r THE JOURNAL OF THE HISTORICAL
C L4LCStC' ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA
Paul S. George, Ph.D.
NUMBER LX 2000
Editor's Foreword .......... 3
by Paul S. George, Ph.D.
G row ing Up in Coral G ables ........ .. .................................. 5
by Donald M. Kuhn
The Annexation of the City of Coconut Grove. ......... .. 32
by Grant Livingston
Racial Stirrings in Colored Town:
The UN IA in M iami During the 1920s .................................. 56
by Kip Vought
Historical Association of Southern Florida Members ........... 78
THE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA
Tequesta is published annually by the Historical Association of Southern
Florida. Communications should be addressed to the Managing Editor
of Tequesta, Historical Museum of Southern Florida, 101 West
Flagler Street, Miami, Florida 33130. Telephone-305.375.1492.
The Association does not assume responsibility for statements of facts or
opinions made by contributors. (ISSN 0363-3705)
On the Cover-The Granada Entrance to Coral Gables, one of the stone entrances to
the City Beautiful. HASF 1976-70-108
Historical Association of Southern Florida, Inc.
FOUNDED 1940-INCORPORATED 1941
Richard A. Wood
Edward A. Swakon
William H. Holly
Neil A. Burell
Robert B. Battle
J. Andrew Brian
Paul S. George, Ph.D.
Stuart B. McIver
Rebecca A. Smith
Chair of the Board
First Vice Chair
Second Vice Chair
Editor, South Florida History
Editor, South Florida History
Curator of Research Materials
Angela R. Bellamy
Edward H. Davis, Jr.
Samuel D. LaRoue, Jr.
Lewis E Murphy
Dorothy C. Norton
Dr. Edmund I. Parnes
Scott A. Poulin
Dr. Michael N. Rosenberg
Dinizulu Gene S. Tinnie
I have relished helping to prepare this issue of Tequesta because the arti-
cles constituting it are fascinating and informative, and it was a delight
to work with each of the authors. In the mid-1990s, I received a letter
from Donald M. Kuhn, a nephew of George Merrick, the creator of
Coral Gables. Kuhn shared with me memories of his youth in that
community. For Kuhn, a pioneer of database marketing, the Coral
Gables of the 1920s and 1930s was a living museum and the interiors
of such signature structures as the DeSoto Fountain and the
Commercial Entrance at Douglas Road and Alhambra Circle, his play-
rooms. My fascination with these stories led me to share them with
tourgoers when we toured the Gables.
Last year, I had the good fortune to escort Donald Kuhn on a tour of
Coral Gables and other parts of Miami-Dade County. After the event,
he regaled me with additional accounts of his youth in Coral Gables. I
encouraged him to put these memories in writing, and he quickly
responded with "Growing up in Coral Gables," a nostalgic, insightful
look at the City Beautiful during that monumental period of boom and
bust. Kuhn's piece reminded me of William Davenport's "Growing Up,
Sort Of, in Miami, 1909-1915," (1980), my favorite Tequesta article, which
contains a riveting account of Miami, the Magic City, in its early years.
Grant Livingston, a renowned south Florida balladeer, was a student
in my Miami/South Florida History class in 1999. For his class writing
project, Livingston authored an account of the annexation of Coconut
Grove. I was struck by the depth of his research and the quality of his
narrative, so we decided to "appropriate" the article for this edition of
Tequesta. Ever diligent, Livingston made several additional visits to his-
torical repositories and produced more drafts of his article, entitled
"The Annexation of the City of Coconut Grove," in preparation for its
publication. Readers will enjoy this essay, especially since Coconut
Grove has indicated on more than one occasion in the recent past that
it might be better served if it "seceded" from the city of Miami.
Kip Vought, a regulatory affairs manager at a pharmaceutical firm in
Colorado, has spent several years studying black Miami, the result of
which is his article, "Racial Stirrings in Colored Town: The UNIA in
Miami in the 1920s." This study began as a paper for an American
History class taught by Dr. Gregory Bush. As a student in my Southern
History class at the University of Miami, Vought shared it with me.
Since little was known of the UNIA or of black activism in an era char-
acterized by violent incidents between the races in Miami, I was excited
over the prospect of sharing it with a wider audience. Vought's essay
represents a worthy contribution to the growing corpus of studies on
early black Miami, a community that registered remarkable achieve-
ments in spite of the difficulties presented by racial discrimination.
This edition of Tequesta is as much the product of the Herculean
labors of Sara Mufioz, managing editor, and Kelly Geisinger, copy edi-
tor, as any other factor. We thank them, members of our Advisory
Board, and the aforementioned contributors to this, the sixtieth edition
of Tequesta. We hope you will enjoy and learn from it.
Paul S. George
Growing up in Coral Gables
by Donald M. Kuhn
One of my first memories of Coral Gables must have been in 1925
when the streetcars were introduced. I was nearly three and playing
alone behind our big home at 824 Ponce de Leon Blvd. The house
was on the southwest corner of Antequera Avenue, one block south of
the Tamiami Trail (Southwest Eighth Street). An office building now
occupies that site. Suddenly there was a horrendously loud train
whistle, and inching north on the boulevard came a huge, black steam
engine, the first I had ever seen. It frightened me, and I crawled
through an opening under the house to escape it. In all likelihood, that
one-time appearance of the steam engine was in celebration of the
coming of the street car to Coral Gables.
During the same period, incredible as it may seem, peacocks
wandered along the boulevard, their tails spread like fans. I thought
they were the most beautiful of all creatures. For some reason, they
disappeared soon after.
My dad, Paul C. Kuhn, had died a year earlier in the summer of
1924, before I reached the age of two, and I have no memory of him.
My two brothers, Merrick, the eldest, and Richard, the youngest,
have no memory of our dad either.
My mother, nee Helen Merrick, was the youngest of George E.
Merrick's three sisters, the other two being Ethel and Medie. Besides
George, my mother had brothers Charles and Richard. Mother was
a twin; her sister, Ruth, died of diphtheria a year before the family
moved to Dade County in 1900.
Of the six surviving children of Solomon Greasley and Althea
Fink Merrick, my mother was the only one to bear offspring, so we
three kids grew up with unusually close relationships with our aunts
The home of Helen Merrick, the mother of Donald Kuhn, at 824 Ponce De Leon
Boulevard, Coral Gables circa 1924-presently the site of an office building.
Mother's second marriage was to John V. Bond, an uncle by marriage
who was widowed. He was a contractor, specializing in building coral
rock homes. In 1926 we moved into his house at 1217 Coral Way
where we lived until I was ten years old.
People today think that when the boom wound down after 1926,
everyone went broke overnight. That was certainly not the case with
the Merricks. The economic decline was slow and insidious. Uncle
George and Aunt Eunice lived in their house at 836 South Greenway
Drive until the end of the 1920s, Aunt Medie in her home at 1133
North Greenway Drive, and Aunt Ethel and Uncle Ted in their home
at 711 University Drive. We had servants during those years. We had
telephones and automobiles.
From my earliest age, I knew that Uncle George was special. He had
become the head of the family when my grandfather died in 1911.
While still in his thirties, he had created and built Coral Gables, its
splendid waterway, the Venetian Pool, the Douglas Entrance, the
Biltmore Hotel, was a founder of the University of Miami, and donated
the land for its campus. Despite his subsequent financial failure, the
family held him in awe. I was no exception.
Uncle George had a big Lincoln (as I remember) and it was
driven by a handsome, black chauffeur named George Allen
who lived in the apartment above the garage. Uncle George's
garage was unique. It had front and back garage doors. One could
Growing up in Coral Gables
drive from the street into the back, then out the front without
We never entered Uncle George's house from the front door on
South Greenway Drive, but always through the side gate on Castile
Avenue. George and Eunice kept two parrots on the porch. They had
gorgeous blue, red and green colors. The living room decor was like
nothing I had seen elsewhere-Spanish, of heavy dark woods and
leathers. There was a strange, dark-wooded desk, obviously Spanish,
trimmed in red and gold and possibly other colors, with many little
drawers. That desk would fascinate any child. Uncle George always
gave each of us three brothers a dime whenever he saw us, just like we
heard Rockefeller did.
My brother, Merrick, who died in 1989, told me that he had read
that a syndicate had offered Uncle George forty million dollars for his
holdings in 1928, which George refused. I have not been able to verify that.
The great hurricane of 1926 struck when I was not quite four. Our
sturdy home of coral rock stood like a fortress. However, there were
porches on the east
and west sides, and
-iu' the wind drove
much water into
the house. The
reached my knees,
and I was having
great fun wading.
The splendid home of George and Eugine Merrick at Father stood me on
836 South Greenway Drive. The Merricks resided there a chair and ordered
from 1924 until 1930. HASF M3687 me to stay there
while he began bor-
ing holes through the floor with a brace and bit to let the water out.
Merrick's treadle car blew away during the night, and we never saw
The 1926 hurricane was very exciting to us kids and we eagerly
looked forward to more hurricanes from that time on.
The 1930s were hard for the grownups, but not for us kids. The
chief effect of the depression on us three brothers was that we received
no allowances; we had to fend for ourselves. My mother, a free spirit,
was very permissive. Father administered discipline.
It wasn't until 1933 when my stepfather lost his house at 1217 Coral
Way through foreclosure that we moved back into my mother's home
on Ponce de Leon Boulevard, at which time we no longer had a phone
or car. Father got around on a bicycle. All the other houses except my
grandmother's (Coral Gables Merrick House) had been lost by that
time also. My Aunt Medie's automobile, her prized Wills Sainte Claire
two-door convertible, rested on blocks in our driveway.
When I was growing up in the 1920s, most families never locked
their doors. Traffic in front of our house on Coral Way was sporadic.
One could hear noises long distances away. Every morning, somewhere
to the east, a rooster crowed.
Every week, it seemed, a car would strike a dog somewhere, and we
would hear that awful sound, "aiee, aiee, aiee," until it faded in the dis-
tance. When I was four or five, my grandmother's little fox terrier,
Mike, was struck and killed at the intersection of University Drive and
Granada Boulevard. Aunt Medie and I carried Mike home. He is
buried somewhere on Coral Gables Merrick House property.
For some reason, loose dogs seem to be more car-savvy these days.
My brothers and I spent hours on the playground at San Salvador
Park, a block away. When my mother wanted us home for lunch, she
would stand at the front door and call our names-"Merrick, Donald,
Richard!" We heard her easily from where we played in the park.
The Coral Gables Country Club was a lively place many evenings. I
enjoyed lying in bed, listening to the music waft across the distant golf
course as I dropped off to sleep.
In the distance, we would also hear, all too frequently, the sound of
car accidents in Coral Gables. First would come the screeching of tires,
then the bang, and then the distinctive tinseled sound of breaking glass
settling to the street. Cars had no safety glass until sometime in the
1930s, and even in a minor accident, one could be seriously injured by
shards of glass, some as deadly as kitchen knives. Seat belts weren't an
option until the 1950s.
I witnessed my first accident when I was five. I was returning
with my mother from a morning walk on Country Club Prado.
I saw two cars crash at high speed at the intersection of Coral Way
and Red Road. I wanted to see the accident close up because one
Growing up in Coral Gables 9
car had turned over, but mother shielded my eyes and marched
A few years later, I saw a terrible accident on the Tamiami Trail at
Cortez Street. A touring bus, identical to the one that Clark Gable and
Claudette Colbert shared in the movie It Happened One Night, struck a
car with such force that the car was hurled like a toy into a vacant lot,
shearing off a pine tree before it landed. The car contained a family
with children, all of whom had been ejected from the car. I was eight or
nine and unused to such carnage. I ran to the corner and vomited.
In the 1920s and 1930s, the main section of the Gables lay between
Douglas and Red Roads, and between the Trail and Bird Road. Beyond
Bird Road there were miles of paved roads and sidewalks and vacant
lots. The unique "villages" in the area with Dutch, Chinese, and French
architecture were enclaves, somewhat like oases, separated by blocks full
of Florida pines with a few houses here and there.
The Coral Gables waterway snaked through the area with only a
half-dozen homes built on it. One of my favorite homes in Coral
Gables was Telfair Knight's home on the waterway. Telfair was Uncle
George's general manager. His home was on the west side of the water-
way on University Drive, a little south of Bird Road. It was a large
home, Mediterranean in style, painted a light brown. It had a circular
driveway, and a swimming pool and cabana. The Knights entertained a
lot, and as a kid, I enjoyed their parties. At one such gala event, the
guests were given gold watches.
Father had three children by his previous marriage, and for a while
they and we three brothers all lived together. Vernon, Mildred and
Frances were in their teens and danced and partied a lot to the tunes of
the day. By 1928, they had all moved north. Vernon left his Lyon and
Healy trombone behind which I learned to play a half-dozen years later.
There were no locks on most of the city-owned buildings such as the
Granada or Alhambra entrances or the castle-like circular stairway lead-
ing to the arch of the Douglas Entrance, or even the pump room under
the De Soto Fountain near the Venetian Pool. In the 1930s, the cover
of the manhole leading to the pump room was never locked, as it is
today. It was our make-believe dungeon, dark and damp. We went
there after dark, with candles or flashlights.
The coral rock entrances to the city were made-to-order clubhouses.
The Granada entrance was okay, but our favorite was the one at
Douglas Road and
Alhambra Circle. It
was close to the ele-
When school let out,
we would head for
our clubhouse in the A
arch over the street.
It was easy to get
into. The doors were '. .."-. .- -
never locked. No The De Soto Fountain with the Miami Biltmore Hotel
one ever bothered (today's Biltmore Hotel) in the background.
us. All of these sites HASF 1986-250-3
at various times
became play areas for some of us as we were growing up.
Coral Gables was not without its hazards for young boys. There were
bigger boys who bullied, for instance. The plazas around the city
offered hiding places where one could waylay you. The plazas at
Granada Boulevard and Columbus Boulevard were two of their favorite
lurking spots. I was underweight and lithe, and I could run like a
gazelle to escape them. I had no problem running through vacant lots
and their sandspurs, but they did. Sometimes a bully would chase me,
and I would pop into the house of a surprised neighbor for a haven;
their door was invariably unlocked. What would a bully do if he caught
you? Make you say "uncle," stuff like that. By the time I was nine, bul-
lies were no longer a threat to me.
My mother believed that the sun was healthy for growing kids, so
until we entered grade school, we rarely wore shirts or even shoes. This
state of affairs upset a lady down the street at Madrid who complained
about us "heathens." Recently, I learned from Tommy Lifsey, who used
to live in the same block in the rock house with a blue roof, that Daniel
Redfern, a lawyer neighbor, wrote a letter to her that effectively shut
Father, like Aunt Medie, owned a Wills Sainte Claire. Ours was a
four-door convertible, a "gangster car." Its hood emblem was a flying
goose. We referred to it by its common name, the "Grey Goose." It
was an expensive car, high-powered and quiet-running. On Sundays
we drove down Columbus Boulevard to the Congregational Church
Growing up in Coral Gables 11
where Father, Mother, and we three brothers attended adult services.
There may have been a Sunday school, but we three never attended
it. During sermons, Father could be counted on to nod off, and
sometimes to snore. One evening a silent film was shown in the
sanctuary. It was King ofKings, a 1927 movie directed by Cecil B.
After church, nearly every Sunday, our family would climb back into
the Grey Goose for long drives in the countryside. We ventured as far
north as Opa-Locka where there was a zoo and huge zeppelin hangars,
and as far south as Royal Palm State Park, south of Homestead. In
1929, we drove up to Palm Beach for a swim in the strong surf there.
We also took in a movie, The Canary Murder Case, at a theater located
in an arcade in West Palm Beach.
Two of the main northward thoroughfares, Le Jeune Road and
Twenty-seventh Avenue were narrow, two-lane highways. They were
sometimes crowded with
a.. traffic. Miles north on
was the Municipal Airport
,s where air shows were held.
In 1936 or 1937, some of
S us rode bicycles there to
Ssee the new bomber called
Sai bg d c- the Flying Fortress.
... --. Once, returning
from Opa-Locka in the
Merrick, Richard, and Donald on the front steps Grey Goose, coming
of 1217 Coral Way, Coral Gables in 1927. down Le Jeune Road (or
possibly Red Road), we
passed by a "train wreck" promotion. Tickets were being sold to the
public for an upcoming Sunday in which two steam engines would be
sent crashing into each other at high speed. Father said "no" to our
pleas to attend, and he was right to do so, for the crash turned out to
be a dull affair, in fact, one big dud, according to the newspapers.
Occasionally we would drive into Miami to a Spanish restaurant on
Miami Avenue north of the Capitol Theater. (Mother always referred to
that street as "Avenue D.") Invariably Father ordered arroz con pollo for
all of us. We brothers called it "rollio com pollio."
Father's good friend Dick Rice and family owned an orange grove
and packinghouse in Kendall. Father worked there on occasion, and he
often took me with him. We would drive through Larkins, now South
Miami, past the Larkins movie theater which became a Holsum bakery,
through a piney area until we reached the Kendall grove. I would spend
the day playing among the orange trees, or visiting the noisy packing-
house located across U.S. 1 by the Florida East Coast railway tracks.
During cold snaps, black smoke pots would be put around the orange
trees to help prevent freezing. Some time after World War II, Dick
Rice's grove disappeared and the site became a snake farm tourist attraction.
The road to Homestead was mostly pine country. The little crossroad
towns of Kendall, Perrine, Goulds, Princeton, and Naranja were easily
identified, because miles of pines and palmettos separated them. Turn
left toward the bay-pines. Turn right toward the Everglades-pines.
Near Homestead were farms that grew tomatoes and other
vegetables, and groves of oranges and avocados. Civilization ended at
On several trips that we made to Homestead in the Grey Goose, an
ancient black steam engine facing north on a siding fascinated me. It
was ancient because, like some of those old steam engines seen in
Westerns, it had one of those odd funnels shaped like a fat, angular,
pot-bellied stove, big in the middle and narrow at the top and bottom.
It was near Princeton, always there in the same place. I fantasized that
it was the "little engine that could" that in an emergency would come
to someone's rescue, climbing an imaginary hill, chugging, "I think I
can, I think I can." The Little Engine That Could was one of the first
books that I read as a child.
There was a county hospital in Kendall where the poor were sup-
posed to go. When I was ten, I had an abscess in my left hip. This was
in 1932, and there was talk of an operation in the Kendall hospital.
Thankfully, that was not to be, and Dr. Arthur Weiland of Coral
Gables performed an operation on me at Jackson Memorial Hospital. I
spent three weeks there and became a favorite of the nurses. My ward
was in a screened sleeping porch. Recently I tried to identify the build-
ing with its tropical, red tiled roof, but I could not find it in the huge
maze that is Jackson today.
The post-boom years were an okay time for us kids. The whole
Miami area was one big playground, filled with vacant or unfinished
Growing up in Coral Gables 13
buildings and secret haunts. These included structures as large as a sky-
scraper and as small as a corner gas station. In Coral Gables, the two
largest unfinished structures were the concrete skeleton of the adminis-
tration building on the undeveloped campus of the University of
Miami on University Concourse, now Ponce de Leon Boulevard, and
the large, U-shaped, apartment building at 121-125 Zamora Avenue.
We referred to it as the "Three-Story Building."
The "Three-Story Building" was a concrete block shell on the out-
side. Inside were under-flooring, stairs and studs and no interior walls.
Although the doors and windows were boarded up, we found a way in.
Two bosom buddies, Jimmy and Billy McDonald, and we three broth-
ers considered it our private playhouse. It was the biggest playhouse one
could ever want. This was in 1933 after we had moved back to my
mother's house on Ponce de Leon Boulevard when I was ten.
Coincidentally, Jimmy and Billy had moved, too, to an apartment at
144 Mendoza Avenue behind the "Three-Story Building."
In downtown Coral Gables, during business hours, one was always
aware of the Renuart Lumber Yard. It was off one of the side streets
west of Ponce de Leon Boulevard. The noise from its electric saws
reverberated up and down the boulevard. There was also a riding acade-
The Coral Gables Theater, on Ponce between Alcazar and Minorca,
was big, modern, and comfortable. Mr. Boone, a baldish man friendly
to kids, managed it. His main usher was a suave young man with
slicked down black hair who wore a classy serge uniform. During the
1930s, the theater sponsored occasional vaudeville acts between movie
shows. I remember seeing Joe Penner ("Wanna buy a duck?") perform
there. The theater also sponsored the usual "dish" nights and prize
drawings, such as for turkeys at Thanksgiving. In 1933, I saw King
From Alcazar Avenue, the theater could be accessed through Hupps
Pharmacy. Hupps was famous for its great candy counter, and also for
its soda fountain that competed against the soda fountain of Alcazar
Drugs across the street on Ponce. There was a gas station on the
Minorca side of the theater, behind which two yellow school busses
were routinely parked. They were used for transporting teenagers to
Ponce de Leon High School on U.S. 1, opposite the undeveloped cam-
pus of the University of Miami.
There were only one or two vacant lots between the theater and
Coral Way. In 1936 or 1937, on one of the lots, a narrow one, a new
building was constructed which seemed to be a positive indicator for
progress ahead. It housed a stock brokerage firm.
The main intersection of Coral Gables was Ponce de Leon Boulevard
and Coral Way (Miracle Mile after WWII). Yet there were only two
buildings at that corner, the Administration Building of the old Coral
Gables Corporation and the Colonnade Building. For a few years, a
miniature golf course occupied the northwest corner (we called it a
Pony golf course). The southeast corner was vacant, until it too sported
a miniature golf course. The two courses competed against each other.
The intersection was further humbled when the administration build-
ing was modified to house Sam's Service Station on the southwest cor-
ner. Gas dispensing must have been a very good business in the 1930s;
there were six gas stations on Ponce de Leon Boulevard between Coral
Way and the Tamiami Trail. A pharmacy and bus station eventually
replaced the miniature golf course on the northwest corner.
There were not many other structures along Coral Way. There was a
three-story building on the north side a little west of Douglas Road.
On Biltmore Way west of City Hall, there was only one building that I
All the Merricks liked ice cream, including Uncle George, and there
were three parlors in the Gables. Two of them were located on Ponce de
Leon Boulevard-one near Flagler Street, and one near Bird Road. The
third and by far the most popular was Worthmore on Aragon Avenue
off Ponce de Leon, two stores west of Dad's barber shop. Many flavors
were available, including grapenut, but I always preferred their vanilla.
One of my very early memories was a "community night" held at the
broad intersection of Ponce de Leon Boulevard and Alhambra Circle.
The area was cordoned off from Ponce eastward to the triangular build-
ing that housed a bank in front, and post office at the rear. There was a
root beer stand on the north side of the square. Father bought us ice-
cold root beer that was dispensed from a huge barrel inside the stand. It
was a balmy night, and the area teemed with people. A band played. I
don't recall any speeches.
Eventually, the bank and post office were relocated, and the vacated
building became a church. The post office moved into a section of the
Administration Building of the old Coral Gables Corporation, across
Growing up in Coral Gables
an arcade from Uncle George's real estate office that he established in
the mid-1930s. In 1938, when I was taken north by car to live with my
Aunt Medie and Uncle Quint in
Greenwich, New York, I saw numerous
signs on U.S. 1 between Miami and
Jacksonville advertising Uncle George's real
estate business in Coral Gables.
Periodically in the late 1920s, my
mother would take us three boys into
Miami to shop at Burdine's, or Cromer-
Cassel's (later Richards), which supposedly,
until the downtown Walgreens store was
built, had Miami's only basement. We
would take a streetcar from downtown
Coral Gables into Miami. We could go via
Flagler Street or Coral Way. Most of the
time we traveled via Coral Way. The street-
car on Coral Way was big, modern, and
swift. The motorman allowed us to ride up
front. Usually, we had lunch at a small cor-
ner restaurant on Southeast First Street
toward the bay. I always enjoyed looking
up to see the castle-like turrets of the
Halcyon Hotel, and the sprawling, yellow
Royal Palm Hotel on the river.
In 1927 when I was going on five,
George Merrick, the creator my aunt Medie took me to my first
of Coral Gables, on the steps University of Miami football game. It was
of the newly-opened Miami played on a field on the undeveloped cam-
Biltmore Hotel, January pus, about where the University's baseball
1926. HASF M4078 (W) stadium is today. There were wooden
bleachers along the west side of the field. I
enjoyed the excitement of the adults, but was more interested in the
popcorn and peanuts than the game.
In 1928, our family was still well-off enough for my mother to
take us three children to Basil, Ohio (now Baltimore), near Columbus,
to visit my deceased father's parents. We took a train to Jacksonville,
a ship to Baltimore with a stopover in Savannah, and a train from
Baltimore to Columbus, Ohio. In Baltimore, I experienced my
first hill. I climbed it, ran down it too fast, and tumbled into a house
at the bottom. Strangely, I have no recollection of the return trip
My grandmother's home, Coral Gables Merrick House, was always
interesting and a source of fun. It was like entering an art museum.
Paintings, mostly by family members-Mody, Uncle Denman, Uncle
Richard-hung in every room. Photos of Uncle Richard were on a wall
above a cabinet holding the Encyclopedia Britannica. Mody's hand-
adorned the dining
room. The whole
family met there for
grownups called her
"Alley", and we
three kids, "Mody," The Coral Gables House, the boyhood home of George
pronounced Merrick. Members of the Merrick family lived there
"Moady"), sat at one throughout the boyhood years of Donald Kuhn.
end of the table, HASF M3678
Uncle George at the
other. We boys were never allowed at the big table. We had a card table
in the same room to ourselves. Sometimes, we would be allowed to run
the player piano. We celebrated perhaps a dozen such happy occasions
before my grandmother died in 1937.
After dinner at Mody's, when we were real young, we played under
the sunroom behind the bamboo trees, among scores of conch shells
stored there. The grotto was larger then than it is today. It included a
large pond with goldfish, much larger and deeper than the pond in
front. We became expert at starting the various sprinklers servicing the
grotto, and enjoyed watching them run. The banyan tree in back and
the rubber tree in front were great for climbing, especially the rubber
tree. The swing outside the summer room was also a lot of fun. Our
favorite game after dinner was hide-and-seek, and as I recall, I was
usually the most successful at hiding myself. The south garage was
Growing up in Coral Gables 17
off limits because that's where Uncle Richard and Uncle Charley
No recounting of early Coral Gables would be complete without
comments on Coral Gables Elementary School. I entered kindergarten
in 1927. I remember nearly all of my teachers Miss Thompson in
kindergarten, Miss Feaster in first grade, Miss Stoddard in second
grade, Miss Dunlap who encouraged me in English, Miss Madry
(mathematics), Miss Ware (geography), Miss Fulks (English), Miss
Khoury (music and physical education), Miss Baccus (first grade), Miss
Linder (eighth grade, art and penmanship) and one man who resem-
bled the actor, Gene Raymond, but whose name I don't remember.
There were no fences at the school. Two custodians-janitors-lived
on the premises. They were Mr. Garrett and Mr. Simpson. All of us
children liked them immensely.
The school seemed to be a magnet for grocery stores. The Coral
Gables Grocery was across the street on Ponce de Leon Boulevard.
Flanagan's, in the Laidlaw Building, flanked the school on the south at
Minorca, and Table Supply was on the north at Navarre. Father shopped at
the Table Supply, an early supermarket. Our food budget was $10 per week.
That fed our family of five, two dogs, and a number of cats.
The school day started with the playing of the bugle, the raising of
the flag, and the Pledge of Allegiance.
By far, the dominant personality at Coral Gables Elementary School
was Miss Abigail Gilday, the principal. She was a big woman, and to a
child, utterly huge. She occupied a small office, so small that she
seemed all the larger. Her upper arms were as big as logs. Her dress fell
straight, like Mother Hubbard, to her ankles, nearly hiding her black,
laced shoes. Her ability to widen her eyes and stare us down was such
that no culprit dared lie to her, lest he melt into the floor. We respected
Miss Gilday, but feared ever being brought before her, because we knew
we couldn't fool her under any circumstance imaginable.
Miss Gilday believed that most studying should be done at school, so
we had very little homework. The homework we did have was mostly
confined to required memorization, such as selections from Shakespeare.
Once a week we would assemble in the auditorium to listen to Walter
Damrosch's radio show on music appreciation. Once a year at assembly,
the Coral Gables police and firemen would demonstrate drug parapher-
nalia and educate us about the evils of opium and heroin.
