann Merlin
Mr. John Mezquia
Ms. Sara Munoz
Ms. Aleka Novitski
Ms. Mari Novo
Mr. George Papazikos
Ms. Nacasha N. Parekh
Mr. Jonathan Parker
Mr. Gregg Pawley
Dr. Jacqueline L. Pereira
Ms. Marci Philbin
Ms. Elizabeth Phillips
Ms. Sandra Piligian
Ms. Linda C. Piorrowski
Ms. Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk
Ms. Beatriz Portela
Mr. Richard A. Powers
Mr. Alexis Prisendorf
Mr. Alex M. Ramo
Mr. Raul Rebenga
Mr. Philip Reilly
Ms. Mary Reyes
Mr. Rick Reyes
Ms. Mary Grace Richardson
Ms. Liza Riso
Ms. Mary Ritchey
Ms. Ivette M. Rodriguez
Ms. Joely Rodriguez
Ms. Vivian Rodriguez
Ms. Monica Ronan
Ms. Ivonne Roque
Mr. Hugh A. Ryan
Mr. Gregory Saldana
Ms. Liz Sarachek
Ms. Anne Sargent Perry
Mr. Ronald Schaeger
Mr. Brad Schmier
Mr. Gary Schumann
Ms. Lee Schuster
Ms. Jacqueline Schwartz
Ms. Sandra L. Scidmore
Mr. Paul Skoric
Ms. Jolie M. Skorman
Mr. Robert G. Slater
Ms. Tracy Slaven
Ms. Betsy Smalley
Mr. Campbell A. Smith
Ms. Joy Spill
Mr. John Steele
Mr. Joseph S. Stewart
Mr. James Teeple

List of Members 91

Mr. Jerry-Max Theophile
Mr. Adam Thompson
Ms. Sharon Thompson
Ms. B. J. Throne
Ms. Sally Timberlake
Ms. Julie Torguet-Paugam

Ms. Elena Acosta
Ms. Lorraine Albert Berger
Mrs. Eugenia D. Alien
Ms. Susan Allen
Mrs. Gloria S. Alvarez
Mr. Lino Alvarez
Mr. Luis Alvarez
Mr. Carl D. Amsterdam
Ms. Sally Ancona
Mr. Cromwell A. Anderson
Mr. Jim Anderson
Ms. Patricia Andreotia
Mr. Monte Antkies
Ms. Hope A. Apollony
Mr. Gary Appel
Ms. Christine Ardalan
Mr. James Armour
Ms. Helen Jane Armstrong
Mr. Jorge Arrizurieta
Ms. Nancy Ashe
Mr. Anthony D. Arwood
Ms. Elaine August
Ms. Shelly Baer
Mrs. John L. Bagg, Jr.
Mr. C. Jackson Baldwin
Mr. Herb Balfour
Ms. Joanne Baran
Ms. Phyllis Barash
Ms. Ava R. Barnes
Dr. Michael E. Barron
Ms. Anne Bartlett
Ms. Patricia D. Bass
The Rev. Betty Batey
Ms. Maria C. Batista
Mr. Michael W. Battle
Mr Patrick T. Battle
Mr. Timothy A. Battle
Ms. Dianne H. Baugh
Ms. Jacqueline Beatty
Ms. Mary G. Beazel
Ms. Kathy Beckman
Mr. Patrick Bell
Ms. Louise F. Bennett
Ms. Ines Bernal
Ms. Cyane H. Berning
Mr. Wayne Besley
Ms. Georgiana Bethel
Ms. Elsa Biaggi
Mr. Warren R. Birner

Mr. Mark A. Trowbridge
Ms. Sherry Ulsh
Mr. Steve Vanhorn
Mr. Kurt A. Von Gonten
Mr. Matthew Whitman Lazenby
Ms. Krissy Wiborg