Once when I was twelve, Billy McDonald and I (he was my best
friend) had the audacity to skip school, play hooky, that is, and think
that we could get away with it. It was a fiasco. We rode Billy's bike into
Coconut Grove and were playing in the park on the site of the old
Peacock Inn when a policeman intercepted us. He deposited the bike
and us at the principal's office at Coconut Grove Elementary School.
The principal phoned Fanny Tooley, legendary as the hard-nosed, red-
haired truant officer from downtown Miami, to escort us back to Coral
Gables. The principal then went to lunch, leaving Billy and me alone in
her office. Billy's bike was leaning against a coconut tree just outside
the principal's door.
We commiserated regarding our plight. Neither of us wanted to be
confronted by Fanny Tooley, or Miss Gilday, or my stepfather, or Billy's
mother. Our childish solution was to compound the situation by decid-
ing to "run away" and travel north to see the world.
We jumped on Billy's bike, rode it to a nearby block that was vacant,
and hid in the middle of the block until school let out. We envisioned
that all the police in Miami were hunting for us. Using mostly back
streets, we traveled north to Thirty-sixth Street, then up U.S. 1 past Seventy-
ninth Street. By that time, we were tired and a little hungry, and decided to
hitchhike. The first car that came along picked us up, bike and all.
The driver, a young man, drove us as far as Fort Lauderdale. There,
he pulled over to the shoulder and tried to talk us out of traveling far-
ther. While he was talking to us, a state trooper stopped to see if we
needed aid. When the driver got out and began talking to the trooper,
Billy and I, huddled in the back seat with the bike on our laps, knew
the jig was up.
Fort Lauderdale at that time was a small town of under ten thousand.
While the police awaited the arrival of Billy's mother who had both a
phone and a car, they treated us like celebrities, and served us ice cream.
The worst part of the ordeal was the long drive home. Billy's mother uttered
not a single word, which was worse than if she had berated us.
We never faced Fanny Tooley. Father gave me a tanning with his razor
strop. We survived Miss Gilday's withering stare and promised her our good
behavior in the future. Mother and father ordered me to stop seeing Billy,
but that was impossible to enforce, for I saw him at school every day.
I met Jimmy and Billy McDonald when I was in the second grade.
Jimmy was a year older than Billy and myself. Their mother, Sara, was a
Growing up in Coral Gables
widow. She sold ties door-to-door initially, and then took a permanent
job with Pan American Airways. The McDonalds lived in the down-
stairs part of a garage apartment on Madrid Street near South
Greenway Drive. The Houston family lived upstairs. Billy and I became
fast friends. Later, we discovered that we both liked the water. We
fished and sailed near Dinner Key, canoed in the Miami River, and fre-
quented the Venetian Pool and Tahiti Beach.
Billy and I particularly liked the area around Dinner Key. We
enjoyed watching the PAA clippers land and discharge their passengers.
Somehow Billy and I managed to own a small sailboat with a center-
board and collapsible mast. We liked to take her out at six in the morn-
ing when the bay was like glass, and one could see the baby barracudas
close to shore. We frequented a sandbar called "White Island." There
was nothing on it but crabs and sand flies, but it was fun just getting
off the boat and exploring it.
Sometimes we ventured as far as the two Deering Islands north of the
Deering Estate (Villa Vizcaya). With their numerous Australian pines,
the islands made excellent camp sites.
Once we beached the boat on the mainland north of the estate and
visited the Devil's Punch Bowl. We had read about it in the newspaper.
It was a mysterious, natural appearing round hole about a yard or so
across, flush with the ground, in a heavily wooded area not far from the
shore. I don't recall seeing water in it.
Swimming was an all-day affair. The Venetian Pool, with its caves,
towers, and abundant foliage, was great for playing hide-and-seek.
Once, by perching on the fence near the entrance to the pool, I success-
fully hid "in plain view" like ET in the closet. Two kids coming from
opposite directions met directly in front of me, wondering where I
could possibly be hiding. I could have touched them.
Our canoe in the Miami River was an apparent Seminole Indian
dugout that Billy and I discovered buried in mud near the turntable
train bridge of the FEC railway. We were pursuing an eel when we
stumbled across it. The canoe easily held three or four persons. With
the canoe, we were able to paddle real close to the manatees that fre-
quented the mouth of the river.
One summer day, when the Brickell Avenue Bridge was being
repaired in raised position, a workman high up accidentally dropped a
large bucket of aluminum paint that hit the water only inches from me.
Had it struck me, I surely would have been severely injured or killed. I
was splashed with paint, which I had a hard time explaining to my
mother, for she was unaware of our boat in the river. She knew only of
our boat at Dinner Key.
The Granada Golf Course provided sport many evenings. One of our
unusual pastimes was a game we called "tanking." Dotted around the
course were some thatched-roofed, open-aired huts that provided
thirsty golfers with shade and cool water. The water was cooled by a
block of ice resting on coils in a square tank above the spigot. One of
the huts was near Madrid Street and South Greenway Drive, a half-
block from the garage apartment where Jimmy and Billy lived. After
dark, we would remove the lid from the tank, and if the block of ice
was large enough, we took turns pulling down our britches to see who
could sit on it the longest. It sounds crazy, but that's one of the ways we
Boy Scout Troop 7 occupied an edge of the course on South
Greenway Drive. I joined the troop in 1935 and greatly enjoyed the
camaraderie and activities. We usually ended our evenings playing
"Capture the Flag," a game for which the golf course was amply suited.
We camped on Snapper Creek, off Red Road across from a nudist
colony. The nudist colony later became the Parrot Jungle.
In 1934 or 1935, we discovered the tropical jungle of Matheson
Hammock, and sometimes spent all day there playing hide-and-seek
on our bicycles. We rode our bikes through the narrow jungle paths.
Some sections of Matheson Hammock with their giant ferns and huge
tropical trees made us feel as though we were in deepest Africa. Farther
down Cutler Road in front of a general store was a large, rare Sausage
Tree that enhanced the Hammock's mystique.
Sometimes we played on an unfinished stretch of the Coral Gables water-
way that wended west along South Alhambra Circle. The canal had been
dug, but coral rock gravel from the excavations was still heaped on the south
side, making mini-hills. Nearby, we found some corrugated, galvanized roofing
panels, and rounded an end on each to make them into sleds. Then we would
climb to the top and sled down, racing each other for hours at a time.
It was not unusual in that section of the Gables to find dry-land tur-
tles that my mother called gophers lazing in the middle of an empty
road. We played with them for a while, then put them into the weeds
across the sidewalk so that they would not be run over by an occasional
Growing up in Coral Gables 21
car. Sometimes a family of six or eight fat little quails crossed the road
toward some unknown destination, like organized chickens.
I abhorred and feared scorpions, and became adept at uncovering the
little brown things hiding in old, damp woodpiles. I was rarely success-
ful in destroying one. Once, when a tree was being planted in the
Alhambra parkway at Ponce de Leon Boulevard, I saw an ugly, jet black
scorpion as large as a man's hand crawl out of the hole into the grass. A
workman killed it.
Then there were the rare centipedes, yellow, an inch wide, and nearly
a foot long that we kids feared more than any other insect, because we
were told that one could kill us. Other creatures that we feared were the
coral snake and the white-mouthed water moccasin. Once, around
1934, a wild cat was discovered in a huge live oak at the rear of the
Clara Reina Hotel on Alhambra Circle only a block from Douglas
Road. A hotel staff member shot it out of the tree.
I was by no means non-studious. The Coral Gables Library was
located nearby in the Douglas Entrance, on the first floor, beneath the
Grand Ballroom. The librarians, Miss Beaton and Miss De Pamphilis
were extremely helpful to my brother Merrick and me. Merrick encour-
aged my reading, and the two of us enjoyed many evenings at the
library, taking books home to read. My younger brother, Richard, was
less interested in reading, but he had a natural bent for arithmetic. The
library was later moved down the street to its own building.
Merrick liked to own books. At one point, he owned an entire set of
books by Horatio Alger. He had a large collection of books on
Napoleon. I favored biographies on pirates, inventors, and statesmen,
particularly George Washington.
Oftentimes in the summer, and after school, I visited my grandmoth-
er Mody. She suffered from arthritis, and got around the house on
crutches, never complaining, just sometimes saying, "ouch." My visits
to Mody usually included playing board games with her, our favorite
being "Pollyanna." My grandparents had been true pioneers. They
moved to Florida from Massachusetts with five children in 1900 when
Dade County had only one thousand people and "Coral Gables" was a
wilderness. Uncle Richard, the sixth child, was born in 1903; he came
in with the airplane, as he liked to say.
After Uncle George and Aunt Eunice lost their home around 1930,
they moved into Miami to live on West Flagler Street, near Southwest
Twenty-second Avenue. They would come over on weekends and take
Mody for drives around Coral Gables. I accompanied them sometimes.
I think that Uncle George never tired of viewing his creation, his "City
Beautiful." He would point out his favorite buildings. He was particu-
larly pleased with the Biltmore Hotel; it was always the last sight on our
drive. Mody was fun to be with and I was sad when she died in 1937.
Occasionally, in the rainy season, we could expect mosquitoes from
the Everglades. They came in swarms on hot, humid evenings, blacken-
ing screen doors in their attempts to enter. Tourists in the winter often
complained about the many bugs in the area; I would think to myself,
"They should see them in the summer."
It was a common occurrence for tourists to stop their cars, stick their
heads out the windows, and ask me for directions to a destination in
the Gables. Sometimes they complained that they were hopelessly lost.
I enjoyed helping them. Earlier, until the beginning of the 1930s, pink
telephone-type booths housed "You Are Here" maps, that dotted Coral
Gables. These had been placed strategically around the city for the ben-
efit of prospective buyers and tourists. Gradually, they disappeared, as
did the handsome, wooden street signs. One of the last surviving map
booths was on Coral Way at Anderson Road, across from the Granada
When we kids weren't playing in the "Three-Story Building" on
Zamora Avenue, or at one of the arched entrances, we earned "movie
money." Our supply source were the "secret" fruit trees throughout the
Coral Gables area, starting with the avocado, mango, key lime, and
guava trees at my grandmother's place, Coral Gables Merrick House.
Our favorite avocado tree was concealed by pines in a lot on Ponce de
Leon Boulevard across from the Antilla Hotel. Every year, it produced
huge avocados for us that we sold for a dime a piece. There were addi-
tional trees in the same general area near the Coliseum, and across the
Tamiami Trail west of Ponce de Leon Boulevard. These included some
orange trees, and several wonderful Persian lime trees. West of Le Jeune
Road in an unincorporated area was a small grove of pecan trees.
Around the Venetian Pool and stretching toward the Biltmore Hotel
were numerous grapefruit trees planted by the Coral Gables Plantation
that survived the building of Coral Gables.
Five of us-Billy, his brother Jimmy, my brothers Merrick and
Richard, and I-considered these to be our private source of income.
Growing up in Coral Gables 23
In season, we picked the fruit and sold it door-to-door. Year-round, we
searched various areas, especially behind gas stations, for recyclable bot-
tles. Certain quart milk bottles were worth five cents. The right ones
had a large five cent symbol embossed in glass on the bottom. To us,
they were a mother lode.
Our goal: Fifteen cents per person-ten cents for a movie, and five
cents for a candy bar, my favorite being a Butterfinger. Usually, we
exceeded that amount.
The Coral Gables Theater was our favorite theater, but when another
friend, Henry Bryant (he later became a surgeon) and his numerous
beautiful sisters moved to an area a little south of Southwest Eighth
Street near Seventeenth Avenue, we gravitated toward the Tower
Theater. The Tower was a kid's dream. On a Saturday afternoon, the
Tower's program would include Pathe News, The March of Time, a car-
toon, a comedy, a serial, and a Western. The comedies featured Our
Gang, Edgar Kennedy, Leon Errol, or Pete Smith. All for only ten
cents. Each of us had favorite cowboys, such as Tom Mix, Hoot
Gibson, or Buck Jones. My favorite was Tim McCoy, who, years later, I
was pleased to notice, played a cameo role in the movie Around the
World in Eighty Days.
Occasionally, we would go to the Tivoli on Flagler Street near
Seventh Avenue or the Rex, or The Olympia in downtown Miami. The
Olympia advertised itself as "air-cooled."
A movie downtown was usually an all day event. We would go to the
southwest corner of Ponce and the Trail. (The lot there was vacant,
except around July 4th when a stand would be erected for selling fire-
works.) When the light turned red, we would split up and go car-to-car
seeking a ride into Miami. We competed to see who could be the first
to arrive in front of the Olympia Theater. Then we would play hide-
and-seek in the four-block area between Miami Avenue and the
Olympia Theater at Second Avenue, and between Southeast First Street
and Northeast First Street. We knew all the sites that offered access
through a block, such as Burdine's, the Red Cross Department Store,
and the Halcyon and Seybold Arcades. When we tired, we went to a
movie, and usually enjoyed exiting into the heat and brightness of the
late afternoon. If we had the money, there was a soda fountain at the
entrance to the Seybold Arcade on Northeast First Avenue that, for 10
cents, served, we felt, the best milkshake in town. The stoplight at the
corner of Southwest Eighth Street and Second Avenue was the best
place to catch a ride home.
Sometimes we went to Bayfront Park to play in the sunken tropical
garden there, or to Pier Five to admire the Chris Crafts.
Occasionally we kids would have the money to eat at the Dinner Bell
restaurant in downtown Miami. It was located on Northeast First
Avenue, and what a bargain it offered! For only fifteen cents, one could
get a full course dinner. One's only choice was the entree. With it came
a salad, vegetables, and dessert. The beverage may have been extra, I
don't recall. On holidays such as at Christmas or Thanksgiving, the
price was twenty-five cents.
In the summer of 1936, when I was thirteen, the family sent me
north to visit Aunt Medie and Uncle Quint in Englewood, New Jersey.
The Clyde Mallory Line ran ocean liners to New York. I was put on the
Algonquin, traveling steerage for twelve dollars. Because I was a kid, I
was allowed the run of the ship, and on the three-day, 900-mile trip,
my love for the ocean was secured.
Uncle Quint worked in New York as chief detective for the Essex
House Hotel, and sometimes I accompanied him into the city. I
promptly fell in love with New York, roaming it alone from the
Metropolitan Museum to the Battery. In Englewood, my neighbors
were George and Dick Button (Dick became an Olympic skating star).
Another neighbor was the young Malcolm Forbes. Malcolm, three
years my senior, introduced me to the game of croquet. At summer's
end, I returned home on the Seminole, this time confined to steerage,
but looking forward to entering Ponce de Leon High School.
Unfortunately, I never kept in touch with my newfound friends
In November, I became a newsboy, and began selling the Miami
Daily News on the street. Sales were brisk during the winter season
between November and May. Tourists were interested in racing results,
closing stock market prices, and the weather up north. I quickly discov-
ered that many sales could be made to people entering or leaving
restaurants. One of my best restaurants was the Barcelona, the Gables'
most upscale restaurant at the time. It was next door to our home on
Ponce de Leon Boulevard, separated from us only by a vacant lot.
The building that housed the Barcelona had an interesting history. It
was built to sell and service Buick automobiles. The showroom occu-
Growing up in Coral Gables 25
pied the first floor facing Ponce. Its garage was on the second floor,
accessed by a ramp at the rear. When Buick vacated the premises early
in the Depression, Arthur Fishman housed his realty agency in the
showroom. He installed a white-picket fence in front of the glass show-
case to create a rustic appearance. Coming home from elementary
school I discovered that if I took a stick and strummed it across the
fence, I could produce what I later learned was a Pavlov reaction in Mr.
Fishman. On each such occasion, he could be expected to come rush-
ing out of his office, his face flushed, yelling, "I'll break your neck!"
At some point in the 1930s, Viola Belasco rented the garage upstairs
where she conducted dance classes for young boys and girls. When the
Barcelona moved in downstairs, Viola moved her studio to the Douglas
Entrance. It was located south of the arch, facing Douglas Road.
Occasionally, we less advantaged kids would annoy her classes by mak-
ing funny faces through the glass front of her studio.
I never dined at the Barcelona, but peering in, I admired its decor the
tiled floor, the chandeliers, the dark Spanish tables and chairs, the thick red
water glasses, and elegant red napkins, and the waitresses in costume. I
remember the fuss made when golfer Ralph Guldahl and his entourage
came there to dine. He won the 1937 U.S. Open.
The Barcelona was so successful the management opened a second
restaurant, the Seville, opposite Coral Gables Elementary School. It
too, was elegant, but the clientele there never had the level of interest
in newspaper-reading that the Barcelona crowd did.
The Ponce de Leon Restaurant, a little south of Alhambra Circle on
the east side of the street was also an easy place for selling newspapers.
It had a U-shaped counter with stools, surrounded by an aisle and sit-
down tables. Two men ran it, one tall and one short, both of whom
were easily recognized as owners by their tan jackets. I thought of them
as Mutt and Jeff. They were the only managers who allowed me to cir-
culate inside among their clientele. Many of their diners were singles
who purchased papers to read while they ate. It was a very popular
restaurant, and I made many sales there.
Other restaurants of the era were the San Sebastian in the San
Sebastian Hotel, the Tiffen (later the Green Lantern) on Le Jeune
Road, and Nina's Tea Room on the Tamiami Trail at Douglas Road.
Newspaper sales were not good at these restaurants, primarily, I believe,
because tourists were a small fraction of their clientele.
My great-Uncle Denman Fink and Aunt Zillah often ate at the non-
touristy restaurants. Like all of the Merricks, they also enjoyed movies.
I remember seeing Uncle Denman and Aunt Zillah at the Coconut
Grove Theater one evening at a showing of "The Ox Bow Incident."
Uncle Denman was turned off by the movie, commenting to me that
he didn't need a "lecture" on lynching.
Uncle Denman made a good living as an artist, even in the
Depression. He was an illustrator for the Saturday Evening Post, and
painted portraits and murals. He allowed me occasionally to watch him
work on his murals. Like my grandmother Mody (his sister), Uncle
Denman had a fine sense of humor. He delighted sometimes in racing
his car through the driveway that ran between Coral Way and Castile
Avenue at Coral Gables Merrick House, honking his horn furiously at
his sister, on his way to play tennis at the Coral Gables Country Club.
Newspapers in those days, when there was extraordinary news, issued
"Extras." These events always resulted in bonanzas for us street sellers.
These included the assassination of Huey Long, the disappearance of
Amelia Earhart, and the retrieval and execution of Bruno Hauptmann.
Henry L. Doherty was a big name in the Miami area in the middle
1930s. He controlled both the Biltmore Hotel in Coral Gables and the
Roney Plaza in Miami Beach. He flew guests between hotels by auto-
giro-a helicopter with wings. During Christmas of 1935 or 1936, I
joined a line of under-privileged children to receive presents from Mr.
Doherty at the Biltmore. When it became my turn, I realized the occasion
was being filmed, and I hid my face from the newsreel camera, because I
was embarrassed, as a Merrick, to be there. I am ashamed to admit that I
accepted the present. It was a disappointing, insignificant gift to boot.
The year 1937 was pivotal for me. Pan American Airways moved the
McDonalds to Port Washington, New York, where Clippers flew to
Europe. A car struck my stepfather on the Trail near the Douglas
Entrance, severely injuring him. His older children moved him to
Maryland for years of recuperation. My grandmother Mody died. We
lost our house on Ponce de Leon Blvd and moved to a small bungalow
at 2261 Southwest Sixtieth Court, west of Red Road near Coral Way. I
was in the 9th grade at Ponce de Leon High School, and doing poorly
in my studies. I was not used to being assigned homework.
The family managed to buy me a new bicycle at the Sears store near
the County Causeway. I proudly pedaled it to Coral Gables, parked it
Growing up in Coral Gables 27
by the Coral Gables Theater without a lock, and went in to see a
movie. When I came out, it had disappeared. Another of life's lessons
learned the hard way.
Somehow, another bicycle was purchased for me. I was expected to
help pay for it by taking on a paper route. At the time, Miami had
three dailies: the afternoon News, the morning Herald, and a newcomer,
the morning Miami Tribune, a brash tabloid that sold on the street for
a penny a copy. The Tribune was featuring a series of stories that depict-
ed Miami policemen as redneck Cossacks. It had a fairly broad home
delivery in Coral Gables, but not nearly as great as the Herald. So I
took on the Herald route.
I had some seventy-five customers who lived between Granada
Boulevard and Douglas Road, and between Coral Way and Menores
Avenue. Each morning, I biked myself from Southwest Sixtieth Court
and Coral Way, picked up my papers at the boomtime Alhambra
Building (since replaced) at the corner of Alhambra Circle and Le Jeune
Road, beginning my deliveries at Granada, and ending up at Menores.
I heartily embraced the dark, early morning hours with the accompa-
nying quietude and dearth of traffic. I even welcomed rain. Once light-
ning struck a tree a dozen yards away, introducing me to that strange,
indescribable smell of ozone. Sometimes I preceded my pickup with a
stop at Peacock's Coral Gables Bakery on Ponce de Leon Boulevard.
The Peacock's pastry smelled so good in the early morning, and tasted
terrific! I knew Buddy Peacock well, having gone through elementary
school with him. He was famous for the bread named for him. His pic-
ture was on every wrapper! I always wondered, but never inquired,
whether they were related to Aunt Eunice who was a Peacock.
Unfortunately, I didn't have the Herald job very long. Life is some-
times unfair, I learned. An old lady complained to the Coral Gables
Police that she saw me steal a bottle of milk off her front steps early in
the morning. I was apprehended at the end of my route, and two
policemen escorted me to confront the lady, a Mrs. Campbell.
Although I stoutly denied being the thief, they believed her, and curi-
ously, on the way back to the station, tried to beat me into a confession.
They did this by placing me between themselves in the front seat,
instead of seating me in the rear as they had earlier. Then, in a lonely
stretch of road, they stopped the car and turned and shoved me hard,
back and forth between themselves, like a basketball, while shouting at
me to confess. Through tears, I fiercely retorted that I had all the milk I
needed at home, and that I wasn't about to confess to something I did-
n't do. Finally they gave up and returned me to the dinky police station
on Salzedo Street at Minorca (or was it Alcazar?), where, at about 10
a.m., Chief Sox entered and ordered me home. The next morning
when I reported for my papers, I found that the Herald had fired me.
In retrospect, I believe the thief may have been the Tribune carrier.
He had my build and also had curly hair like I did. In the early morn-
ing darkness, Mrs. Campbell could easily have mistaken him for me.
Even though I shall never forget the incident of the stolen milk, I
have always tried to look upon it in a positive light, as a life experience
to be appreciated for its worldly teachings. After all, I hadn't been
arrested, and I didn't go to jail! And I have been mistrustful of eyewit-
ness accounts ever since.
I continued to sell the News on the street.
Before summer's end of 1937, to relieve my mother of trying to
handle her three unruly, teenage sons, Uncle George and the rest of
the family arranged to send us three brothers to an inexpensive
boarding school in Maitland, north of Orlando. Uncle Richard drove
us to the school in September in his Willys automobile. Forest Lake
Academy was a work/study school, and I labored on its farm. I
also resolutely worked to improve in my studies. In November, I
However, I did not exhibit model behavior. My lifelong adventure-
some spirit caused me, recklessly, to accept a dare to hitchhike to
Miami, 250 miles away. I rationalized that I needed a new pair of shoes.
With little forethought, and no funds, on a cold Saturday morning in
January 1938, I easily slipped away from the school and set out for Miami.
I arrived at the foot of Flagler Street after dark, distressed that the
weather was no warmer than in the Orlando area. I was cold and hun-
gry, and worse, I realized that I had no idea where my mother lived.
She had recently moved. Uncle George and Aunt Eunice lived the clos-
est to where I was, so I decided to seek refuge for the night with them.
Despite the cold, East Flagler Street was abuzz with people, noise and
music. In the Walgreens block, Professor Seward, the astrologist, was at
his usual spot in front of his imitation railroad observation car, and I
stopped briefly to enjoy his spiel. Twenty more blocks and I would be
at Uncle George's.
Growing up in Coral Gables 29
They lived in a bungalow on the south side of West Flagler Street
near Twenty-second Avenue. I stepped onto the porch and knocked at
the door. Uncle George opened the inside front door, and with eyes
widened, peered down at me through the screen door that still separat-
ed us. He asked, incredulously, "Does the school know you are here?" I
replied, "No, but-," and that was as far as I got. I don't recall his addi-
tional words, for they came in a roar, revealing the famous Merrick
temper, which we three brothers inherited also. He thrust open the
screen door and tried to grasp me, but I jumped to the sidewalk and
hightailed it west on Flagler Street, with Uncle George chasing me in a
hot, but futile pursuit. He had become quite portly, and I easily outdis-
tanced him. I decided to head for the Gables and turned south on
Twenty-second Avenue Road to the Trail. After my adrenaline settled, I
realized that I probably would be no safer with Aunt Eppie at Coral
Gables Merrick House, because Uncle George would undoubtedly be
there waiting for me. I decided to go to one of my childhood haunts,
the Douglas Entrance. After collecting some discarded newspapers
along the way, I climbed the circular staircase to the room above the
arch. Stone seats traversed the room on either side across the road.
Using the newspapers, I slept a fitful night on the east seat, mostly shiv-
ering, while reveling in the idea that I had at least half-fulfilled the
dare. Coming to Miami had been a bad idea, I realized, and I decided
to return to the school
When daylight arrived.
SThe next morning I
caught a ride to
Biscayne Boulevard. As
I was walking north
along Bayfront Park, a
policeman in a car
spotted me as a
vagrant. He picked me
S-- '--. ..... .. up and continuing
The Douglas Entrance to Coral Gables, one of north deposited me at
Donald Kuhn's boyhood haunts. HASF X-793-1 the city limits at
advising me not to return. This was followed by a swift lift to West
Palm Beach where unfortunately I was then stranded until dark. Finally,
I managed to hitch a ride in an open truck to St. Cloud, where I awak-
ened a policeman snoozing in his car on the main street at midnight. It
was still very cold. I asked him for a bunk in jail for the night. Instead,
he took me home and provided a bed for me in his garage. His wife
gave me a great breakfast the following morning, my first food since
leaving the school. Then the kindly cop sent me on my way, after assur-
ing himself that I was, indeed, headed back to Forest Lake Academy.
It was now Monday, and I arrived at the school in time for lunch. I
learned that the school had been unaware of my absence until Uncle George
called to see if I had returned. I became a minor hero among the students.
And the school was lenient with me. No roller-skating for two weeks.
That summer, I sought and went to live permanently with my Aunt
Medie and Uncle Quint who had just purchased a 65-acre farm with a
one hundred-year-old farmhouse, near Greenwich, New York, 30 miles
north of Albany-for $1,200, I later learned. I was nearly sixteen, and
eagerly looked forward to experiencing my first snowfall, and tempera-
tures below zero. We lived happily without electricity, telephone, run-
ning water, or indoor plumbing; Aunt Medie cooked on a wood-burn-
ing range. I studied by kerosene lamp. In 1941, I graduated from
Greenwich High School in the upper tenth of my class.
With Uncle George's help, I received a music scholarship to the
University of Miami where I matriculated in September 1941. I played
trombone and was obligated to perform in the orchestra and march in
the band. I majored in drama and minored in journalism.
One evening in October 1941, en route to a Friday night football
game at the Orange Bowl, I stopped by the bungalow from which
Uncle George had chased me three years earlier. I was dressed in my U-
M marching uniform. George and Eunice invited me in. After some chit-
chat, Uncle George, digging into his pocket, said, "Well, I suppose you are
here to ask for some money." I was startled, and it gave me great satisfaction
to inform them that I didn't need any money, but just dropped by to say
"hello." This incident provided me some insight into Uncle George's interac-
tion and relationship with the family during his lifetime.
Pearl Harbor was attacked a few weeks later, and I joined the Navy as
an apprentice seaman.
Shortly before I boarded the musty troop train that would take me
north to Norfolk, I briefly visited Uncle George to say my goodbye at
his office in the main post office in downtown Miami. He wished me
Growing up in Coral Gables 31
well but said he felt that I was rash in entering the war so soon.
However, I think he understood when I explained that if I was drafted,
which was certain, I might not get my choice of service.
Only three months later, in March of 1942, Uncle George died. My
ship, the destroyer Hambleton, was in the Brooklyn Navy Yard, fresh
from the South Atlantic. The captain denied me permission to attend
the funeral. Although I was nineteen, I cried quietly in my bunk that
night while a fellow sailor tried to console me. Uncle George had been
a major father figure to me. Despite my rebellious ways, and perhaps
sometimes his better judgment, he always stood ready to counsel me
and help me in whatever
way he could.
After the war, I
returned to the University
of Miami on the GI Bill
and graduated in 1949
S, with a BA in journalism
and a minor in drama. I
Chicago. Then, from
1954 to 1959 1 once again
Merrick, Richard, and Donald on the front steps lived in Coral Gables, at
of 1217 Coral Way, Coral Gables in 1988. 7300 Mindello Street, but
moved to Minnesota and
a number of other states to pursue a career in fund-raising.
My childhood memories of Coral Gables and Miami were in the
main pleasurable ones, with a struggling, yet close-knit family, many
caring and generous uncles and aunts, and a wonderful grandmother.
As for my childhood friend Billy, I long ago lost track of him and
Jimmy, his brother, died in California of diabetes.
The Annexation of
the City of Coconut Grove
by Grant Livingston
The city of Coconut Grove,' along with the towns of Silver Bluff,
Allapattah, Little River, Buena Vista, and Lemon City, was annexed to
the city of Miami by means of an election held on September 2, 1925.
The election was held under a Florida statute enacted in 1905 allowing
a single vote to be taken by all voters in the annexing city and the terri-
tory to be annexed. An examination of the election returns shows over-
whelming support of the annexation within the city of Miami, Little
River, Buena Vista and Allapattah, a mixed vote in Silver Bluff, and
overwhelming opposition to it in Coconut Grove.2 One of Coconut
Grove's pioneers, Commodore Ralph Munroe, described the event:
Not content with actual growth, Miami began to reach out, like
Los Angeles, and absorb its smaller neighbors-not always to
their satisfaction, or even with their consent! For the state law
most curiously provided that in cases of proposed consolidation
between two communities the question shall be decided by a
joint vote of the two, so that where such a union is manifestly to
the advantage of the larger town, the smaller is robbed of all voice
in the matter. Such was the case with Coconut Grove, which felt
itself not only at a considerable distance from Miami, but in
complete contrast to its citizenship needs and interests, and not
in the least interested in helping to pay the rapidly mounting
expenses of the ambitious young city. Its resistance was effective
for a time, but eventually a joint election was held, and Coconut
Grove was swallowed, willy-nilly, like a trout by a bass.4
The Annexation of the City of Coconut Grove 33
The Annexation Law of 1905
Prior to 1905, annexation required that residents of both the annex-
ing city and the territory proposed for annexation approve the move.
Florida law called for a two-thirds majority vote in each area. A revised
annexation bill, before the Florida Legislature in 1905, however, speci-
fied only that a two-thirds majority of voters in the entire district was
necessary in order for annexation to occur, "including alike the voters
within the then existing corporate limits of the [annexing] city or town,
and those to be included [by the election] within the corporate limits."5
The law specified that voters must be specifically registered for the
annexation vote. This was to be the impetus for an ambitious special
voter registration drive in the city of Miami in 1925. The law also
excluded the annexed territory from liability for any existing bond
indebtedness of the annexing city. This clause would prove to be signifi-
cant in the city of Miami's first attempt at annexing Coconut Grove
(and other areas) in 1923.
The revised annexation bill was approved by the Florida State House
on May 8, 1905, by a vote of 31-14. It was passed, with minor amend-
ments, by the Florida Senate, and was signed into law by Governor
Napoleon Bonaparte Broward on May 29, 1905. The 1905 law was in
effect in the 1920s, when the annexation of Coconut Grove occurred,
and remained on the books essentially unchanged until 1961, when the
law was revised to once again require that a separate vote be taken in
both the annexing city and in the territory to be annexed.6
Early Coconut Grove and Miami
Coconut Grove's opposition to annexation can be understood by an
examination of its history, which was quite distinct from that of the
city of Miami. Formerly known as Jack's Bight, Coconut Grove was a
thriving community years before 1896. Ralph Munroe, while squatting
temporarily on the banks of the Miami River in the 1870s, met and
convinced Charles and Isabella Peacock to open an inn in Coconut
Grove, known as the Bay View House, or the Peacock Inn, by promis-
ing to bring guests to it in winter. Munroe fulfilled his promise by
bringing an odd assortment of creative types. The 1885-86 winter sea-
son saw the arrival at the Peacock inn of Counts Jean de Hedouville
and James Nugent, as well as Kirk Munroe, a well-known writer of
boys' adventure stories, among others. The Bay View House also served
as the catalyst for Kebo, the black Bahamian settlement along
Evangelist Street (now Charles Avenue in Coconut Grove). Two work-
ers hired by Peacock were among the first settlers of that community.7
Before the arrival of the railroad in Miami, the Bay View House was
the only hotel between Lake Worth and Key West,. Naturally, it was
the Bay View House
which played host to
Henry Flagler and
-Julia Tuttle at the
U U Pa time of their first
lunched on a deli-
cious repast prepared
by Isabella Peacock
while working out
.. . ', the understanding by
The Peacock Inn or Bay View House was the center of which Flagler agreed
Coconut Grove life in the late nineteenth century. to bring his Florida
HASF 77-175-6 East Coast Railway to
Miami in exchange for
a portion of Mrs. Tuttle's land. The written form of this agreement is
commonly known as Miami's "birth certificate." Upon the arrival of the
railroad, and the opening, in 1897, of Flagler's Royal Palm Hotel, the
city of Miami exploded in growth, quickly surpassing Coconut Grove
Although the five miles between the centers of Coconut Grove and
Miami seem short today, the distance was great enough to allow the
two communities to retain their distinct identities. In 1913, Miami
annexed unincorporated land in three directions, narrowing the gap
between itself and Coconut Grove. Nineteen sixteen was the year
Everest G. Sewell, a pioneer Miami merchant, and the Miami Chamber
of Commerce began their highly successful national advertising cam-
paign.' With slogans like "It is always June in Miami," and "Where the
Summer spends the Winter," the Chamber blanketed northern states in
publications promoting Miami. Between 1914 and 1924, its advertising
expenditures exceeded $1 million0 In the meantime, the city's popula-
tion increased from 29,571 in 1920 to 47,000 in 1923, the year of the
first annexation attempt."
The Annexation of the City of Coconut Grove 35
1919-Coconut Grove incorporates, and expands slowly
The first outright conflict between Miami and Coconut Grove came
just after World War I. During the war, the federal government built a
Coconut Grove's Dinner Key was an important aviation venue and, later, the site
of Miami's city hall. HASF 1989-011-3957
naval air station in Coconut Grove. After the war was over, there was
disagreement over whether the air station should remain as a perma-
nent facility. Boosters of the city of Miami, such as Everest G. Sewell,
believed that the station should stay, and campaigned for its permanent
location there, while Coconut Grove resident James Deering disagreed in a
letter to his influential neighbor, William Jennings Bryan.12'13
Although the Coconut Grove side won this fight, it became apparent
that Miami was expanding so quickly that it would soon come in direct
contact with Coconut Grove. It was at least in part for this reason that
Coconut Grove chose to incorporate as a town.14 Barely a year after its
incorporation, Coconut Grove's mayor, William V. Little, called for his
municipality to annex a larger territory, to enable the town to be incor-
porated as a city. The Coconut Grove Town Council minutes of June
21, 1920 include a letter from the mayor advocating extending the
town limits, "to include all territory that is now generally known as
Coconut Grove . [to have a petition] circulated chiefly in
Mundyvillle and along the Ridge ... One thing that might happen
[if this is not done] would be that Coconut Grove might find itself
without enough registered voters to become a city instead of a town.""
On January 3, 1921, a petition was presented from voters "between
corporate limits of Coconut Grove and the city of Miami," asking to be
incorporated into Coconut Grove. The minutes from the town council
do not specify how many signatures appeared on this petition, but the
council appears to have acted on it. On January 17 the following ordi-
nance was adopted:
Ordinance proposing to extend the Corporate Limits of Coconut
Grove ... [technical description of the limits of the territory to be
annexed appears here] ... said annexation shall be effective 45
days after the approval of this ordinance by the Mayor, provided
the same shall be approved by a majority of two-thirds of the reg-
istered voters actually voting at an election held in the same dis-
trict, and [by a two-thirds majority] at an election to be held in
the Town of Coconut Grove as hereinafter provided ...'6
The ordinance is notable for the fact that it required a two-thirds
majority in both the existing town of Coconut Grove, and also in the
proposed new territory, in order for the proposed annexation to occur.
This stipulation stands in marked contrast to the language of the ordi-
nance by which Miami annexed Coconut Grove in 1925.
1923-Miami's initial attempt at annexation
The first mention in the Coconut Grove Town Council minutes of
the proposed annexation of Coconut Grove by Miami occurred on
January 15, 1923. A committee from the neighboring town of Silver
Bluff was present at the meeting to request "minor changes in the
boundaries of the two towns so crossing of so many lots by the bound-
ary lines may be eliminated."'7 Both towns were at that time subjects of
proposed annexation by the city of Miami, which had published a reso-
lution seeking to expand its city limits on January 9, 1923.8
... a general discussion followed regarding the annexation of
Coconut Grove to Miami. Dr. S.L. Jeffrey presented two petitions
to the Council requesting that the Council take any necessary
action to prevent annexation to Miami. A committee consisting
of Aldermen Emerson, Price, Swanson, and Dr. Jeffrey was
appointed to confer with Commissioners of the city of Miami
regarding their intentions in the matter of this proposed annexation."
The Annexation of the City of Coconut Grove 37
This committee met with the Miami City Commission on January
16, 1923. There was also a representative present from the town of
Allapattah. The committee presented its opposition to annexation, and
asked what they might expect if annexation were to occur. They were
told by Mayor C.D. Leffler "that the City Commission was unable to
make any promises or statement at this time," and that, "the commis-
sion could not do anything but let it go to an election."20
On January 25, a special meeting of the Coconut Grove Town
Council was called.2 The purpose of the meeting was to discuss ways to
head off the annexation movement. "Mayor Matheson ... called the
meeting to determine if anything can be done to amend the Town
Charter to prevent annexation to Miami." A general discussion fol-
lowed. It was agreed that postcards ("Return Postal Cards") were to be
sent to voters and other taxpayers within the limits of Coconut Grove,
with the following questions:
1) Are you in favor of being annexed by the city of Miami under
the present movement?
2) Do you desire the Town of Coconut Grove to present to the
state legislature an amendment to the present charter (sic) provid-
ing that Coconut Grove cannot be annexed to any other city
without the consent of the majority of the registered voters of
The canvas by postcard was held, and the following results were
reported on February 5, 1923.22 Those favoring annexation numbered
42, while those opposed were 155. There were 162 proponents of leg-
islative action to make annexation more difficult, and just 36 who
opposed such action. Two weeks later, on February 19, the minutes of
the Coconut Grove Town Council reflect that there was discussion of
Representative Ben Willard's "Act of the Legislature for Coconut
Grove." Also, City Attorney Floyd L. Knight was commissioned to
draft a section of the new city charter relating to non-annexation.23
By then, however, annexation in 1923 was a dead issue. The city of
Miami had withdrawn Ordinance 605, the annexation ordinance, at
the city commission meeting of January 23, 1923.2 The minutes pro-
vide no explanation for the action, but the reason appears in a letter
from the city attorney, A.J. Rose, dated January 22, which was also
entered into the minutes.: The letter quoted the sections of the 1905
annexation law pertaining to bond indebtedness, and another law
regarding amendments to city charters, and conferred recommenda-
tions about the appropriate timing of annexation elections and bond
issue elections. Thus, legal questions over bonds appear to have been
the reason for the cancellation of the annexation election in 1923.
Frank Sessa, in "Real Estate Expansion and Boom in Miami and its
Environs during the 1920s," a doctoral dissertation written in 1950,
also cited the bond indebtedness issue, and the influence of Chester
Masslich, who was instrumental in the sale of $500,000 in city of
Miami bonds in 1922.26
...in the middle of the debate the city decided to withdraw its call
for an election to extend city limits ... [its decision] seems to have
been influenced by legal complications in the city charter and the
advice of a New York bond attorney, Chester B. Masslich, who
advised that the sale of bonds would be difficult if a part of the
city was exempt from bond indebtedness.27
The annexation process was temporarily derailed. The opinion of the
voters of Coconut Grove was clearly expressed in the postcard poll, and
the mayor and Coconut Grove City Council seemed committed to tak-
ing all possible action to prevent further attempts by the city of Miami
to annex Coconut Grove. Perhaps the annexation, which occurred in
1925, was inevitable, but the March 1923 election for city commission
and mayor of the city of Coconut Grove may have been pivotal in
determining the future of the city. Dr. Jeffrey, who was the first person
to bring the issue of non-annexation before the town council, ran for
the mayor's seat, and was opposed by Alderman H. deB. Justison.
Justison prevailed in the election by a vote of 171-134, to become
Coconut Grove's fourth, and final, mayor. The minutes of the first
meeting of the city council after Justison's election indicate that he was
far less opposed to annexation than Jeffrey. The following excerpt is
indicative of this fact:
Mr. E E. Case brought up the question of annexation to Miami.
He had with him a petition signed by some of the voters and
property owners of Coconut Grove to be presented to the Governor
asking that Coconut Grove not be annexed to Miami. This petition
was read by the clerk. Mr. Case asked that the Council go on record
as being opposed to the annexation of Coconut Grove.
Mayor Justison asked that the Council go carefully and thought-
fully before committing themselves one way or another.
The Annexation of the City of Coconut Grove 39
Attorney Knight explained the process by which local legislation
goes through the Legislature and advised how best to get this
local bill through if it is to go through at all.
Mayor Justison suggested that the best way is to see the local
Senator and Representative and to get their cooperation.
Mr. Case and Alderman Smith state their opinion that open
action and publicity would gain the end best.
Alderman Matheson moved, and Alderman Reynolds seconded,
that the Council go on record as being opposed to the annexation
of Coconut Grove by any other municipality, unless such action
be favored by a majority of the voters of Coconut Grove. This
was carried unanimously."2
For the time being, the annexation issue was dropped. For a lengthy
period, annexation by the city of Miami was not mentioned in the
minutes of the Coconut Grove City Commission. In fact, more than
two years passed before the issue came up again on July 20, 1925, and
then only in response to the call
by the city of Miami for a new
1925-Coconut Grove annexed
On July 7, 1925, the city of
Miami passed an ordinance to
extend its city limits to include
Coconut Grove, Silver Bluff, and
several other communities, and
set the election for September 2, .' r
less than two months away.29 This
move for annexation was better
organized than the one in 1923, "..
and proved successful. Roddy Burdine, Miami's Merchant Prince,
Since the 1905 statute required led the fight for the annexation of Coconut
that a special registration be held Gromve and other communities to the city
for this election, a massive regis- of Miami HASF 1989-011-19468 (N)
tration effort was required. This
effort was spearheaded in Miami by the "Committee of 400," part of
the Miami Chamber of Commerce, and headed by Roddy Burdine, the
department store magnate. Burdine helped devise the committee's strat-
egy, and some of its meetings were held at his offices at the Burdine's
Department Store in downtown Miami.3" In July 1925, Burdine
observed that, "Should the city limits be extended by voters at annexa-
tion September 2, Miami will be the largest city in the state."3" Burdine
turned over the chairmanship of the Committee of 400 to Miami civic
leader A.J. Cleary when the effort appeared to be taking up too much
of Burdine's time, but he remained involved in the annexation effort.
Despite the fact that Cleary's wife was ill and out of town during this
campaign, he spent nearly all of his time working toward the annexa-
tion vote.2 A large rally was held in downtown Miami's Royal Palm
Park on August 7. The speakers included Mayor E. C. Romfh, Worth
Trammell, a jurist, and former mayor C. D. Leffler. Miami's short-lived
pictorial newspaper, The Illustrated Daily Tab, described the festival
atmosphere at this gathering:
Trammell was greeted with applause as he urged the voters to
"make Miami the New York City of the South." Several hundred
persons availed themselves of the opportunity extended by Tax
Collector Simpson and Roddy Burdine and Edward Wells to pay
their poll taxes on the grounds. Mutchler's orchestral band enter-
tained the crowd with a musical program. Percy Long, soloist,
responded to repeated encores. 3
The Illustrated Daily Tab described the Committee of 400's efforts to
stimulate voter registration, "through the medium of four-minute
speakers on the streets and in the theaters, banners, newspapers, and
virtually every other form of advertising ... to reach every eligible voter
in the city of Miami and affected territory."" The Tab also reported
that more than one thousand automobiles had been borrowed from
prominent Miami citizens to "parade through the streets of Miami
bearing placards, 'Hop In And Vote For Annexation.'"' When the
registration was completed, Cleary was still concerned that the votes
might not be enough to prevail, as the Miami Herald noted on August
A.J. Cleary-acting chairman of the Committee of 400-which
has had charge of the registration work stated, "Every voter who
has registered must consider it his duty to vote on the question of
annexation. Unless everyone in Miami eligible to vote does this
we stand in danger of seeing the annexation measure defeated."
The Annexation of the City of Coconut Grove 41
Tuesday night Cleary will send 4,000 telegrams reminding voters
to be at the polls Wednesday, and laying out the polling places."3
Everest G. Sewell, president of the Miami Chamber of Commerce,
who was in New York at the time of the election, and therefore
unable to vote, nevertheless expressed his support in a telegram to the
It will be impossible for the city to keep pace with the needed
improvements if this election should fail. It is most important
that Miami's harbor should be started at once. The present
embargo on freight should convince the most skeptical pessimist
of the fact.
Cleary placed several advertisements in the Miami Herald on the day
of the election. An ad on page one insisted that, "It's Your Personal
Business-cast your vote for annexation." Another, on page nine,
exhorted voters to, "Vote early today FOR Miami City Annexation.
VOTE at polling place where you register." The Herald observed that,
"Last-minute efforts by the 'Committee of 400' included the sending of
2000 telegrams to persons known to be favorable to annexation, urging
them to vote in favor ..."
Coconut Grove appeared to have been caught by surprise by the new
move for annexation. No comments about the planned annexation
appear in minutes of the Coconut Grove City Commission until after
the July 7 ordinance was passed. Additionally, on June 9, 1925, less
than three months before the city of Coconut Grove would cease to
exist, a special act of the State Legislature provided for the city to adopt
the commission/manager form of government. Why would Coconut
Grove make the effort to change the form of government at that late
date? It seems to be further evidence that the annexation move was
not anticipated by Coconut Grove. Once the election was set however,
the city commission of Coconut Grove made its opposition to annexa-
tion clear, by resolving, "that the City Commission of the City of Coconut
Grove is in favor of an action of injunction or otherwise being brought to
test the constitutionality of the proposed annexation of the City of Coconut
Grove to the city of Miami as proposed by the city of Miami .".3
If the city of Coconut Grove was surprised by the annexation move-
ment, it appears that the new city of Coral Gables, incorporated on
April 27, 1925, was not. If the city of Miami sought to expand its tax
base, why not annex George Merrick's new development? The following
letter, addressed to the Miami City Commission from Merrick and
other Coral Gables officials, indicated that Coral Gables anticipated
In accordance with our verbal understanding with you gentlemen,
we, the undersigned City Commissioner of the City of Coral
Gables, recently chartered by the Legislature of Florida, do hereby
give you our personal assurance that just so soon as it is possible
for Mr. Merrick to complete his development plans in Coral
Gables, we will all be glad to use our best endeavors to bring the
municipality of Coral Gables into the municipality of Miami.
We feel sure that there will never by any opposition to this move
as we are all interested in creating Greater Miami, but we are glad
to go on record as favoring the annexations that there may be no
misunderstanding of our feeling and policy on the subject.
Thanking you gentlemen for your courteous cooperation in
assisting us to secure the city charter, we are
Yours very truly,
Charles E Baldwin
Edward E. Dammers
E W Webster39
One may reasonably infer from the language of this curious letter
that there was a prior meeting and agreement between officials of Coral
Gables and Miami. Miami had much to gain, in the way of an
increased tax base, by annexing Coral Gables, but much to lose by
opposing George Merrick. First, there were estimated to be 2,500 sum-
mer residents in Coral Gables in 1925, enough to endanger the two-
thirds margin needed for annexation to succeed if their opposition was
to be organized." The two cities were working toward similar goals. For
instance, the building of the street trolley between downtown Miami
and Coral Gables was about to be undertaken. The franchise was to be
granted to Merrick's Coral Gables Rapid Transit Corporation by means
of a special election to be held on August 31, just two days before the
annexation election.4 Advertisements taken in the Miami Herald were
quick to note, "This is Not the Miami City Annexation Election," to
avoid confusion." A spirit of cooperation existed between the two
The Annexation of the City of Coconut Grove 43
cities. Contrast this with the history of confrontation between Miami
and Coconut Grove dating back to the naval air station conflict.
The developers of Miami Shores, located northeast of the city of
Miami, also attempted to remove themselves from the annexation elec-
tion. As the Coral Gables representatives did, they cited the desire to
complete their development before being annexed. The Miami
Commission denied this request, as the minutes of its July 14, 1925,
Mr. Frank K. Ashworth appeared before the Commission and
stated that the new boundaries of the city of Miami proposed to
be voted upon at an election to be held September 2nd would
incorporate part of the subdivision development known as
"Miami Shores" and requested, on behalf of the developers, that
the subdivision be not incorporated with the city of Miami until
the developers had completed their improvement program. The
matter was discussed by the Commission and it was the sense of
the members present that the boundaries as fixed by the
Ordinance adopted July 7th should not be changed.43
The annexation issue was addressed again on several occasions by the
Coconut Grove City Commission before the election of September 2.
Mayor Justison was absent from the city commission at all meetings
between July 20 and September 7. E. W. Ayars was appointed acting
mayor in Justison's absence at the August 3 meeting.44 The Coconut
Grove Commission met in "adjourned session" three more times during
that week.45 Little information about the content of these meetings is
recorded in the minutes, but one could surmise that the annexation
election was the prime issue discussed. On August 11, a proposal
was made that the city of Coconut Grove be a party to the suit
brought by J. T. G. Crawford against the annexation of Coconut
Grove to the city of Miami.46 It carried unanimously. The minutes
of August 17, 1925 note the visit from a representative of Silver
Bluff: "Mr. Potter of the Silver BluffTown Council is present and asked
what action Coconut Grove was taking in regard to the annexation
movement of Miami. Mr. Potter stated that the Town of Silver Bluff
was willing to cooperate with Coconut Grove to stay out of Miami."47
Former Coconut Grove Mayor Hugh Matheson filed a petition for
injunction in circuit court on August 21, asking that the city of Miami
be prevented from holding the annexation election. The petition,
according to the Illustrated Daily Tab, argued that annexation would
result in a large tax increase for citizens of Coconut Grove to pay for
city of Miami developmental
Projects not benefitting Coconut
Grove. The injunction was also
asked because the city of Coconut
Grove and the city of Miami were
S snot "immediately adjacent," as
required by the annexation
statute. A further argument was
that the statute was "illegal
because it would allow Miami to
annex Coconut Grove, but would
not allow Coconut Grove to
annex Miami."~" A.J. Cleary
responded the following day to
the taxation argument saying,
S"Complaint has been made by
some voters in the adjacent terri-
Hugh Matheson, member of the promi- tory that annexation will cause an
nent Matheson family and mayor of increase in their taxes. At present
Coconut Grove in the 1920s. Courtesy the tax rate in these municipali-
of the Biscayne Bay Yacht Club. ties is almost nothing while they
reap millions in profits because
they are in the Miami territory and truthfully a part of Miami, but pay
The petition for injunction was denied by Judge E. E Atkinson on
August 26. During the hearing, Mr. Matheson's council argued that
the state annexation law itself was unconstitutional."' The Tab reported
that an appeal to the State Supreme Court was to be filed immediately,
and that "while he does not anticipate stopping the election, Mr.
Matheson, should he win in his appeal, hopes to declare the election
null and void."S"
Matheson was also responsible for the appearance of a series of adver-
tisements in Miami newspapers on behalf of the Coconut Grove City
Commission. On August 27, the Commission's minutes recorded "a
motion by H. M. Matheson that the city manager of Coconut Grove
be authorized to arrange proper ads for the different papers, instructing
The Annexation of the City of Coconut Grove 45
the people why they should vote 'no' on annexation."" The following
advertisement appeared in the Miami Herald on Monday August 31,
two days before the annexation election was held. It is signed "represen-
tative citizens of Coconut Grove:"
"Coconut Grove Lays Its Cards on the Table"
We are being forced into Miami against our wills
by the use in this election of an unfair law passed twenty years ago
and which has never been used:
If 2/3 of voters in a territory are in favor the cities are joined ..
not, mind you, 2/3 of the votes in Coconut Grove,
but 2/3 of ALL the votes cast in Miami and
the territory to be annexed!
Coconut Grove has not more than 240 votes against
possibly 25,000 in Miami
WHAT CHANCE DO WE HAVE?
Not a chance unless our good Miami friends, who believe in fair,
square dealing will go to the polls on September 2 and
VOTE NO on the annexation question."
A similar advertisement appeared in the Miami Tribune on
September 1, with slightly different wording:
Vote against the Annexation Question on Wednesday, September 2
The Citizens of Coconut Grove appeal to Miami's sense of FAIR PLAY
Coconut Grove is being forced into Miami by the use of unfair,
obsolete election laws that were passed in 1905, but which have never
been used in any election in the State of Florida until this time, as far
as we have been able to learn ...
IS THIS FAIR?
IS THIS RIGHT?54
The Coconut Grove ads did not seem to have influenced many vot-
ers in the city of Miami. When the votes of the September 2 election
were counted, over 97 percent of the votes in the five precincts voting
within the city of Miami were in support of annexation. Little River,
Buena Vista, and Allapattah also voted overwhelmingly for their towns
to be annexed, by votes of 81, 82, and 83 percent, respectively. A 59
percent majority in Silver Bluff also favored annexation. In Coconut
Grove, over 87 percent voted against annexation. Because most of the
voters lived in Miami, the total number of votes were 88 percent in
favor of annexation.
Voting Results for September 2, 1925
Election for the city of Miami to Annex
Little River, Buena Vista, Allapattah, Silver Bluff, Coconut Grove
and certain unincorporated areas55
No. Precinct Location Registered For Against
1 Little River 278 154 36
2 Buena Vista 367 217 48
3 Miami (NE 2 Ave, 24 St.) 526 400 5
4 Allapattah 326 181 37
5 Miami (No 2 Fire Station) 300 240 7
6 Miami (Downtown) 1368 1048 17
7 W Flagler & 17th Ave 479 369 17
8 S Miami Ave & 10th St. 291 222 15
9 Silver Bluff 111 51 36
10 Coconut Grove 240 26 180
Total 4286 2908 398
On the day following the election, Coconut Grove's unhappiness
with the election results was clear, but there were mixed reports over
what was to be done next. The Herald published the results under these
headlines, "Greater Miami Wins at Polls in Heavy Vote, 9 of 10
precincts carried. Coconut Grove, which fought proposal in court, goes
against plan."'" The Miami Daily News and Metropolis indicated that
there would be no further fight with the election results, "town officers
declared they knew of no move on the part of the village to carry their
opposition to the state and federal courts.""7 The Miami Tribune told
quite a different story, under the headline "Grove Prepares for Hot
Contest over Annexation:"
Coconut Grove will fight annexation. The community was
grooming itself Friday [September 4, 1925] to battle "Greater
Miami" on the question of being annexed without its consent.
The Annexation of the City of Coconut Grove 47
On the street, in the shops and in the city hall-wherever citizens
congregated, there was talk of the approaching battle. It was
learned, unofficially, that a committee of leading citizens were in
conference with a coterie of well-known Miami attorneys Friday
morning. Object of the conference was said to be to determine
the exact status of the Grove in fighting the annexation.5
The Tribune reported that Coconut Grove residents were willing to
take the issue to the United States Supreme Court, if necessary.'"