Jeffrey Block, M.D.
Mr. Tom Bodiker
Ms. Carol Boersma
Ms. Carmen L. Bofill
Mr. Arturo Bolivar
Mr. Jens P Bornholt
Ms. Maryellen Bowen
Ms. Jane A. Boynton
Ms. Jean Bradfisch
Ms. Virginia M. Bradford
Mrs. Martha Lou Bradley
Mr. Scott Brady
Ms. Marilyn M. Brandenburg
Dr. Miguel A. Bretos
Ms. Erika Brigham
Mr. Heriberto Brito
Ms. Nancy Brook
Mr. James Broton
Ms. Marjorie L. Brown
Ms. Beatriz Bru
Ms. Marva Bruner
Mr. Phillip A. Buhler
Mrs. T.C. Buhler
Ms. Alice Burch
Ms. Ann Bussel
Mrs. Florence H. Cadwallader
Mrs. Elsa Calderwood
Ms. Mairi Callam
Ms. Selma Campbell
Mr. Luis Campos
Ms. Robin Caple
Ms. Shirley Carico
Mr. Miguel Caridad
Ms. Elena V Carpenter
Mr. Robert S. Cart
Mr. William H. Cary
Mr. Rodolfo J. Cepero
Ms. Kathy L. Cerminara
Ms. Laura N. Chaifetz
Ms. Ann 1. Chambers
Ms. Linda Chapin
Mr. Dave Charles
Ms. Ofelia Cherlo
Ms. Sylvia Cherry
Dr. Josephine C. Chesley
Mrs. Anita Christ
Mrs. Walter J. Chwalik
Ms. Betty R. Ciaffone

Mr. Robert J. Wilder
Mr. Roy Winchell
Ms. Jacqueline Woodward
Mr. Bruce Woolley
Mr. O. Oliver Wragg
Mr. Juan C. Zapara

Mr. Carl Cira
Ms. Marjorie E Clark
Ms. Dana L. Clay
Ms. Malinda Cleary
Ms. Carrie Cleland
Ms. Carol Clothier
Mr. Frank J. Cobo
Ms. Caroline Coffey
Mr. C. Patrick Collins
Ms. Martha Anne Collins
Ms. Linda Collins Hertz
Ms. Rebecca Conable
Miss Mabel Conde
Ms. Catherine J Conduitte
Mariana Conea-Rosenfeld, Ph.D
Ms. Rebecca Conner
Mr. Carlos A. Cordova
Mr. Mario Coryell
Ms. Carol Coverdale
Mr. Carl Craig
Ms. NormaJ. Craig
Mrs. Alma L. Crawford
Mr. Mike Cregan
Ms. Hope Crowell
Mr. Joe Crowley
Mr. Garland Culbreath
Mr. Andrew T. Cullison
Mr. George Cummings, III
Mrs. Charlotte Curry
Mr. Robert K. Curtis
Ms. Marian Dahman
Ms. Diane C. Damskey
Ms. Sandra Darrall
Mrs. Martha Dasher Howl
Ms. Ursula M. Davidson
Mr. Jim E Davis
Mr. John W. Davis
Ms. Linda Davis
The Hon. Mattie B. Davis
Mr. Scott Davis
Mr. J. Allison De Foor, 1I
Ms, Emilia de Quesada
Ms. Cindy S. De Rothschild
Mr. Juan A. de Zarraga
Ms. Jeanne Dee
Ms. Patricia A. DeLisi
Ms. Susan Demorsky
Ms. Mary Dempsey


Ms. Marie Denis
Ms. Sylvia P Diaz
Mr. Rodney Dillon
Ms. Katy Dimos
Mr. David Doheny
Ms. Patricia Ann Dolan
Ms. Maren Domich
Mr. James F Donnelly
Mrs. Leslie Dorn
Mr. Roger Doucha
Mrs. Horace E. Drew
Mr. Jon Duquerre
Ms. Cindy Dwyer
Ms. Ellen M. Dyer
Ms. Norma Ederer
Mr. Jim Edward
Ms. Ruth B. Elsasser
Mrs. Richard P. Emerson
Mrs. Harold Emerson Mahony
Mr. Luis Espinoza
Mrs. Beatrice Esplin
Mr. Carlos Estevez
Brother Eugene
Ms. Linda L. Evans
Mrs. Katherine W. Ezell
Mrs. Mary Ann Faber
Mrs. Dante B. Fasceli
Ms. Marian H. Fassbach
The Hon. Judge Peter Fay
Ms. Jane E. Faysash
Ms. Marilyn Feldman
Mr. Victor Fernandez
Mr. Wilson Fernandez
Mr. Juan Fernandez-Barquin
Ms. Ofelia Figucras
Ms. Rosemary Fisher
Mrs. Penny Fleeger
Mr. Leopoldo Florez
Mrs. Mary A. Flournoy
Mr. Ibm Forbes
Ms, Lily Forni
Mr. Donald Frederick
Ms. Carol Freeman
Ms. Janice Freisrar
Ms. Lysa M. Friedlieb
Mr. Joel Friedman
Miss Renee Z. Fritsch
Mr. Pedro J. Fuentes-Cid
Mr. Donald C. Gaby
Mr. Rafael Gallardo
Mr. Loren Gallo
Ms. Clary Garcia
Mr. Scrgio Garcia Granados
Ms. Helen B. Gardner
Ms. Carol Garvin
Ms. Carolyn Garwood
Mr. Daniel Gautier
Mr. Zach Gerger
Mr. Norman M. Giller