Miami's city attorney, John Watson, wondered what all the fuss was
J. W. Watson, Jr., city attorney, is of the opinion that there will be
no trouble with the town of Coconut Grove. He said that the cit-
izens of the Grove undoubtedly were misinformed as to the inten-
tions of Miami regarding their community. He said that Miami
had the interests of the Grove at heart and could not understand
hostility to the annexation.60
On September 7, in the last meeting of the Coconut Grove City
Commission, with Mayor Justison once again presiding, a committee of
Justison, former mayor Matheson, and City Manager William Sydow
was authorized to arrange details of the annexation to the city of
Miami.6 This committee, along with the Coconut Grove city attorney
Harold Costello, met with representatives from the city of Miami the
same day. Under the headline "Mayor [E.C. Romfh] assures Coconut
Grove quick benefits," the Heraldwrote, "The Coconut Grove delega-
tion requests government under the borough system, and expressed
themselves as confident that Coconut Grove would be dealt with fairly
by Miami officials. A final conference is to be held Tuesday evening
[September 15]." An assistant city manager and a municipal judge were
promised for Coconut Grove, and Mayor Romfh also promised that a
police precinct and fire station would be maintained there, and that the
city of Miami would complete Coconut Grove's improvement pro-
grams. A report of this meeting is also recorded in the Miami
Mayor H. deB. Justison, Hugh Matheson, the City Manager and
the City Attorney of Coconut Grove appeared before the com-
mission in reference to the recent annexation of Coconut Grove
by the city of Miami. Matters pertaining to the administration of
affairs in Coconut Grove were discussed and it was the sense of
the City Commission that the best possible way to handle the sit-
uation would be to create a new department of the city to be
known as the Department of Coconut Grove, as well as to create
other departments for handling the affairs of other towns and
communities taken into the city, and to place at the head of the
Department of Coconut Grove the present city manager of
Coconut Grove. Mr.
Hugh Matheson of
Coconut Grove was
in favor of creating a
ward [borough] sys-
tem of government,
but it was the sense of
the Commission that
under the present city
charter the City
Main Highway approaching McFarlane Road-Grand Commission had no
Avenue. The intersection of these three arteries repre- authority to install
sented the business center of Coconut Grove. such a plan. The
HASF 1989-011-3963 (N) committee from
Coconut Grove were
assured that it was and would be the policy of the City
Commission to aid them in every way to complete the improve-
ments already started; to furnish adequate fire and police protec-
tion and to aid them in sanitary matters... 2
The Illustrated Daily Tab also reported a battle over the borough sys-
tem at this meeting, but noted a surprising lack of animosity by the
meeting's completion: "Owing to bad feelings over the annexation elec-
tion it commonly was supposed that wild scenes would result from the
meeting yesterday. On the contrary, while members of the [Coconut
Grove] delegation at first showed slight resentment over being
annexed, the meeting developed into a love feast (sic), and when the
conference ended in a temporary deadlock, it was apparent that the
issue would be settled to advantage of all concerned." One member
of the Grove delegation, while agreeing to a compromise, expressed
reservations about convincing the Grove citizenry. "This looks good
to me," the Tab quoted him as saying, "but, you know we voted
almost unanimously against annexation. We will have to go back
The Annexation of the City of Coconut Grove 49
home and talk this over with the people. They want to be assured of
a fair deal.""
The annexation election of 1925 came at the height of the land
boom in South Florida. This was a propitious time for the election. A
delay of one year could have brought with it a different outcome. The
railroad embargo of August 1925 was the first sign that the boom
might not last forever. Building was slowed by lack of construction
materials, many of which had arrived by ship. The grounding of the
Prins Valdemar at the mouth of Miami's harbor in January 1926 all but
closed the harbor for months, further isolating Miami. Negative adver-
tising in northern states seeking to stem the flight of capital to Miami
may have had its effect, too. Frank Sessa quotes a bulletin from the
state of Minnesota which announced, "Go to Florida-if you can
afford it. But keep the old farm in Minnesota so as to have something
to fall back on."" The Internal Revenue Service's decision to tax paper
profits on real estate sales put a damper on the wild real estate specula-
tion in 1926. By the summer of 1926 the boom was over. Soon after,
the great hurricane of September 1926 ravaged the area.
As promised, in the September 7, 1925 meeting, the city of Miami
created a Department of Coconut Grove, and placed at its head the for-
mer city manager of Coconut Grove, William Sydow."' One important
contribution of the department was the retention of Coconut Grove's
street names. In Coconut Grove, streets run north and south, and
avenues east and west, the opposite of Miami's street system, and many
of the streets are named for Coconut Grove's early settlers. In
December 1925, there was a proposal to standardize the street names,
so that Mary Street, for example, would become Southwest 28th
Avenue. While the Coconut Grove Housekeepers Club did not meet
between April 30 and November 9, 1925, and thus seemingly missed
the annexation fight, its members did, however, weigh in on the issue
of street names. According to the club's minutes, "Miss Lester presented
the matter of changing the names and numbering streets which Mr.
Sydow asked our support to prevent. Mrs. Haden moved that Mr.
Sydow be informed that our club wished to retain old names of streets
and asked that he be requested to represent us before the Miami Council."'"
Coconut Grove has kept its original street names to this day.
The end of the land boom signaled the end of Miami's attempt to
expand its borders. The annexation of Coral Gables, which George
Merrick had gone on record as favoring, never happened. In fact, some
of the areas annexed by the city of Miami in 1925 were de-annexed in
1932, in the depths of the Great Depression.
One wonders what effects annexation has had on the Grove since
1925. Unlike its neighbor, Silver Bluff, Coconut Grove has retained an
identity distinct from that of the city of Miami. Today, the generally
recognized informal boundaries of Coconut Grove67 include much of
the former town of Silver Bluff. Residents of Coconut Grove still prefer
their addresses to be written as "Coconut Grove," rather than "Miami".
As historian Arva Moore Parks has noted, "they always get their mail!""
Unsuccessful secession movements were undertaken by residents of
Coconut Grove in the 1970s and in the 1990s, proving that this issue
has not died completely. In 1997, Coconut Grove residents were active
in bringing the abolition of the city of Miami to a vote. The vote was remi-
niscent of the election of 1925. Countywide, the measure was defeated over-
whelmingly, but in central Coconut Grove six precincts voted to abolish the
city of Miami, the only six precincts in the county to do so."
The Barnacle in the early 1900s. One of Coconut Grove's most historic structures,
it was the home of the Commodore Ralph Monroe for four decades. HASF 1955-1-3
In 1971, historian Parks observed that, "Fortunately, though stripped
of all official designation, Coconut Grove shows no signs of loss of
identity."7 This is less true today. Recent years have seen the erosion of
the village-like quality of Coconut Grove. Neighborhood-oriented busi-
nesses, like grocery stores, drug stores, and the like have been steadily
The Annexation of the City of Coconut Grove
replaced by tourist-oriented malls and restaurants. The artist-centered
sensibility, which began with Ralph Munroe and his group of "crazies"
in the 1880s persisted through the 1960s and 1970s, but began to fade
in the 1980s and 1990s. Munroe's home, the Barnacle, still stands, pro-
tected as part of the State Park system, but its character is changing as
large new buildings surround it. Nothing is more indicative of the
change than the steady disappearance of the Grove's trademark trees.
Each successive year finds the percentage of overhanging canopy
reduced as developers take advantage of reduced setback requirements.
The annexation of Coconut Grove is not forgotten. As recently as
December 1999, Miami Herald columnist Howard Kleinberg men-
tioned it in an article.7 How would Coconut Grove have developed
over the last seventy-five years if it had continued as an independent
city? The answer, of course, is purely speculative. But Miami City Hall
today stands in an area that would still be the city of Coconut Grove,
were it not for the peculiar annexation law of 1905, and the annexation
election twenty years later.
' Historic Coconut Grove, Self-Guided Tour, Junior League of Miami,
1987. The spelling "Cocoanut Grove," with an extra "a," was generally
used until incorporation in 1919, when the "a" was dropped. For sim-
plicity, the modern spelling, "Coconut Grove," without the extra "a," is
used throughout this article.
SSee table above.
SItalics are Munroe's.
Ralph Middleton Munroe and Vincent Gilpin, The Commodore's Story,
(Miami, FL: Association of Southern Florida, 1985), 333-334. Italics
SActs ofthe Florida Legislature, Regular Session, 1905, Chapter 5464, 93.
6 Laws ofFlorida, 1961. c.61-350. Section 171.05 was amended.
7 Marvin Dunn, Black Miami in the Twentieth Century, (Gainesville:
University Press of Florida, 1997), 34.
SArva Moore Parks and Gregory W Bush, with Laura Pincus, Miami,
The American Crossroad, A Centennial Journey 1896-1996, (Simon &
Schuster Custom Publishing, 1996), 54.
'1 Paul S. George, "Passage to the New Eden: Tourism in Miami From
Flagler Through Everest G. Sewell," Florida Historical Quarterly LIX
(April 1981), 450.
" Paul S. George, "Brokers, Binders, and Builders: Greater Miami's
Boom of the Mid-1920s," Florida Historical Quarterly, LXV (July
1986), 27, 29.
1' Arva Moore Parks, The History of Coconut Grove, Florida 1821-1925,
(Thesis, University of Miami, 1971), 56-61.
13 Arva Moore Parks and Gregory W Bush, with Laura Pincus, Miami,
The American Crossroad, A Centennial Journey 1896-1996, (Simon &
Schuster Custom Publishing, 1996), 66.
" Minutes of the Coconut Grove Town Council, hereinafter cited
MCGTC, May 14, 1919, 10. Note: the Town Council became the City
Council on February 19, 1923, when Coconut Grove registered its
three-hundredth voter. On June 9, 1925, it became the City
Commission when Coconut Grove adopted the commission/city man-
ager form of government.
15 MCGTC, June 21, 1920, 89-90.
16 MCGTC, January 17,1921, 135.
The Annexation of the City of Coconut Grove 53
17 MCGTC, January 15, 1923, 263.
8 Minutes of the Miami City Commission, hereinafter cited MMCC,
January 9, 1923, Book No. 13, 139. Resolution Number 605, as
reprinted in the minutes.
" MCGTC, January 15, 1923, 263.
" MMCC, January 16, 1923, Book No. 13, 144.
1 MCGTC, January 25, 1923, 264.
'2 MCGTC, February 5, 1923, 267.
SMCGTC, February 5, 1923, 269.
SMMCC, January 23, 1923, Book No. 13, 146.
2 MMCC, January 23, 1923, Book No. 13, 148. Communication from
City Attorney A.J. Rose, January 22, 1923, as entered in the minutes.
26 MMCC, August 21, 1922, Book No. 13, 22.
27 Frank Bowman Sessa, "Real Estate Expansion and Boom in Miami
and its Environs during the 1920s,"(Ph.D. dissertation, University of
Pittsburgh, 1950), 25.
8 Minutes of the Coconut Grove City Council, March 19, 1923, 274.
2'MMCC, July 7, 1925, Book No. 14, 529. An ordinance entitled: "An
ordinance extending the corporate limits of the city of Miami so as to
include the adjacent territory, whether incorporated or not, not now
included within the limits of the city of Miami, so that the corporate
limits of the city of Miami shall include all the territory included with-
in the description in section one of this ordinance and shall incorporate
all the inhabitants within the same, and to call an election of the quali-
fied voters of the entire territory proposed to be included within the
corporate limits and to provide for the registration of all persons resid-
ing within the entire territory to be included within the proposed city
limits eligible to qualify to vote at such election, and providing for the
location of the polling places at such election."
30 Paul George, "Miami's Merchant Prince: Roddey Burdine and the
Burdine Department Store," unpublished manuscript, 133.
2 "Directed Greater Miami Campaign," Miami Herald, September 3,
" "6,000 Hear Annexation Plea at Mass Meeting Held in Park,"
Illustrated Daily Tab, August 8, 1925, 1.
4 "Plans Laid For Final Annexation Drive," Illustrated Daily Tab,
August 26, 1925, 2.
35 "1,000 Autos For Use of Annexation Voters," Illustrated Daily Tab,
August 28, 1925, 1.
36 "Success of the Special Election Would Add Suburbs To City Limits,"
Miami Herald, August 29, 1925, 1-A.
37 "It's Your Personal Business," Miami Herald, September 2, 1925, 1-A,
"Annexation Up Today," Miami Herald, September 2, 1925, 3-A, and
"Vote Early Today,"Miami Herald, September 2, 1925, 7-A.
3 Minutes ofthe Coconut Grove City Commission, hereinafter cited
MCGCC, July 20, 1925, 529.
39 MMCC, May 12, 1925, Book No. 14, 481. Letter from the
Commissioners of the City of Coral Gables to the Miami City
Commission, dated May 4, 1925, as entered into the minutes.
40 Helen Muir, The Biltmore: Beacon for Miami, Revised and Expanded
Edition (Miami:Valiant Press, 1998), 8.
4' MMCC, July 14, 1925, Book No. 14, 539.
2 "To Every Citizen Who Believes in Miami's Prosperity and Wishes to
Assure its Continuance," Miami Herald, August 29, 1925, 3-D;
(August 30, 1925): 5-E.
3 MMCC, July 14, 1925, Book No. 14, 539.
4 MCGCC, August 3, 1925, 531.
5 MCGCC, August 4, August 5, and August 7, 1925, 535.
6 MCGCC, August 11, 1925, 537.
47 MCGCC, August 17, 1925, 541.
48 "Injunction Is Asked on Annexation," Illustrated Daily Tab, August
22, 1925, 2.
49 "Annexation Most Practical Solution of Miami's Problem, A.J. Cleary
Says," Illustrated Daily Tab, August 23, 1925, 3.
50 "Writ To Halt Vote on Annexation Denied," Illustrated Daily Tab,
August 27, 1925, 2.
51 "Annexation Adherents Issue Urgent Pleas as Registration Time Limit
Nears," Illustrated Daily Tab, August 28, 1925, 1.
52 MCGCC, August 27, 1925, 543.
3 "Coconut Grove Lays its Cards on the Table," Miami Herald, August
31, 1925, 7-C.
4 "Vote No," Miami Tribune, September 1, 1925, 11-C.
" MMCC, September 8, 1925, 607. Figures reported in the Miami
Herald vary slightly from these.
5~ "Greater Miami Wins at Polls in Heavy Vote, 9 of 10 Precincts
The Annexation of the City of Coconut Grove 55
Carried," Miami Herald, September 3, 1925, 1-A.
1 "Miami Extends Bounds to 50 Square Miles", Miami Daily News and
Metropolis, September 3, 1925, 2.
"Grove Prepares for Hot Contest Over Annexation," Miami Tribune,
September 4, 1925, 1.
6" "Mayor Asserts Greater Miami To Hurry Work," Miami Tribune,
September 3, 1925, 1-A.
61 MCGCC, September 7, 1925, 545.
62 MMCC, September 7, 1925, Book No. 14, 599.
63 "Coconut Grove, Miami Make Peace, Annexation War Ends In Love
Feast," Illustrated Daily Tab, September 8, 1925, 2.
6 Frank Bowman Sessa, "Real Estate Expansion and Boom in Miami
and its Environs during the 1920s," (Ph.D. dissertation, University of
Pittsburgh, 1950), 284. Sessa quotes "Terrible Crash is Sure to Come,"
in the Immigration Bulletin, Minnesota Department. of Conservation,
October 12, 1925; George, "Brokers, Binders, and Builders," FHQ,
6) MMCC, September 8, 1925, 606.
Minutes of the Coconut Grove Housekeepers Club, December 3, 1925.
67 Map of Coconut Grove, Coconut Grove Chamber of Commerce,
68 Arva Moore Parks, The History of Coconut Grove, Florida 1821-1925,
(Thesis, University of Miami, 1971).
6" Karen Branch and Dan Keating, "City's Abolition Found Favor in Six
Precincts" Miami Herald, September 6, 1997, 1-B.
Howard Kleinberg, "Was county's name change the will of the people?"
Miami Herald, December 14, 1999, 7-B.
Racial Stirrings in Colored Town:
The UNIA in Miami during the 1920s
by Kip Vought
On Thursday evening March 8, 1928, Laura Koffey, a black nationalist,
spoke before a large gathering of supporters in Fox Thomson's hall
located in Colored Town-Miami's segregated black community now
called Overtown. She claimed to be an African princess and spoke of
black pride, self-help, and African repatriation. Her message was very
similar to that of Marcus Garvey and members of his international
movement, the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA).
Just days before, Koffey was a UNIA member whose dramatic, inspira-
tional, and passionate speeches led to an increase in the organization's
membership throughout Florida. By the time of her address in Fox
Thomson's hall Koffey was a former member of the UNIA, taking with
her most of its members to form the African Universal Church (AUC).
This address was her first as a member of the AUC, but it was cut short
by an unknown gunman who fired two fatal shots at her head through
a crack in a door fifty feet from the podium. Koffey's departure from
the UNIA and subsequent death brought an end to the UNIA in
Miami, a movement that spanned eight years, claimed hundreds of
members, and gained wide support in Miami's black community.' This
article tells the tale of Miami's UNIA division (chapter) and its impact
upon the city's black community in the 1920s.
While scholarship exists for Laura Koffey and the AUC, very little is
known about UNIA's Miami chapter or division. Clearly the existence
of a black nationalist movement such as Garvey's UNIA was challeng-
ing in Miami given the city's racial climate during this time. In many
ways, Miami was a typical southern city racially. Since its incorporation
in 1896, Miami's lawmakers established through Jim Crow laws a
Racial Stirrings in Colored Town 57
racially segregated society.2 White violence against the black communi-
ty, along with a police force that overlooked and sometimes participated
in these atrocities, was commonplace. A resurgent Ku Klux Klan
(KKK) terrorized the black community. Moreover, the white communi-
ty feared the UNIA as a black subversive group working to overthrow
the white establishment, and occasionally lashed out at it with violence.
Yet the UNIA persevered and was able to establish itself in Miami and
become an intrinsic part of the black community. While the beginning
and end of Miami's UNIA is marked with high drama and violence, its
existence and role in Miami imparts an understanding of the black
community's social and race consciousness. The UNIA was arguably
one of the strongest forms of expression of these communal elements
during this racially turbulent time in the city's history.
Attempts to form a UNIA chapter in Miami began in 1920, only
four years after Marcus Garvey, a Jamaican "firebrand,"came to the
United States and created an international organization with the goal of
improving the social conditions of blacks, establishing racial pride and
solidarity, and reclaiming Africa from European control and making it
the new homeland for African Americans. The movement grew quickly
and soon hundreds of UNIA divisions were operating throughout the
country and abroad, with one division formed as far away as Australia.
The majority of the chapters, however, were rooted in northern cities
within the US, and in various Caribbean nations.4 The UNIA eventual-
ly moved South, but it was met with strong resistance from white com-
munities that feared the movement would lead to a black upheaval
against white domination.
By 1920, Miami contained 29,571 residents, 9,259 of whom (30
percent of the total population) were black. Large numbers of black
Miamians were immigrants, who hailed from the Bahamas, and to a
lesser degree, the West Indies. Black "islanders" totaled 4,815, compris-
ing 52 percent of the city's black population and 16.3 percent of all res-
idents.' Escaping from economically depressed conditions in the
Bahamas, many came to Miami hoping to prosper; they also brought
with them a strong black nationalist sentiment that proved to be an
important element in the formation of Miami's UNIA. The majority
of the American-born blacks resided in Colored Town whereas
Bahamians predominantly resided in the nearby Coconut
Colored Town lacked proper plumbing, sewage facilities, and roads,
causing it to become congested with crime and infected with disease. In
spite of the rapid growth of Colored Town's population, the white com-
Colored Town was a bustling, congested corer in its early decades. HASF 1988-102-6
munity resisted the expansion of Miami's black quarter-sometimes in
violent fashion. Many black Miamians fought these conditions and vio-
lence, forming organizations to address the community's needs. The
Colored Board of Trade and the Negro Uplift Association of Dade
County, comprised of black businessmen and community leaders,
fought segregation legislation, white terrorism, and police brutality.
These groups lobbied for better job opportunities, improved living con-
ditions, more parks, and for the presence of black policemen in
Colored Town.' The Negro Uplift Association of Dade County and the
Colored Board of Trade were precursors of the UNIA in Miami.
Indeed, many members of these groups became UNIA leaders.'
A considerable percentage of UNIA chapters arose in black churches,
which, in addition to their spiritual offerings and social ministrations,
served as venues for black solidarity and independence, and provided an
outlet for nationalist sentiment.' Miami was no exception as local black
ministers were organizers of the local UNIA division and remained
Racial Stirrings in Colored Town 59
active members. The UNIA carefully worked with Miami's black min-
istry, though it remained a political and social movement as opposed to
a religious movement.'0
In 1920, national UNIA organizers arrived in the Miami area to
solicit member and form a local chapter. They collaborated with such
locally important figures as the Reverend John A. Davis, minister of the
Ebenezer A.M.E. Church, and Dr. Brookings, the presiding elder of the
Florida District A.M.E. Church. Both had attended the 1920 UNIA
National Convention in New York City." This convention, one of the
largest in the UNIA's history, reached its climax with Marcus Garvey's
address to an estimated 25,000 blacks at Madison Square Garden. In
his speech, Garvey boasted that, "The nations of the world were aware
that the Negro of yesterday has disappeared from the scene of human
activity and his place has been taken by a new Negro who stands erect,
conscious of manhood rights and fully determined to preserve them at
Davis was appointed Miami's district UNIA organizer at the conven-
tion and he, along with Dr. Brookings, returned to Miami and quickly
went to work soliciting prospective UNIA members at local churches
and lodges. The division's first organizational meeting in Colored Town
took place on September 16, 1920.1 Two months later, on November
14, 1920, the Miami chapter of UNIA was born in the English
Wesleyan Church. Percy Styles, a local businessman and a prominent
citizen of Colored Town, chaired the meeting and was nominated as
"traveling organizer" to gain further support for the UNIA. Dr. Alonzo
Burgess Holly, a local doctor and another prominent resident of
Colored Town, delivered a "fiery" speech on "the revolutionary activities
of his native country of Haiti.""4 Additionally, Reverend J. H. Le
Mansley, minister of the English Wesleyan Church, "outlined some of
the wrongs committed against the Negro."'" Reverend G. E. Carter,
who had recently moved to Miami from the North, was also actively
involved in the meeting.1
Dr. Holly possessed a long history of involvement in black nationalist
causes before the inception of the UNIA in Miami, while the Reverend
Carter would use Miami's UNIA as a springboard for a career as a
prominent international figure. Dr. Holly was the son of James
Theodore Holly, a mid-nineteenth century black nationalist and emi-
grant who left the United States for Haiti. He became Haiti's Episcopal
Bishop, the first African American to achieve that rank.'7 Dr. Holly was
born in Port-au-Prince, educated at Harrison College in Barbados,
Cambridge University and the New York Homeopathic Medical
College where he received his medical degree in 1888. After a successful
medical practice in Nassau, he moved to South Florida around the turn
of the century and established practices in West Palm Beach and
Miami." There is no evidence that Holly became an official UNIA
member, but it is known that he was a faithful supporter of the move-
ment." Dr. Holly had strong nationalist feelings and was an outspoken
proponent of black concerns. He had allegedly been run out of town
several times by the KKK. The white community perceived him as one
of the more radical activists in the black community, but he continued
to maintain a clinic in Colored Town in spite of all the threats he
received advising him to move.2
Reverend Carter was a member of the Colored Board of Trade and
Secretary of the black YMCA. Carter became an active member of the
UNIA and was the first delegate to represent Miami at the
International Convention of Negro Peoples of the World in 1921.
Eventually he left Miami for New York where he became active in the
UNIA at the international level. Carter became the assistant to the
UNIA President-General at the 1922 convention and was appointed
UNIA Secretary-General in 1924, holding that position until 1926. He
was also Secretary of the Black Cross Navigation and Trading
Company, the UNIA's shipping company. In addition, Carter authored
the "Weekly Sermon," one of the longest running features in the UNIA
newspaper Negro World.2
As soon as Davis and Brooking arrived and organized these early
UNIA meetings, the local police and FBI began monitoring Miami's
UNIA activities, and continued to do so for the eight years of the orga-
nization's existence in Miami. On December 5, 1920, another UNIA
meeting was held at a Baptist church. FBI agent Leone E. Howe
claimed that a general call was made at this meeting to establish equali-
ty with whites and eventually to bring about black supremacy. Agent
Howe also claimed that interracial marriage was advocated. The FBI
reported that by the time of this meeting, the UNIA chapter contained
400 members and was meeting once a week.2
The FBI correspondence indicates that the agency feared that the
Miami UNIA was being formed by blacks who came from the Bahamas
Racial Stirrings in Colored Town 61
and West Indies to overthrow the white establishment of Southeast
Florida.23 The FBI was also concerned with a report that alleged that
"90 percent of the Negroes in the area are in possession of fire arms."
There are further indications that the FBI or local authorities might
have instigated violence against UNIA members, or suspected mem-
bers, in mid-1921.24
The violence actually began in Key West and appeared to be con-
nected to similar violence in Miami. By June 1921, the Key West chap-
ter of the UNIA had great momentum and boasted 700 members.
Local whites became wary of the movement especially after Garvey
himself arrived on the island to assist the UNIA Chapter in recruiting
new members. The FBI feared that the large Bahamian and West
Indian populations were poised for violence against the white commu-
nity. Reverend T. C. Glashen, President of the Key West UNIA, was
quoted as saying, "We have been under white people's control long
enough. The time has come for us to strike, and all of us Negroes must
let the world know that we are a power strong and ready to defend our
rights. If we can't succeed with words, we will use other methods, and
never mind what happens. If blood is needed let it be shared. We fought to
help this and other countries to be free, so let's fight to free ourselves.""
These words, along with fear of a black revolution, were enough to
reactivate the Key West Chapter of the Ku Klux Klan that had been
long dormant, exacerbating racial tensions on the island. The president
of the chamber of commerce gave Glashen twenty-four hours to leave
town. When Glashen refused, he was arrested for inciting a riot and
was jailed, which angered the island's black citizenry creating further
potential for violence. A representative from the parent UNIA in
Harlem and a judge visited Glashen and begged him to leave before a
racial clash between the UNIA and the white mob ensued. Glashen
finally left for New York by boat via Havana due to threats that he
would be pulled from a train and lynched if he tried to leave Key West
over land.26 Shortly after Glashen's arrest, Dr. Kershaw, Key West's
UNIA vice president, was arrested on allegations that he stole UNIA
funds. Kershaw turned over the UNIA books and papers to FBI agents,
was released on bond, and resigned from the UNIA. The books and
minutes were examined by those agents who noted membership size,
and forwarded a list of 690 members to the FBI regional headquarters
The KKK announced its presence in Miami in the spring of 1921
with a parade of 200 men clad in the traditional hoods and robes. On
July 1, 1921, Reverend Reggie H. Higgs, a black minister in Coconut
Grove and an
S1 f the exiled
6! Glashen, was
men from his
.1 q - .~'~- *was a
"who moved to
The Ku Klux Klan maintained a visible presence in Miami Key West and
throughout the 1920s. HASF 1995-320-5 became
the UNIA through Glashen before moving to Coconut Grove as a min-
ister of St. James Baptist church. Higgs continued his involvement with
the UNIA, helping to organize and becoming vice president of a small-
er chapter located in Coconut Grove. The Miami Herald noted that
some of his "revival meetings" had created violent race conditions lead-
ing to the shooting of two black men by the police. After his abduc-
tion, Higgs was taken to a wooded spot, was tied and placed face down
on the ground, and was whipped with a rope. The kidnappers placed
another rope around his neck and ordered him to leave town within
forty-eight hours. He was taken back the same night and dumped on a
Coconut Grove street.28
The kidnapping of Higgs angered black residents of Coconut Grove
and many took to the streets with guns the night he was abducted,
resolving to find Higgs and his captors. The riot alarm was sounded,
bringing in the police. One black man was shot and seriously wounded
by a police officer when he allegedly "failed to halt upon command."
The police disarmed twenty-five blacks and arrested nine, releasing
them the next day.29
On July 5, 1921, Albert Gibson, also a UNIA member, claimed that
he and other friends put Higgs on a British vessel destined for Nassau.
"We put him on the boat, gave him a couple hundred dollars and let
Racial Stirrings in Colored Town 63
him get lost. He hasn't been back since, but he dared them to come and
get him," Gibson told the Miami Herald in February 1975." Oscar
Johnson, financial secretary of the Miami branch of the UNIA, became
frightened by the treatment of Glashen and Higgs and left with
Higgs for the Bahamas, although it was believed that he was not direct-
Prior to these incidents the FBI and local authorities had placed
Higgs, Glashen, Holly, and other UNIA members under surveillance
and had reportedly intercepted a letter that was sent to Glashen from
Higgs. The FBI claimed that Higgs advised Glashen to "organize the
Negroes in Key West and on the given date poison everybody and take
possession of the island."" The content of the letter was released to the
press; on July 3, 1921, the Miami Herald reported that the Higgs kid-
napping unveiled a plot to kill whites in Key West. The Heramls source
was the Miami Police Department, which claimed that Higgs' scheme
to kill whites led to his kidnapping. The letter from Higgs to Glashen
was not mentioned in the article, but the authorities claimed that
Higgs spoke of such
plans in speeches to the -- -
The violence contin- "-- '
ued. On July 17, 1921,
twelve days after Higgs
left the country, eight
masked men abducted
Archdeacon Phillip S.
Irwin, the white minister i
of the St. Agnes I ,ii
Episcopal Church in .
Colored Town. Irwin
claimed his abductors
handcuffed, gagged, St. Agnes Episcopal Church in Colored Town.
hooded and forced him This Church was built in the 1920s replacing the
into a car. After driving earlier structure where Irwin had preached.
for one half-hour, the car HASF 1989-011-3459
stopped, Irwin was taken
into the woods, strapped to a log and stripped of his clothing. The men
told Irwin that he had been preaching racial equality and interracial
marriage and that it would not be tolerated. Irwin was whipped thirty
to forty times and then tarred and feathered. He was told to leave
Miami within forty-eight hours or he would be lynched. He was
dumped on a street in downtown Miami where he was found by a
police officer.? Irwin left Miami two days later."
The white community appeared unsure of the origin and purpose of
the UNIA. The Miami Herald reported that the UNIA was a clandes-
tine branch of the Overseas Club headed by a man named "Garvin"
(misspelling Garvey's name) that was disbanded by not following the
policy of the parent organization. Even though there was no apparent
connection between the two organizations, Father Irwin was linked to
the UNIA through his association with the Overseas Club.)' Irwin may
have supported the UNIA, but it is unlikely that whites would have
been allowed to become members.
In spite of the violence and intimidation, the Miami UNIA endured
and grew. The FBI was able to obtain the books containing a member-
ship list and detailed meeting minutes. The agency noted that Miami's
UNIA membership had reached one thousand and included members
in Coconut Grove and Homestead, as well as Colored Town. The
membership was predominantly Bahamian. Financial records indicated
that the organization took a year's lease on the Airdrome Building in
Colored Town, renamed it "Liberty Hall, UNIA Branch No. 136," and
purchased a motion picture machine. The FBI believed that the UNIA
was in "flourishing condition.""7
The FBI also reported that tensions remained high between white
and black residents and it predicted a recurrence of racial troubles. The
report indicated that residents of Colored Town were well supplied with
arms and ammunition, which, it claimed, prompted the city to obtain nine-
teen machine guns, riot guns and large quantities of ammunition in antici-
pation of a black uprising. The agency stated that since the Higgs and Irwin
incidents, the UNIA had required a warning to refrain from meeting. 5
It appears that the racial tension subsided with no further recorded
acts of violence between the black and white community." This is curi-
ous since both the Miami Herald and the FBI reported considerable
concern from the white community towards UNIA activity, with the
latter eventually reconvening its meetings in spite of the warnings.
Whether the UNIA allowed for a cooling-off period or perhaps made
some sort of conciliatory gesture towards whites is not known.
Racial Stirrings in Colored Town 65
Garvey himself became concerned over KKK violence directed
toward the UNIA, and, in spite of protests within his ranks, met with
its leader, Edward Young Clarke, in 1922 to discuss this problem. After
recognizing similar goals such as racial purity and agreeing that the
United States was a white man's country while Africa should be
reserved for Africans, Clarke offered his assurance that the Klan would
refrain from further attacks on the UNIA.40
How the UNIA avoided further violence during this formative peri-
od remains a mystery. Garvey's meeting with the KKK may have played
a part in the UNIA's peaceful existence in Miami in the following years,
but it does not explain how the tension between the UNIA and white
community subsided. In order to survive in Miami, the UNIA needed
to gain acceptance by the black community and its churches and to
assure the white community that it was not a threat to it. It appears
that the Bahamian and West Indian community championed the move-
ment and comprised the majority of the chapter's membership. This is
consistent with the predominantly West Indian character of the UNIA's
main body in the northeast and during the pivotal first half of the
movement's history. However, many black Americans were elected to
positions of authority, including the chapter's first three presidents and
its first chaplain. These American chapter officials were also community and
church leaders in Colored Town.4" The UNIA respected the authority of the
powerful churches in the black community yet firmly identified itself as a
political and social organization as opposed to a religious movement.2
Once established, the Miami UNIA conducted its affairs consistently
within the guidelines of the parent organization. The members voted
for a president, three vice presidents, a financial secretary, assistant sec-
retary, treasurer, trustees, chaplain, and advisors. Elections were held
annually and only UNIA members could vote. There was a women's
division that met separately; its officers were elected by the women
members of the organization.43
The UNIA conducted its meetings in the open after it built Liberty
Hall, thus removing the "clandestine" atmosphere that surrounded it in
the early years. The UNIA held meetings three times a week, and on
special occasions. The women's division held one meeting a week. A
general public meeting was held on Sundays. James Nimmo, a one time
UNIA member, claimed that the UNIA allowed whites to attend some
meetings to observe their activities. "The police would sit in on meet-
ings attempting to intimidate us and see what we were up to, but we
would proceed with the meetings as planned to show them what we
A typical meeting began with a call to order by the designated chair-
man of the meeting. An opening ode was sung, usually "From
Greenland's Icy Mountain" or "God Bless our President." The associa-
tions elected chaplains or a guest chaplain conducted prayer and scrip-
ture readings. Then the meeting would be turned over to a speaker who
usually spoke on a wide range of topics. A meeting often contained a
reading from the UNIAs newspaper, Negro World, or a reading from a
message from Garvey. The band would perform, or Miss Mabel
Dorsett, long time UNIA member, would play a piece on the piano.
Sometimes movies or a movie reel from the parent organization in
Harlem would be shown. Songs were sung by the choir and the chapter
President would give a short talk followed by a collection. Each meet-
ing ended with a singing of the National Anthem of the United States.45
Like most UNIA chapters, Miami's chapter contained a uniformed
branch called the African Black Legion headed by Nimmo. Nimmo was
a Bahamian who came to Miami at sixteen in 1916 to enlist in the
United States Army, after being refused a similar request by the British.
He served with American Forces in France during World War I and
returned to Miami after his discharge. Like many southern cities,
Miami welcomed home black veterans with violent reminders that the
city was segregated and that their service to the country did little to
change this situation. Nimmo felt disenfranchised and found that the
ideals of the UNIA corresponded to his growing black nationalist senti-
ment. He joined the UNIA and was put in charge of 150 to 200 uni-
formed men and two officers.46
The Miami chapter purchased its uniforms from the parent organiza-
tion in Harlem. The uniform was blue with brass buttons and a red
stripe running down the trouser legs, spit-and-polished shoes, and a
military cap with insignia. The officers had dress swords while the oth-
ers had wooden rifles made by local black carpenters for drill practice
on Sunday after church in Colored Town's Dorsey Park. Members also
bought regular rifles, but drilled with the wooden rifles. One would
imagine that a large group of uniformed black men marching with
rifles, albeit wooden rifles, would be viewed with consternation by the
white community. Nimmo claimed that the police broke up the drill
Racial Stirrings in Colored Town 67
only on a few occasions and confiscated the rifles. "We would just go
home, make new rifles, and drill next week," he noted.7
As Miami's UNIA grew, it became an active participant in Colored
Town's political and social affairs. Politically, the UNIA offered its
Liberty Hall, one of the largest halls in Colored Town, as a meeting
place for debates and discussion of issues affecting the black communi-
ty. The UNIA also sponsored guest speakers at the hall. Socially, the
UNIA opened its hall for dances, prayer meetings, parties, fundraisers,
and celebrations.48 The UNIA participated in parades along with the
uniformed African Black Legion. Judge John D. Johnson reflected, in a
later era, when he was a teenager in Colored Town: "We heard about
Garvey and knew something about the movement. I was too young to
fully comprehend the full meaning of it all, but I do remember the
Legion marching in the parade-that was new. We never saw that
before and I was filled with pride.""'
In 1926 Miami's UNIA chapter lobbied Calvin Coolidge, the
President of the United States, for executive clemency for Garvey after
he was sent to the Atlanta Penitentiary for mail fraud.0 Collections
were made for a relief fund to benefit Garvey's wife, Amy Jaques.
Miami's UNIA members sometimes visited other Florida UNIA chap-
ters such as those in West Palm Beach, Tampa, and Key West. At the
same time delegates from other UNIA chapters visited Miami's divi-
sion." The Miami division participated in the State UNIA Convention
in West Palm Beach in August 1925, which was recognized as a great
success, and which ended with Nimmo marching 150 UNIA men in
honor of the West Palm Beach division.5
By the mid-1920s, Miami's UNIA chapter was recognized by the
parent organization as one of its larger and more influential divisions. It
was growing and gaining support while other divisions were in decline
after Garvey's imprisonment. Many high-ranking UNIA officers paid
visits to the Miami division.53 Fred A. Toote, who succeeded Garvey fol-
lowing his imprisonment, visited Miami in 1926 and received a warm
welcome in Colored Town54 One of the most successful meetings for
Miami's UNIA chapter was a visit in 1927, from J. A. Craigen, the
executive president of the Detroit division and special representative to
the parent body. Liberty Hall was filled to capacity with people stand-
ing in the street to see the man that worked closely with Garvey. The
entire division of the African Black Legion turned out for the occasion,
along with members and non-members of the UNIA, to hear "inspiring
speeches from Craigen and his associates." Motion pictures were also
shown at the gathering."
Two large, successful fundraisers were held by Miami's UNIA. One
was staged in 1926 to pay for renovations to Liberty Hall; the other
was held to raise money for repairs to the UNIA-owned ship, George W
Goethals, which made an unexpected visit to Miami in June 1925. The
Goethals was one element of Marcus Garvey's attempt at initiating a
black-owned shipping company. The ship had been touring the
Caribbean to raise money by selling stock for the line. Returning from
an unsuccessful fundraising drive in Jamaica, the ship hit a reef and
docked in Miami for repairs although it did not have the funds for the
work. A fundraising dance was held aboard the ship with a great
turnout from Miami's black community. Nineteen hundred dollars
were raised and the ship was repaired prior to its return to New York.5
By 1927, the Miami UNIA division was firmly in place and it con-
tinued to grow. Laura Koffey's presence in Miami only bolstered the
UNIA and further increased its membership. Prior to her involvement
there, Koffey had been active in a UNIA division in Jacksonville,
Florida. The Negro World noted in a May 14, 1925 issue that the
Jacksonville UNIA was experiencing rapid growth after a visit from
Koffey, who was described as a worker from the West African Gold
Coast. Koffey was hailed as a "real conscientious race lover...and a radi-
cal one too." She claimed to have a "burning message from the kings of
the Gold Coast, West Africa...that the door is now opened in the Gold
Coast to the four hundred million Negroes of the world, and no power
can shut it until all have entered." Koffey spoke every night of the week
and twice on Sundays. The Negro World claimed that forty to fifty new
members joined the Jacksonville UNIA every time she spoke. In all,
nine hundred new members joined the Jacksonville UNIA during her
stay in that city.7
Koffey claimed to be an African princess from the West Gold Coast
of Africa sent by her father and her people to America to find the "lost
children of Africa" and bring them back home. She had plans to build
sawmills in Alabama to pay for leased Japanese boats to carry out the
exodus. She further claimed to have met with Garvey in prison and to
have received his blessing to speak before the chapters. Those who
opposed Laura Koffey considered her a fraud. Some claimed that she
Racial Stirrings in Colored Town
was an African American from Athens, Georgia, who betrayed the black
community both by luring blacks from their traditional churches and
by subverting the nationalist goals of Marcus Garvey. Others claimed
that she hailed from Detroit, was a Red Cross nurse who had spent
time in Africa during World War I, and later worked in New Orleans as
a teacher.5 Followers and detractors agreed that Koffey was a powerful,
On May 29, 1927, Koffey came to Miami to deliver a week-long
series of speeches; according to the Negro World, over three hundred
members enrolled in Miami's UNIA chapter that week, indicating that
"Garveyism is spreading like wildfire in Miami." Koffey stayed another
week "to see if she could convince 300 more that they need freedom
and Africa needs them." Three thousand persons were reported to have
gathered to hear Koffey speak at Liberty Hall during a mass meeting. A
report in Negro World indicated that "another 300 more were looking
through black spectacles.""'
Later in August of the same year, Koffey and four other Miami
UNIA members visited Garvey in prison. Claude Green, president of
Miami's UNIA and former president of the Jacksonville UNIA, wired
ahead to Garvey announcing Koffey's visit. Green asked Garvey to
"please take note of the fact that Lady Koffey will visit Miami..." and to "get
in touch with her we find her worthwhile." Koffey made the visit with
UNIA members Kitty Jones, James Baltrau, Thomas Brooks and Maxwell
Cook. Cook was a captain of the African Black Legion under Nimmo's
command. What was discussed between Koffey and Garvey is not known.60
Early in 1928, Koffey began breaking away from the UNIA, though
she continued to speak to UNIA chapters throughout Florida. Koffey
began mixing black nationalism with a prophetic religious message: "I
am a representative from the Gold Coast of West Africa, seeking the
welfare of Africa's children everywhere. God called me out of Africa to
come over here and tell you, His people, what He would have you
do."6" She began to speak on Sundays, which emptied the churches of
their members. This upset the UNIAs delicate relationship with local
ministries. Koffey also rankled UNIA members by criticizing its dances
and other fundraisers, and by advocating prayer meetings in their place.
She also criticized Nimmo's uniformed African Black Legion for drilling
on Sunday. Many within the UNIA now became suspicious of Koffey's
intentions. The ministers oversaw her expulsion from Miami.62
Koffey left Miami to travel throughout Florida and speak at UNIA
halls, but she continued to criticize UNIA activity. She reportedly col-
lected nineteen thousand dollars during this speaking tour. UNIA
chapters in St. Petersburg and Jacksonville had Koffey arrested for
unknown reasons. While she was in jail in Jacksonville, Koffey was
stripped in order to discover if she had, as her enemies claimed,
'voodoo roots' on her body to explain her charismatic power.6"
Koffey returned to Miami in March 1928 and again spoke before
large audiences in the UNIA hall, as well as local churches. Suspecting
that Koffey was a fraud, three UNIA members, Professor Leslie, a local
teacher, Maxwell Cook, who accompanied Koffey during her Garvey
visit to the Atlanta Penitentiary, and Nimmo wired Garvey on March 7,
1928, inquiring about Koffey's 'Back to Africa exodus. Garvey
responded that he had not given Koffey the authority to collect funds
for any type of African exodus and denounced her as a fraud.M
Armed with the Garvey telegram, Nimmo and the others returned to
the UNIA hall that same day to confront
Koffey while she was speaking. They were
largely ignored, and resorted to heckling
Koffey, which prompted a division
between loyal Garveyites and Koffey's fol-
lowers. After both factions sought police
.. a protection for use of Liberty Hall, the
police padlocked the facility and prohibit-
ed its use by either group. Defying her
opponents within the UNIA, Koffey con-
tinued to speak at Fox Thomson's hall the
following night, March 8.65
Koffey encouraged her followers to
H. Leslie Quigg was Miami's break with the UNIA and join her African
Chief of Police from 1921-28, Universal Church (AUC). Maxwell Cook
and again in a later era. Quigg was there to heckle her, and Nimmo
and his force were tough on resi- planned to join him but was working late.
dents of Colored Town. Someone fired a gun at her head in mid-
HASF 1989-011-22995 speech, killing her instantly. The frenzied
mob beat Cook to death with bricks,
stones, and fists. A mob bent on revenge sought out Nimmo, but he
went to the police for protection. The police arrested Nimmo and
Racial Stirrings in Colored Town 71
UNIA President Claude Green and other UNIA members. Most were
set free the next day, but Nimmo and Green were indicted in the mur-
der of Koffey, tried, and acquitted. Koffey's killer was never caught or,
according to some, found guilty.66
While the AUC continued to operate, Miami's UNIA chapter died
the same night as Koffey. An organization called the 'Garvey Club' was
started, but it failed to garner the support or popularity of the UNIA.
The majority of the UNIA members stayed with the AUC, but it too
declined in numbers without the charismatic leadership of Koffey."7
While the nature and persona of Laura Koffey, as well as the com-
plicity of Nimmo in her murder, was discussed and debated for some
time, these issues detract from the importance of the UNIAs presence
in Miami. Since Miami's incorporation as a city, blacks had challenged,
usually without success, the racial tyranny afflicting their community.
The UNIAs contribution in this struggle lies in the fact that it brought
the message and philosophy of black nationalism to Miami's blacks
thirty to forty years before the civil rights movement. Many former
UNIA members, including Nimmo, were in the forefront of Miami's
mid-century labor and socialist movements, and later a civil rights
movement, which helped desegregate such facilities as lunch counters
before other areas of the South. While UNIA's existence in Miami was
brief, its influence was long-lived.
' While there is little information available on the Garvey movement in
Miami, there is an extensive article on Laura Koffey and the African
Universal Church. See Richard Newman, "Warrior Mother of Africa's
of the Most High God: Laura Adorker Koffey and the African
Universal Church," Black Power and Black Religion: Essays and Reviews,
(Cornwall, Locust Hill Press, 1987),109-131.
2 Jerrell Shofner, "Custom, Law, and History: The Enduring Influence
of Florida's Black Code," Florida Historical Quarterly, LV (January
3 The author gained perspective on Miami's black community in the
Garvey era through the scholarship of Dorothy Fields of Black
Archives, History and Research Foundation of South Florida; Paul S.
George, Raymond Mohl and Jean C. Taylor. See: Paul S. George,
"Policing Miami's Black Community, 1896-1930" Florida Historical
Quarterly, LIX (January 1981), Paul S. George, "Colored Town:
Miami's Black Community, 1896-1930" Florida Historical Quarterly,
LVI (April 1978); Dorothy Fields, "Reflections on Black History: Fun
and Games in 'Overtown'" Update, IV (June 1976); Raymond Mohl,
"Black Immigrants: Bahamians in Early Twentieth-Century Miami"
Florida Historical Quarterly, LXV (January 1987).
SSee Edmund D. Cronon, Black Moses: The Story of Marcus Garvey and
the Universal Negro Improvement Association, (Madison: The University
of Wisconsin Press, 1955); Elton C. Fax, Garvey: The Story ofa Pioneer
Black Nationalist, (Cornwall: Cornwall Press Inc., 1972).
5 US Bureau of the Census, Fourteenth Census of the United States,
1920, Population II (Washington 1922), 960, 795; Marvin Dunn,
Black Miami in the Twentieth Century (Gainesville, FL: The University
Press of Florida, 1997) 120.
6 US Bureau of the Census, Fourteenth Census of the United States,
1920, Population II (Washington 1922), 960, 795.; Mohl, "Black
7 George, "Colored Town," FHQ, 440-441; George, "Policing Miami's
Black Community," FHQ, 437; David Cohen, "The Development and
Efficiency of the Negro Police Precinct and Court of the City of
Miami," (MA thesis, University of Miami, 1951), 21.
SGeorge, "Colored Town," FHQ, 433-439.
" See Rodney Carlisle, The Roots ofBlack Nationalism (Port Washington:
Racial Stirrings in Colored Town 73
Kennikat Press, 1975), 131-132; Black Nationalism in America, editors,
John H. Bracey Jr., August Meier, Elliot Rudwick, (New York: The
Bobbs-Merrill Company Inc., 1970); Wilson J. Moses, The Golden Age
ofBlack Nationalism 1850-1925 (Hamden: The Shoe String Press
'0 Robert Hill, ed.,"Reports by Bureau Agent Leon E. Howe, Miami,
Florida, 7/6/21," Marcus Garvey Papers and the Universal Negro
Improvement Association Papers Volume VI, (Berkley: University of
California Press, 1984), 514; Transcript of interview with James
Nimmo conducted September 11, 1990, in possession of Dr. Gregory
Bush, University of Miami, Department of History, Coral Gables,
" Hill ed.,"Reports by Bureau Agent Leon E. Howe, Miami, Florida,
7/6/21," Garvey Papers, Volume VI, 514.
" Fax, Garvey, 2.
13 "Reports by Bureau Agent Leon E. Howe, Miami, Florida, 7/16/21,"
Garvey Papers, Volume VI, 514.
'" "Report by Bureau Agent William C. Sausele, Jacksonville, Florida,
11/22/20," Garvey Papers, Hill ed., 91.
7 Carlisle, Roots ofBlack Nationalism, 58-59.
'* Hill ed.,Garvey Papers, Volume VI, 91-92; Interview Kip Vought with
James Nimmo, Judge D. Johnson and Thomas Johnson, Miami,
Florida, October 12, 1990, in possession of Dr. Gregory Bush,
University of Miami.
" Interview with Nimmo.
2 Interviews with Nimmo, Thomas Johnson and Judge John D.
1 "Report by Bureau Agent Leone E. Howe, Miami, Florida," Garvey
Papers, Volume VI, Hill ed., 112.
22 The philosophy of Marcus Garvey is found in Marcus Garvey,
Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey, Volume I and II, (New York:
Arno Press and the New York Times, 1969). The Bureau of
Investigation, founded in 1908, was renamed Federal Bureau of
Investigation by the Congress in 1935.
13 Garvey, Philosophy; Hill ed.,"George Washington to Harry
Daugherty, Attorney General, 615 Thomas Street, Key West, Florida,
April 28, 1921," Garvey Papers, Volume VI, 375-376; Hill ed.,"Report
by Bureau Agent Leone E. Howe, Miami, Florida, 6/29/21," Garvey
Papers, Volume VI, 494-495; Hill ed.,"WJ.H. Taylor, British Vice-
Consul, to Tom Ffennel Carlisile, British Consul, New Orleans, Key
West, Florida, July 5, 1921," Garvey Papers, Volume VI, 512-515.
2' Hill ed., "Report by Bureau Agent William C. Sousele," Garvey
Papers, Volume VI, 112.
" Hill ed., "Report by Bureau Agent Leone E. Howe, Miami, Florida,
6/29/21," Garvey Papers, Volume VI, 494-495.
"2 Negro World, July 16, 1921.
27 Hill ed., "Howard P Wright, Bureau Agent in Charge, to Lewis J.
Bailey," Garvey Papers, Volume VI, 244-247. Dr. Kershaw's first name
was never mentioned in any of the documents or FBI correspondence.
28 Hill ed.,Garvey Papers; Miami Herald, July 2 and 3, 1921, 1; George,
"Policing Miami's black community," FHQ, 446; Dunn, Black Miami,
117. The Klan maintained a visible presence in the Magic City
throughout the 1920s and 1930s. It appears the members of the KKK
were the perpetrators of the Higgs abduction and subsequent race-relat-
ed crimes in Miami, although no one was ever arrested for these crimes.
29 Miami Herald July 2, 1921, 1.
3 Ibid., February 12, 1975; "Report by Bureau Agent Leon E. Howe
7/6/21," Garvey Papers, Volume VI, Hill ed., p. 513.
31 Ibid., July 3, 18, 1921, 1.
" Ibid., July 3, 1921, 1.
3 Ibid., July 18, 1921, 1.
" Ibid., July 3, 18, 1921; Hill, ed., Garvey Papers, Volume VI, 247.
" Miami Herald July 18, 1921, 1.
37 Hill ed., "Report by Bureau Agent Leon Howe, Miami 7/6/21,"
Garvey Papers, Volume VI, 513-515.
* Hill ed., Garvey Papers, Volume VI, 515.
3 Interviews with James Nimmo and Thomas Johnson.
"0 Tony Martin, Race First: The Ideological and Organizational Struggles
of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association
(Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1976), 183-187; Judith Stein, The
UNIA Goes South: Garvey and the Ku Klux Klan in The World of
Marcus Garvey: Race and Class in Modern Society (Batan Rouge:
Louisiana State University Press, 1986), 153-170.
Racial Stirrings in Colored Town 75
"' Hill ed.,The FBI documents noted the nationality of the UNIA
members, Garvey Papers, Volume VI, 514.
42 Interview with Nimmo.
43 Interview with Nimmo; Hill ed., "Report by Bureau Agent Leone E.
Howe 7/8/21," Garvey Papers, 514.
44 Interview with James Nimmo.
5 The Negro World was published in New York. Negro World, February
2 and July 19, 1924; March 21 and June 20, 1925; March 27, May 22,
August 7, 1926; February 19, March 12, May 7, June 11, July 23, July
30, August 1, September 17, October 1, October 8 and October 15,
4 Interview with James Nimmo.
49 Interview with Nimmo and Judge John D. Johnson.
0 Interview with Nimmo and Judge John D. Johnson; Negro World,
May 22, August 7, 1926.
' Interview with Nimmo and Judge John D. Johnson; Negro World,
March 21 and September 24, 1925.
52 Interview with Nimmo and Judge John D. Johnson; Negro World,
September 24, 1925.
5 Garvey intended to visit Miami after first going to Key West and the
Caribbean in mid-1921, but Dr. Holly warned him that Miami's racial
climate could imperil him. See Hill ed.,"Howard P. Wright, Bureau
Agent Leone Howe, Miami, Florida., March 11, 1921," Garvey Papers,
Volume VI, 244-246.
4 Negro World, March 26, 1926.
5 Ibid., March 12, 1927.
5 Interview with Nimmo.
7 Newman, Black Power and Black Religion, 131-134; Negro World,
May 14, 1925.
56 Newman, Black Power and Black Religion, 131-134; Interview with
Nimmo; Negro World, June 11, 1927 and April 7, 1928.
5 Negro World, June 11, 1927.
0 Copy of Western Union Telegram from Claude Green to Marcus
Garvey, Black Archives Foundation Inc. of Miami; Copy of visitors reg-
istration of the Atlanta Penitentiary, August 1, 1927, Black Archives,
History and Research Foundation of South Florida.
6 Newman, Black Power and Black Religion, 134-135.
62 Newman, Black Power, interview with Nimmo.
63 Newman, Black Power and Black Religion, 13-135.
65 Interview with Nimmo; Miami Herald, March 9, 1928, 6; Miami
Daily News, March 9, 1928, 6; Interview with Gloria Bridgewater of
the African Universal Church in possession of Gregory Bush, University
6, Interview with Nimmo; Miami Herald, March 9 and 12, 1928, 6,2.
67 Interview with Nimmo; Newman, Black Power and Black Religion,
This Page Blank in Original
Historical Association of
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List of Members
The Comptie Constituency
The Comptie Constituency is a distinguished society established to honor donors who have
already supported the endowment in a significant way, or who have made specific provisions in
their estate plans that will benefit the future of the Historical Museum of Southern Florida. The
museum created this society as a way of recognizing and thanking donors for gifts that will impact
the museum and the community for years to come.
Mr. Mitchell Wolfson, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Louis N. Tilley
Mr. & Mrs. John C.
Mr. & Mrs. William A.
Mr. & Mrs. Arnold C.
Mr. & Mrs. Lewis M. Kanner
Mr. & Mrs. David Mesnekoff
Ryder System Charitable
John S. & James L. Knight
Mr. & Mrs. Allen Corson
Estate ofThomas B. Haggard
Estate of Phyllis M.G.
Mrs. Avis Kent Goodlove
Northern Trust Bank of
Dr. Charlton W. Tebeau
Mr. Peter L. Bermont &
Mr. & Mrs. Charles P.
Barnett Bank of South
The Miami Herald
Knight Ridder, Inc.
Miss Lamar Louise Curry
Mrs. John W Prunty
Mr. & Mrs. Teofilo A. Babun
Estate ofJohn M. Frohock
Estate of Elizabeth H. Peeler
Mr. & Mrs. Douglas Erickson
Mr. & Mrs. Clifford Russ
Mr. & Mrs. David Younrs
Deloitte & Touche
Mr. & Mrs. Wlliam D. Soman
Mr. & Mrs. R. Layton Mank
Mr. & Mrs. Alvah H.
First Union Foundation
Greenberg, Traurig, Hoffman,
Lipoff Rosen & Quentel, PA
Miller Family Foundation
Mr. & Mrs. Cal Kovens
Mr. David C. Neale
Dr. & Mrs. T Hunter Pryor
Mr. Samuel J. Boldrick
Mr. & Mrs. Marshall S Harris
Mrs. Shirley Haverfield
Mr. & Mrs. Lee Hills
Sears Roebuck & Co.
Mrs. Peyton L. Wilson
Mr. & Mrs. James A Wright III
Mr. John S. Sherman
Mr. & Mrs. Randy E
Mr. & Mrs. Jack lowell
Blackwell & Walker, PA.