Mr. Premel Gilles
Mr. Robert N. Ginsburg
Mrs. Phyllis Glukstad
Ms. Irma Godinez-Bayona
Mr. Charles Goldstein
Mr. Harvey L. Goldstein
Mr. Joao Felipe Goncalves
Mr. Robert L. Gonzalez
Mr. William Gonzalez
Ms. Betty Ann Good
Mary Ann Goodlett-Tayior
Ms. Roberta H. Gordon
Ms. Diane Goswick
Ms. Mary Louise Grant
Mrs. Cami Green
Mr. Mitchell S. Green
Mr. Bob Gregg
Mr. Gordon Gregory
Ms. Ann M. Gribbins
Dr. Zade B. Gross
Mr. Gregg E Guilford
Ms. Mary Gulledge
Ms. Maria B. Gutierrez
Ms. Victoria Hadley
Dr. Sarah S. Hagan
Ms. Bridget Hagood
Ms. Hilda C. Halevy
Mr. Frank D. Hall
Mr. Thomas Hall
Ms. Jan Hanna
Dr. Gina Harris
Mr. Robert S. Harris
Mr. William C. Harrison
Ms. Inge Hartnett
Miss Wanda Harwell
Mr. Leland M. Hawes, Jr.
Ms. Patricia Hayes
Mrs. Isadore Hecht
Mrs. Ruth Heckerling
Ms. June C. Hefti
Ms. Carol J. Helene
Mr. Richard J. Heisenbottle
Mrs. Gayle Henderson
Ms. Eileen W Herald
Ms. Guadalupe Hernandez
Ms. Irene Hernandez
Mr. Luis Hernandez
Ms. Jean M. Hewitt
Ms. Arlene Hidalgo
Ms. Jeanne D. Higgins
Ms. Sharon K. Higgins
Ms. Jeanine Hill
Mr. Floyd E. Hinkley, Sr.
Mr. Richard Hoberman
Mrs. Doris S. Hodges
Ms. Susan Hofstein
Ms. Ritta K. Hogan
Ms. Jennifer Holderman
Mrs. Barbara Hollinger

Ms. Herta Holly
Ms. Jeanetre Holmes
Ms. Margaret P. Holsenbeck
Ms. Parricia Hooper
Mr. Joseph B. Hourihan
Mr. Roland M. Howell
Ms. Sharon Howell
Mr. Russell V. Hughes
Mr. Arthur E Humphrey
Mr. Dean Hundley
Mr. George Hunker
Mr. Scott Hutchinson
Ms. Joan Ingerman
Mr. William A. Ingraham, Jr.
Ms. Esther B. Irigoyen
Mrs. Ruth Jacobs
Dr. Helen Jacobstein
Mr. H.L. James
Ms. Mary C. James
Ms. Maria Jaramillo
Dr. Eric Jarvis
Mr. Louis M. Jepeway, Jr.
Ms. Georgina Johnson
Mrs. Frank E. Jones
Ms. Marta Junco-Ivern
Ms. Susan Juszkiewicz
Ms. Roberta Kaiser
Ms. Barbara M. Kanzer
Ms. Esther Karamanlakis
Mrs. Barbara Katzen
Ms. Elizabeth H. Kaynor
Mr. Scott G. Keith
Ms. Joan Keller-Thompson
Mr. Harold E. Kendall
Ms. Margaret S. Kern
Mr. Oliver Kerr
Ms. Janet V. Kilgard Barbour
Ms. Betty King
Mr. Frederic King
Mr. Robert R. Kinser
Ms. Lillian Kirchheiner
Mr. John Klein
Mr. Eliot Kleinberg
Mr. Jeffrey D. Knight
Mr. Clifford M. Kolber
Mrs. Patricia M. Kolski
Mr. Theodore E. Koper, Jr.
Ms. Delores Kory
Ms. Jodie Kozdron
Mr. John Kretschmer
Mr. Robert V. Kriebs
Mr. Tom Kropp
Mr. Donald M. Kuhn
Ms. Em I. Kuker
Mr. Dexter La Belle
Ms. Leah La Plante
Ms. Barbara Labuzan
Ms. Linda Lambert
Mr. Richard David Lancaster