Estate of Dr. Herman
Mr. & Mrs. Raul Rodrigucz
Mr. & Mrs. Carlton W. Cole
Mr. & Mrs. William G. Earle
Mr. & Mrs. Robert C. Hector
Mr. & Mrs. Henry Z. Norton
Mr. & Mrs Hunting F. Deutsch
Dr. & Mrs. Michael Rosenberg
Dr. Anna Price
Dr. & Mrs. Edmund Parnes
Mr. Kenneth Sellari
Mr. & Mrs. Arnold L.
Mr. Walter RL Ferguson
Ms. Sally M. Kennedy
Ms. Lamar J. Noriega
Silver Springs Foundation
Dr. & Mrs. Joseph H.
Mrs. Tom Lynch
Mr. & Mrs. Walter Shockey
Mr. John W. Thatcher
Dr. & Mrs. Howard Zwibel
Mr. & Mrs. C. Frasuer
Mr. & Mrs. Lon Worth Crow
The Batchelor Foundation
Mr. & Mrs. John M.
Mr. & Mrs. Dennis M.
Mrs. Sue S. Goldman &
Mrs. Learrice Aberman &
Mrs. Rosemary Dommerich
Mrs. Eleanor Bristol
Ms. Judith A. Hunt &
Dr. Ronald K. Wright
Mr. Oscar Mederos
Ms. Linda S. Lubit, CFP
Ms. Cynthia Lawrence
Mr. Dan Laxson
Mr. & Mrs. Stuart Block
Mrs. Ruth D. Myers
Mr. Sam La Roue, Jr.
Mr. Mitchell S. Green
Alma Jennings Foundation,
Federated Department Store
J.1, Kislak Foundation
John S. and James L. Knight
Leigh Foundation, Inc.
Lewis Family Foundation
Nina & Ivan Sein Family
Peacock Foundation, Inc.
Ryder System Charitable
The Mailman Foundation
The Ruth and August Geiger
Corporate Grand Benefactor
American Airlines, Inc.
Bank of America
First Union Foundation
Florida Power & Light
A-Dish Catering, Inc.
Bacardi Gifts & Promotions
Beber, Silverstein & Partners
Chart House Restaurant
Codina Real Estate
3 Points Paint & Body Shop
Al Insulation Conservation, Inc.
Adams, Gallinar, Iglesias &
Alexander All Suite Luxury Hotel
Alexander's Catering, Inc.
All Year Cooling Heating, Inc.
All-In-One Mail Shop
Andersen Consulting, LLP
Aquavations Sales &
Aircraft & Electric Motors, Inc.
Around The Clock A/C
Keen, Battle, Mead &
McArthur Farms, Inc.
Curbside Florist & Gifts, Inc.
Dadeland Towers South
Danil's Offset Printing
Fairchild Tropical Garden
Greenberg, Traurig, PA.
Greg Hark Phorographics
Holland & Knight
Hunton & Williams
Associated Printing Corp.
Borders Picture Framing
Brian L. Tannenbaum
Burell & Associates
Catering By David Lynn
Catering Shop, Inc.
Cerveza La Tropical
Chalet Suzanne Inn &
Charlie's Auto Glass, Inc.
Royal Caribbean Cruises, Ltd.
Southern Wine & Spirits
StarMedia Network, Inc.
The Strand at the Savoy Hotel
WKIS-FM 99.9 Country
National Distributing Co., Inc.
Norwegian Cruise Line, Ltd.
Sandals & Beaches Resorts
Steel, Hector & Davis
The Blue Lounge
Trial Graphics, Inc.
Velda Farms, LLC
City National Bank
Coconut Grove Bank
Codina Weeks Group
Comet Trucking, Inc.
Dade Amateur Golf Assoc.
Devine, Goodman & Wells, PA
Ms. Sherry Dickman, P.A.
Dr. Lloyd Wruble
Dynacoior Graphics, Inc.
Eagle Brands, Inc.
Emerald Tree Farm
List of Members 81
Emergency AC Services, Inc.
Falke Florida, Inc.
Fisher Island Country Club
Frames USA/Art Gallery
Gabor Insurance Services, Inc.
Gene's Catering Service
Gilbert's Bakery-Food Artisans
Greater Miami Convention &
Ground Turbine Technology
H.A. Contracting Corp.
H.D.S. Lighting, Inc.
Dr. Ronald Hagen
House of Walter
Holweger Development &
Improv Comedy Club & Cafe
Indian Creek Hotel
J.M. Till Metals Company, Inc.
John Saxon & Son, Inc.
Keg South of Kendall
Kelly Tractor Company
Active Electric of Florida, Inc.
Advanced Fitness Concepts
Advanced Roofing, Inc.
Aircraft Electric Motors Inc.
Akashi Japanese Restaurant
Amici's Gourmet Market
Art and Culture Center of
Arthur Murray Dance Studio
Arvo Annast Renovations &
Avant Garde Salon
Baleen Grove Isle
Behind the Fence B & B
Belleview Biltmore Resort & Spa
Best Roofing, Inc.
Best Western Oceanfront Resort
Kull's Gym & Fitness
Law Offices ofArturo Dopazo, III
M & M Backhoe
Mercedes Electric Supply, Inc.
Miccosukee Resort &
Morgan, Lewis & Bockius, LLP
Omni Business Consultants, Inc.
Party Caterers, Inc.
Pompeii Casual Furniture
Power Con of South Florida, Inc.
Rechtien International Trucks
Redbird Animal Hospital
Rosewood Caterers, Inc.
Barry Lawrence Ruderman,
Old Historic Maps & Prints
Salomon Smith Barney
Salamon, Kanner, Damian &
Sandy's Tree Delivery
Sanibel Harbour Resort & Spa
Sears Roebuck & Company
Shelton Security Service, Inc.
Blue Door at the Delano
Brasserie les Halles
Broadway Palm Theatre
Bubba Gump Shrimp Co.
Cafe Med of Miami
Cafe Tu Tu Tango
Caffe Da Vinci
Caldwell Theatre Company
CBIZ McClain &
Cheeky Monkey Restaurant
Chef Paul Prudhomm's
Magic Seasoning Blends
City of Coral Gables Parks &
Clarion Plaza Hotel Orlando
Coastal Refining &
Coconut Grove Playhouse
Shutts & Bowen, LLP
Sounds by DHM (Deep
Spot Coolers of Miami, Inc.
State Farm Insurance
Dr. Robert A. Sterling, DDS &
Dr. Craig A. Sterling, DMD
Strategic Energy Efficiency
Streicher Mobile Fueling, Inc.
The Green Turtle Basket
The Jupiter Beach Resort
The Lowell Dunn Company
The Perfect Party Place
The Stock Market
The Wallflower Gallery
Wampler Buchanan & Breen
Westin Key Largo Resort
Wild Oats South Beach
William R. Nash, Inc.
Zap Courier Services
Complete Fitness Personal
Courtyard by Marriott
David Williams Hotel
Days Inn Busch Gardens
Deering Bay Country Club
Dick's Last Resort
Doctor's Coffee Company
Don Shulas Hotel & Golf Club
DoubleTree Hotel in
Dynasty Apparel Industries, Inc.
Eden Roc Resort & Spa
El Diablo Golf and
El Portillo Beach Resort
Film Society of Miami, Inc.
Florida Marlins Baseball Club
Fort Lauderdale Marina
Four Queens Casino & Hotel
Four Seasons Hotel Las Vegas
Fresco California Bistro
Giancarlo Jewelry and Design
Golden Chic Catering
Graziano's Parilla Argentina
Grillfish of Coral Gables
H. & H. Jewels, Inc.
Hampton Inn & Suites
Havana Harry's Restaurant
Herlong Mansion Bed &
Howard Johnson Inn
Hughes Supply, Inc.
Hunter Crane, Inc.
IEA Management Services
International Museum of
Jackie Gleason Theater of the
Johnson & Wales University
Jr. Orange Bowl Committee
Jungle Queen Riverboat
Jurney & Associates
Kennedy Space Center Visitor
Key West Florist
Lan Pan Asian Restaurant
Leons Wine and Liquor Center
Li Inn Sleeps Bed & Breakfast
Lion Country Safari
Little Cajun Outpost
Lowe Art Museum
Magnolia Inn B & B1
Mango Inn Bed & Breakfast
Mangos Tropical Cafe
Mansion House B & B
Miami City Ballet
Miami Fusion .C.
Mirage Resort Vacations
Morikami Museum &
Mount Dora Historic Inn
Museum of Discovery and
Negril Tree House Resort
New Orleans Marriott
New World Symphony
Old Cutler Oyster Company
On the Banks of the Everglades
Ortanique on the Mile
Perricone's Marketplace & Cafe
Perry's Ocean-Edge Resort
PF Changs Bistro
Prezzo at the Falls
Radisson Mart Plaza Hotel-
Radisson Suite Inn Palm
Ramada Inn Lakeland
Ramada Plaza Hotel Getaway
Renovations & Painting, Inc.
Rex Artist Supply
Sailfish Marina & Resort
Sheraton West Palm Beach
Sheraton World Resort
Sir Galloway Dry Cleaners
Dr. Arthur Sitrin
Wayne A. Smith-Authur
Murray Dance Studio
Mr. Peter L. Bermont
Mr. James L. Davis
Mr. & Mrs. William A. Graham
Mr. & Mrs. William D. Soman
Mr. & Mrs. Robert H. Traurig
Sonesta Beach Resort
South Florida Golf Foundation
St. Francis Inn
State of the Art Fitness
Mr. Paul Stravinskas
Sunset Corner Liquors
Sweet Donna's Country Store
Temptrol Air Conditioning, Inc.
The Breakers Palm Beach
The Carolina Inn
The Cellar Club
The Cottage at Shadowbright
The Country Club of Miami
The Fitness Center
The Hanging Basket
The Ivey House
The Paint Box
The Rusty Pelican
The Whitelaw Hotel & Lounge
Theater of the Sea
Tints "N" More
Touch of Glamour Hair and
Triple A Cleaning Systems, Inc.
Verona House Bed & Breakfast
Veronica Gager-The Paint Box
Vizcaya Museum and Gardens
Walt Disney World Company
Edwin Watts-Golf Shop
Westchester Dental Office
Westview Country Club
Mr. James E. Whiddon, CPA
Wilco Electrical Contracting, Inc
Wild Oats The
World Golf Hall of Fame
Wyndham Miami Beach Resort
Yoga Institute of Miami
Zarabanda-A Private Club
List of Members 83
Mr. & Mrs. Allen G. Caldwell
Mr & Mrs. AahH Chapman, Jr
Mr. & Mrs. Edward S.
Mrs. Edna Cox
Miss Lamar Louise Curry
Mrs. Irene Erickson
Mr. Walter R. Ferguson
Dr. & Mrs. Joseph H. Fitzgerald
Mr. & Mrs. Bertram Goldsmith
Mr. & Mrs. Arnold L. Greenfield
Mr. & Mrs. R. Layton Mank
Mr. & Mrs. Finlay L. Matheson
Mrs. Betty McCrimmon
Mrs. Nancy McLamore
Mr. & Mrs. David Mesnekoff
Dr. & Mrs. John C.
Dr. & Mrs. Robert M.
Mr. & Mrs. Ted J. Pappas
Bob & Lyn Parks
Dr. & Mrs. T. Hunter Pryor, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Robert .
Mr. & Mrs. Gerald E. Toms
Mr. & Mrs. J. Calvin Winter
Ms. Jody M. Wolfe
Mrs. Robert ]. Woodruff Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. David Younrs
Dr. & Mr. Howard L. Zwibel
Mr. & Mrs. Carlton W Cole
Mr. & Mrs. Richard Fain
Mr. & Mrs. Jerrold E
Mr. & Mrs. Tom Huston, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Jay 1. Kislak
Ms. Cynthia Alberts
Mr. & Mrs. Michael W Battle
Mr. & Mrs. Robert B. Battle
Mr. Steve Becker
Mr. Benjamin Bohlmann &
Ms. Ellen Kanner
Ms. Beryl L. Cesarano
Ms. Cathy Coates
Dr. & Mrs. Albert J. Ehlert
Mr. Rick Covert
Mr. Karen D. Fink
Mr. & Mrs. Gregg P. Guilford
Mr. & Mrs. George R. Harper
Mr. Steve Hayworth
Mr & Mrs. Robert C. Hector, Jr.
Mr. Samuel D. La Rout, Jr.
Mrs. Kenneth R. Laurence
Mr. & Mrs. Jay W Lorspeich
Ms. Linda S. Lubitz, CFP
Mr. James C. Merrill, III
Mr. & Mrs. William T. Muir
Mr. & Mrs. Brent L. Helms
Mr. & Mrs. William Ho
Mr. & Ms. Charles Intriago
Mr. & Mrs. Lewis Kanner
Mr. & Mrs. Mark Karris
Mr. R. Kirk Landon
Mr. & Mrs. James ES. Leshaw
Ms. Patricia Lue
Dr. & Mrs. Thomas Mark
Mr. Bruce C. Matheson
Mr. & Mrs. Paul Neidhart
Ms. Karen J. Orlin
Dr. & Mrs. Edmund I. Parncs
Mr. Scott A. Poulin
Anna Price, Ph.D
Mr. & Mrs. Henry Norton
Mr. & Mrs. Preston L. Prevatt
Mr. & Mrs. George R.
Mr. & Mrs. David W Swedand
Mr. John W. Thatcher
Mr. & Mrs. William Rocker
Dr. & Mrs. Michael Rosenberg
Mr. Kenneth Sellati
Ms. Phyllis A. Shapiro
Ms. Kathleen M. Shaw
Mr. & Mrs. Brian Snyder
Mr. Arthur Stein
Mr. & Mrs. Alan W Steinberg
Ms. Lorraine Punancy-Stewart
Mr. & Mrs. Edward A. Swakon
Ms. Joan Williams
Mr. & Mrs. James A.
Mrs. Cicely L. Zeppa
Mr. & Mrs. Alvin Atlass
Mr. & Mrs. Stuart Block
Mr. Michael Carricarte
Mr. & Mrs. Alvin Cassel
Mr. George H. De Cation
Ms. Robin C. Dice
Dr. & Mrs. Lawrence M.
Ms. Pamela Garrison
Mr. & Mrs. Louis J. Hector
Mr. & Mrs. Howard Kleinbcrg
Mr. & Mrs. Dennis Lefebvre
Mr. & Mrs. Raul P Masvidal
Mr. Luis Maza
Mr. John H. McMinn
Ms. Sandra Milledge
Mr. Fred C. Newman
Ms. Betty Osborn
Mr. Stephen H. Reisman
Ruth & Richard Shack
Mr. & Mrs. Murray Sissehman
Dr. & Mrs. William M.
Dr. & Mrs. Michael B. Troner
Mr. & Mrs. Otis O.
Ms. Margery A. Abel
Mr. Leonard L. Abess, Sr.
Ms. Helen W. Adelman
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph A Aguilera
Mr. & Mrs. J. Harvey Alligood
Mr. Larry Apple &
Ms. Esther Perez
Mr. & Mrs. Leslie J. August
Mr. & Mrs. Ivan E. Ball
Mr. & Mrs. Michael A. Bander
Mr. & Mrs. John Bartosek
Mr. & Mrs. Charles H.
Mr. & Mrs. Gregory Bellamy
Mr. & Mrs. Richard B. Bermont
Ms. Jacquelyn Biggane
Dr. & Mrs. Harvey Blank
Mr. & Mrs. Luis J. Borifoll
Mr. & Mrs. Mark Buchbinder
Dr. & Mrs. Robert J. Carbonell
Dr. & Mrs. Chiliano E. Casal
Dr. & Mrs. Wayne H. Case
Mr. & Mrs. Don Caster
Mr. & Mrs. Pedro Castillo
Charlotte Harbor Area
Mr. Richard P. Cole
Mr. & Mrs. William H. Collins
Ms. Amy Cox
Mrs. Patricia Crow
Mr. Roger B. Davis
Mr. Gary Dellapa
Mr. & Mrs. John Devine
Mr. & Mrs. J. Leonard
Dr. & Mrs. Leonidas W.
Mr. Richard Duffy &
Ms. Isabel Lopez
Ms. Beth Dunworth
Ms. Debra Duranr-Schoendorf
The Hon. Joe O. Eaton &
Mrs. Patricia Eaton
Mrs. James C. Ellenburg
Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Dr, & Mrs. Robert Feltman
Mrs. Audrey Finkelstein
Dr. & Mrs. J.M Fitzgibbon
Mr. & Mrs. Bruce Foersler
Mr. Richard E. Ford
Ms. Fanny Fraynd
Mr. William Freeman
Mr. & Mrs. Philip Freidin
Mr. & Mrs. Doug Gallagher
Mr. & Mrs. Robert E.
Mr. & Mrs. Tomas F. Gamba
Mr. & Mrs. Donald E Gardner
Mr. & Mrs. Arthur Goldberg
Sue Searcy Goldman
Mr. & Mrs. Martin B.
Mr. & Mrs. Reed Gordon
Mr. & Mrs. Richard Gossett
Mrs. Carol-Jane Gottfried
Ms. Helen R. Grier
Mr. & Mrs. Phil Guerra
Mr. & Mrs. Robert D. Guthrie
Mr. & Mrs. Edward P.
Mrs. Martha R. Haas
Mr. & Mrs. Charles Hammond
Ms. Klara Hauri
Mr. & Mrs. Robert C.
Ms. Anne E, Helliwell
Mr. & Mrs. Arthur Hemmings
Mr. Arthur H. Hertz
Mr. & Mrs. James C. Hobbs, II
Mr. & Mrs. Ray N. Hunt
Mr. & Mrs. Dan Hutton
Dr. & Mrs. Francisco Izaguirre
Mrs. Marilyn Jacobs
Mr. Juan Jimenez
Mr. & Mrs. Francis T. Kain
Mrs. Betsy H. Kaplan
Ms. Susanne Kayyali
Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth E
Mr. & Mrs. Earl R. Knowles
Mr. & Mrs. Irvin Korach
Mr. & Mrs. Irving Kreisberg
Mr. & Mrs. Franklin D.
Mr. & Mrs. Ralph E. Lambrecht
Mr. & Mrs. Michael Lamphear
Dr. & Mrs. Roswell E. Lee, Jr.
Ms. Judy Loft
Mr. & Mrs. Cesar Lopez
Dr. & Mrs. Anthony P.
Mr. Arnold C. Matteson
Mr. W. Sloan McCrea
Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Mr. & Mrs. Jack McQuale
Mr. Oscar Mederos
Mr. S. Randall Merritt
Mr. & Mrs. Howard A. Mesh
Mr. & Mrs. Arsenio Milian
Mr. & Mrs. Fawdrey A. Molt
Mrs. Claire W. Mooers
Mr. Gerald W. Moore
Mr. Stephen J. Moorman
Mr. & Mrs. George L. Morar
Dr. & Mrs. Michael Moses
Dr. Mervin H. Needell &
Dr. Elaine F Needell
Mrs. Mary Jo Nimnicht &
Mr. Randy F Nimnicht
Mr. Bryan Norcross
Mr. & Mrs. Drew Orye
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph Pallot
Ms. Barbara J. Parker
The Hon. Ray Pearson &
Mrs. Georgia Pearson
Mr. & Mrs. Galo Perez
Mr. & Mrs. Roderick N. Petrey
Mr. Allan Phillips
Mr. & Mrs. John C. Pistorino
Mr. & Mrs. Bernard Plotkin
Ms. Eva-Lynn M. Powell
Mr. Douglas J. Pracher
Mr. & Mrs. George Prochaska
Mr. J. David Puga
Mr & Mrs. Raul L. Rodriguez
Dr. & Mrs. Theodore Sarafoglu
Mr. & Mrs. Michael Scheck
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Schloss
Ms. Martha M. Scott
Ms. Phyllis L. Segor
Mr. Frank Shumway
Mr. & Mrs. Donald Slesnick, II
Mr. & Mrs. Manuel Sola
Mr. & Mrs. Neal R. Sonnett
Mr. & Mrs. Robert P Soper
Mr. & Mrs. Theodore Spak
Mr. Joseph B. Spence
Mr. & Mrs. James P. Spillis
Ms. Edeane W. Stirrup
Mrs. William G. Story
Ms. Jean M. Thorpe
Mr. & Mrs. Eugene Threadgill
Mr. Coleman Travelstead &
Ms. Brookes McIntyre
Mrs. Roberta H. Turner
Dr. & Mrs. Alfred H.
Mrs. Jane Van Denend
Mr. Pedro L. Velar
Mr. & Mrs. Carl D. Ward
Mr. & Mrs. Tom Weller
Mr. & Mrs. David Weston
Mr. & Mrs. Michael J. Whalin
Mrs. Gaines R. Wilson
Mrs. Peyton L. Wilson
Mr. Paul C. Wimbish
Ms. Pauline Winick
Mr. Mitchell Wolfson, Jr.
Ms. Edna Wolkowsky
List of Members 85
Mrs. Warren C. Wood, Sr.
Dr. Ronald K. Wright &
Ms. Judith A. Hunt
Mr, & Mrs. Stuart S. Wyllie
Mr. & Mrs. Stefan H.
Mr, & Mrs. Andrew Albury
Mr. & Mrs. Charles Allen
Mr. & Mrs. Jeffrey A.
Mr. Harry D. Bavly
Mr. & Mrs. Steve Benson
Mr. & Ms. Harvey Bilt
Ms. Patricia Birch Blanco
Mr. & Mrs. Daniel T. Brady
Mr. & Mrs. Jack N. Brown
Ms. Lillian Conesa
Mrs. Denise Corbitt
Dr. & Mrs. Maurice Downs
Ms. Gayle Doyle
Mr. Miguel A. Germain
Mr. Peter J. Bagrationoff
Ms. Allison Banks &
Mr. Ryan Neve
Mr. & Mrs. Patrick T. Battle
Ms. Kathy Beder &
Mr. William Haskins
Mr. Michael Beeman &
Mr. Paul Beeman
Mr. Juan Carlos Bermudez
Mr. & Ms. Mitchell A.
Dr. & Mrs. Ricardo Blonder
Mr. & Mrs. John Bolton
Mr. & Mrs. Charles L.
Matthew & Kimberlee Cole
Mr. John Colvard &
Mrs. Sabrina Shafer Colvard
Mr. & Mrs. Hunt Davis
Ms. Stephanie Demos &
Mr. Christopher Brown
Mr. & Mrs. Daniel D.
Dr. & Mrs. William H.
Mr. & Mrs. Philip R.
Mr. & Mrs. David Ferris
Mr. Jeremy H. Finer
Dr. & Mrs. Andreas Fischer
Dr. & Mrs. Luis H. Fonseca
Mrs. Gretchen Garren &
Mr. Troy Avera
Mr. & Mrs. William
Mrs. Edward G. Grafton
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Hudson, Jr.
Mr, & Mrs. James R Jorgenson
Mr. & Mrs. Ralph A. Juncosa
Mr. & Mrs. C.M. Keppie
Mr. Chuck McCarrney
Mr. & Mrs. Stuart B. Mclver
Mr. & Mrs. Christopher Mooers
Mr. & Mrs. David M. Morris
Mr. Theodore R. Nelson
Mr. & Mrs. Samuel Oroshnik
Mr. & Mrs. David Owen
Mr. & Mrs. John Perez
Mr. & Mrs. Jose Gonzalez
Ms. Maria Gonzalez-Cerra &
Mr. Shishir Sheth
Mr. Harold H. Gordon
Ms. Jill Granat
Ms. Sarah L. Halberg
Mr. & Mrs. Kent D. Hamill
Mr. & Mrs. G. D. Harper
Ms. Lucinda A. Hofmann &
Mr. William T. McCauley
Mr, & Mrs. William H. Holly
Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth Hughs
Ms. Claire Jordi
Mr. & Mrs. Donald King
Mr. & Mrs. David Kirsten
Dr. & Mrs. Samuel Kohlenberg
Mr. & Mrs. Victor J. La
Mr. David Lammerding &
Mr. Frank Kruszewski
Mr. & Mrs. Calvin J. Landau
Ms. Keith W. Landon &
Mr. Robert Landon
Mr. & Mrs. Luis Lubian
Mark & Isabelle Lunt
Dr. & Mrs. Michael Mahaffey
Mr. & Mrs. Brian J.
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Martin
Ms. Janeau C. McKee-Vega &
Mr. Javier Vega
Mr. Alberto Menendez &
Ms. Maria Santovenia
Mr, & Mrs. A James Regan, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Roy E. Schoen
Mr. & Mrs. Warren S. Schwartz
Ms. Abbie H. Shouse
Mr. & Mrs. Arthur Siegel
Mr. & Mrs. Gerald Silverman
Mr. & Mrs. Saul H. Silverman
Dr. & Mrs. Lawrence Singer
Mrs. Ethel H. Sottile
Mr. & Mrs. James B.
Ms. Jo Wilder
Mr. & Mrs. Levys E. Zangronis
Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence J.
Mr. Ralph Miles &
Mrs. Helen O'Quinn Miles
Mr. & Mrs. Christopher Moon
Mr. & Mrs. Charles Munroe
Mr. & Mrs. Frank O. Nichols
Mr. Douglas O'Keefe &
Ms. Alison Gunn O'Keefe
Ms. Michelle Pivar &
Mr. Jack Barr
Mr. & Mrs. Peter Raffalski
Mr. & Mrs. Randolph Reich
Mr. & Mrs. John C.
Ms. Paige A. Roden
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Roman
Mr. Christopher Rose
Dr. & Mrs. Eugenio M.
David & Chelin Sampedro
Ms. Adriana Sanchez &
Mr. Edward Reboil
Dr. Stephen Sapp &
Dr. Mary Sapp
Mr. Pat Schuh & Ms. Karina
Mr. & Mrs. Will Sekoff
Mr. & Mrs. Keith Sharkey
Mrs. Genie Shayne
Mr. Blair Sibley
Mr. & Mrs. Dave Sluszka
Mr. & Mrs. Alex Soto
Ms. Judith Squillante &
Mr. Robert Palacios
Mr. Michael Strahm &
Ms. Paula Brandao
Mr. & Mrs. Alan Troop
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph P Adams
Ms. Beverly Agee &
Mr. Donald Cook
Mr, & Mrs. Armando
Mr. & Mrs. Herbert E.
Mr. & Mrs. Jesus Alvarez
Mr. Enrique Amador &
Ms. Fany Aleman
Mr. & Mrs. John S. Ammarell
Mr. Craig Anderson & Mrs.
Mr. & Mrs. Duane Anderson
Mr. & Mrs. Greg Anderson
Ms. Rosa M. Andreu
Mr. & Mrs. Tim Andrews
Mr. & Mrs. Theodore Andros
Ms. Rosita Angeli & Mr. Jim
Mr. & Mrs. Ted Arch
Mr. Anthony Armaly
Mr. & Mrs. Mike Arnold
Ms. Bonnie Askowitz
Mr. & Mrs. B.G. Atchison
Mrs. C. Clyde Atkins
Ms. Debbie Bacarella
Mr. & Mrs. John Bachay
Mr. & Mrs. David R. Baker
Mr. & Mrs. John W. Baker
Mr. & Mrs. Leonard A. Baker
Mr. & Mrs. Scott Baker
Ms. Carolann W. Baldyga
Mr. & Mrs. Rod C. Ball
Mr. John Ballou & Ms. Leila
Mr. & Mrs. Charles W. Bare
Mr. & Mrs. James W. Barfield
Mr. & Mrs. Harold P. Barkas
Mr. & Mrs. Paul J. Barko
Ms. Beverly Barnett Allen
Mr. & Mrs. Michael Barrett
Dr. & Mrs. James W Barrow
Mrs. Dorie Barton
Dr. & Mrs. Robert T. Bass
The Rev. Betty Batey
Mr. & Mrs. Timothy A. Battle
Mr. & Mrs. Joe Bauer
Mr. & Mrs. Gary L.
Mr. & Mrs. Allen M. Beck
Ms. Susana Behar
Mr. Luis A. Uriarte, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Howard Watson
Mr. & Mrs. Juan Werner
Dr. & Mrs. S. Z. Beiser
Mr. & Mrs. Charles E Belmont
Mr. & Mrs. Randy C. Berg, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. David M.
Mr. & Mrs. Bruce Bernstein
Mr. & Mrs. Ronald Bernstein
Mr. & Mrs. Ray Berrin
Dr. Judith Berson &
Mr. Steven Levinson
Mr. & Mrs. Patrick Bey
Mrs. Florence Birch
Mr. & Mrs. Anthony J.
Dr. & Mrs. Alan Bisno
Mr. William Bjorkman &
Ms. Pam Winter
Mr. & Mrs. David M.
Mr. & Mrs. AceJ. Blackburn, Sr.
Ms. Carol Blades & Mr. John
Ms. June F. Blair
Mr. & Mrs. Jose M. Blanco
Ms. Nance E. Blattner
Mr. & Mrs. Ted R. Blue, Jr.
Ms. Carmen Bofili &
Ms. Marianna Romero
Mr. Samuel J. Boldrick
Ms. Barbara Bonner
Mr. Thomas Boswell &
Ms. Anne Freemont
Mr. & Mrs. William H.
Dr. & Mrs. Russell Boyd, DDS
Ms, Margaret Bradley Davis
& Mr. Joe Richards
Mr, & Mrs. Kenneth E.
Mr. & Mrs. William M. Breese
Mrs. Margurite Brewer Fox
Mr. & Mrs. J. Andrew Brian
Mr. & Mrs. Harry Brion
Mr. & Mrs. Douglas C.
Mr. & Mrs. David Bronstein
Ms. Nancy Brook
Mr. & Mrs. Lester 1. Brookner
Mr. Jeffrey P. Brosco
Mr. James Broton
Ms. Susan Browman
Mr. & Mrs. Bradford E. Brown
Mr. & Mrs. Jeffrey Williamson
Mr. Mario Yanez & Mrs. Sara
Dr. Harvey Brown &
Dr. Marjorie Brown
Ms. Kathy Brown
Ms. Marjorie L. Brown
Mr. & Mrs. Sandy Brown
Ms. Stephanie Brown
Mr. & Mrs. E.R. Brownell
Dr. & Mrs. Thomas Bruce
Mr. & Mrs. John M.
Mr. & Mrs. Robert P. Bryant
Mrs. Evelyn J. Budde
Mr. & Mrs. Jean E. Buhler
Ms. Sandy Burnett &
Mr. Worth Auxier
Mr. & Mrs. Sam Burton
Mr. David Butt &
Dr. Prudence Butt
Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence W.
Mr. & Mrs. Felipe Calderon
Mr. & Mrs. Edward Calt
Mr. & Mrs. Scott Calta
Mr. & Mrs. Wilfredo Calvino
Mr. & Mrs. Billy Cameron
Mr. John J. Campbell
Robert Campbell & Ruth
Mr. & Mrs. Hilario Candela
Mr. & Mrs. Jesus Carmenate
Dr, & Mrs. Thomas Carroll
Mr. & Mrs. Charlie Carter
Mr. & Mrs. Robert B. Cast
Mr. Frank Castro &
Ms. Nora Wetzstein
Ms. Sharon Cauvin
Ms. Laraine Cavallo
Mrs. Helen Chadwell
Dr. & Mrs. Arthur E.
Mr. & Mrs. John S. Chowning
Mr. Jose E. Cil, Esq.
Mr. & Mrs. James K. Clark
Ms. Lydia S. Clark
Mr. Peter Clayton &
Mrs. Ann Clayton
Ms. Carol Clothier &
Ms. Lorraine Hahn
Dr. Armando E Cobelo
Mr. & Mrs. Louis Coburn
Ms. Tessie Coello &
Mr. Pedro Doimeadios
List of Members
Mr. & Mrs. Ronald E Cold
Mr. & Mrs. Philip Cole
Mr. & Mrs. Emiiio Colleja
Mr. & Mrs. Jim Colson
Ms. Diane M. Congdon
Dr. & Mrs. James W Conley
Mrs. Leona Cooper &
Ms. Clarice Cooper
Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Mr. & Mrs. Barton Corredera
Mr. Hal Corson & Mrs. Gerri
Mr. Carlos Cortada
Ms. Christin Croci
Mrs. John E. Culmer
Mr. Charles D. Cunningham
Mr. Donald W. Curl
Ms. Jean Cuson
Mr, & Mrs. Edward Daniel
Mr. & Mrs. Christopher
Mr. & Mrs. Edward H.
Mr. & Mrs. John R. Davis
Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence Davis
Mr. & Mrs. William 1.. Davis
Ms. Marguerite Dawson
Mr. & Mrs. Richard A. De
Dr. Leonel A. de la Cuesta
Ms. Elaine E De Leonardis
Mr. & Mrs. Robert W.
Ms. Nora Denslow & Mr. Jeff
Mr & Mrs. Floy B. Denton
Mr. & Mrs. Hunting E
Ms. Donna Dial & Mr. Art
Ms. Carol Diaz-Castro
Ms. Yvonne M. Dierrich
Mr. & Mrs. Alan H.
Mr. & Mrs. Frank Donovan
Ms. Donna Dowling Gilbert
& Mrs. Lola Dowling
Ms. Carol E. Drozdowicz
Mrs. Faye Dugas
Mr. & Mrs. Don Duncanson
Ms. Barbara Dundee
Mr. & Mrs. F Sennett
Mrs. John E. Duvall
Mr. & Mrs. Andrew Earle
Mr. Jorge Echenique
Mr. & Mrs. James M. Eckhart
Mr. Steve Edelstein
Mr. & Mrs. Remo Egloff
Mrs. Susan Elson Price
Dr. Ralph Engle & Dr. Mary
Mr. & Mrs. Irving R. Eyster
Mr. & Mrs. Charles E.
Dr. & Mrs. Alfred Feingold
Mr. & Mrs. Jose Ignacio
Mr. & Mrs. C.S.B Field
Mr. & Mrs. Glenn Firestone
Sue & Ray Fisher
Mr. & Mrs. Dan Fitzgerald
Ms. Angeles Fleites
Mr. & Mrs. Edward T. Foote
Mr. & Mrs. Ron Forester
Mr. & Mrs. Harry Forgan
Mr. & Mrs. Dwight E. Frazier
Mr. & Mrs. Stephen Freeman
Miss Arlene R. Freicr
Mr. & Mrs. Richard E. Friberg
Mr. Milton A. Fried
Mr. David Frum
Ms. Olive Frye
Mr. & Mrs. Ron Gabor
Mr. & Mrs. Donald C. Gaby
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Gale
Ms. Cina Gallian &
Ms. Barbara Gallian
Mr. & Mrs. Larry Galloway
Mr. & Mrs. Arnold B.
Mr. & Mrs. Gabriel Ganales
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph H.
Ms. Evelyn & Ms. Arlyn Garcia
Ms. Lortie Garcia &
Mr. Richard Hurtig
Dr. & Mrs. Victor M. Garcia
Mrs. Dolores Garca Gutierrez
& Mr. Isaac Gutierrez
Mr. & Mrs. Peter B. Garvett
Mr. Harold Gelber & Ms. Pat
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Gelberg
Dr. & Mrs. Paul S. George
Ms. Joan Gerber & Ms. Carol
Dr. Paul U. Gerber, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. John Gillan
Mr. & Mrs. Manuel Gimenez
Ms. Julie Givens
Mr. & Mrs. John Gladstone
Mr. & Mrs. Neal Glenn
Mr. & Mrs. Franklyn B.
Mr. & Mrs. Sig M. Glukstad
Mr. & Mrs. Peter N. Glynn
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Goeser
Mr. & Mrs. Harold Goldberg
Mr. & Ms. Richard Goldsmith
Mr. & Mrs. Seymour
Mr. & Mrs. Andres Gonzalez
Mr. & Mrs. Jorge Gonzalez
Mr. Juan O. Gonzalez
Mr. Juan Carlos Gonzalez
Mr. & Mrs. Manuel G.
Mr. & Mrs. Benjamin E
Mr. Ken Goodman
Ms. Diane Goswick-Fishman
Dr. & Mrs. Richard Gottlieb
Mr. & Mrs. Henry A. Grady
Mr. & Mrs. Barry N.
Mr. & Mrs. Jerry Grey
The Rev. & Mrs. Robb Grimm
Mr. & Mrs. Carl Grozan
Mr. & Mrs. George C.
Ms. Mary Guarani
Ms. Carol Guzman
Mr. Stephen F Hackley
Mr. & Mrs. Earl V Hagood, IV
Mr. & Mrs. Charles Hall
Mr. & Mrs. Frank D. Hall
Mr. & Mrs. John Hall
Mr. Earl Hallam
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Halley
Mr. Thomas L. Hambright
Mr. & Mrs. Bill Hamilton
Mr. James Hamilton
Ms. Lucy H. Hanafourde &
Mr. Bradley K. Hanafourde
Ms. Susan Hangge &
Mr. David Collings
Mr. & Mrs. Ronald Hanna
Mr. Frederick H. Harrington
Mrs. Carol W Harrison
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph J. Hatron
Mr. & Mrs. Maurice B. Hawa
Mr. Ron Hawkins
Mr. & Mrs. James Hayes
Mr. & Mrs. W. Hamilton
Mr. & Mrs. Charles R.
Mr. Richard Hernandez
Mr. & Mrs. W. Warfield
Mr. & Mrs, Ron Hill
Mr. & Mrs. Jack Hodus
Dr. & Mrs. William Hoffman
Mr. & Ms. Neal Holmes
Mr. Larry Hopkins &
Mrs. Susan B. Hopkins
Mr. & Mrs. James A. Horland
Dr. Laurie R. Householder
Mr. & Mrs. George Hudson
Mr. Jack Hunter
Ms. Karen Hunrer-Reno
Dr. & Mrs. James J. Hutson
Mr. & Mrs. James Hutton
Mr. & Mrs. Kennerh J. Hynes
Mr. & Mrs. Art Ingram
Dr. & Mrs. George L. Irvin, III
Mr. Charles Iselin &
Ms. Helen Decora
Ms. Shirley A. Jackson
Dr. & Mrs. William T. Jackson
Mr. & Mrs. Richard Jacobs
Dr. & Mrs. George Jacobson
Mr. & Mrs. James R. James
Mr. Richmond A. James, Jr.
Mr. Dean Jamieson
Mr. James L. Jensen
Mr. & Mrs. John Jensen
Mr. & Mrs. Lester R Johnson
Mr. & Mrs. Lyle Johnson
Dr. & Mrs, Stanley Jonas
Mr. & Mrs. Albert Jones
Mr. & Mrs. Daniel C. Jones
Ms. Laura Jones &
Mr. Graham Jones
Dr. & Mrs. J.R. Jude
Mr. & Mrs. John E. Junkin, III
Ms. Zoila Kale
Capt. & Mrs. Kit S. Kapp
Ms. Ann Kashmer &
Mr. Lee Price
Mr. & Mrs. William A. Kaynor
Mrs. Barbara P. Keller &
Mrs. Fannie P. Reid
Mr. & Mrs. Patrick Kelly
Dr. John Kemeney &
Ms. Bobbye Shearer
Mr. Harold E. Kendall
Mr. Frederick J. Kent
Dr. & Mrs. Norman M. Kenyon
Dr. & Mrs. Kenneth Keusch
Mr. Al A. Key
Mr. Neal S. Keys
Mr. & Mrs. Timothy Kimmons
Mr. & Mrs. Randy King
Mr. & Mrs. Rodney King
Mayor Mitchell Kinzer &
Mrs. Regan Kinzer
Ms. Deborah Klein &
Mr. Paul Pergakis
Mr. & Mrs. C. Frasuer Knight
Mr. Homer W Knowles
Ms. Kerry Kolsch
Mr. & Mrs. John Kostelak
Ms. Mieko Kubora
Mr. Bob Kulpa
Mr. & Mrs. David E. Lair
Mr. & Mrs. John Lake
Mr. & Mrs. Mark Lamb
Dr. Laura Lambert &
Ms. Lucia Lopez
Ms. Sandy Lane
Mrs. Joan Langley
Mr. Peter Lara & Mrs. Mimi
Ms. Linda Lasch & Mr. L.
Ms. Melody Latham
Mr. Adam Lawrence &
Ms. Bonnie Daniels
Mr. & Mrs. David Lawrence
Mr. & Mrs. Mark Leckband
Mr. Michael Lederberg &
Ms. Linda Barocas
Ms. Ann Lee
Mr. & Mrs. Robert W Lee
Mr. & Mrs. Terry R. Lee
Mr. Richard Lehman &
Mr, Scott McLaughlin
Mr. Manuel Leon
Mr. & Mrs. Sidney Levin
Dr, Harold Levine
Dr. & Mrs. Richard Levitt
Mr. & Mrs, Thomas Lewis
Mr. Lawrence A. Liggett
Mr. & Mrs. Bernard R.
Mr, & Mrs. Leigh Livesay
Mr. Don R. Livingsrone
Ms. Frady Llerena
Mr. & Mrs. Tom Logue
Mr. & Mrs. Joe Longo
Mr, & Mrs. Carlos J. Lopez
Mr. & Mrs. Rafael T. Lorie
Mr. & Mrs. James Love
Mrs. Nereida Lowery
Mr. Howard Lubel &
Ms. Rose Flynn
Mr. & Mrs. Philip E Ludovici
Dr. & Ms. William Ludwig
Mr. Jack Luft & Ms. Perla
Ms. Kathryn R. Lynn
Mr. & Mrs. Richard Lynn
Mr. & Mrs. James K. MacAvoy
Mr. & Mrs. Alexander C.
Ms. Valerie MacLaren
Mr. & Mrs. Norman L Madan
Dr. & Mrs. Bruce Mahaffey
Mr. & Mrs. Philip J. Mank, Jr.
Dr. & Mr. Arnold R. Mannis
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Mark
Dr. & Mrs. Michael E.
Mr. & Mrs. Gerry Marston
Major & Mrs. J. William
Mr. Robert Martinez
Mr. & Mrs. Alberto
Mr. & Mrs. Jerry Mashhurn
Mr. & Mrs. Parks Masterson
Mr. Finlay B. Matheson
Mr. Thomas C. Maxwell
Mr. John Maxwell McKenzie
Mr. & Mrs. John A. Mayo
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas E
Dr. & Mrs. Donald
Mr. & Ms. John McCready, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. David McDonald
Mr. J. Gordon McDonald
Mr. & Mrs. Michael E
Mr. Brian McGuinness &
Ms. Linda Koenigsberg
Mr. & Mrs. Charles E McKay
Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Dr. & Mrs. Robert A.
Mr. Alejo Menendez &
Ms. Susanne Ragnarsson
Dr. George Metcalf &
Dr. Elizabeth Metcalf
Mr. & Mrs. Jack L. Meyer
Mr. & Mrs. Addison J. Meyers
Mr. & Mrs. Donald Michelson
Mr. Darrell Miles &
Ms. Linda Nelms
Dr. & Mrs. Max Millard
Mr. & Mrs. Aristides J. Millas
Mr. & Mrs. Edward Miller
Mr. & Mrs. H. Dale Miller, Jr.
Mr. Robert C. Miller
Mr. & Mrs. William J. Miller
Mr. & Mrs. Frank J. Millero
Mr. Sanford B. Miot
Ms. Nanci B. Mitchell &
Mr. Simon Taylor
Mr. & Mrs. Larry Mizrach
Mr. & Mrs. Lloyd L. Moeller
Dr. Barbara Moller
The Hon. & Mrs. Joseph
Mrs. & Mrs. Charles H.
Mr. & Mrs. William Moore
Mr. & Mrs. Santiago D.
List of Members 89
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph P Morgan
Mr. & Mrs. Theodore
Mr. Ivan Muguercia &
Ms. Tanza Ross
Mr. & Mrs. Charles P
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph T Munroe
Mr. Rene Murai, Esq.
Mr. & Mrs. Scott Nadelman
Mr. & Mrs. Sheldon Nadelman
Dr. Thomas A. Natiello
Mr. & Mrs. Paul Neidhart
Ms. Barbara Neil Young &
Mr. Robert Huff
Mr. Burnham S. Neill &
Mrs. Mildred C. Neill
Mr. & Mrs. Richard E
Mr. & Mrs. Sam Normandia
Mr. & Mrs. Sandy Nusbaum
Mr. & Mrs. Cesar Odio
Mr. & Mrs. Bob Oliver
Mr. & Mrs. Lynne Olsen
Dr. & Mrs. George
Ms. Diana E. Orgaz
Mr. W. James Orovitz
Ms. Patricia Owen & Dr.
Mr. Manny Palgon & Ms.
Mr. & Mrs. Leslie V. Pandn, Jr.
Dr. & Mrs. Emanuel M.
Mr. & Mrs. Richard Parcell
Mr. & Mrs. Orlando Paredes
Ms. Janet Parker &
Mr. David Mycko
Robin & Judy Parker
Ms. Marcia Pawley &
Ms. Anita Pawley
Ms. Idania Pazos Garcia &
Mr. Cuillermo Garcia
Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence A.
Ms. Charlene Peacon
Mr. & Mrs. William A. Pena
Mr. John D. Pennekamp, Jr.
Mr. Bernabe Perez
Mr. & Mrs. Jorge E Perez
Mr. & Mrs. Rafael Perez
Mrs. Jean Perwin & Mr. Joel
Ms. Terry Petrir
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas E.
Ms. Paula Pines
Mr. & Mrs. Paul Plorkin
Mr. & Mrs. Ramon E. Poo
Ms. Jeanette Poole
Mr. & Mrs. Budd Post
Mr. Jim Post
Mr. & Mrs. Alfred H. Powell
Mr. & Mrs. Anthony Prado, Jr.
Mr. Juan Manuel Prado
Dr. & Mrs. Eugene E Provenzo
Mr. Peter T. Pruitt
Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Mr. & Mrs. Herbert S.
Mr. & Mrs. Sam Rabin
Mr. & Mrs. Constantine
Mr. & Mrs. Jeff Raines
Dr. & Mrs. Salvador M.
Mr. & Mrs. David Ramras
Mr. & Mrs. William G.
Mr. & Mrs. William W
Mr. & Mrs. Stuart M. Rapee
Mr. & Mrs. Bernard
Dr. Alan S. Rapperport
Mr. & Mrs. Bob Rariner
Dr. & Mrs. Philip J. Reckford
Mr. Paul Reinarman
Mr. & Mrs. Charles Reisinger
Dr. Kenneth Relyea &
Dr. Tamela Relyea
The Hon. Janec Reno
Mr. & Mrs. Lewis M. Ress
Mr. Jay Reubert
Ms. Xiomara Reyes
Mrs. D.E. Richards
Mr. Matthew J. Ridgely
Mr. & Mrs. Norman C.
Mr. & Mrs. Karsten A. Rist
Mr. & Mrs. Patrick Roach
Mr. & Mrs. Robert E. Roache
Mr. & Mrs. Rafael L.
Dr. & Mrs. James A. Robb
Mr. & Mrs. William R.
Dr. & Mrs. E.G. Robertson
Mr. & Mrs. Neil P. Robertson
The Hon. Steven D.
Mr. & Mrs. Pedro 1. Roca
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph Rodrigues
Mr. & Mrs. Manuel J.
Mr. & Mrs. Victor Rodriguez
Mr. & Mrs. Laurence J.
Mr. & Mrs. Keith Root
Mr. & Mrs. Mack Roper
Mr. Mario Roque de Escohar
D. & A. Rosario
Mr. & Mrs. Alec Rosen
Mr. Paul Rosen
Mr. & Mrs. Stanley Rosenblatt
Mr. & Mrs. Louis Rosenthal
Mr. & Mrs. Jeffrey Rosinek
Mr. & Mrs. Stanley E. Ross
Mr. & Mrs. Jeffrey C. Roth
The Rev. Jacquelyn Rowe
Mr. & Mrs. Howard
Mr. Michael A. Rubin
Dr. & Mrs. Howard A.
Mr. & Mrs. Mat Russ
Mr. & Mrs. Jose Saavedra
Mr. & Mrs. Charles E Sacher
Mr. & Mrs. Herbert Saffir
Mr. & Mrs. Bert Sager
Dr. & Mrs. Gerard Sais
Mr. & Mrs. A.A. Sakhnovsky
Mr. & Mrs. Richard Sanchez
Mr. Nick Sand
Mrs. Ellen M. Sanford
Mr. & Mrs. Ed Santos
Ms. Becky S. Schaffer
Mr. & Mrs. Leo Scherker
The Hon. Judge Eleanor
Mr. Michael Schotr
Mr. & Mrs. Allan Schwartz
Mr. & Mrs. Philip Schwartz
Mr. & Mrs. James H. Scott
Ms. Kathy A. Scott & Mr.
Dr. & Mrs. Daniel Seckinger
Mr. & Mrs. Ivan Selin
Ms. Lois A. Serafini
Ms. Nimia Serrano
Mr. & Mrs. John Shapiro
Ms. Sandy Sharp &
Mr. Stuart Newman
Ms. Tamra Sheffman &
Mr. Ron Mayer
Mr. & Mrs. David Sherman
The Hon. Judge &
Mrs. Robert Shevin
Dr. & Mrs. Robert W
Ms. Marilyn Shrater
Mr. & Mrs. Whit Sidener
Ms. Kimberly Silfies
Mr. & Mrs. Richard Silver
Mr. & Mrs. Glen Simmons
Mr. Jose Simonet &
Ms. Rema Comras
Mr. & Mrs. Charles M.
Ms. Holly Simpson
Mr. & Mrs. Howard W. Sims
Dr. & Mrs. Joseph A. Singer
Mr. Rudolph Singh &I
Ms. Sonia Rivera
Mr. & Mrs. Ted C. Slack
Mr. & Mrs. Michael C.
Mr, & Mrs. Bill Smart
Dr. & Mrs. Karl Smiley
Mr. & Mrs. Donald C. Smith
Mr. & Mrs. Lee D. Smith
Mr. & Mrs. McGregor
Mr. & Mrs. James M.
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Snook
Dr. & Mrs. Selig D. Snow
Dr. & Mrs. Gilbert
Mr. & Mrs. Larry R. Snyder
Mr. & Mrs. Cesar J. Sotelo
Mr. & Mrs. Edward Soto
Mr. & Mrs. Jose Sotolongo
Mr. & Mrs. Carlos Souffront
Mr. & Mrs. Carl A. Spatz
Mr. & Mrs. Martin Spector
Mr. James M. Stamps &
Ms. Ami Keslov
Dr. & Mrs. L.M. Stanfill
Mrs. Mary Stanley &
Mr. Donald Stanley
Mr. Ronald Stearns &
Ms. Marlene Negrin
Mr. Axel Stein
Dr Elliott Stein &
Dr. Shayna Stein
Mr. & Mrs. John Steinbauer
Mr. & Mrs. Adolph Sreinhauer
Mr. & Mrs. Robert A. Stern
Mr. Christopher Stetser
Ms. Debby Stewart
Mr. Ed Stidve & Mr. Otto Paler
Mr. & Mrs. Fred Stockhausen
Dr. & Mrs. G.J. Stocks, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas J. Stokes
Ms. Terri Abril
Mr. Robertson Adams
Mr. Luis Alegre
Ms. Corina M. Alvarez
Mr. Hugo Alvarez
Mr. & Mrs. Saul Strachman
Dr. & Mrs. Thomas B. Strozier
Dr. & Mrs. Theodore Struhl
Mr. & Mrs. Morton D.
Mr. Jose A. Suarez
Mr. Ray S. Sullivan
Dr, & Mrs, James N. Sussex
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas A. Swarrz
Mr. & Mrs. Alfred M. Swiren
Mr. & Mrs. Francis Switzer
Mr. & Ms. Thomas W.
Mrs. Barbara W. Tansey
Ms. Jane I. Taylor
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas T. Taylor
Mr. & Mrs. Ronald E. Temkin
Ms. Peggy L. Test Frankel
Mr. & Mrs. Mark R. Thaw
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas V.
Dr. & Mrs. Richard J. Thurer
Mr. & Mrs. Tom Thurlow, Jr.
Mr, & Mrs. Robert C. Tipton
Mr. & Mrs. Robert E. Todd
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas J.
Mr. Joseph Traba, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Sydney S. Traum
Mr. & Mrs. Antonio M.
Mr. & Mrs. John G. Troast
Mrs. Ann Sofi Truby &
Mr. Daniel Montana
Mr. & Mrs. Joe Trudeau
Mr. & Mrs. Christopher G.
Mr. & Mrs. Mark Ulmer
Mr. Juan C. Urbina
Mr. Ignacio Uriartc
Mr. & Mrs. Franklin Valdes
Mr. & Mrs. Jerome Vallone
Ms. Glendys Vails &
Ms. Ferandina Ortega
Mr. Charles M. van der Laan
Mr. & Mrs. David Van Gorp
Mr. & Mrs. William P.
Mr. Carlos A. Vazquez
Mr. & Mrs. Tom H. Veenstra
Mr. Victor Antunez
Mr. Jorge E. Arias
Ms. Diana J. Arnal
Ms. Lisa Baird
Mr. Brad Baker
Mr. & Mrs. Ernesto Vega
Mr. & Mrs. Heber Vellon
Ms. Ofelia Via
Ms. Nathalie Vinuenza
Mr. & Mrs. Andrew Vladimir
Ms. Angela Wakshinsky
Mr. & Mrs. Donald Walker
Mr. Michael D. Wallace
Mr. & Mrs. John Walsh
Mr. David Walters
Ms. Linda Walters
Mr. & Mrs. George E. Watson
Mr. & Mrs. William A. Webb
Dr. & Mrs. Carlos Weiss
Mr. & Mrs. A. Rodney Wellens
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Wells
Mrs. Grayce West &
Ms. Patricia West-Blackard
Mr. & Mrs. Michael E Whalen
Mr. Joe Wilkins
Mr. & Mrs. Eric J. Williams
Mr. & Mrs. Norman Willis
Ms. Barbara W Wilson
Mr. & Mrs. George M.
Dr. & Mrs. Oliver P
Mr. Gerry Witoshynsky
Mr. & Mrs. Craig Witty
Mr. & Mrs. John C. Witty, Jr.
Dr. & Mrs. Benjamin Wolf
Mr. & Mrs. William Fred
Mr. & Mrs. Bernard Wolfson
Ms. Jessica Wolfson
Mr. & Mrs. Don Worth
Mr. & Mrs. James G. Worth
Mr. & Mrs. Hans Wrage
Dr. & Mrs. Lloyd L. Wruble
Mrs. Dorothy B. Yates
Mr. Robert Yates
Ms. Jean T. Yehle
Mr. & Mrs. David Yonover
Mr. & Mrs. Joe Young
Mr. & Mrs. John F Young
Mr. & Mrs. Jon W. Zeder
Dr. & Mrs. Peter Zies
Dr. Sanford Ziff& Mrs.
Dolores Maria Barwell-Ziff
Mr. Stephen M. Bander
Ms. Julie Basulto
Ms. Gilda M. Barlle
Mr. Peter S. Baumberger
Mr. Jeffrey L. Baxter
List of Members 91
Ms. Rebecca Bearden
Ms. Maria J. Beguiristain
Ms. Stacey Bercun
Ms. Nereida Berkeley
Ms. Stephanie Berman
Ms. Sally D. Bermudez
Ms. Anna Blackman
Ms. Andrea Blade
Mr. Roberto A. Blanchard
Ms. Lillian Blondet
Mr. Ramon Branger
Mr. Charles W. Braznell, I[
Ms. Theresa Bridges
Mr. Alejandro Brito
Mr. Anthony Brooks
Dr. Randy Brotman
Ms. Julia C. Brown
Ms. Sara M. Bulnes
Mr. Michael Butler
Ms. Kathleen Byrnes
Ms. Catherine Cahill
Ms. Cynthia Callegas
Ms. Mia Cavaco
Ms. Alison Charlton
Mr. Lawrence A. Clifford
Mr. Scott Cole
Ms. Karon M. Coleman
Ms. Dana Colsky
Dr. Irene B. Colsky
Mr. Gary A. Costales
Ms. Lourdes Couce
Mr. Elvis W. Cruz
Ms. Chrisanne Dagit
Ms. Alys Daly
Ms. Courtney Damon
Ms. Heather L. De Coursey
Mr. Erich de la Fuente
Mr. Joseph M. De La Viesca
Mr. Pierre J. DeAgostini
Ms. Diane Deighton
Mr. Frank G. Del Toro
Mr. Al Diaz
Ms. Ena Diaz
Ms. Michelle Diaz
Mr. Scott Dimond
Ms. Michelle Dominguez
Ms. Christine Dowlen
Mr. Marvin Ellis
Mr. Jose Encinosa, Jr.