List of Members 93

Ms. Marlene Land
Mrs. Joan Langley
Mr. Martin J. Lann
Mr. William L. Lashar, Jr.
Idalia Lastra, DMD
Dr. Abraham D. Lavender
Mr. Jess S. Lawhorn
Ms. Karen Lawrence
Dr. H.L. Lawson
Mr. Robert A. Leathers
Ms. Christine C. Lee
Ms. Jo Lee
Mrs. David M. Lehman
Mr. Salvador Leon, Jr.
Mr. Joseph S. Leonard
Ms. Nancy L. Leslie
Mr. Robert L. Levis
Ms. Sara B. Leviten
Mr. Abe Levy
Mr. J. Nelson Lewis
Mr. Scott P. Lewis
Mr. Jim Lewk
Ms. Marlene E Lieb
Mr. Mark Lighterman
Ms. Laura Linardi
Ms. Diane Linder
Mr. Gordon B. Loader
Ms. Judith Loffredo
Mr. Tod Londess
Ms. Lisset Lopez
Mr. Robert Lopez
Ms. Teresa H. Lopez
Mr. James S. Lord
Ms. Mildred A. Love
Mr. Charles T. Lowe
Dr. Joan Lukach
Ms. Joyce M. Lund
Ms. Hillelne S. Lusdig
Dr. Joan Lutton
Ms. Kathleen Maguire
Dr. Bruce Mahaffey
The Rev. Richard D. Maholm
Mrs. Dorothy Malinin
Ms. Jennie S. Malloy
Ms. Pat Manfredi
Dr. Celia C. Mangels
Ms. Linda W Mansperger
Ms. Jeanmarie Manze Massa
Mr. Stewart Marcus
Ms. Maria E. Margolles
Mrs. Edna P Martin
Ms. Norma Martin
Mr. Juan Martinez
Ms. Jane Mason
Mr. Charles Maxwell
Ms. Maribel Maxwell Urrutia
Mr. Jim McAllister
Mr. Kelly McCammon
Ms. Frances C. McCauley

Ms. Nadine S. McConney
Ms. Vonda McCoy
Ms. Anne McCrary Sullivan
Mr. William McDonald
Ms. Janet McGahee
Ms. Carmen McGarry
Ms. Joy N. McGarry
Ms. Judy McGraw
Dr. Raymond McGuire
Mrs. Charles E McKay
Ms. Alice Mckee
Mr. Daniel C. McKenna
Mr. John E McLean
Ms. Lou McLean
Mr. John Fred McMarh
Mrs. Virginia D.
Mr. Christopher McVoy
Mr. Jay Mechling
Ms. Terita Medero
Mrs. Charlotte Meggs Biedron
Ms. Maria Meilan
Ms. Toni Meltzer
Mr. Jesus Mendez
Ms. Linda M. Meyer
Ms. Joyce Meyers
Mr. Timothy R. Mieike
Ms. Mary A. Millard
Ms. Gertrude R. Miller
Mr. Jarvis E. Miller
Mr. Jose Miranda
Mr. Roger G. Misleh
Ms. Katherine Mitchell
Ms. Nanci B. Mitchell
Mr. Thomas A. Mitchell
Dr. Raymond A. Mohl, Jr.
Ms. Diana R. Molinari
Ms. Irm Moller
Mr. J. Floyd Monk
Mrs. Cynthia A. Moore
Mr. Patrick E Moore
Ms. Haydee Morales
Mr. Mike A. Morales
Ms. Patrice Morales
Mrs. Bianca Moreiras
Ms. Cynthia A. Morgan
Mr. Edwin J. Morin
Ms. Evelyn Morris
Mrs. Theodora J. Morris
The Hon. Judge Marvin
Mounts, Jr.
Mrs. Almalee C. More
Ms. Yvonne T. Moyer
Mr. Ted Moylan
Mr. John H. Moynahan, Sr.
Ms. Emily Moynihan
Mr. John D. Muncey
Ms. Melinda Munger
Mr. Manuel I. Muniz

Ms. Patricia Myer
Mr. Wayne Myers
Ms. Suzanne Nasca
Mr. Donald A. Nash
Ms. Gay M. Nemeri
Mr. Robert S. Neumann
Ms. Leonore Nick
Ms. Pearl G. Niemiec
Ms. Marilyn Denise Noe
Ms. Karin Norlander
Mr. B.P Nuckols, Jr.
Ms. Jeanette O'Connor
Mr. Brian D. O'Neill
Ms. Mary Margaret Odom
Mr. Elmer Olhaber
Ms. Leslie Olle
Ms. Audrey Ordenes
Ms. Catherine F. Ordway
Mr. Peter Osman
Ms. Estelle C. Overstreer
Mrs. John W Owens
Ms. Maria L. Palacios
Ms. Nancy Pantoja
Mrs. Denise Paparella
Ms. Naomi Papirno
Mr. Dabncy G. Park, Jr.
Mr. Austin S. Parker
Ms. Jeanne M. Parks
Dr. Richard Parrish
Mr. Julio Pastoriza
Ms. Jeannie Marie Peacock
Ms. Madeline S. Pearson
Dr. Margaret M. Pelton
Ms. Lavinia Penna
Mr. Rafael Perez
Ms. Julia Perlicz
Ms. Mary E Perner
Mr. Joseph Peters, Jr.
Mr. Robert Petrera
Mrs. Carmen Persoules
Ms. Carolyn A. Pickard
Mrs. Virginia R. Pietro
Ms. Maria E. Pinillos
Mr. Nicholas J. Pisaris
Ms. Cindy Pitt
Mr. Jay E Pons
Mrs. Suzette S. Pope
Mr. Steve Porter
Mr. Budd Post
Ms. Miriam Prado
Ms. Diana Prain
Ms. Lucy S. Puello-Capone
Mr. David Puittinen
Mrs. Hugh E Purvis
Ms. Judith Rabkin
Mr. Michael E. Raiden
Ms. Maria Ramirez
Ms. Kissandra Ramos
Ms. Pauline E. Ramos


Ms. Trish Ramsay
Dr. Edward Rappaport
Ms. Brenda Rayco
Ms. Elizabeth R. Read
Ms. Susan F. Redding
Mrs. Brenda G. Reisman
Mr. Phil Reitz
Mr. David L. Renfro
Ms. Marya Repko
Ms. Barbara N. Ricano
Ms. Roseanne Richards
Ms. Mary Richardson Miller
Ms. Sandra Riley
Mr. Luis Rios
Ms. Juana G. Rippes
Mr. Bob Risting
Ms. Fran Ristling
Mr. Larry Rivers
Ms. Joanne H. Roberts
Mr. Domingo Rodriguez
Ms. Gladys Rodriguez
Ms. F Margarita Roig
Mrs. Rachel P Roller
Ms. Debra Rollins
Ms. Yazmina Rosario
Ms. Lori Rosenberg
Mr. Benard Rosenblatt
Ms. Jean Ross
Mr. Stephen H. Ross
Mr. David L. Roumm
Ms. Ginette Rouzeau
Mrs. Eliza P Ruden
Mrs. Betty Rushmer Adams
Mr. Donald Sackrider
Mr. Herbert Saffir
Ms. Sheila H. Salters
Mr Alvin M. Samet
Mr. Omar David Sanchez
Mr. Jorge Sanchez Galarraga
Ms. Shirley Sapp
Mr. Dennis Scarnecchia
Ms. Lori Schainuck
Mr. Peter Schmitt
Mr. David Schoenfeld
Mr. Allan Schulman
Mrs. Geraldine Schwartz
Mr. Patrick Scott
Ms. Judi Sebastian
Mrs. Natalie J. Segal
Mr. Robert L. Semes
Ms. Claire Seminario
Mr. Julius Ser
Mr. Manuel Scrkin
Mr. Stuart Serkin
Ms. Ellen G. Sessions
Ms. Janet L. Shad
Mr. Cyrus J. Sharer
Dr. Martha Luelle Shaw
Mr. John Shipley

Ms. Christina G. Shoffner
Mr. Bruce Shipner
Ms. Margarita Sierra
Ms. Suzanne Silver
Dr. Juan Silverio
Ms. Marilyn Simon
Mr. John P. Simons
Mrs. Eleanor Simpson
Miss Benedicte Sisto
Ms. Marjorie L. Skipp
Mr. Emanuel J. Smith
Ms. Eunice M. Smith
Mr. Gary Smith
Ms. June C. Smith
Ms. Kimberly Smith
Ms. Nancy D. Smith
Mr. Robert O. Smith
Mr. William Smith
Ms. Leslie Smith Porter
Mrs. Bernice Snow
Ms. Graciela Solares
Mr. Jose Solernou
Mr. Mervyn M. Solomon
Mrs. Ethel H. Sotrile
Ms. Laurinda Spear
Mr. Brent Spector
Ms. Margaret Spencer
Ms. Irene Sperber
Mr. Frederick B. Spiegel
Dr. Chris Stabile
Miss Judi Stark
Ms. Linda Stein
Ms. Carie Stern
Dr. Elizabeth Stevens
Mrs. Rosemary D. Srieglitz
Ms. Susan L. Stinson
Mrs. Jane Stocks
Ms. Larue Storm
Ms. Gail Storts
Mr. John Stuart
Mr. Emilio Suarez
Ms. Sandra Sullivan
Mrs. Joseph Sures
Mrs. Florence B. Swain
Mr. Ronald S. Swanson
Ms. Blanche Szita
Ms. Mary L. Taintor
Ms. Carole Ann Taylor
Mr. David Teems
Ms. Laura Thayer
Ms. Polly Thompson
Mr. Richard J. Thornton
Ms. Sandy Thorpe
Mrs. Helen Threadgill Baden
Mr. Craig E. Tigerman
Ms. Russica E Tighe
Mr. Gonzalo Torres, Jr.
Mr. Michael A. Tranchida
Ms. Maria C. Trias

Ms. Molly Turner
Mrs. Jean B. Underwood
Ms. Cheryl van der Laan
Ms. Eleanor Van Eaton
Mr. John C. Van Leer
Ms. Rebecca S. Varley
Ms. Juanita Vazquez-
Mr. Robert E. Venditti
Ms. Margaret Vento
Mr. John W Viele
Ms. Norma Villafana
Ms. Isabel Villalon
Mr. Juan M. Villamil
Mrs. Nancy Voss
Mr. David Walters
Ms. Linda Waltz
Mrs. Edwina Warren
Mr. Harold Wasserbech
Mr. Steve Waters
Mrs. Elizabeth Watson
Ms. Sally E. Watt
Mr. Jack Wayman
Mr. Garth Webster
Mr. Bob Weeks
Mr. Glen Weinzimer
Mr. Alan Weisberg
Ms. Susan Weiss
Mrs. Marcella U. Werblow
Ms. Anne Werner
Ms. Anna White
Mr. David White
Dr. Richard A. Whittington
Mr. Don Wiener
Mr. Larry Wiggins
Ms, Kathryn Wilbur
Mr. Lucius L. Wilcox, Jr.
Mr. Joe Wilkins
Mrs. George Williams, Jr.
Ms. Geraldine H. Williams
Mr. Richard Williams
Ms. Sarah Williams
Mr. David L. Willing
Mrs. Louise D. Wilson
Mr. Pamela Winter
Ms. Gerry Witoshynsky
Robert V. Wolfe, Esq.
Ms. Wendy Wood
Mrs. Dorothy B. Yates
Mr. Charles H. Yarman
Mr. Jerold Young
Mr. Harold J. Zabsky
Mrs. Elena A. Zayas
Mr. Nickolas Zeinka
Mrs. Marcia K. Zerivitz
Ms. Frances R. Zierer
Mrs. Betty Zipse
Mr. Vladimir Zzzyd

List of Members 95

Mr. Maurice D. Alpert
Mr. & Mrs. Mitchell Franklin
Mr. & Mrs. James C. Merrill, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Ralph B. Ryder, Jr.

Honorary Life
Mr. Fred M. Waters, Jr.
Mrs. & Mrs. Wayne E. Withers

Charter Members of the
Historical Association of Southern Florida
Mrs. Patricia Crow
Mr. J. Floyd Monk
Mr. B.P Nuckols, Jr,
Dr. Martha Luelle Shaw


ABC-CLIO, Inc. Library
African-American Research
Library and Cultural
Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Museum
Alachua County Library
Alien County Public Library
American Antiquarian Society
Archaeological Society of
South Florida
Barry University
Boca Raton Historical Society
Boston College
Brandeis University
Broward County Historical
Broward County North
Regional Library
Broward County Northwest
Regional Library
Broward County South
Regional Library
Broward County Southwest
Regional Library
Broward County West
Regional Library
Broward Public Library
Brown University
City of Hialcah Library Division
City of Lake Worth
Clewisron Museum, Inc.
Collier County Museum
Cornell University
Crown Concierge
Dade Heritage Trust Historic
Preservation Center

Duke University Perkins
Dupont Ball Library
Florida Atlantic University
Florida Gulf Coast University
Florida Historical Quarterly
Florida International
University Biscayne Bay
Florida International
University University Park
Florida State University
Ft. Myers Historical Museum
Harvard College
Highland Oaks Middle School
Historical Preservation
Society of the Upper Keys
Huntington Library
Indian River County Main
Islamorada Branch Library
Janus Research, Inc.
Lake Park Public Library
Law's Architectural Signs
Library of Congress
Library of Florida History-
University of Florida
Local Initiative Support
Martin County Library System
Miami Dade College Kendall
Miami Public Library-Coral
Miami Public Library-Main
Miami Public Library-Miami

Miami Public Library-North
Monroe County Library
Newberry Library Serials
Nova Southeastern University
Office of Hisroric
Olin Library at Rollins
Panamerican Consultants, Inc.
Preservation Foundation of
Palm Beach
Society of the Four Arts
St. Lucie County Library
St. Thomas University
Stanford University
State Historical Society of
State Library of Florida
Tampa-Hillsborough Public
Library Serials
Tennessee State Library
The National Museum of the
The Villagers, Inc.
Troy Community Academy
University of Central Florida
University of Iowa
University of Miami
University of Michigan
University of Washington
Wilton Manors Public



Fellow .................... .......................... ..............$500 (and up)
Corporation/Foundation.......... ............... .......................$500 (and up)
B en efacto r................................................................................................................. $ 2 5 0
S p o n so r................................... ................... ...... .............. ................... $ 10 0
D on o r.................................................. ............................................. . .............. $7 5
F am ily .. . ............................................................................. ... .. ... .................. $ 4 5
Individual/Institutional. ................. ...................................... .................... .. $35
Tropee Individual.......................................... ....................................... $35
T ro pee Fam ily .............................................. ................... .......... .................. $ 50

Please notijf the Historical Museum's Membership Coordinator, Hilda Masip,
of any changes to your membership listing or ifyou were a Charter Member of
the Historical Association in 1940 yourr name was not recognized.
Telephone-305375.1492 E-mail-membership@historical-museum.org

Tequesta Advisory Board
Miguel Bretos, Ph.D. Bill Brown
Cantor Brown, Jr., Ph.D. Gregory Bush, Ph.D.
Robert S. Carr Juan Clark, Ph.D.
Donald Curl, Ph.D. Rodney Dillon
Dorothy Fields Ph.D. Howard Kleinberg
Eugene Lyon, Ph.D. Raymond A. Mohl, Ph.D.
Gary Mormino, Ph.D. Larry Rivers, Ph.D.
Frank Sicius, Ph.D. Donald Spivey, Ph.D.

Complete Your Library with
Back Issues of Tequesta

Issues of Tequesta are available for years 1941-1979 for $10.00 each
& 1980-2002 for $5.00 each plus shipping. Most years are available.
Call Hilda Masip to complete your collection at 305.375.1492, or
e-mail your request to membership@historical-museum.org.

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