Ms. Susan Ervin
Ms. Carmen Espinosa
Mrs. Christian Falco
Mr. Emerson Fales
Ms. Laura Fernandez
Ms. Mayte Fernandez
Ms. Yelena Fernandez
Ms. Laurie Flink
Ms. Carol Foster
Ms. Sunny Fraser
Ms. Denie Freyer
Ms. Elise Friedbauer
Ms. Marlene Garcia
Dr. Les Gerson
Commander Paul J. Gilson,
Mr. Borhwell Gonas
Mr. Adrian Gonzalez
Mr. Alfredo J. Gonzalez
Mr. Israel A. Gonzalez
Ms. Maria I. Gonzalez
Mr. William E. Gregory
Ms. Sylvia Gurinsky
Ms. Patrice Gutentag
Ms. Tracy Hagen
Ms. Laina Hanna
Ms. Amy Hansel
Mr. Douglas A. Harrison
Mr. Walter J. Harvey
Ms. Christiane Hayden
Mr. Victor Hernandez
Ms. Michelle Herrera
Mr. John H. Hickey, Esq.
Ms. Julia Higgins
Mr. Sacha Higham
Mr. John H. Holly
Ms. Maria Hurtak
Ms. Katrine Jensen
Mr. David Johnson
Mr. Johnarhan Jonasz
Mr. Dennis G. Kainen, Esq.
Ms. Valerie Karam
Ms. Lisa Katz
Ms. Susan Kawalerski
Mr. Wes Kendall
Ms. Carolyn Klepser
Mr. Brian Knight
Mr. Christopher E. Knight
Ms. Stacey Koch
Ms. Andrea Krensky
Mr. Michael W. Larkin
Mr. Paul W. Larsen
Ms. Sean Lee
Ms. Lisa Levenson
Mr. Robert M. Levy
Ms. Neca M. Logan
Ms. Grace C. Lopez
Ms. Mariana Lopez
Mr. Miguel Martel, Jr.
Mr. Frank C. Martin
Mr. Erik Martindale
Ms. Aida Martinez
Ms. Patricia Anne Martinez
Mr. Raul Martinez, Jr.
Miss Hilda C. Masip
Ms. Deborah Matthews
Mr. Augusto Maxwell
Ms. Sue McConnell
Mr. Peter McElwain
Ms. Jamie Lynn McKinney
Mr. John Meltzer
Ms. Cristina Mestre
Mr. Stephen Millan
Mr. Karlsson Mitchell
Ms. Marcia Monserrar
Ms. Rhonda L. Montoya, Esq.
Mr. Thomas R. Mooney
Mr. Kevin Moure
Ms. Elizabeth Moya
Mr. Jorge Navarro
Ms. Katherine M. Norman
Ms. Kelly Nott
Ms. Sheri E. Nort
Ms. Wendy O'Sullivan
Ms. Phillis Oeters
Mr. Brian Olson
Ms. Angelique Ortega
Ms. Anna Pacheco
Ms. Province Park
Dr. Jacqueline L. Pereira
Ms. Janette Perez
Ms. Lee-Anne Perkins, Esq.
Ms. Sandra Piligian
Ms. Beatriz Portela
Ms. Karina Ramirez
Mr. Gary Reeves
Ms Ileana M. Regueiro
Ms. Susan Reilly
Ms. Mary Reyes
Ms. Mary Grace Richardson
Ms. Jena E. Rissman, Esq.
Ms. Corina Rivas
Mr. Will Robbins
Mr. Walter Robinson
Mr. Eric A. Rodriguez, Esq.
Ms. Ivette Marie Rodriguez
Ms. Raquel Rodriguez
Ms. Silvia M. Rodriguez
Ms. Cristina Romano
Ms. Jessica Romero
Mr. Gregory Saldana
Mr. Eugene Salzberger
Ms. Carolina Santalla
Ms. Liz Sarachek
Mr. Alex Sarafoglu
Ms. Helen L. Scarr
Ms. Jacqueline Schwartz
Ms. Sandra L. Scidmore
Mr. Jeff Scott
Mr. Mark S. Scott
Mr. Larry Shane
Mr. Matt Shannon
Ms. Christina Sherry
Ms. Sheryl A. Shoup
Mr. Richard Simring, Esq.
Mr. Paul Skoric
Mr. Robert G. Slater
Ms. Betsy Smalley
Ms. Allison J. Smith
Ms. Catherine Smith
Ms. Heileen Sosa
Ms. Jane Spinney
Mr. Bradley R. Stark
Ms. Dinah Stein
Mr. Max Strang
Ms. Julie G. Tatol, Esq.
Ms. Sharon Thompson
Mrs. Leatrice Aberman
Mr. Jim Adams
Mrs. Eugenia D. Alien
Mr. Emerson Allswroth
Mr. Al Alschuler
Mrs. Gloria Alvarez
Mr. Carl D. Amsterdam
Mrs. John Ancona
Mr. Cromwell A. Anderson
Ms. Diane Anderson
Ms. Olga Andres
Mr. Monte Antkies
Ms. Hope A. Apollony
Mr. James Armour
Mr. Jorge Arocha
Ms. J.L. Atwater
Mrs. Blanche T. August
Ms. Helen Baden
Mrs. John L. Bagg, Jr.
Ms. Joan L. Bailey
Mr. C. Jackson Baldwin
Ms. Phyllis Barash
Ms. Yvonne Barkman
Ms. Ava R. Barnes
Mr. Paul D Barns, Jr.
Mr. J.T. Barrett
Ms. Anne Bartlett
Ms. Alexandra Bassil
Ms. Maria C. Batista
Ms. Jacqueline Beatty
Ms. Mary G. Beazel
Mr. Robert Beels
Ms. Gica Beharry
Ms. Virginia Benen
Ms. Barbara K. Bennett
Ms. Louise E Bennett
Ms. Sarah L. Bennett
Mr. Robert E. Berkoff
Ms. Cyane H. Berning
Mrs. Charlotte M. Biedron
Mrs. John T. Bills
Mrs. Thomas H. Birchmire
Mr. Warren R. Bitter
Dr. Jeffrey Block, M.D.
Mrs. Margaret S. Blue
Ms. Elisabeth Boggs
Ms. B. J. Throne
Ms. Michelle Trigg
Mr. Mark A. Trowbridge
Ms. Eileen Tugg
Ms. Wendy Tuttle Camp
Dr. Alberto E. Vadillo
Mr. Raul Valdes-Fauli
Mr. Kurt A. Von Gonten
Mr. John S. Waldo
Mr. Joe Waltman
Ms. Lisa Ware
Mr. Todd Weinkle
Mr. Larry Welkovich
Mr. Craig Wheeling
Ms. Jacqueline Woodward
Mr. O. Oliver Wragg
Ms. Carole Wright
Mr. Joe Zaydon
Ms. Maria L. Bosque
Mr. Leonard G. Boymer
Ms. Jean Bradfisch
Mrs. Martha Lou Bradley
Mr. Scott Brady
Mr. Don Brammer
Dr. Ellen B. Brandt
Ms. Ladonna Bridges-White
Ms. Sharlene T. Brimo
Ms, Dorothy Brisbin
Ms. Eleanor Bristol
Mr. August Brown
Mrs. Mary C. Brown
Mr. William E. Brown, Jr,
Mr. Phillip A. Buhler
Mrs. T.C. Buhler
Ms. Alice Burch
Dr. Madeleine H. Burnside
Ms. Consuelo M. Burranca
Dr. E. Carter Burrus, Jr.
Mrs. Robert A. Burton, Jr.
Dr. Gregory W. Bush
Ms. Ann Bussel
Mr. Donald H. Butler
Mr. Theo Byrd
Mrs. Florence H. Cadwallader
Mrs. Elsa Calderwood
Ms. Theresa Calderwood
Ms. Mairi Callam
Ms. Selma Campbell
Mr. William H. Cary
Ms. Kathy Cerminara
Mr. David J. Charles
Dr. Josephine C. Chesley
Mrs. Anita Christ
Mrs. WalterJ. Chwalik
Ms. Dana L. Clay
Ms. Malinda Cleary
Mr. Frank Cobo
Ms. Caroline Coffey
Ms. Christine Cole
Mr. C. Patrick Collins
Ms. Martha Anne Collins
Ms. Linda Collins Hertz
Ms. Mabel Conde
Ms. Catherine J. Conduitte
Ms. Rebecca Conner
Ms. Rose Connett-Richards
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Corredera
Ms. Eileen Costello
Ms. Carol Coverdale
Ms. Norma J. Craig
Mrs. Beverly Craig Butler
Mrs. Alma L. Crawford
Ms. Par Crosby
Mr. Andrew T. Cullison
K. M. Culpepper
Ms. Susan Cumins
Mr. George Cummings, III
Mr. Edward Cunningham
Mrs. Charlotte Curry
Mr. Robert Curtis
Ms. Marcia Daly
Ms. Sandra Darrall
Ms. Lorenda Dasher
Mrs. Martha Dasher Howl
Ms. Ursula M. Davidson
Mr. Frank E. Davis
Mr. Jim E Davis
Mr. John W. Davis
Ms. Marinell Davis
The Hon. Mattie B. Davis
Mr. Scott Davis
Mrs. Walter R. Davison
Ms. Sandy Dayhoff
Mr. J. Allison De Foor, II
Ms. Emilia de Quesada
Ms. Lynda de Velasco
Ms. Mary Ann De Weese
Ms. Zena Decky
Ms. Susan Demorsky
Ms. Sylvia P Diaz
Ms. Sharon Dick
Mr. Marion E. Dinsmore
Mrs. John W. Dix
Dr. Stephen Dobrow
Mr. Steve Dodge
Ms. Patricia Ann Dolan
Ms. Maren Domich
Mr. J.F Donnelly
List of Members 93
Mrs. Leslie Dorn
Mr. Roger Doucha
Mr. Otto Dowlen
Mrs. H.E. Drew
Ms. Joyce Duryea
Ms, Norma Ederer
Mr. Jim Edward
Ms. Lena Ekdahl
Mr. John D. Ellis
Ms. Ruth B. Elsasser
Mrs. Richard E Emerson
Mrs. Harold Emerson
Ms. Patricia G. Ernst
Ms. Lynn Esco
Mrs. Beatrice Esplin
Ms. Linda Lee Evans
Mrs. Mary Ann Faber
Ms. Monica Faraldo
Mrs. Dante B. Fascell
The Hon. Judge Peter Fay
Ms. Jane E. Faysash
Mr. J. W. Fell
Mrs. Nell Finenco
Ms. Patrice Fleming
Mr. Leopoldo Florez
Mrs. Mary A. Flournoy
Dr. Rita M. Fojaco
Miss Elizabeth Foote
Ms. Jean Fountain
Ms. Carol Freeman
Miss Renee Z. Fritsch
Ms. Margaret Froehling
Ms. Marjorie L. Galaris
Mr. Rafael Gallardo
Ms. Maria M. Garcia-Amador
Ms. Janet E Gardiner
Mr. Robert W Gardner
Dr. Bruce Garrison
Ms. Carolyn Garwood
Ms. Carol T. Gassaway
Ms. Bonni Geier
Mr. David C. Gibson
MrT Norman M. Giller
Mr. Robert N. Ginsburg
Ms. Beth Goldstein
Mr. Charles Goldstein
Mr. Alfredo Gonzalez
Mr. Robert L. Gonzalez
Mr. William Gonzalez
Ms. Betty Ann Good
Mary Ann Goodlett-Taylor
Ms. Tina Goolsby
Mrs. Beth Gopman
Ms. Betsye B. Gorman
Ms. Julia Gottlieb
Mr. William J. Graef
Ms. Mary Louise Grant
Mrs. Cami Green
Dr. Henry Green
Mr. Mitchell S. Green
Mr. Gordon Gregory
Ms. Ann M. Gribbins
Dr. Zade B. Gross
Ms. Gayle L. Grossman
Ms. Marlene Grover
Mr. Harry Guenrher
Ms. Mary Gulledge
Ms. Nancy E Haddock
Ms. Victoria Hadley
Ms. Barbara Hagen
Ms. Kay K. Hale
Mr. Jeffrey Haller
Ms. Judi S. Hamelburg
Ms. Elizabeth T. Hand
Ms. Jan Hanna-McKenna
Ms. Ingrid Hansen
Mr. Paul S. Hanson
Mr, Robert S. Harris
Ms. Inge Hartnett
Miss Wanda Harwell
Mr. Leo M. Haskins, Jr.
Mr, Leland M. Hawes, Jr.
Ms. Patricia Hayes
Mrs. Isadore Hecht
Mrs. Ruth Heckerling
Ms. Rosemary E. Helsabeck
Mrs. Gayle Henderson
Ms. Eileen W Herald
Ms. Naraly Herbert
Mrs. Virginia R Herring
Ms. Jean M. Hewitt
Ms. Jeanne D. Higgins
Ms. Jeanine Hill
Mr. Herbert L. Hiller
Mr. Floyd E. Hinkley, Sr.
Mr. Richard Hoberman
Ms. Nedra A. Hodge
Mrs. Doris S. Hodges
Ms. Nancy Z. Hoffman
Ms. Susan Hofstein
Ms. Ritta K. Hogan
Ms. Margaret P. Holsenbeck
Ms. Patricia Hooper
Ms. Teresa Horta
Mrs. Eddie Hoskins
Mr. Joseph B. Hourihan
Mr. Roland M. Howell
Ms. Sharon Howell
Mr. Russell V. Hughes
Mr. George Hunker
Mr. William A. Ingraham, Jr.
Mrs. Ruth Jacobs
Dr. Helen Jacobstein
Mr. HL,. James
Ms. Mary C. James
Dr. Eric Jarvis
Dr. William T Jerome, III
Ms. Georgina Johnson
Mr. Thomas E. Johnson
Mrs. Betty Jones
Mrs. Frank E. Jones
Ms. Molly B. Jones
Ms. Gail Jordan
Ms. Roberta Kaiser
Ms. Barbara M. Kanzer
Ms. Esther Karamanlakis
Mrs. Ruth B. Kassewitz
Mrs. Barbara Katzen
Ms. Elizabeth H. Kaynor
Ms. Maureen Keenan
Mr. Scott G. Keith
Dr. Robert L. Kelley
Ms. Elaine Kellog
Ms. Patricia Kennedy
Ms. Margaret S. Kern
Mr. Oliver Kerr
Ms. Hazel Kiefel Cronin
Ms. Janet Kilgard Barbour
Mr. Arthur King, Sr.
Mr. Robert Kinser
Ms. Lillian Kirchheiner
Mr. Bill Kirklen
Mr. John Klein
Mr. Eliot Kleinberg
Mr. Jeffrey D. Knight
Mr. Clifford M. Kolber
Mrs. Patricia M. Kolski
Ms. Camilla B. Komorowski
Mr. Theodore E. Koper, Jr.
Ms. Jodie Kozdron
Mr. Robert V. Kriebs
Mr. Donald M. Kuhn
Mr. Dexter La Belle
Ms. Leah La Plante
Ms. Barbara Labuzan
Ms. Julia S. Lampson
Mr. Richard David Lancaster
Mr. Martin J. Lann
Dr. Idalia Lastra, DMD
Mr. Sean Latterner
Dr. Abraham D. Lavender
Ms. Karen Lawrence
Dr. H.L. Lawson
Mr. Dan D. Laxson, Sr.
Mr. Robert A. Leathers
Ms. Christine C. Lee
Ms. Jo Lee
Ms. Linda Lee
Mrs. David M. Lehman
Ms. Marsha Leifer
Mr. Aldo M. Leiva
Mr. Salvador Leon, Jr.
Mr. Joseph S. Leonard
Ms. Nancy L. Leslie
Mr. Paul A. Lester
Ms. Laura Levi
Mr. Robert L. Levis
Ms. Sara B. Leviten
Mr. Scott P Lewis
Ms. Theresa L. Lianzi
Ms. Lynn Lieberman
Mr. Mark Lighterman
Ms. M. Diane Linder
Ms. Janet A. Lineback
Mr. Michael Jon Littman
Mr. Grant Livingston
Mr. Gordon B. Loader
Ms. Judith Loffredo
Mr. Robert Lopez
Mr. James S. Lord
Ms. Mildred A. Love
Mr. Charles T. Lowe
Mrs. Jaywood Lukens
Ms. Joyce M. Lund
Mr. W.L. Lunsford
Ms. Hillelene S. Lustig
Mr. Don MacCullough
Mr. Robert MacDonald
The Rev. Richard D. Maholm
Mrs. Dorothy Malinin
Ms. Angela Maltzman
Ms. Pat Manfredi
Dr. Celia C. Mangels
Ms. Linda W. Mansperger
Ms. Jeanmarie Manze Massa
Ms. Liliana Maresma
Mrs. Edna E Martin
Ms. Lisa Martinez
Ms. Jane Mason
Mr. Robert D. Masterson
Mr. James E Matheson
Ms. Marguerite Mathews
Ms. Judith Marz
Mr. Jim McAllister
Mrs. Arva Moore Parks
Ms. Helena McCauley
Ms. Marion L. McCooi
Ms. Carmen McGarry
Ms. Joy N. McGarry
Ms. Judy McGraw
Mr. Daniel C. McKenna
Ms. Abbie McKenzie
Mrs. Beverly McKeon
Mr. John E McLean
Ms, Lou McLean
Mr. John Fred McMath
Mrs. Virginia D.
Dr. Donald McNeill
Mrs. Lenore H. McTague
Ms. Lucia Medina
Ms. Toni Meltzer
Mr. Jesus Mendez
Mr. Roger E Messer
Ms. Linda M. Meyer
Mr. Frank C. Meyers
Dr. Joan Mickelson
Mr. Timothy R. Mielke
Ms. Mercedes Milanes
Ms. Jeannie Milberg
Ms. Mary A. Millard
Mr. Alex Miller
Ms. Gertrude R. Miller
Mrs. Graham Miller
Mr. Jarvis Miller
Mr. Jose Miranda
Mr. Roger G. Misleh
Ms. Katherine Mitchell
Mr. Thomas A. Mitchell
Dr. Raymond A. Mohl, Jr.
Ms. Diana R. Molinari
Mr. J. Floyd Monk
Ms. Virginia G. Montgomery
Mrs. Cynthia A. Moore
Mr. Patrick E Moore
Mrs. Bianca Moreiras
Ms. Cynthia A. Morgan
Mrs. Theodora J. Morris
Ms. Janet Mosely
Ms. Yvonne T. Moyer
Mr. John H. Moynahan, Sr.
Ms. Emily L. Moynihan
Mrs. W. W Muir
Mr. John D. Muncey
Mr. Manuel I. Muniz
Mrs. Elizabeth Murray
Miss Margaret Mustard
Mrs. Jeannette Myer
Ms. Patricia Myer
Ms. Lillian G. Myers
Ms. Bettye B. Nagel
Ms. Suzanne Nasca
Mr. Donald A. Nash
Ms. Avis Navarro
Ms. Brenda Nelson
Ms. Gay M. Nemeti
Mr. Robert S. Neumann
Ms. Leonore Nick
Ms. Peg G. Niemiec
Mr. Jose G. Nieto
Mrs. J. Colgan Norman, Jr.
Mr. Herbert L. Northrup
Ms. Karen Novick
Mr. BP. Nuckols, Jr.
Ms. Party Nygaard
Ms. Jeanette O'Connor
Mr. Brian D. O'Neill
Ms. Leslie Olle
Mr. Cesar Onate
Mr. Frank Orifici
Ms. Roberra C. Orlen
Mr. Peter Osman
Ms. Estelle C. Overstreet
Mrs. John W. Owens
Mrs. Denise Paparella
Mr. Robert Parenre
Mr. Dabney G. Park, Jr.
Mr. Austin S. Parker
Ms. Jeanne M. Parks
Ms. Mary B. Parsons
Ms. Denise Pasternak
Ms. Madeline S. Pearson
Mr. Douglas T. Peck
Ms. Mary Pecora
Mr. Vernon Peeples
Dr. Margaret M. Pelton
Mr. Raul A. Perez
Ms. Marta Perez-Penaas
Mrs. Rita Perlman
Mrs. Henry J. Perner
Ms. Marilyn Perrone
Mrs. Carmen Petsoules
Mr. Nicholas J. Pisaris
Mrs. Suzetrte S. Pope
Ms. Teresa Portilla
Ms. Justine Postal
Ms. Beverly Ports
Mrs. Edith Price Ropeik
Mrs. Maude Primus
Ms. Ann R. Prospero
Mr. Jason Psaltides, Esq.
Ms. Lucy S. Puello-Capone
Mrs. Hugh E Purvis
Mrs. Helen Quinton
Mrs. Virginia S. Rahm
Mr. Michael E. Raiden
Ms. Kathy Ramirez
Ms. Pauline E. Ramos
Ms. Trish Ramsay
Dr. Edward Rappaport
Mr. Sandy Ravelo
Ms. Drucilla Raymond
Ms. Elizabeth R. Read
Ms. Susan P Redding
Mr. Barry Reese
Mrs. Brenda G. Reisman
Mrs. Elisabeth Reirer
Mr. R.H. Rice, Jr.
Dr. Maurice Rich
Ms. Carol Richards
Ms. Mary Richardson Miller
Ms. Juana G. Rippes
Ms. Fran Ristling
Mr. Larry Rivers
Ms. Theresa Rizzo
Ms. Ruth Roberts
Mr. Leland M. Robinson
Mr. Domingo Rodriguez
Mrs. Rachel P Roller
Ms. Elizabeth Rom
Mr. H. Paul Root
List of Members 95
Ms. Betty Roper-Markov
Mr. Benard Rosenblatt
Ms. Myriam Ross
Ms. Sally Rosselet
Mr. David L. Roumm
Ms. Ginette Rouzeau
Mr. David Rowen
Mrs. Eliza P Ruden
Mrs. Betty Rushmer Adams
Mr. Denis A. Russ
Dr. Glenn Salkind, M.D.
Mr. Alvin M. Samet
Ms. Shirley Sapp
Ms. Anne Sargent Perry
Ms. Rona Sawyer
Mrs. Chaffee Scarborough
Mr. Dennis Scarnecchia
Ms. Renee Schafer
Mr. Peter Schmitt
Mr. David Schoenfeld
Mr. Niles Schuh
Mrs. Sunny Schurr
Ms. Bobbi Schwartz
Mrs. Geraldine Schwartz
Mrs. Natalie J. Segal
Mr. Robert L. Semes
Ms. Claire Seminario
Mr. Manuel Serkin
Mr. Stuart Serkin
Ms. Janet L. Shad
Mr. Cyrus J. Sharer
Dr. Martha Luelle Shaw
Mrs. Vergil A. Shipley
Ms. Christina G. Shoffner
Ms. Rebecca Shopay
Ms. Suzanne Silver
Mr. Edwin O. Simon
Mr. J. Paul Simons
Ms. Sharon Simpkins
Ms. Delorise Simpson
Mrs. Eleanor Simpson
Ms. Audrey E. Singleton
Ms. Sheila Sirgo
Miss Benedicte Sisto
Mr. Bill Sketchley
Ms. Marjorie L. Skipp
Mrs. Evelyn Smiley
Ms. Allie Smith
Dr. Donald G. Smith
Ms. Eunice M. Smith
Ms. June C. Smith
Ms. Kimberly Smith
Ms. Leslie Smith
Mr. Robert O. Smith
Ms. Graciela Solares
Mr. Mervyn M. Solomon
Mr. Brent Spector
Miss Judi Stark
Mrs. Margaret G. Steel
Dr. Elizabeth Stevens
Mr. Ray Stewart
Mrs. Rosemary D. Srieglitz
Ms. Susan L. Stinson
Mrs. Muriel E. Stone
Ms. Larue Storm
Ms. Patricia A. Suiter
Ms. Sandra Sullivan
Mrs. Joseph Sures
Mrs. Florence B. Swain
Mr. George H. Sweet
Ms. Blanche Szita
Mrs. James S. Taintor, Jr.
Mr. David Teems
Ms. Laura Thayer
Ms. Margaret j. Thayer
Mrs. Elizabeth D. Theobald
Mr. Phillip A. Thomas
Mr. Lawrence A. Thompson
Mr. Richard J. Thornton
Mrs. Fran H. Thorpe
Mr. Robert Threadgill
Mr. Sam J. Threadgill
Mr. Craig E. Tigerman
Ms. Russica P. Tighe
Mr. William Tompkins
Mrs. Helen C. Towle
Mr. Michael A. Tranchida
Mr. Tony I. Tremols
Ms. Mary Jo Trepka
Ms. Maria Trias
Ms. Molly Turner
Ms. Marilyn Udell
Mrs. Jean B. Underwood
Bette J. Upchurch
Ms. Julia T Valentine
Mr. Jack Vallega
Mr. Maurice D. Alpert
Mr. & Mrs. Mitchell Franklin
Mr. & Mrs. James C. Merrill, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Ralph B. Ryder, Jr.
Mrs. Sylvia Sowards
Mr. Bill Vallier
Ms. Eleanor Van Eaton
Mrs. Clifford D. Van Orsdel
Ms. Juanita Vazquez-
Mr. Robert E. Venditti
Ms. Margaret Vento
Mr. John W. Vile
Mr. Juan M. Villamil
Ms. Jo Von Funk
Mrs. Nancy Voss
Ms. Diane Ward
Mrs. Edwina Warren
Ms. Harriet Wasserbeck
Mrs. Elizabeth Watson
Ms. Nancy K. Webster
Mr. Bob Weeks
Ms. Susan Weiss
Ms. Barbara Weitz
Ms. Barbara E Wenzel
Mrs. Marcella U. Werblow
Ms. Bonnie M. Wheatley
Ms. Anna White
Ms. Brenda L. Whitney
Mr. Lewis Whitworth
Mr. Don Wiener
Mr. Larry Wiggins
Mr. Lucius L. Wilcox, Jr.
Mrs. George Williams, Jr.
Ms. Geraldine H. Williams
Ms. Sarah Williams
Mr. David L. Willing
Mrs. Louise D. Wilson
Ms. Marcilene K. Wirtmer
Ms. Migdalia Wong
Ms. Carolyn Worthington
Mrs. Sharon L. Wynne
Mr. Charles H. Yarman
Mr. Harold J. Zabsky
Ms. Christina Zawisza
Mrs. Elena A. Zayas
Mrs. Marcia K. Zerivitz
Ms. Frances Rt Zierer
Mrs. Betty Zipse
Ms. Jane Zucker
Mr. Vladimir Zzzyd
Alachua County Library
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American Antiquarian Society
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City of Lake Worth
Clewiston Museum, Inc.
Collier County Public Library
Dade Heritage Trust Historic
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El Portal Womans Club
Florida Atiantic University
Florida Gulf Coast
Florida Historical Quarterly
Mr. Fred M. Waters, Jr.
Mrs. Wayne E. Withers
Florida Southern College
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Ft. Lauderdale Historical
Fr. Myers Historical Museum
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Historic Preservation Division
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Library of Congress
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Miami Dade Community
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Newberry Library Serials
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SIRS Mandarin, Inc.
Society of the Four Arts
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State Historical Society of
State Library of Florida
Tennessee State Library
The Villagers, Inc.
University of Central Florida
University of Iowa
University of Miami
University of Michigan
University of South Florida
University of Washington
West Palm Beach Public
Wilton Manors Public
List of Members 97
Fellow ..................................... .. ............ ...... $500 (and up)
Corporation/Foundation................................................... $500 (and up)
B en efacto r................................................................................................................. $ 2 5 0
Sp o n sor ........................ ........... ............................................ $ 10 0
D onor............ .............. .... ................................. $75
F am ily ................... .................................................. .............................................. $ 4 5
Individual/Institutional............................................. ................ $35
Tropee Individual.............................................................. ..................... $35
T ropee Fam ily............................. ........... ..... ................................ $50
Please notify the HistoricalAssociation's Membership Coordinator, Hilda
Masip, ofany changes to the membership listing. Telephone-305.375.1492
Tequesta Advisory Board
Miguel Bretos, Ph.D. Bill Brown
Cantor Brown, Jr., Ph.D. Gregory Bush, Ph.D.
Robert S. Carr Juan Clark, Ph.D.
Donald Curl, Ph.D. Rodney Dillon
Dorothy Fields Ph.D. Howard Kleinberg
Eugene Lyon, Ph.D. Raymond A. Mohl, Ph.D.
Gary Mormino, Ph.D. Larry Rivers, Ph.D.
Frank Sicius, Ph.D. Donald Spivey, Ph.D.
Complete Your Library with
Back Issues of Tequesta
Issues of Tequesta are available for years 1941-1979 for $10 each and
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complete your collection at 305.375.1492, or e-mail your request to: