Front Cover
 The peonage controversy and the...
 Black education in Miami,...
 Miami's land gambling fever of...
 Historical Association of Southern...
 Back Cover

Title: Tequesta
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101446/00059
 Material Information
Title: Tequesta
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Historical Association of Southern Florida
Publisher: (multiple)
Publication Date: 1999
Copyright Date: 2010
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101446
Volume ID: VID00059
Source Institution: Florida International University: Florida History and Heritage
Holding Location: Historical Museum of Southern Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 2096319
lccn - 42015131
issn - 0363-3705


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    The peonage controversy and the Florida East Coast Railway
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Black education in Miami, 1921-1940
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Miami's land gambling fever of 1925
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Historical Association of Southern Florida membership list
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Back Cover
        Page 93
        Page 94
Full Text

Te L4ec5to*~


Editor Emeritus
Charlton W. Tebeau, Ph.D.

Paul S. George, Ph.D.

Managing Editor
Jamie Welch


Number LIX


Editor's Foreword....
by Dr. Paul S. George

The Peonage Controversy and the Florida East Coast Railway ...................... 5
by Dr Joe Knetsch

Black Education in Miami, 1921-1940 .............................................................. 30
by Doug Andrews, M.A.

Miami's Land Gambling Fever of 1925
by B&n&dicte Sisto, M.A.

Historical Association of Southern Florida Members .................................. 74


IeIt4 e1 ugf-4

is published annually by the Historical Association of
Southern Florida. Communications should be addressed
to the Managing Editor of Tequesta, Historical Museum
of Southern Florida, 101 W. Flagler Street, Miami, Florida
33130. Telephone: (305) 375-1492. The Association
does not assume responsibility for statements of facts or
opinions made by contributors. (ISSN 0363-3705)

On the Cover: Florida East Coast Railway Oversea Extension workers taking a break.
HASF 1991-208-31.

............................................ 11- ... I..........


Historical Association of Southern Florida, Inc.

Anna Price, Ph.D.
William Ho
Linda Lubitz
Edward A Swakon
Richard A. Wood
Robert B. Battle
Randy F. Nimnicht
J. Andrew Brian
Paul S. George, Ph.D.
Charlton W. Tebeau, Ph.D.
Stuart B. Mclver
Jamie Welch
Rebecca A. Smith

Ci.wiia,1a of the Board
First Vice Chair
Second Vice Chair
Past Chair
Museum Director
Editor, Tequesta
Editor Emeritus, Tequesta
Editor South Florida History Magazine
Editor South Florida History Magazine
Curator of Research Materials

Andrew Albury
Angela Bellamy
Benjamin Bohlmann
Neil A. Burell
Jaime J. Conesa
Edward H. Davis, Jr.
Pablo Hemandez
Deborah S. Klem
Samuel D. LaRouc, Jr.
James Leshaw P.S.
Raul Masvidal
Lewis F. Murphy
Dorothy C. Norton
Marie Pappas
Dr. Edmund I. Pames
Michael L. Patti
Scott A. Poulin
Lorraine Punancy-Stewart
Dr. Michael N. Rosenberg
Kathleen M. Shaw
Dinzulu Gene S. Tinnie

Editor's Foreword

As we near the end of the century and the millennium, the disci-
pline of history continues to grow in demand and cachet. Historians
are being called on to help prepare lists of the century's top one
hundred stories, events, athletes, personalities, and whatever other
topics creative minds can come up with. Books and articles focusing
on the end of the last millennium and the beginning of the present one
are also plentiful. This issue of Tequesta brings to our readers a more
measured approach to history, since we've been in the "history
business" for almost sixty years. Yet we also have an anniversary to
"celebrate": the fall of 1999 marks one hundred years since the city of
Miami was stricken by a yellow fever epidemic that brought wide
scale suffering, loss of life, and closed it for three months to the
outside world.
In this issue of Tequesta, Joe Knetsch, a prolific, voluble historian
with a Ph.D. from the Florida State University, has provided, with
"The Peonage Controversy and the Florida East Coast Railway," a
detailed study of a controversy that dogged the Flagler organization
during its construction of the Overseas Railroad to Key West. Dr.
Knetsch, Historian with the Florida Department of Environmental
Protection, has plumbed the William J. Krome collection of newspa-
per clippings and other important source material in this work. Doug
Andrews, a faculty member at Miami-Dade Community College's
Wolfson Campus, has given us, in "Black Education in Greater Miami,
1921-1940," a sobering look at the disparities in funding, facilities, and
teachers' salaries in the area's racially segregated school system.
Professor Andrews has made impressive use of the Minutes of the
Dade County School Board in explaining these inequities in an era that
witnessed boom and bust, a lingering economic depression, and the
early stirring of a civil rights movement that led to significant change
in public schools and in many other areas of American life. Andrews,
a native Miamian, is Professor of Distant Education and Social
Science Education, Miami-Dade Community College, Wolfson.
Benedicte Sisto, a young historian living in Samur, France, offers
with "Miami's Land Gambling Fever of 1925," a look at one of the
seminal events in the city and the area's history. Historian Sisto's


article is timely since we are on the cusp of the seventy-fifth anniver-
sary of the boom's peak year, 1925. Ms. Sisto's article is also impor-
tant for its source material, since it employs a spate of articles from
several periodicals seldom used before in accounts of the boom. Sisto
is a Teaching Assistant in American Civilization at the University of
Tours, France. She is completing her Ph. D. in History at the same
institution. A frequent visitor to the United States, she taught French
at the University of California, Berkeley.
We know that you will enjoy and learn from these scholarly
offerings. Let us hear from you if you have questions, comments, or
prospective articles for Tequesta. Thank you.

Paul S. George
Editor, Tequesta

The Peonage Controversy and the

Florida East Coast Railway

by Dr. Joe Knetsch

Imprisonment for debt had long been outlawed in the United States
when the controversy over a new form of enshacklement arose. The
"new" system was called peonage, or holding someone against his will
until a debt was paid off in full. An 1867 statute, outlawing debt
servitude in New Mexico was thought, by some in power in Washing-
ton, to have been adequate for the nation; however, this relatively
obscure law was ignored in practice nearly everywhere in the country.
From the timber mills of the Pacific Northwest, in the company towns,
like Gary, Indiana, or in the turpentine stills of the rural South, some
form of peonage existed nationwide in the nineteenth century. Yet,
southern peonage practices caught the eye of reformers and brought
out the scorn of progressives. "Owing in the South," historian Pete
Daniel has written, "often led to imprisonment, beating, or even
death."' It was the southern form of peonage that drew the nation's
attention to the problem, especially in Florida where both turpentine
and railroads were widely accused of its worst practices.
One of the principle reasons for this attention to the southern form
of peonage was its dependency upon the importation of out-of-state
workers. The workers, mostly immigrants from the larger cities in the
Northeast, would sign contracts with agents for the companies who
planned to utilize. These contracts would guarantee certain wages,
conditions and charges for passage to the area and outline the terms of
repayment. In many cases, the contract would also state that board or
other necessities would not be paid for by the company, but were the
responsibility of the worker. Almost always charges would soon leave
the worker in debt to the company, or its minions. It was not uncom-
mon in these cases to find the wages stated were actually lower than


those contracted for, the working conditions much more severe than
expected and the charges for board and other necessities exorbitant. The
workers, hailing from elsewhere, or recent immigrants, were soon
exposed to the worse elements and trapped in out-of-the-way work
stations where no outside help could be expected. "Defrauded of their
wages," Daniel notes, "and deprived of mobility either by threats that
they could not legally move until their debts were paid or by actual force,
they lived in the vortex of peonage."2 In the worse cases, this "vortex
of peonage" would suck the life from its victims and cast it upon the
heap to fertilize the sterile earth. And in such a melodramatic style it
was often reported in the press of the day.
The problem arose for two reasons. First labor was scarce in many of
the areas where peonage was reported. Labor shortages were chronic in
places like Florida and Alabama where the indigenous population was
relatively small and widely scattered. A second cause was the lack of
employment opportunities in the crowded cities of the northeast, which
were experiencing rapid immigration. Opportunities appeared to these
immigrants to be less than optimal and they were searching for better
paying, more constant employment. At this stage, the labor agent
entered the scene and seemed to provide a service that met the expecta-
tions of the new laboring class of immigrants. For a small charge, he
would provide the contact with the employer, who often gave him a flat
fee (usually two or three dollars per recruit), and the two sides would
then enter a contract allegedly spelling out the conditions of employment
and the transportation and board charges, or other details. One of the
agents charged with peonage, E. J. Triay, who was employed by the
Florida East Coast Railway (FEC), outlined the contract system in a
Brooklyn Eagle report in January of 1906.

The statement made by the two Brooklyn boys that we agreed to
give them $1.75 per day is contradicted by the contract they
signed. Mr. Triay then handed the Eagle reporter a printed
contract worded as follows, which he said all laborers signed
before leaving New York. "Due Florida East Coast Railroad $12
for value received, And I hereby authorize said railway com-
pany, should said railway company at any time to become
indebted to me at any time before payment hereof to apply
hereon any amount or amounts for part or parts thereof so due

The Peonage Controversy and the Florida East Coast Railway 7

me as same may become due and payable. The said Railway
company to pay $1.25 per day without board. Mr. Triay said that
the company furnishes transportation free from Jacksonville to
Miami, but that the fare from New York to Jacksonville, $12,
must be paid by the men and that this is not only implied by the
contract, which is short and plainly printed, but it is also ex-
plained in a circular printed in English on one side and Italian on
the other.... He says, moreover that the men are housed free by
the company in comfortable quarters. They buy their own food,
sold at the commissary department at reasonable prices, and can
live well on $2.50 per week.3 The twelve dollar charge was
supposed to have been worked off in about three months, given
the normal expenditures of the workers, however, this charge,
plus the inflated prices allegedly demanded by the commissary
agents, led to a situation where, isolated on the Florida Keys,
where they were working on the railroad's extention to Key West,
without a personal mode of transportation to the mainland, a
worker was at the mercy of the company and its supervisors.
This exposed position of the worker was one ripe for the charges

In some cases, the immigrants were attracted to the United States by
offers of secured employment through the "padrone" system, which
worked within the Italian and Greek communities. According to George
E. Pozzetta, a pioneering historian in Florida immigration studies: "The
search for workers often took railroad employers into the urban centers of
the northeast where thousands of recently-arrived immigrants resided. To
secure these laborers, the railroad frequently relied upon the services of an
important immigrant institution the padrone, or labor boss."4 The
system became so national scandalous, that Congress undertook an
investigation and filed an extensive report, which resulted in certain laws
being passed to curb its worse abuses. In its reports on the "padrone
system" and other evils, the Immigration Commission, directed by Con-
gress to investigate charges of slavery and peonage in 1908, concluded:

The operations carried on by the padrones are confined to the
direct importation of aliens, either to employ them in their own
various business enterprises, such as bootblacking, fruit vending,


or candy making, or to hire them in groups to contractors or
other employers. Relative to the padrone system, the Commis-
sioner-General of Immigration, in his report for 1907, pages
70-71, says: "The most distressing branch of the alien con-
tract-labor law violations is that which involves the use of
what is commonly called the 'padrone system:' for by this
means not only is foreign labor introduced under contract or
agreement, but often the laborers are mere boys and are
practically enslaved by the padrones who effect their importa-
tion. This system is applied principally to youths of the
Italian and Greek races, the boys being placed at hard labor,
with long hours, under conditions wholly unsuited to their
age, and subjected to a wage arrangement which amounts
practically to a method of blackmailing; in other words, they
are in effect owned by the men who advance the money and
procure their immigration from Greece and Italy.5

The report of the Immigration Commission went on to note that:
"Nevertheless, it may be said that such 'contracts or offers or prom-
ises of employment' are usually so vague, contingent, and indefinite
that an acceptance thereof would not constitute a contract. Neither
can adult aliens imported by padrones designate the particular job or
employment for which their labor is desired. Therefore this class of
operations is probably not prohibited by the contract-labor laws."6 In
certain cases, in addition to lining up the labor, the padroni were
allowed to run the commissary stores, thus exploiting the labor in all
phases, however, Pozzetta notes specifically in his study that the
Florida East Coast Railway was an exception to this rule, even where
it did use such contract labor.7
The problem for the Florida East Coast Railway became more
intense when Henry Flagler and his board of directors chose to
construct the railroad across the Florida Keys to Key West. This
decision was reached on April 19, 1893, just prior to the onset of the
national depression later that year.8 The national depression was the
major cause for the delay in constructing the railroad through Miami
to the Keys. The cash flow problems involved in this economic
downturn forced Flagler to hold back on his ambitious plan at that
time. Flagler's delay was beneficial for Miami as the entrepreneur

The Peonage Controversy and the Florida East Coast Railway 9

involved with its
Not until 1905 -
did Flagler .
procure the right
SWorkers taking a break. HASF 1991-208-31.
of way for the
railroad from the Florida Legislature.9 Aside from the immense engi-
neering problems presented by this enterprise, the largest concern for the
railroad was the procuring of labor.
The peonage that can be imputed to the railroad, in the cases where it
employed such labor, was indirect. The agents through which it worked
were alleged to be responsible for any such peonage at this stage. The
railroad did, in the 1890s and around the turn of the century, employ a
number of Italians and Greeks on the line, including the extension. The
arrivals of such employees were announced in the Miami Metropolis
with great frequency, often with statements such as: "A car load of
Italians from the north is expected here daily for works on the keys on
the railroad extension;" or "A large number of Greeks arrived here
yesterday and proceeded to Homestead where they will work on the
extension;" or, finally, "GREEK LABORERS ARRIVE: Another bunch
of Greeks, about twelve in number, for the extension operations, arrived
in the city last night from the north and will be taken to the keys this
afternoon. It is the intention of the F.E.C. Railway Company to secure
and work as many of these men as possible and other and larger num-
bers of them will arrive in a few days."10 Interestingly, the Immigration
Commission, in its discussion of the investigations into the operations
and peonage charges against the F.E.C. does not relate the railroad with
peonage and the padrone system of contract labor. This may, in part, be
due to the adverse criticism of the system by the muckraking press of the
day and the growth of immigrant protective societies in the nation's
larger cities. Also, the growing awareness by the immigrants themselves
of working conditions on the railroads and elsewhere made them better
informed of which jobs they might be interested in taking." It may be
deduced, therefore, that although the padrone system was important for
the railroad in obtaining scarce labor, it was not a highly significant
factor in the charges of peonage against the line.


If the padrone system was not the origins of the peonage charges,
what element was? Labor agents must be looked to as the main source
of the charges against the railroad and its hierarchy. Edward J. Triay,
as noted, was one of the chief agents for the railroad; however, he
worked through many others, most importantly of whom was Fran-
cisco Sabbia. In one of the first of the spectacular expose's of peonage
in Florida, the fate of nineteen year old Harry Hermanson, allegedly
recruited by Sabbia's "German-Italian Exchange" in New York, was
told in very dramatic terms. "At Jacksonville, the declaration alleges,
that the said Harry Hermanson was placed under an armed guard and
brought to Miami at which place he was compelled to go aboard a
steamboat and was taken to the extension camp No. 4, and there forced
to enter a tent and sleep upon rocks and in the dirt with scarcely any
food to eat or water to drink, and was made to do the work of a man;
that he was ill treated in various other ways by the agents of said
defendant corporation, all of which injured the health of said Harry
Hermanson; ..."12 Hermanson somehow got word to his mother about
his condition and she allegedly sent money to the foreman to secure her
son's release, however, the foreman supposedly stole the money.
According to Daniel, the boy was not allowed to leave the Florida
Keys until December 1906, when he was returned to New York with
his mother.13 In the lawsuit asking damages for $10,000, was the
allegation that young Hermanson, nineteen years of age, became
intoxicated and, in such a state, signed the contract with Sabbia, who
immediately abducted the boy and placed him on a train to Jackson-
ville. His mother, Amanda C. Hermanson, in her allegations against
the company, specifically named J. C. Meredith, Flagler's engineer and
director, as the person who refused to send her son home after she had
sent the money to get his release. The daring and desperate mother
then, according to her attorney, went to Miami to pay Meredith and
retrieve her son, but, upon arrival, was refused and threatened with
arrest. She immediately hired a launch and went directly to the camp
where her son was being detained and, after being refused permission
to land until the eleven dollar debt was paid, she was able to procure
his release and returned to New York.14 The Hermansons were not
compensated for their travail as the court found the F.E.C. innocent of
the charges of peonage. As one newspaper reported: "The prosecution
failed to sustain the claim that the Hermanson boy was brought from

The Peonage Controversy and the Florida East Coast Railway 11

New York against his will or that he had in any other way been made a
victim of the practices of what is known as 'peonage'."15
The case was tried in Jacksonville, the home of E. J. Triay, where
the F.E.C. had considerable interests. However, it can not be assumed,
as some have, that the corporation was guilty. There is the question of
why a nineteen year old, in an age were many were working full time
by their fourteenth birthday, was so easily misled and whether or not
the conditions described by him were factual. There is also the
problem of how this could be done unobserved by the dozens of
reporters, important visitors, and others who visited the extension sites
nearly everyday. Finally, there is the question as to how these stories
could be true in the light of the hundreds of laborers who left the
extension work on a regular basis and reported conditions to be
satisfactory for that kind of work. Jumping to the conclusion that
because the railroad was investigated by Congress and reports ap-
peared in various newspapers, the F.E.C. is automatically guilty of the
charge goes too far. This is especially true when faced with the fact
that the railroad was exonerated by the Immigration Commission,
which stated in its report: "Neither the governor of Florida, the Com-
mission, nor the Department of Justice has been able to find anything
in the nature of legal proof that peonage ever existed upon any of this
work of the Florida East Coast Railway.""16 It is always interesting
reading the reports of men "somehow" escaping the alleged peonage
and making their way back north to report to their local newspapers.
The sensationalism caused by these reports may be one of the major
reasons for the continued interest in the peonage charges.
With a labor force often numbering over 4,000 men, the F.E.C. had
a difficult time providing these men with accommodations. The actual
supply problem was one that worried F.E.C. officials daily. Fresh
water, usually hauled from Homestead, for example, had to be trans-
ported by boats to the extension workers while large storage facilities
were actually constructed at Manatee Creek and, later, on Indian
Key.'7 Mattresses, which most reports have not mentioned or denied
were given or sold to the workers, were ordered as early as May 1906,
when the F.E.C. ordered "several hundred special sponge mattresses
for their quarter, or sleeping boats, engaged in the extension work,"
from the Miami Sponge Mattress and Pillow Company.'I


Using simple mathematics, it quickly becomes apparent that several
hundred mattresses will not sleep 4,000 workers, and this led to the
reports of no mattresses being provided. In some instances, the
company provided wooden slat-bunks, which were the norm in many
camps. These slat-bunks were often not provided with legs and the
men had to improvise to get them off the bare earth.19
One area where the F.E.C. was far in advance of other employers of
the day was in its provision of hospital and health care facilities. A
two story railroad hospital was located in Miami near Biscayne Bay
and north of downtown. The facility contained an operating room,
attending physician's room, dispensary, surgical dressing room, a
dining room and kitchen, and its own laundry. On the first floor, it had
three wards for white workers and one for "colored" employees. The
upstairs held two wards for acute patients, five private rooms, a house
physician's bed, apartments for the matron and nurses and storage
areas for supplies. Drs. J. M. Jackson and J. A. Heitlinger attended
patients along with Ms. M. Hamilton, who, like Dr. Heitlinger, had
much experience at New York's Bellevue Hospital. The hospital was
free to any employee injured on the job or who became ill while
employed. Dr. Jackson made frequent visits to the Florida Keys
dipensaries located in some of the larger camps.2" Indeed, as the
extension reached farther south through the Keys, another hospital was
constructed on Long Key.2 Yet, despite the advantages offered by
employment with the F.E.C., the peonage charges continued.
The newspapers in the north continued publishing stories from men
allegedly trapped on one of the Florida Keys by the railroad and its
overseers. In one story, dated early 1906, one Thomas O'Byrne
received a letter from six Brooklynites who declared: "They have
shanghaied us to a little island in the ocean about ninety miles off
Florida. We are surrounded by rattlesnakes and dangerous animals.
For God's sake, send us some money and food. Twenty dollars will
enable us to escape and save our lives." The same report also said
that, "Negroes stand over us with guns." It was a sensational story,
which was followed by another entitled, "Brooklyn Lads Lured South
and Into Chain Gang." Here, Winfred Rowland, a twenty year old,
along with five others, was attracted by an advertisement and other
promises of good working conditions and possible advancement
working for the railroad in Florida. Supposedly, one hundred such

The Peonage Controversy and the Florida East Coast Railway 13

young men left Jersey City, New Jersey, and began their journey
southward. The tale told by Rowland was similar to that related by
Hermanson. Once on the train, the situation soon deteriorated into
crowded passages, locked doors and shipment to the Keys. The escape
story is, again, similar to others reported during the day, including the
collusion of a local sheriff with the railroad, charging those captured
with vagrancy and putting those unable to pay the fine on the local
chain gang.22 This same story line was soon picked up by some of the
more radical press of the day, including the Socialist Appeal to Rea-
son, a leading radical journal.
Not to be outdone by the socialist paper and its counterparts in New
York, the Boston World published its own expose' in March 1906.
The story began with the headline, "Fugitive Who Escapes Bondage
Tells of the Suffering Endured Working for Florida East Coast Rail-
road," John B. Harles, the detainee, told of the "hardships and misuse
of 4000 men," at the hands of the Flagler rail line. Harles was forced
to work ten hours a day in the broiling hot Florida sun with a pick and
shovel for a wage of $1.25 a day. He claimed that the original wage
promised him was for four or five dollars per day, but this soon
dwindled to $7.50 per week. Harles claimed that he was forced to
purchase a blanket to sleep in at the inflated price of $2.00 (when it
was not worth fifty cents) and then was charged $4.50 for an old pair
of shoes and $1.50 for overalls. Harles realized that the only way out
of this entanglement was to escape. Again, like the other stories,
Harles and his helpless companions were captured by armed guards
and forced back into the trenches, in knee deep water. Finally, with
luck and good fate, he escaped from the camp and made his way to
Miami and then overland, twenty-four miles, to Punta Gorda (called
Pontafora in the account). From there, he fled via Arcadia and finally
reached Sanford, where he hopped a train to Jacksonville, which took
him the final 300 miles. Harles claimed he arrived in Boston aboard a
Jacksonville based schooner upon which he had worked for his berth.
The victimized Harles appealed to the Federal government to put a halt
to such practices, especially those of the employment agencies which
had lured him in with their outlandish promises.23 Like others' stories
of imprisonment on the Keys, Harles' told of low pay, armed guards,
poor food and housing and harrowing escapes.
Articles in the Appeal to Reason featured an "inside" plant who


was sent to investigate the charges and found them worse than ex-
pected. In his clandestine reports to his editors, the nameless victim
described the pitch, the transport, the final destination and the condi-
tions of work. According to his reports, he was offered employment
by one of the agents of the "Flagler interests in Florida." From here he
promised his readers a, "truthful portrayal of industrial conditions as
they actually exist in the slave camps here in Florida, and the first
situation that I shall deal with will be the East Coast Florida Extension
Railway." He described his trip to Jacksonville aboard a "tramp
steamer," after hearing stories of the agents about working, "lightly
but a few hours every day, there were no swamps, no malaria and no
mosquitoes." He also was told, once upon the steamer, that the
passage fare was twenty-five dollars, and not the twelve dollars the
first agent had promised. Forced to sign a new ledger book with this
compelling debt, he knew he was in for a difficult time. Upon arriving
in Jacksonville, he was immediately herded upon a box car and he was
soon on his way south through Florida. In this account, the reporter
noted: "The car in which I was placed was crowded with a miscella-
neous assortment of unkempt humanity, and I felt miserably out of
sorts. All day we traveled, through a strange country of wild woods
and swamps and dejected little rice and cotton farms. Negroes grinned
and showed their teeth as we wound in and out from one turpentine
camp to another grinned in a knowing way, and winked to one
another as we slowly sped on our course."24
The next installment by the intrepid reporter noted that he was under
virtual round-the-clock guard and he had to, "At great risk and some
expense," employ a young man who was strong enough to take his
dispatch out through the swamps and make it to Key West without
detection from his isolated and unnamed Florida Key. He, of course,
did not attach any name to his dispatches for fear that should his
young message carrier fall into the wrong hands, he would face a
horrid retribution. Again, he worked all day long in the broiling sun.
He daily faced, "... the hardest manual labor ever inflicted upon the
race. And we do this in fear of the impending lash. Waste deep in
water nearly all the time, we shoulder the great logs and place them in
position for the pile driver; and should any of us shirk, or 'soldier,' we
are forcibly seized and beaten unmercifully." In one of his more
gruesome observations, the correspondent noted: "Yesterday a mere

The Peonage Controversy and the Florida East Coast Railway 15

I." ;.

Last fill at Hills Hole. HASF 1991-20

lad, weak and hardly able to be on his feet, sank beneath the load he
was trying to carry, when two burly bosses, both of whom are negroes,
stripped him to the waist, laid him across a log and applied a black-
snake whip to his bare back until he was unconscious,"25 This
undercover reporter continued to send dispatches from Florida for
nearly another year; and some of them included descriptions of the
infamous turpentine camps of northwestern Florida.
All of the common elements of the stories quoted earlier are con-
tained in the dispatches from the author of Appeal to Reason. Severe
labor, poor conditions, working in deep water all day, the hot, broiling
Florida sun, evil, burleyy" Negro bosses (a direct appeal to the racism
of their white readers), blood-chilling escapes and threats of violence.
That many of these reports are pure fiction cannot be denied. How
many rice and cotton fields could one see going south from Jackson-
ville to Miami in the early 1900s? Did Florida trains wander from
turpentine camp to turpentine camp dropping off northern laborers?
Given the well documented racism of Mr. Flagler, which was typical of
his age, how many whites were put to labor under Afro-American
overseers? Was it really three-hundred miles from Sanford to Jackson-
ville by train? The veracity of these stories is to be strictly doubted in
light of such obvious falsehoods. However, because of the shear
volume of such reports, there may be some truth to some statements
after winnowing carefully through the chaff.
The first actual investigation of the peonage charges in Florida did

. - .. ..... ; :z

;r L-, _*'.


Inot begin with the F.E.C., but in the phosphate mines and turpentine
camps of Northern Florida. The leader in these investigations was a
pugnacious woman reformer and attorney, Mary Grace Quackenbos,
of New York City. Her passion for the workers came from daily
observations of the plight of immigrants on the docks of New York.
To combat some of the abuses she observed, Ms. Quackenbos orga-
nized the "People's Law Firm" in Manhattan to aid the newcomers in
their adjustment period. Ms. Quackenbos, at the time, was a "middle
class reformer whose legal training and personal economic indepen-
dence," enabled her to carry on the fight against injustice. The letters
and reports, some of those cited earlier, were the spurs to her actions in
Florida, which included obtaining a $300 grant from publisher S. S.
McClure, to work as an undercover in Florida in search of labor
abuses. Her shock over what she found in Florida and Alabama led
Quackenbos to contact United States Attorney John M. Cheney,
working out of Orlando. She joined forces with Agent Eugene V.
McAdams and Emma Stirling, of Lake Thonotosassa, Florida, in
gathering evidence of peonage." Her first, and main, target was the
employment agent, S. S. Schwartz, of New York, City, and others. By
October 1906, Schwartz had been arrested and indicted on peonage
charges in Washington D. C. Three days later, Schwartz's prosecution
was undertaken by Assistant Attorney General Charles W. Russell.27
Ms. Quackenbos did not stop with the indictment of Schwartz.
Next she began an investigation of the turpentine and lumber industry
in Florida. The State reacted sharply to her investigations and those of
Special Agent Hoyt, who assisted Ms. Quackenbos in Florida. U. S.
Representative Frank Clark led the charge to investigate investigators
and challenged the Attorney General's office to produce results.
Clark's campaign was barely underway when Cosmopolitan Magazine
edition for March 1907, appeared containing a muckraking article on
peonage, entitled "Slavery in the South To-day." Author, Richard
Barry's sensationalism included his charge that: "In a new and sinister
guise, however, slavery has again reared its hideous head, a monster
suddenly emerging from the slime morbid depths of an inferno peopled
by brutes and taskmasters in human semblance." The magazine ran a
photograph of Flagler, with the caption: "Henry M. Flagler, of the
Standard Oil clique, whose Florida East Coast Railway is largely
responsible for slavery conditions in Florida."28 The combination of

The Peonage Controversy and the Florida East Coast Railway 17

Setting stakes at Crawl Key. HASF 1991-208-34.

the Quackenbos investigation and the magazine attacks made peonage
a headline throughout the nation. The Florida Times-Union, immedi-
ately jumped to the defense of the railroad and Florida in general. The
newspaper provided its readers with the definition of debt peonage and
noticed the new laws enacted to curb abuse of such a system and the
immigration act which, according to the Attorney General, shut states
out from making labor contracts for immigrants, a system that some
states had engaged in with some abuses. The press also raised the
spectre of sectionalism in the passage of such acts and asked: "Why?
Investigation after investigation has shown the long continuance of the
wrongs charged in the Pennsylvania mines and mills; the evidence
taken at Homestead is still in print. Why insist that only in the south
do these crimes find foothold?""29 To some extent, this question was
valid. As historian David Potter has noted: "The prevalence of the
'savage ideal' (really the tribal ideal) in the South gave credibility to
the Northern image of the South as a land of grotesque decadence and
sadism; while the psychological needs of the North made this image
functionally so essential to Northern liberal self-esteem that it would
perhaps have had to be invented if it had not existed in reality."30
Psychological reasons notwithstanding, the investigations spurred
reaction by Congressman Frank Clark, himself a former assistant
district attorney for the Southern District of Florida.31
Clark's reaction was to label all of the charges false and unfounded
and simply the work of "muckraking yellow journalism." He de-
manded, along with others, that the Hearst newspapers, especially the
New York Evening Journal, should be brought to task for such libel


and slander. In what the Florida Times-Union called a "Scathing
Showing Up" of the Hearst's papers and Cosmopolitan Magazine,
Clark declared:
In submitting to this House and to the American people the few
remarks I shall make upon the subject of "peonage" in Florida, as
treated in a recent article in the Cosmopolitan magazine for March
1907, and partly copied in the New York Evening Journal of February
25, 1907, I1 know that I shall bring down on my humble self the
resentful fury of the owner of these publications who happens to be a
member of this body, but I do not believe has occupied his seat for ten
full days during the entire life of the Fifty-ninth congress, but be that
as it may I would be unworthy of the high and honorable position I
hold if I should silently sit here and permit a member of this body,
either from his place on this floor, or through the columns of his
publications to slander and malign my people.
Clark repeated his call for an investigation into the purposes of the
The newspaper stories from around the nation, however, continued
to surface and damage the reputation of Florida and the F.E.C. In
addition to the New York Evening Journal and the Brooklyn Eagle, the
Boston World also printed an expose' concerning, "White Slavery in
the Florida Keys." Papers in Philadelphia and Chicago picked up on
the stories and found other "victims" of the enslaving railroad or
turpentine camps. All of this broke just after the devastating hurricane
of 1906, which killed many workers on the railroad, some of whom
were housed in houseboats or traveling on vessels, like the St. Lucie
and House-boat No. 4, where many victims were simply swept out to
sea without any further trace. The exact number of deaths caused by
this storm is unknown. Fear of the armed bosses may not have been
the only motive for some to want to "escape" from the Keys.
The Florida press responded by printing any number of interviews
with important people who had visited the Keys and witnessed, first
hand, the conditions of the men living there. A representative of the
Philadelphia Inquirer came to Florida and made an "independent"
investigation of the railroad and reported the following in the Florida
Times-Union, on March 26, 1908: "If the applicant did not wish to eat
in the mess tent," said J. C. Meredith to this reporter, "he could board
himself out of the commissary. A large percentage signed these

The Peonage Controversy and the Florida East Coast Railway 1i

contract cards [the labor contract] and sold them to some of the
undesirable forty per cent that we turned down. Men who were
looking for anything but work and wanted a free ride into a warm
climate for the winter. When they were aboard the train our Mr.
Cotton, Mr. Triay's assistant, went through the cars and put off about
ten per cent of these." The Philadelphia press man then noted that
many of the men, faced with being sent back North or finding work in
Miami, chose to dig ditches for the water department, harder work, in
standing water, than they would have had working out the contract.
And there was a definite difference in the work certain groups were
required to perform: "On the Keys we employ negro labor to cut the
right of way where the men build the grade. They have to clear the
brush and work in water. You will not find a white man in our employ,
outside of the anchor men on the dredges, who has to get his feet wet."
He also reported seeing not a single foreman or crew boss with a
weapon. The men were "treated right" according to an interview with
worker Martin Haley, which was cooborated by Thomas Galagher,
both from Philadelphia. The only men seen with guns were the
paymaster and his assistant. On the subject of health, the Inquirer 's
man noted the general good condition of the men and that the hospital
tents were empty, although some typhoid fever was reported in some of
the camps. The tone of the entire interview followed the same pattern.
It summed up the visitation by stating: "Through the whole investiga-
tion I have been unable to learn of one instance where a man is forc-
ibly detained, worked under armed guard, except in the case of Walk-
ing Boss Good, of Camp 9, on Indian Key, who was discharged for
going around armed and threatening with a gun the men who would
not work.""33 The Miami Metropolis, the St. Augustine Record and
other Florida papers also chimed in with this type of story and Florida
readers were fed a steady diet of favorable news.
Out-of-state papers and magazines also published many investiga-
tory pieces which praised the railroad's treatment of the workers. The
Beverley, Massachusetts Evening Times for March 27, 1906, pub-
lished a report from Florida Keys visitor Mr. Walter L. Stickney, who
observed the only armed men in the camps guarded the water tanks
because water had to be transported in at a cost of 10 to 15 cents per
gallon, and the men were not allowed to use it for bathing purposes.
Stickney also stated: "The laborers are paid $1.25 a day and charged


Dredging at Grassy Key. HASF 1991-208-61.

40 cents a day for board or they can look after themselves and the day
wage is paid them. The meals are very good. The men get hot bisuit
at every meal, fried bacon, corned beef and cabbage, potatoes, hominy,
oatmeal, with condensed milk and other side dishes, such as stewed
evaporated apples and prunes." Fine coffee, the reported declared,
was served with every meal and Sundays saw rice or bread pudding
added to the regular menu. "Any man, who is square with the com-
pany," he announced, "can leave and at any time." The "loafers" who
built up a debt are not allowed to simply skip off and are required to
work off their passage. These are the type who complained about
"intolerable conditions", according to Mr. Stickney.34 Archie H. Law,
writing for the LaCross, Wisconsin Leader Press, dated April 3, 1906,
also noted the false nature of the charges made by members of the
Eastern press. He boldly stated in his "Investigating Party" that
reports of armed guards, poor food and chain gangs of force laborers
were pure "falsehoods." The wages, he insisted, were fair, the food
good and the care of the men in the hands of trained nurses, a fine
hospital staff and a "fully equipped hospital" in Miami, available free to
all workers. Reports, like these, are found in numerous magazines,
newspapers and any other print media of the day. The Flagler
system's propaganda machine, which included ownership of at least
four Florida newspapers and heavy stock holdings in the Florida
Times-Union was very active in joining Congressman Clark in the

The Peonage Controversy and the Florida East Coast Railway 2 1


Cartoon from the period.

defense of the state against the charges of peonage.5
With all the propaganda from both sides hitting the press on a
frequent basis, it is easy to lose sight of the trial of Francisco Sabbia
and Edward J. Triay, the agents in New York who were most respon-
sible for recruiting foreign labor for the line. The legal action against
Sabbia began in March of 1907, with the charges consisting of misrep-
resentation, abuse, mistreatment, and fraud. The ultimate charge of
slavery, not peonage, was thrust upon the case because of the condi-
tions alleged in the complaints and the supposed applicability of an
1866 statute. Triay was also indicted at the time and both had to wait
a considerable time before the legal wars ended. In the meantime, the
press continued to attack or defend the railroad's agents depending on
the particular slant of the various papers. The New York Mercantile
and Financial Times, defended Sabbia declaring: "Injustice to Mr.
Sabbia, however, it may be stated that he has always conducted a
model exchange and employment office, and has never as yet intention-
ally broken the laws of this country. Nor has he ever had a single
complaint against his mode of doing business."36 The New York


Globe ran the headlines: "Thousands Lured to White Slavery on
Florida Keys: Arrest and Indictment of Two New York Labor Agents
Results in New Exposure of Horrors." This account of the actions of
the railroad, through its agents, even had the men lining up at gun-
point to force a consent to work and obey orders. "Thereafter," the
article reads, "always in debt and guarded day and night, with no
escape ... Men, it is said, were shot down like beasts when, exhausted,
they refused to work any longer."37 Thus did the press wars go on
until, in November of 1908, the charges were dismissed.
The dismissal of the case was not unexpected. U. S. Attorney for
New York, Henry L. Stimson, had early misgivings about the case and
expressed his opinion to the Attorney General of the United States.
The statute under which the case was tried, he believed, was too vague
and he doubted the ability of the Government to prove its case under
such language. He also expressed concerns about Grace Quackenbos'
ability to investigate the case impartially. He believed "her judgment
as a lawyer on both the facts and the law are entirely untrustworthy."
The railroad hired the capable defense attorney, John B. Stanchfield to
defend the prisoners. Stanchfield's defense consisted of arguing that,
"peonage,- meaning held in involuntary servitude in payment for debt -
could not be proved because slavery was charged in the indictment."38
Judge Charles M. Hough did not agree with the government attorneys
that peonage was the same as slavery, but agreed with defense in its
argument that there were no applicable Federal statutes against it, as
defined in the indictments. Regardless of the truth or falseness of the
charges, Quackenbos and her co-counsel, Charles W. Russell, were
over-matched. Their case was vague, witnesses unreliable, charges
excessive and methods of obtaining evidence questionable.39
Some of the charges leveled against the railroad by one historian
include the "damning description of the sleeping quarters" which were
made of pine framing and slatting, three feet by six and a half feet.
The company, he believes, did not sell mattresses because of the
vermin problem in the Keys. Unfortunately, this goes against the
company's publicized order for "several hundred special sponge
mattresses" ordered from the Miami Sponge Mattress Company.
Additionally, the assumption that the size and make of the bed frame
and slatting was cruel or unusual also is invalid, when one considers
the average military bedding of the day. That the men often did not

The Peonage Controversy and the Florida East Coast Railway 23

have, or more likely use, the legs provided by the company is not a
negative reflection on the conditions of the men. As anyone who has
camped in the Florida Keys knows, one often has to make adjustments
in the sand to get a more comfortable and level surface. Legs some-
times hinder this ability to achieve such comfort. It is interesting,
moreover, that the only stories that discuss holding the men at gun
point are those "discovered" by Quackenbos and Russell. A simple
reading of the newspapers cited above, e.g. the Brooklyn Eagle, would
give one all the ammunition needed, if it were reliable. Finally, the oft
repeated story of armed black guards holding watch flies into the face
of the record. Mr. Flagler and his engineers kept the work forces
strictly segregated. Any reading of the weekly work reports from the
alleged years of the investigation will demonstrate that whites, immi-
grant or not, were segregated from black workers. Only one crew
during this period was known to have been totally integrated. White
crew chiefs may have watched over black laborers, but the reverse was
highly unlikely.40
The indictments did not stop with Sabbia and Triay. Project
engineers J. C. Meredith and William J. Krome were also indicted for
peonage and asked to appear in U. S. District Court in Jacksonville.
The arguments and charges were roughly the same as those against
Triay and Sabbia in New York. The results were the same too. On
June 21, 1909, the charges were dismissed by Judge James W.
Locke.41 In no case were any of those charged with peonage actually
convicted of it or of slavery. This does not mean that debt peonage did
not exist relative to the Florida East Coast Railway.
It is clear from the evidence that men were held against their will
until the debt to the railroad was paid off in full. This was admitted in
court and in some of the evidence cited above. But, the claim that the
railroad held 3,000 men in debt peonage in 1905, as was argued during
the opening remarks of the Sabbia case is absurd and is easily dis-
missed by the record. One of the most frequently published reports in
the Miami newspapers of the day was the number of men coming into
and leaving the employment of the railroad company. The Krome
Collection is filled with these reports. Additionally, the weekly re-
ports, found in the Henry Morrison Flagler Museum Archive in Palm
Beach, sum up each week's activity on the construction of the exten-
sion, and contain paragraphs like: "Men continued to leave in consid -


erable numbers during the week, the labor report showing a loss of 200
from the end of the preceding week."42 These kinds of reports, both
public and private, do not indicate a wide spread conspiracy to hold
thousands in peonage.
With the world wide attention that the construction of the Florida
East Coast Railway's overseas extension brought, including thousands
of visitors of all classes, it is remarkable that outsiders did not witness
the alleged brutal conditions and threatening behavior of the crew
bosses. Is it likely that a system that instituted, by all accounts, one of
the first medical insurance plans, maintained a well-staffed and
constructed hospital, gave raises to skilled workers in a tight labor
market, built houses on the Keys for its work crews and purchased
mosquito netting for its workers, actively engaged in constant peonage
practices, such as those described by its detractors? Almost all of the
actual evidence in the case appears to side with the railroad and
against the reformers and muckrakers. It is truly time a more objective
view of the matter is taken. Despite their shortcomings, Henry M.
Flagler and his system, on closer investigation, deserve a much better
evaluation than some chroniclers have been willing to alot them. It is
to be hoped that this essay has contributed to the process.

The Peonage Controversy and the Florida East Coast Railway 25


1. Pete Daniel. The Shadow of Slavery: Peonage in the South, 1901-
1969, Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1972. ix.
2. Ibid. 19.
3. Jerry Wilkinson, compiler. Building the Overseas Railroad:
Newspaper Clippings October 1905 to December 1906, Preserved by
William J. Krome and the Krome Family. Tavernier: Jerry Wilkinson,
1995. Article entitled: "Condition on the Keys Told by Mr. Triay." 11.
The author is deeply indebted to the compiler, Jerry Wilkinson, for
providing a copy of these clippings. William Krome, one of Mr.
Flagler's chief engineers, finished the work Joseph Meredith started,
namely the final construction of the overseas railway. Krome kept
numerous files of clippings from all over the country, especially the
local Miami press. Probably because Mr. Krome, himself, was
indicted on peonage charges, he kept a very large number of the
articles concerning this problem. He was careful to include all sides of
the story in these clippings, especially the socialist newspaper, Appeal
to Reason, which castigated the railroad for its treatment of workers.
This unusually large collection of articles will be frequently cited in
this article and will, therefore, be referred to simply as "Krome
Collection: Years of the volume (as they are unnumbered at this date),
date of the article, if known, and the source, if known." As can be
readily seen, Mr. Krome's collection was made without due regard for
our historian's compulsion for accurate dating and referencing. Also,
the Triay article was sent to J. P. Beckwith, of the FEC, who passed it
on to Mr. Flagler. The article was dated January 5, 1906, and is
attached to some of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle stationary and can be
seen at the St. Augustine Historical Society, "Florida East Coast
Railroad" files, Mc 13, Box 1, Folder 20, St. Augustine, Florida. The
author would like to thank the Society's Library staff for their assis-
tance in making these valuable files available.
4. George E. Pozzetta, "A Padrone Looks at Florida: Labor Recruiting
and the Florida East Coast Railway." Florida Historical Quarterly,
Volume LIV, No. I (July 1975) 74-75.
5. United States Senate. "Reports of the Immigration Commission:
Abstracts of Reports of the Immigration Commission (In Two Vol-
umes: Vol. II)." 61st Congress, 3d Session. Senate Document No. 747.


Washington: Government Printing Office, 1911. 383.
6. Ibid.
7. Pozzetta. 76. Footnote Number 7.
8. Minutes of the Board of Trustees, Florida East Coast Railway.
April 19, 1893. St. Augustine Historical Society, Florida East Coast
Railway files. St. Augustine, Florida. The author would like to thank
Taryn Rodrigeuz-Boette and her staff for their generous assistance in
researching this aspect of the FEC. Also, the author would like to
acknowledge the assistance of the late Page Edwards for his encour-
agement and help in all aspects of the research for this paper.
9. Laws of Florida, 1905. Tallahassee: J. Hilson & Co., 1905.
Chapter 5595 [No. 224.]. 429-3 1,.
10. Krome Collection. Volume 1905-06. See July 16, 1906. pg. 105;
August 11, 1906. pg. 115; andAugust 15, 1906. pg. 118. All are
presumed to be from the Miami Metropolis.
11. See Pozzetta. 77-78. I have followed Pozzetta's conclusions
regarding the decline of the padrone system, relative to the F.E.C,
although the newspapers cited in endnote 8 indicate that the railroad
probably used the system longer than is implied in his article. But this
is a minor point and is not meant as a criticism of Pozzetta's sound
12. Krome Collection. February 13, 1906. Volume October 1905 -
December 1906. 25.
13. Daniel. Shadow of Slavery, 96-97.
14. Krome Collection. February 13, 1906. Volume October 1905 -
December 1906. 25.
15. Krome Collection. July 13, 1907. (newspaper not indicated)
Volume 1907. 13.
16. U. S. Senate Document No. 747, 61st Congress, 3d Session. 1911.
"Report of the Immigration Commission." 446.
17. Krome Collection. April 28, 1906. (newspaper not named) Volume
October 1905 December 1906. 61.
18. Krome Collection. May 21, 1906. (newspaper not named) Volume
October 1905 December 1906. 73.
19. Daniel. Shadow of Slavery. 99. One can write, as Daniel does,
that this was the worst case scenario, however, without reporting on
the conditions of other railroad camps in the nation, the charge is
greatly weakened.

The Peonage Controversy and the Florida East Coast Railway 27

20. Krome Collection. March 3, 1906. (presumably the Miami
Metropolis) Volume October 1905 December 1906. 33-34.
21. Krome Collection. February 7, 1907. (newspaper not named)
Volume December 1906 June 1907. 12.
22. Krome Collection. Undated, though in January clippings for 1906.
Volume October 1905 December 1906. 11-12.
23. Krome Collection. March 28 or 29, 1906. Boston World. Volume
October 1905 December 1906, 43.
24. Krome Collection. November 1906 (no specific date attached to
this clipping). Appeal to Reason. Volume December 1906 June 1907.
25. Ibid.
26. Jerrell H. Shofner. "Mary Grace Quackenbos, A Visitor Florida
Did Not Want," The Florida Historical Quarterly. LVIII(January
1980), 273-90. Shofner's account of the peonage cases is quite
interesting and highly readable. He goes into great detail about these
cases, especially those involving the turpentine interests.
27. New York Times, October 18, and 21, 1906. The former article
gives Sigmund S. Schwartz' address as 113 and 115 First Street.
Schwartz had originally been arrested on July 27, 1906, but was
released on a $3,000 bail bond.
28. Richard Barry, "Slavery in the South To-day." Cosmopolitan
Magazine, XLII, (March 1907) 5. This magazine is in the Krome
Files and available at a number of University Libraries throughout
29. Florida Times-Union, March 7, 1907. 4. Also see the same paper
for March 8, 1907, page 1, concerning the immigration act.
30. David M. Potter. "The Emergence of the New South: An Essay
Review," Journal of Southern History, 34 (November 1968),422.
31. Florida Times-Union, August 12, 1894. Clark was appointed to
this post by the District Attorney for the Southern District, 0. J. H.
Summers. It was at this time that he moved to Jacksonville from
32. Florida Times-Union, March 5, 1907. 1. The paper was quoting
Clark's speech on the floor of the House of Representatives for March
4, 1907.
33. Florida Times-Union, March 26, 1907. Krome Collection.
October 1905-December 1906. The author believes that this piece is


is misdated in the collection.
34. Beverley Evening Times. [Beverley, Mass.] March 27,1906. Krome
Collection: October 1905-December 1906. 56.
35. See Henry M. Flagler's "Private Letterbook, August 15th 1899 to
November 24, 1899." Letters of November 13, 1899 [Flagler to Joseph
Parrott], 407; November 18, 1899 [Flagler to Parrott], 452; November
20, 1899 [Flagler to Parrott], 459. These letters discuss the purchase of
the Miami Metropolis, the "Key West newspaper" and the St. Augustine
Publishing Company, publisher of the St. Augustine Record, respec-
tively. One method Flagler used to force newspapers to be more favor-
able was to withdraw advertising and the publication of the railroad
schedules from the newspapers, which, operating close to the margin in
this era, usually was enough to make them become more resposive. [Box
14-H, Book 7] Letter of May 7, 1894, Parrott to Flagler. All found at
the Henry Morrison Flagler Museum Archive (White Hall), Palm Beach,
36. New York Mercantile & Financial Times, April 6, 1907. Krome
Collection. December 1906-June 1907.33.
37. New York Globe, March 16, 1907. Krome Collection, December
1906-June 1907. 33.
38. New York Times, November 11, 1908.
39. Daniel. The Shadow of Slavery: Peonage in the South, 1901-1969.
95-109. Although the discussion of the case is more or less accurate, it
is obvious that Daniel totally believes that the affidavits are believable.
From many years of experience as an expert witness and investigator,
this a very naive position.
40. Daniel. op. cit. See Miami Metropolis, for May 21, 1906, for the
mattress order. For the work reports, see the Weekly Reports, 1905 or
1906. Henry Morrison Museum Archive, Palm Beach, Florida. The
Photographic collection at the Historical Museum of South Florida also
is a good source of information concerning the construction of the Over-
seas Railroad. The photographs on file there indicate the complete seg-
regation of the work crews.
41. Paper unknown. Labeled June 22, 1909. Krome Collection, Febru-
ary 1909 to December 1909. 6.
42. Weekly Report 1906. Week Ending March 3rd, 1906. 4. Henry
Morrison Flagler Museum Archive, Palm Beach, Florida.

The Peonage Controversy and the Florida East Coast Railway 29


Black Education in Miami, 1921-1940

by Doug Andrews

Michael W. Homel in his essay "Two Worlds of Race? Urban
Blacks and the Public Schools, North and South, 1865-1940'," reports
that in both systems blacks were disadvantaged by lower curriculum
offerings, overcrowding, poor facilities and inferior materials, and
lower salaries for teachers. Additionally, both systems experienced
high levels of segregation though the legal system did not require such
in the north. Differences also existed among blacks concerning integra-
tion versus segregation; northern blacks tended to be slightly less
favorably disposed toward integration. Even though these differences
are known, Homel states that much research on black urban education
remains undiscovered. Thus he identifies four areas that historians
might consider when researching urban black schooling: (1) funding
differentials, (2) differences in the physical accommodations, (3) the
relationship between the schooling provided and the efforts of whites
to keep blacks at the bottom of the job ladder, and (4) the process used
to deny blacks a meaningful voice in the governing of public educa-
What is specifically missing according to Homel is a detailed
analysis of individual school systems to demonstrate the scope and
depth of the inequality. This article begins to address these issues for
Dade County, Florida, by examining the way blacks were treated with
regard to the issues Homel identified for the years 19213 1944 in
Miami, Florida. To accomplish this end this essay will focus primarily
on one black school, Goulds Colored School,4 and use other schools,
black and white for comparison. For this paper the Goulds Colored
School will be be referred to by its current name, Mays Middle
School except when cited otherwise in source material.

Black Education in Miami, 1921-1940 31

Prior to examining the main issues studied here, a brief early
history of the Dade County Public Schools and Mays Middle School
is in order. Asterie Baker Provenzo and Eugene F. Provenzo, Jr., in
their Education On the Forgotten Frontier: A Centennial History of
the Founding of the Dade County Public Schools, wrote that the
statutory basis for the public schools were the federal regulations
which created the territorial government for Florida and the Florida
school law of 1849, which "... designated that the Registrar of the
Land Office was to act as State Superintendent of schools and the
county probate judges as county superintendents."5 The law also
provided for Trustees to be elected by the taxpayers of each of the
school districts in the counties. The Provenzos also observed that
under the Presidential Plan of Reconstruction (1866-1868) a separate
State System of Common Schools for Freedmen was established. In
1873, the Florida Legislature passed a Civil Rights Law which held
that, "... thatt no citizen of this state shall, by reason of race, color,
or previous condition of servitude, be excepted or excluded from full
enjoyment of any accommodation, facility, or privilege ... supported
by moneys derived from general taxation or authorized by law ... ."6
The establishment of schools in sparsely populated Dade County took
place in 18857; at that time, the county was already forty-nine years of
age. It appears that the first school for black children in today's
Miami-Dade County was established 1896 in Coconut Grove.
The original school in Goulds was organized by Arthur and Polly
Mays along with D.D. Cail in 1916 as part of the Mount Pleasant
Missionary Baptist Church, which they had founded in 1914.9 Mays
was motivated to provide a school for the black children of his com-
munity by his own lack of an education; he ". .. had only six weeks of
schooling ... [while].. his wife Polly [had] completed fourth grade.
They knew the value of education and helped each other learn by
reading from the Bible and working out mathematics problems."10 The
first teacher, who taught reading, writing, arithmetic and geography,
part-time, was Missionary B.F. James. Talmadge Roux and his family
moved to Goulds in 1918 and found eighty-two children attending the
school with one teacher. Roux joined forces with the Mays and D.D.
Cail in an effort to persuade the Dade County School Board to provide
another teacher. When the School Board agreed to this request in
1920, the men turned to the newly built New Bethel A.M.E. Church


for a second classroom.I Lidia Walker, the local historian of
Goulds, reported that "Miss Maude Roux ... took over Grades 4, 5
and 6. Miss Mattie Parrish taught Grades 1, 2 and 3."'2 "Grades one
through three were taught at Mt. Pleasant; grades four through six
attended New Bethel."13

Funding Differentials
Funding problems for urban black education began shortly after the
Civil War. Philip N. Racine, in his essay "Public Education in the New
South: A School System for Atlanta, 1868-1879," traces the establish-
ment of Atlanta's public education system and the struggle to support
that system with adequate funding. The issue of funding for the
schools was a result of the disagreement between the school board and
the city council, over how much money should be allocated for public
education14. This issue also surfaced in Memphis, Tennessee and was
partially centered around the question of free education for the black
population, and a "mixed" school system. The reason the issue of
public funding surfaced only after the Civil War was due to the fact
that education was illegal for the black majority of the Southern
antebellum population"5.
Due to the loss of records, it is still not possible to state the early
source for funding of the original Goulds school created through
Mount Pleasant Missionary Baptist Church. Based upon Dade County
School Board records, it appears that the school prior to 1923, was
receiving money from a source other than the public educational
system since the men who referred to themselves as "the committee of
the public school of Goulds Florida" offered to turn over schools funds
to the Dade County School Board.

"The following communication was received from the colored
people of Goulds:

"To the Bord [sic] of Public Instruction Miami Florida

"We the committee of the public school of Goulds Florida
wish to render this as our statement we have on hand one
hundred and eighty seven $187.00 which we will turn over to
the school board at any specific time,

Black Education in Miami, 1921-1940 33

"and we will clear and scarify [sic] the land,

"and we have investigated the matter of concerning the two
lots which was mentioned before the board and owner of said
agreed to exchange two lots and sell tow[sic] or three which
ever the board decide. the same will be explained on land map
by the committee."
(signed)A. Mays
D.D. Cail
Talmage Roux"16

One can speculate on at least three potential sources of support: the
local citizens, the Church, and/or some third party, e.g., a national
foundation. Jean Taylor, who authored a history of South Dade
recorded verbal reports of local donations and fund raising activities
among the black citizens living in the Goulds area."7 Taylor's history
is cited as the authority in other sources that discuss black education in
Goulds. As regards national foundations, the School Board Minutes
reflect two such national foundations that supported black education,
which were operating in Dade County, the Julius Rosenwald Fund and
the Slaten Fund; the extent of their involvement in black education in
Dade County does not appear to be recorded in local sources.

Graduating class at Perrine. HASF Jean Taylor Collection.

I _W10


James D. Anderson in The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860
- 1935, describes "a crusade for black education in the rural South.
This crusade, known by contemporary observers and historians as the
Rosenwald school building program, was launched officially in 1914,
the same year the migration started in full force."18 Anderson is of
course referring to the movement of black laborers from the farms of
the rural South to the southern cities and eventually to the North prior
to and during World War I. Julius Rosenwald was a Chicago philan-
thropist and president of Sears, Roebuck, and Company, who became
involved in assisting rural black communities in developing an educa-
tional system. The first reference to the Rosenwald Fund appears in
1929 when

Mr. John L. Butts, Vocational Supervisor for the County, and
James U. H. Simms, colored teacher of agriculture were
present and discussed the matter of establishing a canning
school at Goulds colored school. The matter will be held in
abeyance until it is known to what extent the State Agent for
the Rosenwald and Slaten funds will aid. 9

The Rosenwald Fund support required blacks and the local school
system to contribute money and/or labor. It appears from the following
quotation that the School Board members and the Superintendent did
not fully understand the process used by the Rosenwald Fund for
contributing money to black education.

Mr. Dan Roberts and Mr. J. L. Holferty, Trustees of Tax
School District No. 7 appeared before the Board and requested
that, if possible, transportation be given to the colored children
from Naranja and Princeston to the Goulds school. Mr.
Holferty stated that a good many children have to walk along
the highway and that some walk almost five miles; that there
are eighteen children coming from Naranja now and should be
quite a few more but they do not come on account of being
unable to walk; that the Julius Rosenwald Fund has offered to
pay the cost of transportation up to $500 for the first year,
one-third of said transportation cost the second year, and one-
fourth the third year, after which time the Board will have to
take care of it alone.

Black Education in Miami, 1921-1940 35

James U. H. Simms, Principal of Goulds Agriculture
School,advised that practically all the Rosenwald Funds are a
matter of promotion, and that if the matter of transportation is
carried on for a period of three years by that time its value will
become established in the minds of the authorities and they
will carry it on; that nothing is stipulated about going ahead
after the third year.

"On motion duly made and carried, action in the foregoing request
was deferred for two weeks."20
James Anderson wrote that the funds for the second black common
school movement were generally allocated according to a formula: "the
Julius Rosenwald Fund gave 15.36 percent, rural black people contrib-
uted 16.64 percent, whites donated 4.27 percent, and 63.73 percent
was appropriated from public tax funds, collected largely, if not
wholly, from black taxpayers."2"
The final part of the above quote reflects a belief that blacks were
not only cheated by denial of a free public education but that they were
cheated out of something they in fact were paying for through their tax
dollars. Indeed, there are several examples of black citizens being
given what appears to be less than they deserve from the tax dollars
they paid, either directly on property they owned or indirectly through
rent when they leased. At Mays Middle School, the School Board
denied assistance for the purchase of a "Rosenwald Library." Accord-
ing to School Board Minutes, "The Board declined to aid in the
purchase of a Rosenwald Library for the Goulds colored school."22
Later, during the period covered by this study, the Board did contribute
one-third of the $120.00 cost of a "Rosenwald Library." The citizens
of Goulds and the Rosenwald Fund each contributed one-third.

On motion duly made, seconded and carried the Board voted
an appropriation of forty dollars towards the purchase of a
Rosenwald library for the Goulds Colored School. It is
understood that the library is worth $120.00 and is to be paid
for as follows $40.00 from the Board, $40.00 from the
community and $40.00 from the Rosenwald Fund. The forty
dollars from the community has already been raised and turned
into the Finance Department of the Board.23


Arthur and Polly Mays. HASFJean Taylor Book Five.

Other examples include the Board's rejection of funding request for
improvements, as well as offering blacks less funds in response to
request for reimbursements.

Mr. James U. H. Simms, colored teacher of agriculture,
requested reimbursement of $129.27 for the expenses of the
car furnished him. The Board agreed to pay $70.00 of the
amount asked and set his allowance for the future at $20.00
per month.24
D. F. Goodman offered to furnish transportation for five
colored pupils from Hialeah to Booker T. Washington colored
school for $21.00 per month, $14.00 to be paid by the Board
and $7.00 to be paid by the pupils. Franklin Stirrups, Jr.,
offered to transport eight colored pupils from the Coconut
Grove colored school to Booker T. Washington colored school
for $20.00 per month to be paid by the Board [sic] and $10.00
per month to be paid by the pupils.
The Board decided to offer each bidder $10.00 per month for
its share of the transportation.

The above quote offered no justification for the decisions to provide
only partial reimbursement or funding but demonstrates a consistent
pattern of under funding services for blacks. In addition, the record
reflects a consistent pattern of spending less on the education of black
Board declined to approve the arrangement as it does not feel that it
citizens. For example, on January 18 1930, the principal of Perrine
Colored School appeared before the Board to request funds to match a

Black Education in Miami, 1921-1940 37

Rosenwald grant for the transportation of children to that school. "The
should set a precedent for the transportation of colored children.26"
The Board also declined to establish high school classes at Homestead
Colored School and the Goulds Agricultural School when petitioned
by citizens. In the case of the Goulds community "[t]he Board replied
that it had no funds with which to provide the necessary teacher."27
Salary differentials for white and black teachers represent another
example of how black citizens were given less. In 1926 salaries for
white teachers ranged from $125 to $180, while salaries for black
teachers ranged from $90 to $130. The typical reason given for the
disparity was that blacks teachers had less formal education or a
substandard education. While this may have been the case, the Board
also employed white teachers with less than a bachelor's degree, as
seen from the minutes of April 1, 1936, when the 1936-37 white
teachers salary scale includes a notice that all teachers will be required
to have a bachelors degree by the summer of 1940. Nonetheless, the
1933-1934 salary scales reflect a fifty percent difference in pay for
blacks, even if they held a bachelors degree, which continued through
the period covered by this study:
"The New Single Salary Scale adopted for the year 1933-34 is below -
compared with the old Elementary Scale"28

Old Elementary Scale:
1st yr 2nd yr. 3rd yr. 4th yr. 5th yr. 6th yr.
$1050 $1080 $1110 $1140 $1170 $1200

New Single Salary Scale:
1 st yr 2nd yr. 3rd yr. 4th yr. 5th yr. 6th yr.
$900 $960 $1020 $1080 $1140 $1200

Old High School Scale:
1st yr 2nd yr. 3rd yr. 4th yr. 5th yr. 6th yr.
$1080 $1140 $1200 $1260 $1320 $1400

Revised Salaries of High School Teachers:
Ist yr 2nd yr. 3rd yr. 4th yr. 5th yr. 6th yr.
$1140 $1200 $1260 $1290 $1290


Salary Schedule for colored Teachers 1933-34
1st Class:
Bachelor Degree from a University, College or Normal Training
School. Graduate State or Special Certificate
1st yr 2nd yr. 3rd yr. 4th yr. 5th yr. 6th yr.
$504 $528 $552 $576 $600 $624

2nd Class:
L.I. Degree from Two-Year college or Normal Training School. First
Grade Certificate or Primary Certificate
1st yr 2nd yr. 3rd yr. 4th yr. 5th yr. 6th yr.
$456 $480 $504 $528 $552 $576

3rd Class:
Less than two years of college training but with First Grade or Pri-
mary Certificate
Ist yr 2nd yr. 3rd yr. 4th yr. 5th yr. 6th yr.
$420 $444 $468 $492 $516 $540

The above scale and differential represents a greater disparity for
black teachers in 1933-34 than the year before when the above pay
rates were approximately $125 less than comparable white salary pay
rates for each of the categories below:
Colored Teacher Salary Scale 1932-3329
1st Class
Bachelor Degree
1st yr. 2nd yr. 3rd yr. 4th yr. 5th yr. 6th yr.
$648 $672 $696 $720 $744 $768

2nd Class
Normal graduate or two years of college with first grade or primary
1st yr 2nd yr. 3rd yr. 4th yr. 5th yr. 6th yr.
$576 $600 $624 $648 $672 $696

3rd Class
Less than two years training with first grade certificate
Ist yr 2nd yr. 3rd yr. 4th yr. 5th yr.
$528 $552 $576 $600

Black Education in Miami, 1921-1940 39

It appears from the above two scales that black teachers actually took a
pay cut that was not as great as the pay cut experienced by white teach-
ers. Also, it is worth noting that School Board members were paid $100
per month for their service.

Differences in Physical Accommodations
Marcia E. Turner in her essay "Black School Politics in Atlanta,
Georgia, 1869-1943," identifies adequate facilities as one of the three
issues that blacks worked for in Atlanta.30 Differences in the physical
accommodations provided for blacks and whites are easily demonstrated
in the case of Mays Middle School. Following the 1923 request for a
school building, the Board directed Mr. S. E. Livingston, one of the three
School Board members, to meet with citizens requesting the school for

A delegation of colored citizens from Goulds came before the
Board, asking aid for the erection of a colored school building at
that place. This matter was referred to Mr. S. E. Livingston with
power to act. Mr. Livingston set the following Friday for these
men to meet with the Redland Trustees and himself at his office
in Homestead to arrange final details.31

Following the request of the citizens of Goulds and their meeting with the
trustees, the Board received the following in a letter from William
Anderson, S. J. Davis and W. H. Cast:

The local Trustees of The Polly Mays School Bus. HASF Jean
Taylor Book Five.
district No. 7 recom- T ylrk :: i: ; :
mend that the County '
School Board erect a
Colored School I
building of two rooms
20X36 and 20X20 not
to exceed in cost to
County School Board
of $1250.00
"(signed) Win. Ander- .
son, Sec."32


A Bond election was scheduled for March 2, 1926 for District 7
which included, "... [f]or construction and furnishing of a colored
school building at Goulds, . "3 What is not clear from the available
record is why it took almost three years (June 1923 to January 1926)
to move from the decision to provide a school to the decision to ask
voters for the funds to build said school. Mr. J. F. Umphrey was
awarded the right to build a ". . new colored school at Goulds,
Florida ... for the amount of his bid $13, 754.00."34 This figure when
compared with the $22, 442 for the Redland High School addition and
repairs seems equitable until one realizes that the bond election was for
$130,000 and that a similar pattern of spending differential existed in
other school districts. For example, in Larkins (South Miami) the
Board accepted bids for an addition to the white school in the amount
of $16, 497 and for the construction of a black school in the amount of
The Board Minutes do not explain exactly why the Goulds school
building was still in the discussion stage in 1930, but Ms. Lidia
Walker's history of Goulds School may offer some insight: "Mrs.
Johnnie Mae Everett Mitchell
recalls the Mt. Pleasant
Missionary Baptist Church ,
was destroyed by the 1926
hurricane. Classes and church
were held in a tent and in New
Bethel A.M.E. Church.""36
Two years later New Bethel ..
was destroyed by the 1928
hurricane and Mt. Pleasant
Church hosted the school and r,
the New Bethel congregation.
This information along with
the discussions of repairs to
school buildings and the
economic depression during
the late twenties and early
thirties may account for the
delay in starting the perma-
Elijah J. Granberry, Principal of Booker T.
nent building. Washington High, 1928. HASF 75-34-14.

Black Education in Miami, 1921-1940 41

Mr. W. H. Mobley, Trustee for District No. 7, was present and
asked if the Board could have temporary buildings moved to
the colored school site at Goulds. He also asked if that the
school might be open in August. The Board asked that the
negro church continue to be used as a school house, and said
that the school might open in August if the patrons so de-

What is difficult to understand is the 1930 discussion of the cost of
building a school after the 1926 awarding of a contract to Mr. J. F.

The Superintendent reported that upon looking at the Goulds
Colored school plans provided by the Rosenwald Fund the
cost would be $40,000-50,000. "He recommended that this
plan be dropped indefinitely and that the Board use certain
plans and specifications prepared for this purpose some years
ago or employ an architect to provide new plans and specifica-
tions, provided the Board wished to proceed with the project.
On motion of Mr. Pardon, it was voted that Mr. Fisher be
authorized to take the matter up with the Rosenwald Fund and
ascertain whether if the School Board erects a building
costingapproximately $12,000.00 which will meet the local
needs, they will aid one-third of that amount and, if not that
plans previously drawn be looked over to see whether they


Dade County Council of
Parents and Teachers with its
Staff of Officers. HASF 76-1-


meet the present need; also that the Board determine whether it
is advisable to construct the building at all at the present time.38

In August of 1929 James U. H. Simms, principal of Goulds colored
school, stated the need of additional facilities for the accommodation of
increased attendance. The Board responded by first authorizing an
additional teacher and then two weeks later authorizing the Superinten-
dent to move a portable to the Goulds school sight. Seven years later the
Board authorized the building of"... four toilets, two at Perrine
Colored School and two at the Goulds Colored School, the cost not to
exceed Two Hundred Dollars ($200.00).39" One must assume from this
that those attending the Goulds School were using outhouses. The
following November the minutes note that a $2,088 bid was awarded for
the installation of a complete plumbing system and septic tank. One
suspects that Redland school, consisting of grades one through twelve,
located in the same special tax district did not rely on outside toilets.
Another example of difference in facilities was reflected in the
provision of cafeterias: A list of building projects was developed for a
period of six years. Goulds Colored School was on the list to receive
eight rooms at a cost of $12,000 and a cafeteria at a cost of $4,000. The
white school cafeterias ranged in cost from $12,000 to $24,000 with
$15,000 being the modal cost.40
A major practice in the education of black children in the United
States has been the use of churches as schools. Marcia E. Turner in her
essay "Black School Politics in Atlanta, Georgia, 1869-1943," dis-
cussed this trend which usually involved leasing the church for a
nominal amount.41 This practice started after the Civil War when large
numbers of black freemen sought an education. The following quote
suggests that the practice was also necessitated by the lack of options
for black communities:

A letter was written from Daniel Iverson, under the date of
October 13 one paragraph of which stated that 'The Negro
Ministerial Alliance has heartily approved the use of their
churches and six have been obtained for six teachers.' In order
to relieve the overcrowded condition in the Negro schools, Mr.
Filer moved and Mrs. Walker seconded the motion that the
proposition be accepted and that Superintendent Fisher

Black Education in Miami, 1921-1940 43

be instructed to employ six teachers for the colored churches
mentioned in Rev. Iverson's letter. They are to begin work
Monday, October 19. Unanimously adopted.42

It should not be assumed that people were indifferent or unaware of
the differences between the education provided for blacks:

Mrs. J. Avery Guyton protested against the inadequate facili-
ties of the Negro schools and requested the Board to include
enough money in next year's budget to properly house the
indefinite number of children who are not now in school. She
also protested against the unsanitary conditions existing in the
colored schools and requested a fairer distribution of salaries
for colored teachers. Mrs. Walker thanked her for her interest
in their schools and assured her that the Board would do all in
its power to relieve their situation next year.43

As we will see in the next section the differences in the facilities
provided for blacks was only part of a "catch 22," which prevented
them from advancing.

Education and Economic Disadvantages
Blacks were also limited by the quality of schooling provided.
Homel suggests that there was a relationship between the schooling
provided and the efforts of whites to keep blacks at the bottom of the
job ladder. There is ample evidence of this reflected in the Board
minutes in numerous
the Board authorized
the purchased of
maps at a cost of
$1,727.78 forjunior
and senior high
schools and a few
elementary schools,
but there was no
mention of Booker T. Washington's second graduating
class, 1929. HASF 76-1-27.


"colored schools" on the list.44 Compared with uponpn recommen-
dation of Superintendent Wilson and Mr. Conroy, it was moved and
seconded that $1000.00 be appropriated for library books for the three
negro senior high schools. Unanimously adopted.45" Or, "[i]t was
moved and seconded that Five Hundred Dollars ($500.00) be allocated
for the purchase of equipment for science laboratories in the Negro
high schools.46"
In addition to instructional material differences, school operating
hours [differed] for black children:

Upon recommendation of the Trustees of District No. 9, Mrs.
Walker moved and Mr. Banton seconded the motion that
Superintendent Wilson be authorized to set the time for the
opening and closing of the Homestead Colored School so that
their three month vacation comes during the harvest season,
which would be approximately January through April and that
the school operate during the summer months.47

In 1939, the calendar was changed back only to be changed again
in 1943.

Upon recommendation of the Superintendent and the Supervi-
sor of Negro Education that changes be made in the opening
hours of some the colored schools, both to facilitate transpor-
tation and to make it possible for the pupils to have a longer
afternoon so that they may have time to work in the harvest
season after school hours, it was moved and seconded that
the following schools be open at 8:30 and dismissed at 3:00
o'clock p.m.: Homestead, Goulds Perrine, South Miami,

While the last example might be viewed as an attempt to adjust to a
wartime shortage of workers, the offering of a substantially different
curriculum best supports Homel's charge that blacks were give an
inferior education in order to keep them in a lower position on the
economic ladder:

Superintendent Wilson then presented the curriculum for

Black Education in Miami, 1921-1940 45


Booker T. Washington, HASF 80-184-2, and its faculty, undated. HASF 75-34-19.

Booker T. Washington High School which gives pupils four
years of home economics or four years of trade study instead
of the regular high school subjects, pointing out this would
necessitate the revamping of our whole teaching set up at that
school and the building at a cost of $6,000, in order to equip
the classrooms, but it would save the cost of four teacher at
from $800 to $900 a year each.
Mrs. Walker moved the adoption of a resolution to appropriate
$6,000.00 to equip the Booker T. Washington High School for
a vocational school rather than a college preparation school.
Unanimously adopted.49

A vocational course of study would limit the future employment
possibilities for the students of the black school and thus reduce any
competition for white citizens in employment. In other words, whites
would have an advantage and find it easier to accept the fact that
blacks were not qualified for employment in the professional fields.


Denial of a Meaning Voice in Governance
The process used to deny blacks a meaningful voice in the govern-
ing of public education in much of the South was disenfranchisement.
The poll tax, the grandfather clause and literacy test are well docu-
mented devices employed for this purpose. The Dade County School
Board minutes also demonstrate other tactics such as the establishment
of "an auxiliary board for the colored schools," claiming to have no
money for requests, and deflecting requests by offering less expensive
"The subject of appointing a committee of colored citizens to act in
the capacity of an auxiliary board for the colored schools of Dade
County was brought up by Dr. Holmes and discussed. On recommen-
dation of prominent and influential citizens of both races the Board
appointed the following negroes; D.A. Dorsey, Dr. W.A. Chapman,
and Dr. John P. Scott. This committee has no power under the law but
is created by the School Board as a go-between to facilitate the proper
supervision and regulation of the colored schools of the entire commu-
nity.50" (emphasis added)
While the above quote is from 1921, later minutes from the thirties
indicate some willingness to take suggestions form the members of the
auxiliary board. D. A. Dorsey went before the Board in 1934 to
request funds for transporting children to Booker T. Washington High
School and was told to secure bids for such services and present them
at a special meeting. When Dorsey appeared a month later to present
the bids, he was referred to a special budget meeting and the Supervi-
sor of Teachers, Mr. 1. T. Pearson was instructed to work out some
plan in order that the colored students could attend school in their
respective communities and avoid being transported to the Washington
School. Pearson recommended the construction of portables at a
number of schools as a way of relieving congestion in the black
schools. This solution might appear to have merit unless one stops to
consider that a high school plant generally requires a more complex
building than an elementary or junior high school plant; the original
request was for transportation to B.T. Washington High School51.
Additionally, this example demonstrates that the efforts of black
leaders or citizens were deflected or limited, i.e., they were denied a
meaningful voice in the governing of public education
The Board's claims of lack of funds when presented with requests

Black Education in Miami, 1921-1940 47

from black citizens do not hold up
to a careful reading of the Minutes. It
was not uncommon to read that funds
were lacking when requested for the
needs of blacks, and while money was
usually available for the needs of

Canary Robinson, Principal
for Goulds Colored School,
presented the following
petition signed by the pa-
Dana A. Dorsey, Millionaire and
We the patrons of Goulds and Philanthropist. HASF x-73-x.
Homestead are sending you
this petition asking you to please establish a senior high school
at the Goulds Agriculture School. We do hereby promise our
cooperation in sending our children to school. Goulds is the
central place in this section of the county and we are not able
to send our children away from home, yet it is our desire to
have them continue their education.
The establishment of a senior high school will necessitate the
assignment of another teacher, so please give us some consid-
eration. (no signatures recorded

The Board stated that it had no funds with which to provide an
additional teacher.52
One week later the Minutes show the Board agreeing to pay $100 a
month for an additional bus to carry white children from Hialeah to
Miami Edison High School due to overcrowding on the existing bus"3.
In addition, the records reflect the payment of $50 a month to several
administrators for car allowance.
That blacks received a substantially lower education in the South is
an accepted fact in United States history. This essay has attempted to
show four ways that this end was accomplished in one mrnid-sized
Southern city. In the Dade County school system blacks were disad-
vantaged through funding differentials, differences in physical


accommodations, the level of education provided, and denial of a
meaningful voice in the governing of public education. The School
Board Minutes for the period 1921-1940, were used to demonstrate
the process used to provide blacks with a substandard education.
Other questions remain: Did this process continue in the period
beyond this years of this study? And, if so, for how long? What was
the extent of the work by the Rosenwald Fund in Dade County? What
was the source of the early funding and land for the school in Goulds?
Hopefully, additional scholarship will be forthcoming on this
important topic.

Black Education in Miami, 1921-1940 49

1. Michael W. Homel, "Two Worlds of Race? Urban Blacks and the
Public Schools, North and South, 1865-1940." In Southern Cities,
Southern Schools: Public Education in the Urban South, edited by
David N. Plank and Rick Ginsberg. New York: Greenwood Press,
1990. p. 144.
2. Ibid., p. 146.
3. The period examined for this study is the interwar period, an
exciting time of boom, bust and boom for the black and white popula-
tion of Dade County. There were references to Goulds Colored School
in an index to the Board Minutes for the following dates: "August 1,
1916 Patrons petition referred to Trustees (page 549);" "November
4, 1919 Colored school to remain at Goulds (page 894)." "November
26, 1919 Proposal that school be moved to Black Point (page 834),"
"January 6, 1920 Patrons petition for establishment of school (page
843)," "February 3, 1920 Site and building donation by patrons
(page 865)," "August 3, 1920 Site donated (page 938)."
4. The Goulds Colored School has gone by various names during the
years: Goulds Agricultural School, Goulds Junior High School, Arthur
and Polly Mays Junior and senior High School, and Mays Middle
5. Asterie Baker Provenzo and Eugene F. Provenzo, Jr., Education
On the Forgotten Frontier: A Centennial History of the Founding of
the Dade County Public Schools. Miami: Dade County Public
Schools, 1985. p. 21.
6. Ibid., p. 22.
7. Ibid., p. 26.
8. Ibid., p. 44.
9. "Designation Report Mays Middle School, 11700 S.W. 216
Street, Goulds, Florida." Metropolitan Dade County Historic Preser-
vation Board, December 18, 1991, p. 3.
10. Jean Taylor, Villages of South Dade, St. Petersburg, Fla.: Byron
Kennedy, [1985?J. p. 139
11. Designation Report. p. 4.
12. Lidia Walker, Mays High School History. Self published, p. 4.
13. Designation Report. p. 4.
14. Philip N. Rancine, "Public Education in the New South: A School
System for Atlanta, 1868-1879" In Southern Cities, Southern


Schools: Public Education in the Urban South, edited by David N.
Plank and Rick Ginsberg. p. 32.
15. Marcia E. Turner, "Black School Politics in Atlanta, Georgia,
1869-1943." In Southern Cities, Southern Schools: Public Education
in the Urban South, edited by David N. Plank and Rick Ginsberg. p.
16. Dade County School Board Minutes (SBM) 6/19/23 p. 1557
(special meeting) It appears from the minutes that three members of
the Mt. Pleasant Missionary Baptist School Board, Mays, Cail and
Roux, appeared before the Dade County School Board on June 12,
1923 to request a building and then returned to the Dade County
School Board on June
17. Jean Taylor, Villages of South Dade. p. 139.
18. Anderson, James D. The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860-
1914. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1988.152
19. SBM 2/13/29, p. 2643.
20. SBM 1/8/31, p. 3200
21. Anderson, p. 153
22. SBM 3/7/30, p. 3004.
23 SBM 11/1/33, p. 4092.
24. SBM 2/20/29, p. 2648.
25. SBM 9/26/28, p. 2611.
26. SBM 1/18/30, p. 2910.
27. SBM 9/21/32, p. 3748.
28. SBM 7/28/33, p. 4024.
29. SBM 9/4/32, p. 3740.
30. Turner, p. 163.
31. SBM 6/12/23, p. 1554 (special meeting). The county was divided
into 10 Special Tax School Districts with each district having three
elected Trustees who served for two-year terms. These Trustees
oversaw the operations of the schools in their district, making recom-
mendations on hiring, rehiring teachers and other personnel, and
seeing that the schools were maintained properly. The Recording
Secretary Office of the School Board has some deteriorating notes
from Trustees' Meetings which are illegible in addition to incoherent;
other than this meager collection nothing exists to describe these

Black Education in Miami, 1921-1940 51

32. SBM 6/19/23, p. 1554 (special meeting).
33. SBM 1/26/26, p. 2114.
34. SBM 6/1/26, p. 2274.
35. SBM 7/14/24, p. 1762.
36. Walker p.4
37. SBM 7/25/28, p. 2589.
38. SBM 3/25/31, p. 3273.
39. SBM 12/30/36, p. 5526.
40. SBM 10/12/36, p.5482.
41. Turner. p. 163.
42. SBM 10/14/36, p. 5484.
43. SBM 3/10/37, p. 5597.
44. SBM 4/14/37, p. 5660.
45. SBM9/3/41, p. 6842.
46. SBM 10/22/41, p. 6872.
47. SBM5/19/37, p. 5822.
48. SBM 9/1/43, p. 7206.
49. SBM 8/4/37, p. 5951.
50. SBM 1/19/21, p. 1003.
51. SBM 7/18/34, p. 4462. "Mr. I.T. Pearson, Supervisor of Teachers,
recommended by letter the construction of additional portable build-
ings at the following schools with the number of building required set
opposite the name of the school:
Hialeah 1
Liberty City 6
Coconut Grove 6
South Miami 2
Allapattah 1

Franjo Frams 1

"Mr. Pearson further advised that if the facilities are provided as
enumerated above, the need for transporting of colored children to
Booker T. Washington High School in Miami would be obviated."
52. SBM 9/21/32, p. 3748.
53. SBM 9/28/32, p. 3753.


Miami's Land Gambling Fever of 1925

by B6ntdicte Sisto, M.A.

In the Parisian newspaper Le Gaulois of January 9, 1926, Jean
Forestier, Park Commissioner of Paris, wrote an interesting account of
his visit to Miami the previous year:

Miami is not strictly speaking the residence of these tourists. It
is the center of their real estate affairs. It is surrounded by all
the new subdivisions which grow in a few months as if by
magic on the low, flat and humid soil. Miami offers to the
newcomer, as he descends from the train into that exciting
atmosphere, a most unexpected sight. The fever of construc-
tion, the incessant movement in the streets, often too narrow
for the crowds of men and women and for the circulation of
the many automobiles, one at least to each inhabitant; shops -
agencies for the sale of real estate; banks, beauty parlors;
restaurants. All are open on the street. One enters a shop and
is offered a visit in an automobile bus to a new subdivision
that is being constructed on the outskirts. [...] Just how much
time has all this growth taken? It has required, one might say,
about four years. It has arrived, this year, at a high point
which savors of a miracle.1

What exactly is the miracle identified in this French view of
Miami? The following essay will attempt to determine some of the
main characteristics of Miami's land gambling fever of 1925, focusing
on the various factors that led to this national phenomenon and on the
role of the Magic City as the place where the boom reached its zenith.

Miami's Land Gambling Fever of 1925 53

Miami, A City Upon the Tropics
In 1896, the year when Miami was incorporated, a journalist from
the Miami Metropolis stated : "It is only a question of time when this
locality will be the most noted winter resort in the United States."2
With the likes of such visitors as the Rockefellers, Astors, Camegies
and Vanderbilts, Miami quickly became the famed resort prophesied
here. Miami launched its first national advertising campaign during
World War I, with the result that many of the new visitors were middle
class. What Palm Beach was to the wealthy few, Miami was now
determined to be to the middle-class. In an early 1920s brochure
published by the Miami Chamber of Commerce, one could read:

If casual tourist, your visit will be a perpetual delight.
If home-seeker, there is an ideal environment here for all that
the word 'home' means, yet distinctly different.
If investor, here opportunity is blazing manifold for those who
seek her.
Come to Miami, easily reached and easily enjoyed, the city of
a thousand enchantments, where the glorious sunshine, the
balmy sea-breezes and God's smiling outdoors await you.3

Miami's three greatest assets, its unique sub-tropical climate and
ambiance, the proximity of the place, and its sensational demographic
growth, were used as the key components of the campaign to promote
the beach resort. If Southern California had already gained much
popularity due to her climate it was said to be "Perpetual Spring" in
Los Angeles Miami proclaimed her superiority as the place "Where
Winter [Was] Turned to Summer."4 As journalist Kenneth L. Roberts
humorously pointed out in 1922, "The sun is larger and warmer than
in other parts of America; and the sky unless the Florida authorities
are mistaken in their observations is higher and bluer than else-
where."5 Likewise, a newspaper correspondent observed that the
climate was Miami's "own champagne,"6 At a time when two-thirds of
the American population lived in the northeast, the strategy also
consisted in stressing the fact that California was seventy-two hours
from Chicago, Miami a day and two nights.7 Finally, the remarkable
growth of Miami was apparent in Federal Census from 1920, which
showed "The Wonder City of America" to be growing faster than any


other city in the country, a gain of 440% over the population figures
for 1900. Dade County, of which Miami was the county seat, led all
counties with a 258 percent8 growth rate. In 1920, Miami was the
fourth largest city in Florida with 29,571 inhabitants and was anxious
to have the public to recognize her greatness as a resort. Carl Fisher,
who had transformed a mangrove swamp into the paradisiacal Miami
Beach, was very active in the promotion of Miami Beach as the new
winter playground of the nation.9 For instance, in 1922, he managed to
negotiate an illuminated sign in New York City, at the comer of 42nd
Street and Fifth Avenue. On this sign, one could see an attractive
sunset and coconut trees with the legend, "It's Always June in Miami."
When discussing the sign with the Miami and Miami Beach Chambers
of Commerce, Fisher wrote: "I believe that this sign constantly stand-
ing out on rainy and stormy nights during the winter season would be
of great value, as no doubt, more people pass this corner than any
other in the United States, and particularly the very highest class
people in automobiles go up and down the avenue, and people from all
over the world are up and down this street every day."10
The impact of Miami's dynamic advertising campaign was beyond
all expectations, with sun worshippers suddenly flocking to Florida in
greater numbers than ever. In a letter addressed to a Miss Whitney in
April 1924, Fisher remarked: "The present season has been the best
season we have ever had; but it will not compare with next season. In
our estimation, it is entirely unnecessary to spend money advertising
Miami in Northern papers. The time has passed when we need adver-
tise for the city. [...] Miami's population is gaining over Palm Beach
three or four to one, also their wealth is about the same proportion, and
yet, for twenty years, Palm Beach has had probably twenty times as
much advertising as Miami has had.

The best advertising Miami had in the North is from the
visitors who are here. One visitor singing the praises of Miami
in the North is worth more to Miami than a half-page in the
largest newspaper in the country, even if the ad is run every
day. We believe in advertising, but all good advertisers agree
that there is no advertising equal to satisfied customers.
Miami and Miami Beach receive annually hundreds of thou-
sands of dollars of free publicity from the people who

Miami's Land Gambling Fever of 1925 55

have been here. There are as many people west of the Mississippi
River who know as much about Miami and Miami Beach as we
have people in the same district who know anything about Paris or

During the first half of the twenties, the population of Miami almost
doubled during the winter months; also, it was estimated that more than
300,000 visitors stopped in the sub-tropical city every twelve months.12
This influx gave impetus to the demand for more hotels, houses, roads,
and public utilities. Consequently, constructionwork of all kinds increased
enormously. Hundreds of hotels, apartment houses and homes were built,13
with a wide selection to meet every demand. For example, Miami pro-
posed "moderate hotels at a modest tariff or palatial hotels with extensive
subtropical gardens where tea dances [were] held amid palms and a riot of
colorful foliage."14 Examining this intense building activity in 1922, a
reporter from The Saturday Evening Post identified the emergence of real
estate speculation: "The publisher of the leading Miami paper declares
that in some sections of the city, the soil is so fertile that if a shingle is
planted in it before sunup, it will grow into a fully equipped bungalow by

Miami surges ahead so rapidly that none of its citizens dares to
stand still for a moment in order to watch it grow, for fear that
he'll be left so far behind that he'll never catch up. If he makes a
prediction, he makes a running prediction; never a standing
prediction. If he sells a piece of land and it's as natural for a
Miami citizen to sell a piece of land as it is for him to have coffee
for breakfast he is very likely to name a price that the land will
reach tomorrow instead of the price that it has reached today. He
is always moving ahead of the city. [.. .]
The real estate operations in Miami are on a scale that will
provide building lots enough to go around. The exact number of
real estate dealers in Miami is not known. Practically everyone
over eighteen years of age dabbles in real estate at one time or
another. Almost everyone owns a lot somewhere that he is anxious
to get rid of, although it is unanimously admitted by the owners
that every lot in Miami will double in value in a year's time.
Almost every other doorway along Miami's crowded streets
shelters a real estate firm.'5


Miami Wonder Stories
During the following months, a myriad of stories of amazing profits
made in Florida land speculation spread throughout the United States.
In The New Republic of March 26, 1924, one could read that Mrs. X
had just sold her home for $100,000; she had purchased it three years
before for $18,000, but the business district had marched down upon
her and devoured her hearthside at the compensation stipulated. Mr. Y
had bought in Inglenook-by-the-Sea for $2,500 in 1921, and had
refused $25,000 a few years later; he was holding out for $50,000. Mr.
Q's orange ranch lay along the route of a new boulevard and his net
profit on four years' ownership was $15,000 a year, of which $900
was from the oranges.16 Miami wonder stories were manifold:

In 1917, F. B. Miller purchased eight and a half acres on the
bay front, between the Causeway and Collins Bridge, for
$85,000. The same season, he sold the tract at a net profit of
$60,000. Now single lots on the bay front in this tract are
priced at around $85,000 and lots back from the bay at from
$40,000 to $60,000. Acreage on Flagler Street at Twenty-
second Avenue was sold about fifteen ago for thirty dollars an
acre. It is now worth $75,000 an acre, according to lot prices.
J. W. Rice, known among polo players as Jimmy Rice, two
years ago purchased lots in the Sunset Lake section of Miami
Beach for $18,000. He has just sold the lots for $70,000.
Back in 1911, after many winters spent in Miami, Mr.
Higheyman, whose former home was in St Louis, purchased
twenty-three acres of swamp land from Mrs. William Brickell,
to which he added five acres by filling in from the bay, making
twenty-eight acres in all, the addition being the first filled
ground in Miami. During his residence there, he had heard
Mrs. Brickell say on several occasions that she intended doing
something with the swamp land. One day, he conceived the
idea of purchasing this land and developing it himself, which
he did, paying $80,000 for the twenty-three acres. It is now
worth more than $2,000,000. 1

Miami's Land Gambling Fever of 1925 57

These stories about F E emen
soaring land values
fed the Miami fever
and encouraged
increasing numbers
of Americans to .
pour their retirement a .
savings into Florida
real estate." Parallel I
Carl Fisher's Rosie the Elephant and construction equipment appearing
to the land specula- in front ofthe future site of Miami Beach's Nautilus Hotel. HASF Photo.
tion, the news spread
that Miami visitors spent sleepless nights dancing and drinking in the
various clubs of the Magic City. In 1924, after four years of National
Prohibition, one could read in the national press that the Volstead Act
seemed to be a failure in Florida where people did not obey what they
considered a bad law.19 A classic description of the site included the fact
that Miami was a hot bed for bootlegging and smuggling due to her
proximity to wet Bimini, Nassau and Havana. Recalling his trip to boom-
time Florida, one reporter explained : "Never, along any beach I ever
traversed, in any part of the world, did I find so many empty whisky
bottles as I have found along Miami Beach. These bottles all bore Scotch
labels, and were especially numerous in the vicinity of the palatial
hotels."20 Another observer pointed out that this industry was so elabo-
rate, part of it was carried on under the thin pretense of the fishing
business: "Any visitor may see the cheering spectacle of twenty huge
limousines waiting in line at the entrance to a 'fish wharf,' their owners
supposedly so overcome by the craving for piscatorial delicacies that
they insist on driving home with the fish, wrapped in square packages."21
Tales that the law worked badly, therefore allowing one to live a rebel-
lious lifestyle in Edenic Southern Florida, was another substantial factor
that fueled the migration.
In 1925, Miami became the most talked about place in America with
sky-high building permits, real estate transfers and bank deposits.22 A
land speculation of extraordinary dimensions was taking place on the
Florida peninsula, and Miami appeared to be the center of this fascinat-
ing moment in financial history. The summer of 1925 was the first time
ever the normal lull of low season did not occur in Miami: "People from
the four corners of the land poured into Florida by tens of thousands,"23


Lyman Delano, vice-president of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad,
would later recall. "They come, in droves, flocks, herds,"24 according to
one account in The New Republic. Richard E. Edmonds, editor of
Manufacturers 'Record, related in The American Review ofReviews:
"The highways running from the North and the South have for
months been black with automobiles Florida-bound. [...] For months,
the railroads leading to Florida have been crowded,25 likewise the
steamship lines; and arrangements on both are being made from four
weeks to two months or more in advance."26
As tourists overran the State seeking fortune, it was observed that
those who made up the rush to Miami were "a veritable cross-section of
American life: the butcher, the baker, from the big cities, from Main
Street, and from the country behind Main Street, they come. The
greater part have deliberately come to buy; others coming for winter
months on a vacation have caught the fever and become property
owners. [...] The bulk of the purchasers, it would seem, are hard-
working, middle-class, small town folks."27
These newcomers crowded into the sixty-mile stretch going all the
way from Palm Beach to Miami along the shore faster than hotels could
be raised to hold them. As they went along the American Riviera,
making it the country's biggest tourist draw, they drove through a huge
checkerboard of real estate lots, some large tracts of land being taken
up to be subdivided into small farms, and others turned into individual
lots it was estimated that there were more than 500,000 home-site lots
for sale in this Southern region served by a single railroad and one
through highway.2 As one drew closer to Miami, everything seemed to
move faster and faster:

Miami is but a few hours by train from Palm Beach, through
orange groves and acres of palmettos, and we may add, count-
less real estate developments, for Florida is in the throes of the
most tremendous real estate boom known in history. Every-
where one goes one sees nothing but real estate developments.
Everyone talks, eats, and drinks real estate, and the center of
activity is Miami.29

One witness vividly recalled Downtown Miami simmering with
excitement at the height of the boom:

Miami's Land Gambling Fever of 1925 59

It was 1925 and I shall never forget Flagler Street. It used to
have shops, I imagine, just like any main street, but when we got
there, there wasn't any business but real estate offices. You
couldn't even buy a Coca Cola on the whole street! You couldn't
even walk down the sidewalks, it was so crowded! You had to
walk out on the street if you wanted to get anywhere.30

Quite a number of contemporary observers told of how the traffic was
even worse than in Manhattan.31 "All day long and half the night, the cars
shot through the main artery of the town, old broken-down flivvers with
tents and bundles tied grotesquely to the sides, limousines of more aristo-
cratic lineage, cars from Kentucky, Idaho, California, New Jersey,
Illinois, from everywhere."32 The lack of parking lots for this herd of
automobiles is indicated by aerial shots of 1925 Miami showing hundreds
of automobiles parked on the City's waterfront property.
As mentioned earlier, the whirlpool of activity was centered in the
Miami region where everything was seemingly for sale. Examining this
active social scene, a newspaper correspondent wrote : "Whoever remains
longer than a week and does not buy a lot must be an incorrigible icono-
clast, or blind, deaf and paralyzed. There is no other subject of conversa-
tion but buying and its potentialities.""33 Similarly, in the Miami Daily
News' "monster edition""34 of July 26, 1925, a contemporary observer
named Jule King pointed out that there were more real estate salesmen
than any other profession in Miami:

The only people who don't sell real estate in Miami are those who
don't have a window to put a sign on. Real estate in Miami is just
as necessary as politics in Washington. Everybody comes to it
sooner or later. It doesn't make much of a difference whether you
are on the buying or selling end as long as you have your finger
somewhere in the pie so you can discuss it at dinner parties and
after church. Why? If you didn't know anything about real estate
down here, you wouldn't be able to talk to two thirds of the
population because that's the only kind of language they speak.35

Indeed, everybody seemed to join the ranks of those selling land as if
the contagion was irresistible. Young men just out of high school joined
"Binder Boys," "professional" speculators who swept into Miami and


southeast Florida in 1925 from the Northeast to make a killing in this
high stakes land lottery. Houses and lots, acreage and apartments
passed from owner to owner "in almost kaleidoscopic succession.
Prices that even make the most visionary Floridians shake their heads
are paid, and the properties immediately resold for still higher fig-
ures."3 Miami was immersed in land speculation, and everyone
seeking fortune without work was constantly reminded that ten minutes
was ancient history in Florida real estate.37
At the peak of the boom, an estimated 25,000 real estate agents said
to be "capable of selling refrigerating machines to inhabitants of the
Arctic Pole""3 were attached to one or more of the 2,000 real estate
offices in the city39 including almost 200 offices in downtown
Miami.4 A poem by Grace McKinstry describes what it was like to see
it first-hand:
The realtors across the street,
White-knickered, smiling, watch and wait:
Their maps are blue, their desks are neat,
Their signs say brightly, "Real Estate."
Their offices of modest size
May shelter half a dozen firms,
Their blackboards give the day's Best Buys,
"Third cash and very easy terms"

All just alike, door after door
All selling acreage or lots,
Close in For Business North Shore,
The Southland's Choicest Beauty Spots.
And men who buy can soon resell
And double on their cash -perhaps;
Friends hasten in to do as well -
More contracts, abstracts, listings, maps.
Invest, resell, and so it goes
All through the block that faces me.
Just deals and profits.4'

People were accosted repeatedly on Miami streets and offered free
dinners and bus trips42 by high-pressure salesmen encouraging them to
'invest' the verb 'speculate' being excluded from people's vocabul -

Miami's Land Gambling Fever of 1925 61

ary.43 All Florida was good ("Buy anywhere, you can't loose"44); people
could not go wrong since what they were buying was not the land but the
Florida climate. Journalist Bruce Bliven relates how tides of realtors
pushed the temperature still higher:
"Every day, their bus loads of sheepish, fascinated tourists go out to
"the property" accompanied by wolf-eyed salesmen, incredibly dapper and
slick, flirting discreetly with daughter Susie as they sell lots to Paw and
Maw. [...]
"The day's ingredients are a lecture by a spellbinder, under a circus
tent, a bad free lunch, and highly intensive work by the salesmen, each of
whom cuts out his little group of victims from the general flock and herds
them off in a corner among the white-painted lot stakes, waving a
crumpled blue-print as he expounds the glories of the future city which is
to arise dreamlike upon this desolate plain. [...]
"To be sure, he omits a few things. He fails to mention that much land
securely high and solid during the midwinter dry season is flooded when it
rains. He skips lightly over the fact that the water at present furnished to
Miami and most of its suburbs is undrinkable, the whole population
consuming bottled stuff. He omits to note that lots have been laid out for a
city of at least two million, and that the collapse of the boom and a
deflation of values is therefore inevitable, no matter how rapidly Miami
grows, nor to what ultimate size.""4
To the thousands of "boomers" too much in a hurry to "bother their
brains with the location,"4" the salesmen would simply show a vague map
of the area and tempt them with honeyed words and references to extraor-
dinary values. In most case, the victims would buy at a torrid pace,
instantly selecting their lots from this meaningless blueprint and signing a
William Jennings Bryan, three-time Democratic Party contract either in the
Presidentialcandidate, addressedprospectivepurchasersof Coral street or in a real estate
Gables real estate from a platform in the Venetian Pool.
Sboffice "replete with huge
/ and gaily printed maps of
their properties and
fascinating bird's-eye
models showing the
future city bustling with
life and activity."47 Each
map was invariably
labeled: "Construction to
be started immediately."


An Over-Priced Market
Real estate transactions proceeded extremely fast since a mere
deposit of generally no more than 10% of the total price allied to a
single signature on a "binder" was enough to close the deal. "You didn't
have to have witnesses, things did not have to be attested by a notary
public, so it was exceedingly easy to get contracts put on record,"
recalled Adam G. Adams.48 This deposit system turned out to be the
basis of millions of dollars made during the boom since the nominal
sum was legally sufficient to close a land deal, and the first installment
(usually 25% of the purchase price) could not be demanded until the
title to the property had been cleared. In the summer of 1925, the
congestion in law offices was such that it extended the deadline that
determined the first installment. People now having to wait from four to
six weeks to have their property transactions recorded, 'binder boys,'
professional depositors, dominated the scene, encouraging extremely
fast re-sales and boosting the increase in land prices up to insane
proportions. By the end of the year 1925, land on Florida was worth
more than New York City property.49 To the newcomers who argued
that values were extremely high by comparison with prices for land in
and about the town up North, realtors replied that people in the North
were quite unable to appreciate the Florida situation because prices
elsewhere "were not a proper standard of comparison."50 Jack Bell, a
journalist for the Miami Herald at the time of the boom, remembers
that the binder boys came from everywhere. "They wore fancy shirts,
plus-four golf knickers and argyle knee-length sox. Every binder boy
had a plat of his corporation's land, a fast sales chatter and a little
binder book wherein you signed on the dotted line. [...] You often
thought, when you signed with a binder boy, that you had bought a
piece of property. Perish forbid. The instant he got your signature,
especially on your check, he became your agent. 'You've bought a
steal,' he'd say. 'I'll sell your equity in this lot before sundown or I'm a
dirty dog. And we'll split a neat profit!' The strange part of this was
that often he was right. Parcels of land, often under water (except on
the realty plat) sold three, six, nine times, always at a profit."51
Hundreds of gullible speculators had become the owners of lots that
were still under water or in subdivisions having been created far inland,
"on flat and arid plains or among scrubby forests of the native pine."52
Also, with the Florida East Coast Railway embargo on

Miami's Land Gambling Fever of 1925 63

building material imposed in late summer 1925,"5 defective and inappro-
priate building materials were used by dishonest constructors. After the
hurricane of September 18, 1926 destroyed hundreds of homes in the
Miami region, a reporter returning from an investigation through the
State remarked that many unskilled persons anxious to make money
quickly had turned to the manufacture of cement blocks:
"They occasionally used about a handful of cement to a barrel of sand
and made so-called cement blocks from the resulting mixture.
"Since houses were being rushed to sell during the boom period, these
blocks were frequently built into the walls of houses before they had set,
and the houses were built without any thought of wind pressure. The
people who built them had heard of hurricanes in a vague way, but
probably thought of them if at all as something used by novelists to
further the action of their stories.
"One of the peculiarities of a cement block is that it sucks up water
like a sponge. Consequently, if the blocks are not wet down when they
are being built into a wall, they suck all the water out of the mortar that
is supposed to join them to adjacent blocks, and the mortar dries up into
a sandy substance that has little or no strength. When a wall like this is
given a brisk kick, it trembles violently; on receiving two or three more
brisk kicks in the same place, it falls down."54
Adam G. Adams provides confirmation that the builders were imagi-
native people buying up all sorts of things to put in houses:

The first house we had out here was built by a man named
Nichols from Atlanta who was financed by Lindsey Hopkins,
and there was every sort of thing put into that building. They
bought tile down from Chatanooga, and used them instead of
blocks; they used pine woods that they'd keep up through all the
State of Florida, and they used concrete blocks that had practi-
cally no cement in them. There was no cement mill anywhere
near around. The closest cement mill was Richard City, Tennes-
see, near Chatanooga. So they did the best they could, but houses
were anything but uniform in their material. [...] They couldn't
get any laths, so they just plastered inside right on the blocks,
just as they do on the outside.55


Miami, A New State of Mind
By the end of 1925, Miami went through the inevitable experiences
that always accompany boom times wherever they may develop. In a
few months, the extraordinary land values of the region deflated, and
after the big fall, Miami entered a lengthy economic depression.
On the positive side, however, the boom brought great development
and maturation to Miami. It focused, as nothing else could, the atten-
tion of the whole country on one of America's youngest urban areas.
America was experiencing a great spending spree that was to mark the
development of consumerism as a lifestyle.56 Contrary to the past
when people often used the good times to save up for the bad, "saving
for a rainy day" was no longer in fashion judging from the boom in
Florida real estate. Land speculation, a sign of the high-flying
economy of the 1920s, brought thousands of workers and accumulated
capital from the North to the American Riviera and accelerated
Miami's development into a growing metropolis.57 After the boom,
Florida and Miami were as firmly on the map as the Mediterranean
shore or Southern California.
From a larger perspective, the great Florida real estate boom
illustrates the significance in nineteen-twenties American life "of the
mere fact that freedom of movement has been increased a hundred-
fold."58 Indeed, with the significant rise of the automobile industry
(more than half the middle-class owned a car in 1925) and the devel-
opment of assembly-lines leading to a decline in working hours,59
urban America60 discovered extreme mobility, the pleasures of travel
and climatic change, and recreation as well as vacationing became a
national passion. Within this context of significant social changes, the
boom appeared to be a startling demonstration of an eager pursuit of
pleasure contrasting with mainstream norms, values and codes of
behavior. At a time of prosperity, Miami offered relaxation in the sub-
tropics as well as financial opportunities for those willing to get rich
quick in a newly developing region. Unquestionably, the feverish
speculation which occurred in 1925 indicated a widespread desire of
soft living having reached a point unsuspected until then, as evidenced
by the following excerpt from the January 27, 1926 edition of The
New Republic:

Miami's Land Gambling Fever of 1925 65

Boomtime Miami, 1925. The frenzy along Flagler Street. HASF Photo.

There was a time when the mere notion that hundreds of
thousands of Americans would go to great expense and no
small degree of trouble primarily to avoid the rigors of a
winter in the North, would have been greeted with incredulous
scorn. There is every evidence that this desire for soft living,
whether or not it was latent in us in the past, has today become
an important aspect of American civilization as a whole.
"We are all practitioners in greater or less degree of
the new hedonism. We insist on living, if not for pleasure
alone, at least a life in which comfort and ease are predomi-
nant aspects. [...]"
The mere physical difficulties of life, particularly in
our highly-mechanized, overcrowded cities, may be a factor in
causing people to seek to escape, even though they reach in the
end another community equally mechanized. Certainly, the
America of today which finds its physical basis increasingly in
hotel and apartment house life, with its incessant use of the
automobile (of which there are now four for each five fami-
lies), its never-ending search for outside stimulation, gratified
through the radio, the motion picture, the floods of cheap
fiction magazines, the dance craze, the bridge craze such an
America gives its population no opportunity to strike its roots
very far in any soil. [...]
"The Florida madness is itself sufficient proof that
this civilizations still far from having found its equilibrium."6"


Edward "Doc" Dammers selling oral Gables real estate. HAmS PRoto.
This new state of mind was crucial to the boom and what happened
in Florida can be interpreted as a revelation of the underlying weak-
nesses of the 1920s. As the author Will Payne stated in June 1925,
"Florida merely carries the modem idea of simplification one impor-
tant step farther. In pursuit of the simplest, pleasantest mode of living,
more people will go to Florida. The Florida idea may spread."62
To a large extent, Miami prepared the way for the major changes
that were to take place during the following decades. Shortly before his
death in 1913, Henry Flagler declared that he could have been the
second richest man in the world if he had cared to remain in New
York, but he had "seen an opportunity for opening up a vast territory
to the good of humanity, by the creation of great pleasure and health
resorts and limitless agricultural opportunities."63 Similarly, when the
boom declined, economist Roger B. Babson wrote that the real and
permanent thing about Florida was not its real estate boom but rather
its great future as the home of health and happiness: "In speculation,
the tide comes in and the tide goes out. Profits wax and wane. But
health and happiness are permanent interests. People will go to Florida
for health and happiness long after every bubble has burst. The boom
will ultimately die down, but Florida will live on."64 Truly, Miami
encouraged a cultural revolution in social habits. Since the end of the
Second World War, the colorful, paradisiacal Magic City has been a
health resort as well as a land of winter sports and recreation to
millions of visitors eager to escape the restraints and constraints of
society. Last but not least, Miami continues to offer unmatched
climatic conditions and one of the most beautiful sights in Florida
without highly materialistic guests being deprived of any of the
conveniences of modem life.

Miami's Land Gambling Fever of 1925 67

To Miami's land gambling fever of 1925, advertising Southeast
Florida's advantages and attractions throughout America, showed
urban as well as rural workers that winter vacationing was a new
necessity of life not reserved to wealthy entrepreneurs, and that an
"exotic" scenery did not necessarily mean that the host area was
"remote" or "threatening;" it could also be a fascinating place where,
as if by magic, one could bring to fruition his own idea of paradise.
The trappings of the American dream had clearly gone upscale.


1. "French View of Miami," Miami Herald, February 28, 1926. For
additional studies of Greater Miami's real estate boom, please see
Kenneth Ballinger, Miami Millions, the Dance of the Dollars in the
Great Florida Land Boom of 1925, Miami, Florida: Franklin Press,
1936; Paul S. George, "Brokers, Binders, and Builders: Greater
Miami's Real Estate Boom of the Mid-1920s," Florida Historical
Quarterly LXV (July 1986); Frank B. Sessa, "Real Estate Expansion
and Boom in Miami and Its Environs During the 1920s," (Ph.d.
dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, 1950).
2. "Description of Biscayne Bay," Miami Daily Metropolis, October
23, 1896 in Howard Kleinberg, Miami The Way We Were, Surfside
Publishing, Tampa, 1989, 43.
3. "Miami by-the-Sea," Miami Chamber of Commerce, 1922.
4. "Miami, in the Tropical Zone of Florida, Where Winter is Turned
to Summer," in "Miami by-the-Sea," Miami Chamber of Commerce,
5. Kenneth L. Roberts, "Tropical Growth," Saturday Evening Post
194 (April 29, 1922), 8.
6. "The Blue Sky's The Limit," Independent 98 (January 23, 1926)
7. Bruce Bliven, "Where Ev'ry Prospect Pleases : Notes on Miami,
Magic City, Where It's Always June," New Republic 38 (March 26,
1924), 116.
8. "Miami by-the-Sea," Miami Chamber of Commerce, 1922.
9. For a detailed description of the history of Miami Beach, see
Howard Kleinberg, Miami Beach: A History, Centennial Press,
Miami, 1994.
10. Correspondence between Carl Fisher and T. J. Pancoast,
November 7, 1921, Carl Fisher Papers, Historical Association of
Southern Florida.
11. Correspondence between Carl Fisher and a Miss A. Whitney,
April 3, 1924, Carl Fisher Papers, Historical Association of Southern
12. "Miami by-the-Sea," Miami Chamber of Commerce, 1924.
13. In 1926, Miami contained 136 hotels, 665 apartment houses and
more than 25,000 homes, "The first Thirty years of Miami and The
Bank of Bay Biscayne 896-1926," Miami, Florida, Bank of

Miami's Land Gambling Fever of 1925 69

Biscayne Bay, 1926 promotional brochure, 24.
14. "Miami by-the-Sea," Miami Chamber of Commerce, 1924.
15. Kenneth L. Roberts, "Tropical Growth," Saturday Evening Post,
194 (April 29, 1922), 9.
16. Bruce Bliven, "Where Ev'ry Prospect Pleases," New Republic
198(March 26, 1924), 17.
17. Felix Isman, "Florida's Land Boom," Saturday Evening Post,
198(August 22, 1925), 137.
18. Some participants in the 1925 migration to Florida also learned
about the boom by accident. S. M. Green remembers the unusual
circumstances that led to his leaving for Florida : "My wife and I had
just been married about a year, and we decided we wanted a new car,
so the salesman came up to the house to sell us a car, and he said :
'You don't want to buy a car! If I were as young as you, folks, I'd go
down to Florida! There's a boom down there, and I wouldn't go any
place but Miami!' And we did just that!" Sylvia Camp Interviews Mr.
S. M. Green," Pioneer Voices of the Junior League of Miami, 1970.
19. "Five Years of National Prohibition," Independent 113( August
16, 1924), 87.
20. Francis Me Cullagh, "Miami," Nineteenth Century 99 (February
1926), 211.
21. Bruce Bliven, "Where Ev'ry Prospect Pleases," New Republic 38
(March 26, 1924), 118.
22. The monetary value of building construction in Miami totaled 4.5
million dollars in 1920; it exceeded 60 million dollars in 1925. 21,968
real estate transactions were recorded in 1920, and about 175,000 in
1925. Miami's bank deposits amounted to approximately 17 million
dollars in 1920; they reached more than 192 million dollars in 1925.
One observer remarked in 1925: "During business hours, the banks in
Miami actually resemble the New York subway in rush hours." "Five
Years Afterward, A Comprehensive Survey of the Economic Trend in
Greater Miami," Trust Company of Florida, 1930, p. 3; "The first
Thirty Years of Miami and The Bank of Bay Biscayne 1896-1926,"
Bank of Biscayne Bay, 1926 promotional brochure, p. 24; "The
Florida Dollar," Literary Digest 87 (December 26, 1925), 46.
23. Lyman Delano, "Florida's Transportation Problems," Independent
116, (January 23, 1926) p. 104.
24. Bruce Bliven, "Where Ev'ry Prospect Pleases," New Republic 38


(March 26, 1924), 116.
25. In the winter 1924-25, a purported forty-five Pullman trains to
carry people into the State daily. (Richard H. Edmonds, "Meeting
Transportation Needs in Florida," American Review of Reviews 72,
(November 1925) p. 484.)
26. Richard H. Edmonds, "Meeting Transportation Needs in Florida,"
American Review of Reviews 72, (November 1925) p. 483.
27. Reginald T. Townsend, "Gold Rush to Florida," World's Work 50
June 1925, p. 179.
28. J. Frederick Essary, "Have Faith in Florida!" New Republic 44,
(October 14, 1925) p. 195. Essary added that there were 100,000
home-site lots in a single development: "If on every one of these lots a
home should be built and a family installed, a total of not less than
3,000,000 people, or about as many as there are in Chicago, would
live there along this one railroad and the one turnpike." Additionally, a
journalist at Barron s Financial Weekly told of the waste of
agricultural resources after a trip through this Palm Beach-Miami
section : "I saw literally thousands of acres or beautiful orange groves
being laid out in subdivisions to be sold for city lots with no city
anywhere in sight, and none in prospect. Hundreds of orange and
grapefruit trees loaded with golden fruit are today being dynamited to
make way for streets in these visionary real estate promotions."
Willard A. Bartlett, "Opportunities and Dangers in Florida," Barron 's,
February 1926, 10.
29. Reginald T. Townsend, "Along the American Riviera," Country
Life 49, (January 1926) 41.
30. "Sylvia Camp Interviews Mr. S. M. Green," Pioneer Voices of the
Junior League of Miami, 1970.
31. It was estimated that about 15,000 cars moved along Downtown
Miami streets in the summer of 1925 ("County Has 30 Per Cent More
Cars This Year," Miami Daily News, July 26, 1925). Quite a few car
accidents were also reported during that period. If 1920s America was
now on wheels, one could drive on Florida roads at a higher speed
than was permitted by law in any other State : "Forty-five miles an
hour is the legal limit on the open road, under the statute of 1925, and
no municipality may impose a limit less than twenty-five miles. One
walks in Florida at his own risk! [...] The principal motoring hazards
in Florida arise not from dangerous grades but from the roving razor-

Miami's Land Gambling Fever of 1925 71

backs and range cattle and the fact that anybody may drive a car, no
driving license being required." Frank Parker Stockbridge, "Shall We
Go to Florida?" The American Review of Reviews 72(November
1925), 492.
32. Elsie Weil, "August Florida in November Retrospect," New
Republic 45(December 9, 1925), 84.
33. Bruce Bliven, "Where Ev'ry Prospect Pleases," New Republic 38
(March 26, 1924), 117.
34. The Miami Daily News and Metropolis, the city's first newspaper,
published a 504-page edition of July 26, 1925, in observance of the
formal opening of its new plant on Biscayne Boulevard, and the 29th
anniversary of Miami's incorporation as a city. Said to have been the
largest single edition of a newspaper anywhere, it was sent "to every
part of the civilized world" in order to meet "an insatiable demand for
facts about Miami and its marvelous growth." This 504-Page Issue of
News, World Record," Miami Daily News, July 26, 1925.
35. Jule King, "When in Miami, Buy or Sell Real Estate Like all
Miamians Do," Miami Daily Metropolis, July 26, 1925.
36. J. Leroy Miller, "In The Land of the Realtor," Outlook 142
(January 13, 1926), 69.
37. Ibid.
38. Kenneth L. Roberts, "Tropical Growth," Saturday Evening Post
194 (April 29, 1922), 9.
39. Stuart B. McIver, The Greatest Sale on Earth : The Story of the
Miami Board of Realtors : 1920-1980, E.A. Seemann Publishing Inc.,
Miami, 1980, p. 33.
40. "Nearly 200 Offices in 15 Blocks Sell Real Estate," Miami Daily
News, July 26, 1925.
41. Grace McKinstry, "In Florida: Poem," Literary Digest 87
(November 21, 1925), 34.
42. "If the faintest symptom of interest is shown, the prospect will be
taken out in an automobile to view the latest nearby "development," or
given a ticket for a free ride clear across the State, to look at lots three
hundred miles away! At Daytona, he is invited to run across to
Tampa; at St Petersburg, he is offered a free trip to Miami; wherever
he may be and wherever the property is located, he can to see it
without any expense except for meals and lodgings, and sometimes
even those are provided!" Frank Parker Stockbridge wrote, in


"Shall We Go to Florida?" The American Review of Reviews 72
(November 1925) 495.
43. Gertrude Mathews Shelby, "Florida Frenzy," Harper 's Magazine
152, (January 1926) p. 180.
44. Ibid.
45. Bruce Bliven, "Where Ev'ry Prospect Pleases," New Republic 38
(March 26, 1924) p. 117.
46. "While Real Estate Booms in Florida," Literary Digest, March
14, 1925, p. 60.
47. "Thrills and Humors of the Florida 'Gold Rush' ," Literary
Digest 87 (June 20, 1925) 42.
48. Mr. Adams was thirty eight in 1925, and came from Nashville
when he first arrived in Miami in 1925. He was president of The
Historical Association of Southern Florida from 1951 to 1953
("Interview with Mr. Adam Gillepsie Adams," Junior League of
Miami, April 17, 1969).
49. "Another Act Opens in the Florida Drama," New York Times,
November 8, 1925.
50. Frank Parker Stockbridge, "Shall We Go to Florida?" The
American Review ofReviews 72 (November 1925) p. 496.
51. Jack Bell, "Binder Boys Were Shrewd Manipulators," Miami
Herald, July 14, 1957.
52. Bruce Bliven, "Where Ev'ry Prospect Pleases," New Republic, 38
(March 26, 1924) 117.
53. The embargo resulted from a congestion due to the building boom
and the last influx of Boomers to arrive. In the New Republic of
October 14, 1925, one could read: "Congestion at terminals in the
state is so tight and the effect upon business is so serious that bankers,
land brokers, professional men and other soft-handed gentry were
engaged at perhaps a hundred places in unloading cars to relieve the
jam". George E. Merrick, owner of Coral Gables, "chartered four big
schooners, each to have a carrying capacity of 1,000,000 feet of
lumber, to supply the building materials needed at that point."
(Richard H. Edmonds, "Meeting Transportation Needs in Florida,"
American Review of Reviews, November 1925, p. 483). However, this
freight embargo was no less than a calamity for most of the building
developments of Miami and the whole Southern peninsula, many
developers being unable to afford alternative means of transportation

Miami's Land Gambling Fever of 1925 73

for their building material.
54. Kenneth L. Roberts, "In the Wake of the Hurricane," Saturday
Evening Post 199 (November 27, 1926) 60.
55. "Interview with Mr. Adam Gillepsie Adams," Junior League of
Miami, April 17, 1969.
56. Between 1918 and 1929, there was full employment in almost every
sector as well as a significant rise in incomes (per capital income jumped
from $517 for the period 1909 to 1918 to $612 for the period of the
twenties, which corresponds to an increase of 18% in 10 years. Inflation
was virtually non-existent. A very complete introduction to the Nineteen
Twenties is Frederick Allen, Only Yesterday: An Informal History of the
Nineteen Twenties, Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1959; his
work contains a chapter on the Florida boom (chapter XI, "Home, Sweet
Florida"). Other useful works include Allan Jenkins, The Twenties,
Heinemann, London, 1974; Elizabeth Stevenson, The American
Twenties: Babbitts and Bohemians, Collier Macmillan, London, 1975;
George E. Mowry, The Twenties: Fords, Flappers and Fanatics,
Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1981; David J. Goldberg, Discontented
America : The United States in the Twenties, John Hopkins University
Press, 1999.
57. Miami's population rose from 29,571 to 110,637 inhabitants
between 1920 and 1930, it became the second largest city in Florida
after Jacksonville (129,549 inhabitants), Michael Gannon, Florida, A
Short History, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, 1993, p. 85.
58. Albert Shaw, "How Florida Is Getting On," American Review of
Reviews 75 (May 1927) 519.
59. People worked sixty hours a week after the Civil War, 48 hours in
1920 and 42 hours in 1930.
60. The Roaring Twenties corresponded to an era of intense
urbanization, especially in the north-east. For the first time in the history
of the United States, more than half the population (51 percent) was
61. "The Florida Madness," New Republic 45 (January 27, 1926) 259.
62. Will Payne, "Capturing the Simple Life; Or, The Boom in Florida,"
Saturday Evening Post, (June 20, 1925) 189.
63. Richard H. Edmonds, "Meeting Transportation Needs in Florida,"
American Review of Reviews 72 November 1925, p. 481.
64. Roger W. Babson, "Florida's Future," American Review of Reviews
72 (November 1925) 478.


Historical Association
of Southern Florida
Membership List

Members of the Historical Association of Southern
Florida enjoy a wide variety of benefits. These include
free admission to the museum; subscriptions to three
museum periodicals: Tequesta, South Florida History
and Currents; invitations to special events; use of the
Research Center; discounts on purchases at the museum
store; and discounts on educational and recreational pro-
The following listing is in descending gift order, as of
September 28, 1999. Any changes on your category or
gift level transacted after that date will appear in the 2000
Tequesta. Thank you for supporting the Historical Mu-
seum through your membership and endowment gifts.

List of Members 75

The Comptie Constituency

The Comptie Constituency is a distinguished society established to honor donors who have already
supported the endowment in a significant way, or who have made specific provisions in their estate plans that
will benefit the future of the Historical Museum of Southern Florida. The museum created this society as a
way of recognizing and thanking donors for gifts that will impact the museum and the community for years
to come.
Charter Members

Mr. Mitchell Wolfson, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Louis N. Tilley
Mr. & Mrs. John C. Harrison, Sr.
Mr. & Mrs. William A, Graham
Mr. & Mrs. Arnold C. McLean
Mr. & Mrs. Lewis M. Kanner
Mr. & Mrs. David Mesnekoff
Ryder System Charitable
Foundation, Inc.
John S. & James L. Knight
Mr. & Mrs. Allen Corson
Estate of Thomas B. Haggard
Estate of Phyllis M.G. Dawson
Mrs. Avis Kent Goodlove
Northern Trust Bank of Florida
Dr. Charlton W. Tebeau
Mr. Peter L. Bermont & Family
Mr. & Mrs. Charles P. Munroe
Barnett Bank of South Florida,
The Miami Herald
Knight Ridder, Inc.
Miss Lamar Louise Curry
Mrs. John W. Prunty
Mr. & Mrs. Teofilo A. Babun
Burger King
Estate of John M. Frohock
Sun Trust
Estate of Elizabeth H. Peeler

Mr. & Mrs. Douglas Erickson
Mr. & Mrs. Clifford Russ
Mr. & Mrs. David Younts
Deloitte & Touche
Mr. & Mrs. William D. Soman
Mr. & Mrs. R. Layton Mank
Mr. & Mrs. Alvah H. Chapman, Jr.
The Dunspaugh-Dalton
Foundation, Inc.
First Union Foundation
Greenberg, Traurig, Hoffman,
Lipoff, Rosen & Quentel, P.A.
Miller Family Foundation
Mr. & Mrs. Cal Kovens
Mr. David C. Neale
Dr. & Mrs. T. Hunter Pryor
Mr. Samuel J. Boldrick
Mr. & Mrs. Marshall S. Harris
Mrs. Shirley Haverfield
Mr. & Mrs. Lee Hills
Sears Roebuck & Co.
Mrs. Peyton L. Wilson
Mr. & Mrs. James A. Wright III
Mr. John S. Sherman
Mr. & Mrs. Randy F. Nimnicht
Mr. & Mrs. Jack Lowell
Blackwell & Walker, P.A.
Estate of Dr. Herman Selinsky
Mr. & Mrs. Raul Rodriguez
Mr. & Mrs. Carlton W. Cole
Mr. & Mrs. William G. Earle
Mr. & Mrs. Robert C. Hector

Mr. & Mrs. Arnold L. Greenfield
Mr. Walter R. Ferguson
Ms. Sally M. Kennedy
Ms. Lamar J. Noriega
Silver Springs Foundation
Dr. & Mrs. Joseph H. Fitzgerald
Mrs. Tom Lynch
Mr. & Mrs. Walter Shockey
Mr. John W. Thatcher
Dr. & Mrs. Howard Zwibel
Mr. & Mrs. C. Frasuer Knight
Mr. & Mrs. Lon Worth Crow
The Batchelor Foundation
Mr. & Mrs. John M. Brumbaugh
Mr. & Mrs. Dennis M. Campbell
Mrs. Sue S. Goldman & Family
Mrs. Leatrice Aberman & Family
Mrs. Rosemary Dommerich
Mrs. Eleanor Bristol
Ms. Judith A. Hunt & Dr. Ronald
K. Wright
Mr. Oscar Mederos
Mr. & Mrs. Alan Lubitz
Ms. Cynthia Lawrence
Mr. Dan Laxson
Mr. & Mrs. Stuart Block
Mrs. Ruth D. Myers
Mr. Sam La Roue, Jr.
Mr. Mitchell S. Green
Mr. & Mrs. Ben Battle Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Hunting F. Deutsch

Mr. & Mrs. Henry Z. Norton
Dr. Anna Price


Cobb Family Foundation, Inc.
Federated Department Stores Foundation
Goldsmith Family Foundation
John S. and James L. Knight Foundation
Kramer Memorial Fund
Leigh Foundation, Inc.
Lewis Family Foundation
Peacock Foundation, Inc.
Ryder System Charitable Foundation
The Ruth and August Geiger Charity Foundation


Beber Silverstein & Partners
Daniel Electrical Contractors, Inc.
FirstUnion Foundation
Florida Power & Light Company
Gibraltar Bank

American Airlines
Big Fish Mayaimi
Curbside Florist & Gifts, Inc.
Dadeland Towers South
Doc Dammer's Restaurant

3 Points Paint & Body Shop
7 Star Limousines, Inc.
Advanced Power Technologies,
The Alexander All Suite Luxury
All-In-One Mail Shop
Allen Norton & Blue
Allied Specialty Co.
Alsfab Engineering, Inc.
Andersen Consulting LLP
Around The Clock A/C Service,
Arthur Andersen & Co.
Associated Printing, Corp.
Bank of New York Trust
Company of Florida, N.A.
BellSouth Telecommunications,
Biltmore Hotel
Borders, Inc.
Bravo Musicians
Butler, Buckley, Deets, Inc.
Canary Island Cigars
Carney-Neuhaus, Inc.
Catering Shop, inc.
Centimark Roof Systems
Charlie's Auto Glass, Inc.
Cheeca Lodge
Chesterfield Hotel
Christy's Restaurant
City National Bank
Coconut Grove Bank
Codina Development
Collinsworth, Alter, Nielson,
Fowler & Dowling, Inc.
Comet Trucking, Inc,
Cuba Nostalgia
Culligan Water
Daily Dinner, Inc.
Davis, Devine, Goodman &
Wells, P.A.
Ms. Sherry Dickman, P.A.

Corporate Benefactor
Groove Jet
Honeywell, Inc.
International Music Distributors
Keen Battle Mead & Company
MacArthur Dairy, Inc.

Corporate Patron
Firehouse Four of Miami
Greenberg Traurig et al
Holland & Knight
Hyatt Regency Coral Gables

Corporate Member
Don Shula's Hotel & Golf Club
Dr. Lloyd Wruble
Dynacolor Graphics, Inc.
Eagle Brands, Inc.
Electrical Technologies
Emerald Tree Farm
Enterprise Rent-a-Car
Fence Masters
Florida Coca-Cola Bottling Co.
Gabor Insurance Services, Inc.
Golden Press
Graybar Electric
Greater Miami Convention &
Visitors Bureau
The Green Turtle Basket
Ground Turbine Technology
H.A. Contracting, Corp.
H.D.S. Lighting, Inc.
Dr. Ronald Hagen
Hopkins-Carter Company
Hotel Place St. Michel
Hotel Sofitel
Indian Creek Hotel
J.M. Tull Metals Company, Inc.
John Saxon & Son, Inc.
Keg South ofKendall
Kelly Tractor Company
Kilowatt Electric
La Tradicion Cubana
Landmark Map Company
Brian L. Tannebaun, P.A.,
Criminal Trial Lawyer
Leon's Wine and Liquor Center
Lightning Printing
M & M Backhoe
McClain & Company
Mercedes Electric Supply, Inc.
Mercy Hospital
Miavana Trading Private Label

Miami Herald
National Distributing Co., Inc.
Northern Trust Bank of Florida
Royal Caribbean, International
Sports Authority, Inc.

Kaufman Rossin & Co, P.A.
Morrison, Brown, Argiz &
Norwegian Cruise Line Ltd.
Shadow Lounge
Trial Graphics, Inc.

Mobile Chiropractic of Florida
Morton Roofing
New Times
Norman Brothers
NRG Savers
Omni Business Consultants, Inc,
Paradise Gym
Party Caterers, Inc.
Pompeii Casual Furniture
Pool Rite
Power Con of South Florida, Inc.
Rechtien International Trucks
Redbird Animal Hospital
Republic National Bank
Salomon Smith Barney
Salomon, Kanner, Damian &
Rodriguez, P.A.
Sanibel Harbour Resort & Spa
Sears Roebuck and Company
Shay Financial Services Co.
Shelton Security Service, Inc.
Dr. Arthur Sitrin
Sokolow & Burell
Spillis Candela & Partners, Inc.
State Farm Insurance
Drs. Robert A. and Craig A.
Streicher Mobile Fueling, Inc.
Swire Properties
The Jupiter Beach Resort
The Lowell Dunn Company
Turner Construction Company
United States Sugar Corporation
Wampler Buchanan & Breen
Westin Key Largo Resort
Wilco Electrical Contracting, Inc.
William R. Nash, Inc.
Withers/Suddath Relocation
Witty Air
World Cigars, Inc.
Zap Courier Services

List ofMembers 77

Active Electric of Florida, Inc.
Actors Playhouse
Advanced Fitness Concepts
Aircraft Electric Motors, Inc.
Andrew Alpert
Amerisuites Orlando/Convention
Avant Garde Salon and Spa
Banana Supply Company, Inc.
Beau-Gens Salon
Behind the Fence B & B
Benihana, Inc.
Big Cheese Restaurant
Biltmore Hotel
Broadway Palm Dinner Theater
Bubba Gump Shrimp Company
Butterfly World
Cafe Med of Miami
Cafe Tu Tu Tango
Caffe Da Vinci
Caldwell Theater Company
Carroll's Jewelers
Casa Juancho Restaurant
Certified Security Services, Inc.
Mr. Lynn Chaffin
Chalet Suzanne Inn & Restaurant
Chandler's Soaps
ChefPaul Prudhomme's Magic
Seasoning Blends
City of Coral Gables Parks and
Recreation Department
Clarion Plaza Hotel Orlando
Coastal Refining & Marketing,
Coconut Grove Playhouse
Complete Fitness Personal
Training, Inc.
Corredera Family
Cosmopolitan International
Costa Rican Natural
Crown Liquors & Wine Merchants
David Williams Hotel
Days Inn Busch Gardens Main
Dick's Last Resort Miami
Doctor's Coffee Company
DoubleTree Hotel in the Gardens
Dynasty Apparel Industries, Inc.
El Diablo Golf and Country Club
El Dorado Furniture Corp.

Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin B,
Battle, Jr.
Mr Peter L. Bermont

Corporate Contributor
Everglades Hotel
Fiberand Corporation
Fitzgerald's Casino & Hotel
Fleming A Taste of Denmark
Floribbean Hospitality
Florida Marlins Baseball Club
Florida Stage
Fort Lauderdale Marina Marriott
Four Queens Casino & Hotel
Four Seasons Hotel Las Vegas
Frames USA/Art Gallery
Fresco California Bistro
Geiger Brothers
Giancarlo Jewelry Designs
Golden Chic Catering
Graziano's Parilla Argentina
Grillfish of Coral Gables
H.O.M. Construction
Harris Travel Service, Inc.
Havana Harry's Restaurant
Herlong Mansion Bed & Breakfast
Holweger Development &
Construction, Inc.
Howard Johnson Inn International
Hughes Supply, Inc.
IEA Management Services
Improv Comedy Club & Cafe
International Museum of Cartoon
Jackie Gleason Theater for the
Performing Arts
Jr. Orange Bowl Committee
Jungle Queen Riverboat
Kennedy Space Center Visitor
Key West Florist
Lion Country Safari
Lowe Art Museum
Magnolia Inn B & B
Mansion House B & B
Meadow Marsh Bed & Breakfast
Merriweather Resort
Met Roofing
Miami City Ballet
Miami Fusion
Miami Seaquarium
Mirage Resort Vacations
Morikami Museum & Japanese
Mount Dora Historic Inn

Fellow Humanitarian
Mr. James L. Davis
Mr. and Mrs. William A. Graham
Mr. and Mrs. Lee Hills

New Orleans Marriott
New Theater
Ortanique on the Mile
Paul's Carpet Company, Inc.
Peter of London
Planet Hollywood
Mr. Aris Quiroga
Radisson Suite Inn Palm Beach
Ramada Inn Lakeland
Ramada Plaza Hotel Getaway
Renovations & Painting, Inc.
Rex Artist Supply
Riviera Country Club
Sailfish Marina & Resort
Sheraton West Palm Beach Hotel
Sheraton World Resort
Shorty's Bar-B-Q
Signature Foods, Inc.
State ofthe Art Fitness
SunCruz Casino
Sweet Donna's Country Store
The Breakers Palm Beach
The Carolina Inn
The Cellar Club
The Copper Kettle
The Country Club of Miami
The Fitness Center
Theater of the Sea
Trattoria Sole
Travelodge Hotel
Triple A Cleaning Systems, Inc.
Verona House Bed & Breakfast
Vizcaya Museum & Gardens
Walt Disney World Company
Weiss and Woolrich Southern
West Lake Gardens VII, Inc.
Westview Country Club
Mr. James E. Whiddon, CPA
Wild Oats The Community
Market Pinecrest
Wild Oats South Beach
World Golf Hall of Fame
Wyndham Miami Beach Resort
Wyndham Westshore Tampa
Yoga Institute of Miami
Zarabanda A Private Club
Zubi Advertising Services, inc.

Mr. and Mrs. William D. Soman
Mr. and Mrs. Robert H. Traurig
Mr. Mitchell Wolfson, Jr.


Mr. and Mrs. William Way
Mr. and Mrs. Allen G. Caldwell
Mr. and Mrs. Alvah H.
Chapman, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Edward S.
Corlett, III
Miss Lamar Louise Curry
Mrs. Irene Erickson
Mr. Walter R. Ferguson
Dr. and Mrs. Joseph H. Fitzgerald

Mr. and Mrs. Charles E. Cobb
Mr. and Mrs. Carlton W. Cole
Mrs. Edna Cox
Mr. and Mrs. Richard Fain
Mr. and Mrs. Jerrold F. Goodman
Mr. and Mrs. Tom Huston, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Gerald Katcher

Mr. and Mrs. Michael W. Battle
Mr. and Mrs. Robert B. Battle
Mr. Steve Becker
Mr. Benjamin Bohlmann and Ms.
Ellen Kanner
Mr. Rick Covert
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas A. Daniel
Mr. and Mrs. George R. Harper
Mr. Steve Hayworth
Mr. Robert C. Hector Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. William Ho
Mr. and Mrs. Mark Karris
Ms. Sally M. Kennedy

Mr. and Mrs. Alvin Atlass
Mr. and Mrs. Steve Benson
Mr. and Mrs, Stuart Block
Mr. Anthony Brunson
Dr. and Mrs. Wayne H. Case
Mr. and Mrs. Alvin Cassel
Mr. George H. De Carion
Ms. Robin C. Dice

Mr. Leonard L. Abess, Sr.
Ms. Helen W. Adelman
Mr. and Mrs. JosephA. Aguilera
Mr. and Mrs. J. HarveyAlligood
Mr. Larry Apple and Ms.
Esther Perez
Mr. and Mrs. James W. Apthorp
Mr. and Mrs. Leslie J. August
Mr. and Mrs. Ivan E. Ball
Mr. and Mrs. Michael A. Bander

Fellow Benefactor
Mr. and Mrs. Bertram Goldsmith
Mrs. Avis K. Goodlove
Mr. and Mrs. Arnold L. Greenfield
Mr. and Mrs. C. Frasuer Knight
Mr. and Mrs. R. Layton Mank
Mr. and Mrs. Finlay L. Matheson
Mrs. Betty McCrimmon
Mrs. Nancy McLamore
Mr. and Mrs. David Mesnekoff
Dr. and Mrs. Glenn Morrison

Fellow Patron
Mr. and Mrs. Jay I. Kislak
Mr. Samuel D. La Roue, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth R. Laurence
Mr. and Mrs. JayW. Lotspeich
Mr. and Mrs. Jack Lowell
Mr. and Mrs. Alan H. Lubitz
Mr. James C. Merrill, III
Fellow Member
Mr. R. Kirk Landon
Mr. Len Lavine
Mr. and Mrs. James P.S. Leshaw
Ms. Patricia Lue
Dr. and Mrs. Thomas Mark
Ms. Anna Mosier
Mr. and Mrs. Lewis F. Murphy
Mr. and Mrs. Paul Neidhardt
Mr. and Mrs. Henry Norton
Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Parks
Dr. and Mrs. Edmund I. Parnes
Anna Price, Ph.D
Mr. and Mrs. Ross C. Roadman

Dr. and Mrs. Lawrence M.
Mr. and Mrs. Louis J. Hector
Mr. and Mrs. Howard Kleinberg
Mr. and Mrs. Dennis Lefebvre
Mr. and Mrs. Raul P. Masvidal
Mr. Luis Maza
Mr. John H. McMinn
Ms. Sandra Milledge
Mr. and Mrs. John Bartosek
Mrs. Nancy W. Batchelor
Mr. and Mrs. Charles H.
Mr. Michael W. Beeman
Mr. and Mrs. Gregory Bellamy
Mr. and Mrs, Richard B. Bennont
Ms. Jacquelyn Biggane
Mr. and Mrs. Luis J. Botifoll
Mr. Alfredo Brito and
Mr. Juan Arango

Dr. and Mrs. John C. Nordt, III
Mr. and Mrs. Robert M. Oliver, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Ted J. Pappas
Dr. and Mrs. T. Hunter Pryor, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Robert J. Shelley, III
Dr. Louis Skinner, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs, Gerald E. Toms
Ms. Jody M. Wolfe
Mrs. Robert J. Woodruff, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. David Younts
Dr. and Mrs. Howard L. Zwibel

Mr. and Mrs. William T. Muir
Mr. and Mrs. Preston L. Prevatt
Mr. and Mrs. George R. Shelley
Mr. and Mrs. David W. Swetland
Mr. John W. Thatcher
Mr. and Mrs. Parker D. Thomson
Mr. and Mrs. J. Calvin Winter

Mr. and Mrs. William Rocker
Ms. Randee S. Rogers
Ms. Phyllis A. Shapiro
Ms. Kathleen M. Shaw
Mr. and Mrs. Brian Snyder
Mr. Arthur Stein
Mr. and Mrs. Alan W. Steinberg
Mr. and Mrs. Edward A. Swakon
Dr. and Mrs. George L. Vergara
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Viciedo
Ms. Nancy B. White
Mr. and Mrs. Richard A. Wood
Mr. and Mrs. James A. Wright, III
Mrs. Cicely L. Zeppa

Ms. Betty Osbom
Mr. Stephen H. Reisman
Mr. Kenneth Sellati
Dr. and Mrs. William M. Straight
Dr. and Mrs. Michael B. Troner
Ms. Sandra Villa
Mrs. M. Leffler Warren
Mr. and Mrs. Otis 0. Wragg, III
Mr. and Mrs. MitchellA. Yelen

Mr. and Mrs. Robert Brown
Mr. and Mrs. Mark Buchbinder
Mrs. and Mrs. Billy Cameron
Dr. and Mrs. Robert J. Carbonell
Mr. and Mrs. Michael Carricarte
Dr. and Mrs. Chiliano E. Casal
Mr. and Mrs, Don Caster
Mr. and Mrs. Pedro Castillo
Mr. Clyde Cates
Mr. and Mrs. Charles L.
Clements, III

List of Members 79

Mr. Richard P. Cole
Mr. and Mrs. William H. Collins
Mrs. Patricia Crow
Mr. and Mrs. Phillip E. Daum
Mr. Roger B. Davis
Mr. Gary Dellapa
Ms. Betty Ruth Dewitt
Mr. and Mrs. J. Leonard Diamond
Mr. Julio P. Dominguez
Dr. and Mrs. Leonidas W.
Dowlen, Jr.
Mr. Richard Duffy and
Ms. Isabel Lopez
Ms. Beth Dunworth
Ms. Debra Durant-Schoendorf
The Hon. Joe 0, Eaton and Mrs.
Patricia Eaton
Mr. Angel Elias
Mrs. James C. Ellenburg
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Entenmann
Mr. and Mrs. James D. Evans
Dr. and Mrs. Robert Feltman
Mrs. Audrey Finkelstein
Dr. and Mrs. J.M Fitzgibbon
Mr. Richard E. Ford
Mr. and Mrs. William Freeman
Mr. and Mrs. Philip Freidin
Mr. and Mrs. Doug Gallagher
Mr. and Mrs. Robert E.
Gallagher, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Donald F. Gardner
Ms. Pamela Garrison
Dr. and Mrs. Paul S. George
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Goldberg
Sue Searcy Goldman
Mr. and Mrs. Martin B. Goodman
Mr. and Mrs. Reed Gordon
Mr. and Mrs. Richard Gossett
Mrs. Carol-Jane Gottfried
Mr. and Mrs. Stanton Greene
Ms. Helen R. Grier
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Grund
Mr. and Mrs. Phil Guerra
Mr. and Mrs. Robert D. Guthrie
Mr. and Mrs. Edward P.
Mrs. George K. Haas
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Hammond
Mrs. Molly Harris and Mr. Larry
Ms. Klara Hauri

Mr. and Mrs, Charles Allen
Mrs. Eugenia D. Allen
Mr. and Ms. Harvey Bilt
Mr. and Mrs. Jack N. Brown

Mr. and Mrs. Robert C. Hector, Sr.
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Hemmings
Mr. Arthur H. Hertz
Ms. Margery A. Hilliard
Mr. Michael Hiscano
Mr. and Mrs. James C. Hobbs, 11
Mr. John M. Hogan
Mr. and Mrs. Ray N. Hunt
Mr. and Mrs. Dan Hutton
Dr. and Mrs. Francisco Izaguirre
Mrs, Marilyn Jacobs
Mr. Juan Jimenez
Mr. and Mrs. Francis T. Kain
Mr. and Mrs. Lewis M. Kanner
Mrs. Betsy H. Kaplan
Dr. John M. Knapp
Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth F. Kniskem
Mr. and Mrs. Earl R. Knowles
Ms. Camilla B. Komorowski
Mr. and Mrs, Irvin Korach
Mr. and Mrs. Irving Kreisberg
Mr. and Mrs. Ralph E. Lambrecht
Mr. and Mrs. Michael Lamphear
Dr. and Mrs. Roswell E. Lee, Jr.
Mr. Frank Lynn
Mr. Bruce C. Matheson
Mr. Arnold C. Matteson
Mr. and Mrs. Robert
McDougal, IV
Mr. John Fred McMath
Mr. and Mrs. Jack McQuale
Mr. S. Randall Merritt
Mr. and Mrs. Howard A. Mesh
Mr. and Mrs. Jack L, Meyer
Mr. and Mrs. FawdreyA. Molt
Mrs. Claire W. Mooers
Mr. Gerald W. Moore
Mr. Stephen J. Moorman
Mr. and Mrs. George L. Morat
Mr. and Mrs. David M. Morris
Dr. and Mrs. Michael Moses
Dr. Mervin H. Needell and Dr.
Elaine F Needell
Mr. Fred C. Newman
Mr. and Mrs. Randy F. Nimnicht
Mr. Bryan Norcross
Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Oroshnik
Mr. and Mrs. Drew Orye
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Pallot
Ms. Barbara J. Parker
The Hon. Ray Pearson and
Mrs. Georgia Pearson

Ms. Lillian Conesa
Mrs. Denise Corbitt
Mr. and Mrs. Leo DeDonatis
Ms. Diane M. Dorick

Mr. and Mrs. Galo Perez
Mr. and Mrs. Roderick N. Petrey
Mr. Allan Phillips
Mr. and Mrs. John C. Pistorino
Mr. and Mrs. Bernard Plotkin
Mr. Douglas J. Pracher
Ms. Judith Price and
Mr. Charles Corn
Mr. J. David Puga
Mr. and Mrs. Fred Radelman
Dr. and Mrs. Thomas Righetti
Mr. and Mrs. Raul L. Rodriguez
Rotary Club of Perrine-Cutler
Dr. and Mrs. Theodore Sarafoglu
Mr. and Mrs. Michael Scheck
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Schloss
Ms. Martha M. Scott
Ms. Phyllis L. Segor
Mr. and Mrs. Ivan Selin
Mr. Frank Shumway
Mr. and Mrs. Murray Sisselman
Mr. and Mrs. Donald Slesnick, II
Mr. and Mrs. Neal R. Sonnett
Mr. and Mrs. Robert P. Soper
Mr. and Mrs. Carlos Souffront
Mr. and Mrs. Theodore Spak
Mr. Joseph B. Spence
Ms. Edeane W. Stirrup
Mr. and Mr. William G. Story
Ms. Jean M. Thorpe
Mr. Eugene Threadgill
Mrs. Roberta H. Turner
Dr. and Mrs. Alfred H. Underwood
Mrs. Jane Van Denend
Mr. Pedro L. Velar
Mr. and Mrs. Carl D. Ward
Mr. and Mrs. Tom Weller
Mr. and Mrs. David Weston
Mr. and Mrs. Michael J. Whalin
Mrs. Gaines R. Wilson
Mrs. PeytonL. Wilson
Mr. Paul C. Wimbish
Ms. Pauline Winick
Mr. Mitchell Wolfson, Jr.
Ms. Edna Wolkowsky
Mrs. Warren C. Wood, Sr.
Dr. Ronald K. Wright and Ms.
Judith A. Hunt
Mr. and Mrs. Stuart S. Wyllie
Mr. and Mrs. Stefan H. Zachar, III

Dr. and Mrs. Maurice Downs
Mr. Miguel A. Germain
Mr. and Mrs. Franklyn B. Glinn
Mr. and Mrs. William Goodson, Jr.


Mrs. Edward G. Grafton
Ms. Anne E. Helliwell
Mr. and Ms. Charles Intriago
Mr. and Mrs. James R. Jorgenson
Mr. and Mrs. Ralph A. Juncosa
Ms. Susanne Kayyali
Mr. and Mrs. C.M. Keppie
Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Kohlenberg
Mr. and Mrs. David McDonald
Mr. and Mrs. Stuart B. Mclver

Mr. and Mrs, Allan T. Abess, Jr.
Mr. Peter J. Bagrationoff
Mr. and Mrs. Patrick Battle
Mr. Juan Carlos Bermudez
Mr. and Mrs. MitchellA. Bierman
Mr. and Mrs. John Bolton
Mr, and Mrs. Daniel T. Brady
Mr. and Mrs. Hunt Davis
Mr. and Mrs. Dennis Deblois
Ms. Stephanie Demos and Mr.
Christopher Brown
Mr. and Mrs. Daniel D. Dolan, II
Mr. Alan H. Fein and Ms. Susan
Mr. and Mrs. David Ferris
Dr. and Mrs. Andreas Fischer
Dr. and Mrs. Luis J. Fonseca
Mr. and Mrs. George Fowler
Mr. Paul Fraynd and Mrs. Linda
Stein Fraynd
Mr. Christopher Fulton
Mr. and Mrs. Ron Gabor
Ms. Rosa Gallardo
Mr. Douglas Goldman
Mr. and Mrs. Jose Gonzalez
Ms. Maria Gonzalez-Cerra and
Mr. Shishir Sheth
Ms. Sarah Halberg
Mr. and Mrs. Kent D. Hamill
Mr. and Mrs. G.D. Harper

Mr and Mrs. HarveyAbrams
Mr. and Mrs. Armando
Mr. and Mrs. Herbert E. Allenson
Mr. and Mrs. Jesus Alvarez
Mr. and Mrs. John S. Ammarell
Mr. and Mrs. DuaneAnderson
Mr. and Mrs. Fred Anderson
Mr. and Mrs. Greg Anderson
Mr. and Mrs. Tim Andrews
Mr. Theodore Andros
Mr. and Mrs. Ted Arch
Mr. and Mrs. Elliot Asbel
Mr, and Mrs. Gerald N. Askowitz

Mr. and Mrs. Christopher Mooers
Mr. Theodore R. Nelson
Mr. and Mrs. John Perez
Mr. and Mrs. A. James Reagan, Jr.
Ms. Rona Sawyer
Mr. and Mrs. Roy E. Schoen
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Siegel
Mr. and Mrs. Gerald Silverman
Mr. and Mrs. Saul H. Silverman

Tropee Family
Ms, Shawn Helms and Mr. Don
Mr. and Mrs. Dan Hodges
Mr. and Mrs. Brian J. Mahoney, Jr.
Ms. LucindaA. Hoffman and Mrs.
William T. McCauley
Mr. William Holly and Ms.
Allison Moore
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Jacobs
Mr. Michael A. Jones
Ms. Claire Jordi
Ms. Susan Kawalerski
Mr. and Mrs. David Kirsten
Mr. and Mrs. Victor J. La Porta, Jr.
Ms. Lauren Lancaster
Mr. and Mrs. Calvin J. Landau
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Landon
Mr. and Mrs. Tony Lester
Ms, Adilia Lopez
Mr. and Mrs. Luis Lubian
Mr. and Mrs. Mark Lunt
Dr. and Mrs. Michael Mahaffey
Mr. Ryon McCabe
Ms. Janeau C. McKee-Vega and
Mr. Javier Vega
Mr. and Mrs. Robert McNaughton
Mr. Ralph Miles and Mrs. Helen
O'Quinn Miles
Mr. Karlsson Mitchell
Mr. Stan Mona
Mr. and Mrs. Christopher Moon

The Hon. and Mrs. C. Clyde
Ms. LomaAtkins and Mr. John
Mr. and Mrs. John Bachay
Mr. and Mrs. David R. Baker
Mr. and Mrs. John W. Baker
Mr. and Mrs. LeonardA. Baker
Mr. and Mrs. Scott Baker
Mr. and Mrs. Clive Baldwin
Mr. and Mrs. Rod C. Ball
Mr. John Ballou and
Ms. Leila Kight
Mr. and Mrs. Charles W. Bare

Mrs. Ethel H. Sottile
Mr. and Mrs. James B.
Tilghman, Jr.
Mr. Coleman Travelstead and
Ms. Brookes McIntyre
Ms. Jo Wilder
Mr. and Mrs. William M. Williams
Mr. and Mrs. Levys E. Zangronis
Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence J. Zigmont

Ms, Nicole Morton
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Munroe
Mr. Douglas O'Keefe and Ms.
Alison Gumn O'Keefe
Mr. and Mrs, Geovanny Ortiz
Mr. Michelle Pivar and
Mr. Jack Barr
Mr. Peter T. Pruitt
Mr. and Mrs. Peter Raffalski
Mr. and Mrs. Randolph Reich
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Roman
Dr. and Mrs. Eugenio M. Rothe
Mr. Robert Ruano and
Ms. Laura Tapia
Mr. Thomas Salzman and
Ms. Carolyn Gonzalez
Ms. Adriana Sanchez and
Mr. Edward Reboll
Mr. Will Sekoffand
Ms. Laura Pincus
Mrs. Genie Shayne
Mr. and Mrs, Blair Sibley
Mr. Michael Strahmn and
Ms. Paula Brandao
Mr. and Mrs. Brian Tannebaum
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Upshaw
Ms. AnaValverde
Mr. and Mrs. Juan Werner
Mr. and Mrs. Jeffrey Williamson
Ms. Jacqueline Woodward
Mr. Mario Yanez and Mrs. Sara

Mr. and Mrs. James W. Barfield
Mr. and Mrs. Harold P. Barkas
Mr. and Mrs. Paul J. Barko
Mr. and Mrs. Jeffrey A. Barnes
Ms. Beverly Barnett Allen
Mr. and Mrs. Michael Barrett
Dr. and Mrs. James W. Barrow
Mrs. Dottie Barton
Dr. and Mrs. Robert T. Bass
Mr. and Mrs. Ronald Battersby
Mr. and Mrs. Timothy A. Battle
Mr. and Mrs. Gary L.
Mr. and Mrs. Allen M. Beck

List of Members 81

Ms. Susana Behar
Dr. and Mrs. S. Z. Beiser
Mr. and Mrs. Charles F. Belmont
Mr. and Mrs. Randy C. Berg, Jr.
Mr. Robert E. Berkoff
Mr. and Mrs. David M. Berkowitz
Mr. and Mrs. Bruce Bernstein
Mr, and Mrs. Ronald Bernstein
Mr. and Mrs. Ray Berrin
Dr. Judith Berson and Mr. Steven
Mr. and Mrs. Ralph H. Bertelson
Mr. and Mrs. Tim Bettis
Mr. and Mrs. Patrick Bey
Mrs. John Birch
Mr. and Mrs. Anthony J. Bischoff
Dr. and Mrs. Alan Bisno
Mr. William Bj orkman and
Ms. Pam Winter
Mr. and Mrs. David M. Blackard
Mr. and Mrs. Ace J. Blackburn, Sr.
Mr. and Mrs. Jose M. Blanco
Dr. and Mrs. Jeffrey Block
Mr. and Mrs. Ted R. Blue, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. John S. Bohatch
Mr. Samuel J. Boldrick
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Boswell
Mr. and Mrs. William H. Bourne
Dr. and Mrs. Russell Boyd, DDS
Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth E.
Mr. and Mrs. William M. Breese
Mrs. Margurite Brewer Fox
Mr. and Mrs. J. Andrew Brian
Mr. and Mrs. Harry Brion
Mr. and Mrs. Douglas C. Broeker
Mr. and Mrs. Lester I. Brookner
Mr. Jeffrey Brosco and Ms. Angela
Mr. and Mrs. Bradford E. Brown
Dr. Harvey Brown and Dr.
Marjorie Brown
Mr. and Mrs. Sandy Brown
Mr. and Mrs. E.R. Brownell
Dr. and Mrs. Thomas Bruce
Mr. and Mrs. JohnM. Brumbaugh
Mr. and Mrs. Robert P. Bryant
Mr. and Mrs. E. S. Buckley, III
Mrs. Evelyn J. Budde
Ms. Charmyn Buddy
Mr. and Mrs. Jean E. Buhler
Ms. Marisabel Burge
Ms. Sandy Burnett and
Mr. Worth Auxier
Mr. and Mrs. Richard Bums
Mr. and Mrs. Sam Burton
Mr. Donald B. Butler

Mr. David Butt and Dr. Prudence
Mr. and Mrs. Peter Cagle
Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence W. Cahill
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Calt
Mr. and Mrs. Wilfredo Calvino
Robert Campbell and Ruth
Mr. and Mrs. Hilario Candela
Mr. and Mrs. Maurice Candela
Mr. and Mrs. Juan Cardenal
Mr. and Mrs. Jesus Carmenate
Mr. and Mrs. Albert Marvin Carr
Dr. and Mrs. Thomas Carroll
Mr. and Mrs. Charlie Carter
Mr. and Mrs. Bill Cassels
Mr. and Mrs. Robert B. Cast
Mr. Frank Castro and Ms. Nora
Ms. Sharon Cauvin
Mr. Jason Chandler and Ms. Susan
Dr. and Mrs. Arthur E. Chapman
Mr. and Mrs. John S. Chowning
Mr. and Mrs. Fred Cianelli
Mr. Jose E. Cil, Esq.
Mr. and Mrs. James K. Clark
Ms. Lydia S. Clark
Mr. Peter Clayton and Mrs. Ann
Ms. Carol Clothier and Ms.
Lorraine Hahn
Dr. Armando F. Cobelo
Mr. and Mrs. Louis Coburn
Ms. Tessie Coello and Mr. Pedro
Mr. and Mrs. Ronald F. Cold
Mr. and Mrs. Philip Cole
Mr. and Mrs. Emilio Colleja
Ms. Diane M. Congdon
Dr. and Mrs. James W. Conley
Mrs. Winifred Cook and Mr.
Robert Cook
Mrs. Leona Cooper and Ms.
Clarice Cooper
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Corradino
Mr. and Mrs. Barton Corredera
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Corredera
Mr. Hal Corson and Mrs. Gerri
Campbell Corson
Mr. Carlos Cortada
Ms. Anne Cotter and Mr. John
Mrs. John E. Culmer
Mr. Charles D. Cunningham
Mr. Donald W. Curl
Mr. and Mrs. Guillermo Cutie
Mr. and Mrs. Dan Danforth

Mr. and Mrs. Edward Daniel
Mr. and Mrs. James W. Davidson
Mr, and Mrs. Edward H. Davis, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. John R. Davis
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Davis
Mr. and Mrs. William L. Davis
Mr. and Mrs. Richard A. De Aguero
Dr. Leonel A. de la Cuesta
Ms. Elaine F. De Leonardis
Mr. and Mrs. Robert W. Decker
Ms. Nora Denslow and Mr. Jeff
Mr. and Mrs. Floy B. Denton
Mr. and Mrs. John Devine
Ms. Donna Dial and Mr. Art
Mr. and Mrs. Odilio Diaz
Mr. and Mrs. Alan H. Dombrowsky
Mr. Roger Doucha
Ms. Carol E. Drozdowicz
Mr. and Mrs. Don Duncanson
Mr. and Mrs. Larry Dunlap
Mr. and Mrs. David J. Dutcher
Mrs. John E. Duvall
Dr. and Mrs. William H. Eaglstein
Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Earle
Mr. Jorge Echenique
Mr. and Mrs. James M. Eckhart
Mr. Steve Edelstein
Dr. and Mrs. Albert J. Ehlert
Dr. Ralph Engle and Dr. Mary
Allen Engle
Mr. and Mrs. Irving R. Eyster
The Lunnon/Fleeger Family
Mr. and Mrs. Charles E. Fancher, Jr.
Mrs. Dante B. Fascell
Dr. and Mrs. Alfred Feingold
Mr. and Mrs. Jose Ignacio
Mr. and Mrs. C.S.B Field
Mr. and Mrs. Malcolm R. Field
Mr. and Mrs. David Fields
Mr. and Mrs. Glenn Firestone
Sue and Ray Fisher
Mr. and Mrs. Dan Fitzgerald
Mr. and Mrs. Willard L.
Fitzgerald, Jr.
Ms. Angeles Fleites
Mr. and Mrs. Edward T. Foote
Mr. and Mrs. Harry Forgan
Mr. and Mrs. Dwight E. Frazier
Mr. and Mrs. Stephen Freeman
Miss Arlene R. Freier
Mr. and Mrs. Richard E. Friberg
Mr. Milton A. Fried
Mr. David Frum
Ms. Olive Frye
Mr. and Mrs. Donald C. Gaby


Mr. and Mrs. Tomas F. Gamba
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph H. Ganguzza
Ms. Evelyn and Arlyn Garcia
Dr. and Mrs. Victor M. Garcia
Mrs. Dolores Garcia-Gutierrez and
Mr. Isaac Gutierrez
Mrs. Gretchen Garren and Mr.
Mr. and Mrs. Peter B. Garvett
Mr. Harold Gelber and Ms. Pat
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Gelberg
Dr. Paul U. Gerber, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. John Gillan
Dr. and Mrs. Gene Gitin
Mr. and Mrs. John Gladstone
Mr. and Mrs. Saul Glottmann
Mr, and Mrs. Sig M. Glukstad
Mr. and Mrs. Peter N. Glynn
Mr, and Mrs. Robert Goeser
Mr. and Mrs. Harold Goldberg
Mr. and Ms. Richard Goldsmith
Mr. Patrick Goldstein and Ms.
Sonya Bolle
Mr. and Mrs. Seymour Goldweber
Mr. and Mrs. Andres Gonzalez
Mr. and Mrs. Jorge Gonzalez
Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin F.
Mr. Ken Goodman
Mr. and Mrs. Larry Goodman
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Ray
Dr. and Mrs. Richard Gottlieb
Mr. and Mrs. Henry A. Grady
Mr. and Mrs. Barry N. Greenberg
Mr. and Mrs. Nathan Greenhouse
Mr. and Mrs. Jerry Grey
The Rev. and Mrs. Robb Grimm
Mr. and Mrs. Carl Grozan
Mr. and Mrs. George C. Grunwell
Mr. Stephen F. Hackley
Mr. and Mrs. Earl V. Hagood, IV
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Hall
Mr. and Mrs. Frank D. Hall
Mr. and Mrs. John Hall
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Halley
Mr. Thomas L. Hambright
Mr. and Mrs. Bill Hamilton
Ms. Lucy H. Hanafourde and Mr,
Bradley K. Hanafourde
Ms. Susan Hangge and Mr. David
Mr. Frederick H. Harrington
Mrs. Carol W. Harrison
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph J. Hatton
Mr. and Mrs. Maurice B. Hawa
Mr. Ron Hawkins

Mr. and Mrs. James Hayes
Mr. and Mrs. W. Hamilton Hayes
Mrs. Priscilla R. Helmers
Mr. and Mrs. Charles R. Helweick
Mr. Sam Herman
Mr. Richard Hemander
Mr. Pablo J. Hernandez
Ms. Rosario Hernandez
Mrs. Eva Herran and Mr. Jose
Mrs. Herman Herst, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. W. Warfield Hester
Mr. and Mrs. Ron Hill
Dr. and Mrs. Andy Hirschl
Mr. and Mrs. Jack Hodus
Dr. and Mrs. William Hoffman
Mr. and Ms. Neal Holmes
Mr. and Mrs. James A. Horland
Dr. Laurie R. Householder
Mr. George Hunker
Ms. Karen Hunter-Reno
Dr. and Mrs. James J. Hutson
Mr. and Mrs. James Hutton
Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth J. Hynes
Mr. and Mrs. Art Ingram
Dr. and Mrs. George L. Irvin, III
Mr. Charles Iselin and Ms. Helen
Mr. and Mrs. Eric Isenbergh
Mr. and Mrs. Nikko Isiotsias
Mr. and Mrs. Jay Issod
Ms. Shirley A. Jackson
Mr. and Mrs. Richard Jacobs
Dr. and Mrs. George Jacobson
Mr. and Mrs. James R. James
Mr. RichmondA. James, Jr.
Mr. Dean Jamieson
Ms. Pam Jennings
Mr. James L, Jensen
Mr. and Mrs. John Jensen
Ms. Dorothy B. Johnson
Mr. and Mrs. Lester R. Johnson
Mr. and Mrs. Lyle Johnson
Dr. and Mrs. Stanley Jonas
Mr. and Mrs. Albert Jones
Mr. and Mrs. Daniel C. Jones
Mr. and Mrs. Larry Joseph
Dr. and Mrs. J.R. Jude
Mr. and Mrs. John E. Junkin, III
Mr. and Mrs. Allan Kaiser
Ms. Ann Kashmer and
Mr. Lee Price
Mr. and Mrs. William A. Kaynor
Mrs. Barbara P. Keller and Mrs.
Fannie P. Reid
Dr. John Kemeney and
Ms. Bobbye Shearer
Mr, Harold E, Kendall

Mrs. Gertrude Kent and Mr.
Frederick J. Kent
Mr. and Mrs. Franklin Kenward
Dr. and Mrs. Norman M. Kenyon
Dr. and Mrs. Kenneth Keusch
Mr. Al A. Key
Mr. and Mrs. Timothy Kimmons
Mr. and Mrs. Randy King
Mr. and Mrs. Rodney King
Mayor Mitchell Kinzer and Mrs.
Regan Kinzer
Ms. Deborah S. Klein and Mr. Paul
Mr. and Mrs. Dennis Klinger
Mr. and Mrs. John Kostelak
Mr. and Mrs. Franklin D. Kreutzer
Mr. Bob Kulpa
Mr. and Mrs. David E. Lair
Mr. and Mrs. John Lake
Mr. and Mrs. Mark Lamb
Dr. Laura Lambert and Ms. Lucia
Ms. Sandy Lane
Mr. and Mrs. Wright Langley
Ms. Linda Lasch and Mr. L. Whildin
Ms. Melody Latham
Mr. and Mrs. David Lawrence
Mr. and Mrs. Paul Lazarus
Mr. Michael Lederberg and Ms.
Linda Barocas
Mr. and Mrs. Brian E. Lee
Mr. and Mrs. Robert W. Lee
Mr. and Mrs. Terry R. Lee
Mr. Richard Lehman and Mr. Scott
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Lerner
Mr. Paul A. Lester
Mr. and Mrs. Sidney Levin
Dr. Harold Levine
Dr. and Mrs. Richard Levitt
Mr. and Mrs. Dan Levy
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Lewis
Mr. and Mrs. Bernard R. Limegrover
Mr. and Mrs. Leigh Livesay
Mr. Don R. Livingstone
Mr. and Mrs. Tom Logue
Mr. and Mrs. Joe Longo
Mr. and Mrs. Carlos J. Lopez
Mr. and Mrs. Cesar Lopez
Mr. Sergio Lopez de la Mesa
Mr. and Mrs. Richard Lorenzo
Mr. and Mrs. Rafael T. Lorie
Mrs. Nereida Lowery
Mr. Howard Lubel and Ms. Rose
Mr. and Mrs. Philip F. Ludovici
Dr. and Ms. William Ludwig
Ms. Kathryn R. Lynn

List of Members 83

Mr. and Mrs. Robert MacDonald
Mr. Federico Macia
Mr. and Mrs. Alexander C.
Mr. and Mrs. Norman L. Madan
Mr. Larry P. Magee
Ms. Rena Magolnick and Mr.
Robert Hustead
Dr. and Mrs. Bruce Mahaffey
Mr. and Mrs. Philip J. Mank, Jr.
Dr. and Mr. Arnold R. Mannis
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Mark
Dr. and Mrs. Michael E. Marmesh
Mr. and Mrs. Gerry Marston
Mr. and Mrs. Frank C. Martin
Major and Mrs. J. William Martin
Mr. Robert Martinez
Mr. and Mrs. Alberto Martinez-
Mr. and Mrs, Jerry Mashburn
Mr. and Mrs. Parks Masterson
Mr. Finlay B., Matheson
Mr. and Mrs. Michael Matheson
Mr. Thomas C. Maxwell
Mr. and Mrs. John A. Mayo
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas F.
McAuliffe, I!I
Dr. and Mrs. Donald
McCorquodale, Jr.
Mr. and Ms. John McCready
Mr. and Mrs. Scott McDaniel
Mr. and Mrs. J. Gordon McDonald
Mr. and Mrs. Michael F.
Mr. Brian McGuinness
Mr. and Mrs. Charles F. McKay
Dr. and Mrs. Robert A.
Mr. and Mrs. R.H. McTague
Mr. and Mrs. David Melin
Dr. George Metcalf and Dr.
Elizabeth Metcalf
Mr. and Mrs. Addison J. Meyers
Mr. Robert Meyerson
Mr. and Mrs. Donald Michelson
Dr. and Mrs. Max Millard
Mr. and Mrs. Aristides J. Millas
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Miller
Mr. and Mrs. H. Dale Miller, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. William J. Miller
Mr. and Mrs. Frank Minton
Mr. Sanford B. Miot
Ms. Nanci B. Mitchell and Mr.
Simon Taylor
Mr. and Mrs. Larry Mizrach
Mr. and Mrs. Lloyd L. Moeller
The Hon. and Mrs. Joseph

Mr. and Mrs. Charles Monson
Mrs. and Mrs. Charles H.
Mr. and Mrs. Ralph V. Moore, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. William Moore
Mr. and Mrs. Santiago D. Morales
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph P. Morgan
Mr. and Mrs. Theodore Morrison
Mr. and Mrs. John H.
Moynahan, Sr.
Mr. Ivan Muguercia and Ms.
Tanza Ross
Mr. and Mrs. Charles P.
Munroe, Sr.
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph T. Munroe
Mr. Rene Murai, Esq.
Mr. A. Randy Nabor St. Joan
Dr. Thomas A. Natiello
Ms. Barbara Neil Young and Mr.
Robert Huff
Mr. Burnham S. Neill and Mrs.
Mildred C. Neill
Mr. and Mrs. Richard F. Newman
Mr. and Mrs. Frank 0, Nichols
Ms. Peg G. Niemiec
Mr. and Mrs. SamNormandia
Mr, and Mrs. Sandy Nusbaum
Mr. and Mrs. Cesar Odio
Michael S. Olin, Esq.
Mr. and Mrs. Bob Oliver
Mr. and Mrs. Lynne Olsen
Dr. and Mrs. George Onoprienko
Ms. Diana E. Orgaz
Mr. W. James Orovitz
Mr. and Mrs. David Owen
Ms. Patricia Owen and Dr. Albert
Mr. and Mrs. Leslie V. Pantin, Jr.
Dr. and Mrs. Emanuel M. Papper
Mr. and Mrs. Richard Parcell
Mr. and Mrs. Orlando Paredes
Ms. Janet Parker and Mr. David
Robin and Judy Parker
Mr. and Mrs. William Parry
Ms. Marcia Pawley and Ms. Anita
Ms. Idania Pazos Garcia and Mr.
Guillermo Garcia
Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence A.
Mr. and Mrs. William A. Pena
Mr. John D. Pennekamp, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Jorge F. Perez
Mr. and Mrs. Rafael Perez
Mrs. Jean Perwin and Mr. Joel
Mr. John Pfeiffer and Ms. Rebecca

Mrs. Audrey Pilafian
Mr. and Mrs. Paul Plotkin
Mr. and Mrs. Ramon E. Poo
Ms. Beatriz Portela
Mr. and Mrs. Budd Post
Dr. and Mrs. Irwin Potash
Mr. and Mrs. Alfred H. Powell
Mr. and Mrs. Anthony Prado, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. George Prochaska
Dr. and Mrs. Eugene F. Provenzo
Mr. and Mrs. Walter Provost
Mr. and Mrs. Herbert S. Quartin
Mr. and Mrs. Sam Rabin
Mr. and Mrs. Gabe Radi
Mr, and Mrs. Constantine Railey
Dr. Nina Raim
Dr. and Mrs. Salvador M. Ramirez
Mr. and Mrs. William G. Randall
Mr. and Mrs. William W. Randolph
Mr. and Mrs. Stuart M. Rapee
Mr. and Mrs. Bernard Rappaport
Dr. Alan S. Rapperport
Ms. Elizabeth R. Read
Dr. and Mrs. Philip J. Reckford
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Reisinger
Dr. Kenneth Relyea and
Dr. Tamela Relyea
The Hon. Janet Reno
Mr. and Mrs. Lewis M, Ress
Mr. R.H. Rice, Jr.
Dr. and Mrs. Maurice Rich
Mrs. D.E. Richards
Mr. and Mrs. Norman C, Ridgely
Mr. and Mrs. KarstenA. Rist
Mr. and Mrs. Patrick Roach
Mr. and Mrs. Robert E. Roache
Mr. and Mrs. Rafael L. Robayna
Dr. and Mrs. James A. Robb
Mr. and Mrs. William R.
Robbins, Jr.
Dr. and Mrs. E.G. Robertson
Mr. and Mrs. Neil P. Robertson
Mr, and Mrs. John C. Robinson
The Hon. Steven D. Robinson
Mr, and Mrs. Pedro 1. Roca
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Rodrigues
Mr. and Mrs. Manuel J. Rodriguez
Mr. and Mrs. Victor Rodriguez
Mrs. Dorothy Rodwell
Mr. and Mrs. Laurence J. Rohan
Mr. and Mrs. Keith Root
Mr. and Mrs. B.H. Ropeik
Mr. and Mrs. Mack Roper
Ms. Betty Roper-Matkov
D. and A. Rosario
Mr. Luis 1. Rosas-Guyon, Sr.
Mr. Paul Rosen
Dr. and Mrs. Michael Rosenberg
Mr. and Mrs. Louis Rosenthal


Mr. and Mrs. Jeffrey Rosinek
Mr. and Mrs. Stanley E. Ross
Mr. and Mrs. Jeffrey C. Roth
Mr. and Mrs. Howard Roxborough
Mr. MichaelA. Rubin
Dr. and Mrs. Howard A. Rubinson
Mr. and Mrs. Charles P. Sacher
Mr. and Mrs. Herbert Saffir
Mr. and Mrs. Louis Sager
Dr. and Mrs. Gerard Sais
Mr. and Mrs. A.A. Sakhnovsky
Mr. Alan Sanchez
Mr. and Mrs. Richard Sanchez
Mrs. Ellen M. Sanford
Dr. Stephen Sapp and Dr. Mary
Dr. Sylvan Sarasohn
Mr. and Mrs. Paul M. Schaefer
Ms. Becky S. Schaffer
Mr. and Mrs. Leo Scherker
Mr, Peter Schmitt
The Hon. Judge Eleanor Schockett
Mr. and Mrs. Allan Schwartz
Mr. and Mrs. Philip Schwartz
Mr. and Mrs. Warren S. Schwartz
Mr. and Mrs. James H, Scott
Ms. Kathy A. Scott and Mr. Bill
Mr. and Mrs. Kevin Scott
Dr. and Mrs. Daniel Seckinger
Mr. Joseph Serota
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Seymour
Ms. Sandy Sharp and Mr. Stuart
Ms. Tamra Sheffman and Mr. Ron
Mr. and Mrs. David Sherman
The Hon. Judge and Mrs. Robert
Dr. and Mrs. Robert W. Shippee
Ms. Marilyn Shrater
Mr. and Mrs. Whit Sidener
Mr. and Mrs. Glen Simmons
Mr. Jose Simonet and Ms. Rema
Mr. and Mrs. Charles M.
Simpson, III
Ms. Holly Simpson
Mr. and Mrs. Howard W. Sims
Dr. and Mrs. Joseph A. Singer
Mr. Rudolph Singh and Ms. Sonia
Mr. and Mrs. Ted C. Slack
Mr. and Mrs. Michael C. Slotnick
Mr. and Mrs. Bill Smart
Dr. and Mrs. Karl Smiley
Mr. and Mrs. Keith Smith
Mr. and Mrs. Lee D. Smith
Mr. and Mrs, McGregor Smith, Jr.

Mr. and Mrs. James M. Snedigar
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Snook
Dr. and Mrs. Selig D. Snow
Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert Snyder
Mr. and Mrs. Larry R. Snyder
Mr. and Mrs. Manuel Sola
Mr. and Mrs. Roger Soman
Mr. and Mrs. Cesar Sotelo
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Soto
Mr. and Mrs. Jose Sotolongo
Mr. and Mrs. CarlA. Spatz
Mr. and Mrs. Martin Spector
Mr. and Mrs. James P. Spillis
Mr. Jim Stamps and Ms. Ami
Dr. and Mrs. L.M. Stanfill
Mrs. Mary Stanley and Mr.
Donald Stanley
Mr. and Mrs. Steve Starke
Mr. Ronald Stearns and Ms.
Marlene Negrin
Mr. and Mrs. Adolph Steinhauer
Mr. and Mrs. RobertA. Stem
Mr. Ed Stieve and Mr. Otto Paier
Mr. and Mrs. Fred Stockhausen
Dr. and Mrs. G.J. Stocks, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas J. Stokes
Mr. and Mrs. Saul Strachman
Dr. and Mrs. Thomas B.
Strozier, M.D.
Dr. and Mrs. Theodore Struhl
Mr. and Mrs. Morton D. Stubins
Mr. Jose A. Suarez
Dr. and Mrs. James N. Sussex
Mr. and Mrs. Alfred M. Swiren
Mr. and Mrs. Francis Switzer
Mr. and Ms. Thomas W. Talmadge
Ms. Maria Tamayo
Mrs. Barbara W. Tansey
Mr. and Mrs. Glen Taylor
Ms. Jane I. Taylor
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas T. Taylor
Mr. and Mrs. Ronald E. Temkin
Mr. and Mrs. Bill Tenney
Ms. Peggy L. Test Frankel
Mr. and Mrs. Raymond Thaler
Mr. and Mrs. Mark R. Thaw
Mr, and Mrs. Thomas V.
Dr. and Mrs. Richard J. Thurer
Mr. and Mrs. Tom Thurlow, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Robert C. Tipton
Mr. and Mrs. Donald Tomlinson
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas J. Touchton
Mr. and Mrs. Rick Touri
Mr. Joseph Traba, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Traenkle
Mr, and Mrs. Sydney S. Traum
Mr. and Mrs. Antonio M. Tremols

Mr. John G. Troast
Mr. and Mrs. Alan Troop
Mrs. Ann Sofi Truby and Mr.
Daniel Montana
Mr. and Mrs. Joe Trudeau
Mr. and Mrs. Christopher G.
Mr. and Mrs. Franklin Valdes
Mr. and Mrs. Jerome Vallone
Ms. Glendys Valls and Ms.
Femandina Ortega
Mr. Charles M. van der Laan
Mr. and Mrs. David Van Gorp
Mr. and Mrs. William P.
Mr. Carlos A. Vazquez
Mr. Manuel 0. Vazquez
Mr. and Mrs. Tom H. Veenstra
Ms. Ofelia Via
Ms. Hava Villaverde
Mr. and Mrs.Andrew Vladimir
Mr. and Mrs. Donald Walker
Mr. Michael D. Wallace
Mr. and Mrs. Robert G. Wallace
Mr. and Mrs. John Walsh
Mr. David Walters
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Ward
Mr. George E. Watson
Mr. and Mrs. Howard Watson
Mr. and Mrs. William A. Webb
Mr. and Mrs. Carlos Weiss
Mr. and Mrs. A. Rodney Wellens
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Wells
Mr. and Mrs. Everett G. West
Mr. and Mrs. Michael West
Mr. and Mrs. Michael P. Whalen
Mr. Don Wiener
Mr. Joe Wilkins
Mr, and Mrs. Norman Willis
Ms. Barbara W. Wilson
Mr. and Mrs. George M. Wilson
Dr. and Mrs. Oliver P. Winslow, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Craig Witty
Mr. and Mrs. John C. Witty, Jr.
Dr. and Mrs. Benjamin Wolf
Mr. and Mrs. William Fred Wolff
Mr. and Mrs. Bernard Wolfson
Mr. and Mrs. Don Worth
Mr. and Mrs. James G. Worth
Dr. and Mrs. Lloyd L. Wruble
Mrs. Dorothy B. Yates
Mr. Robert Yates
Ms. Jean T. Yehle
Mr. and Mrs. DavidYonover
Mr. and Mrs. John F. Young
Ms. Patricial Zahl and Mr. John
Ms. Michele Lynn Zakis and Ms.
Mary Zakis

List of Members 85

Mr. and Mrs. Jon W. Zeder
Mr. and Mrs. Myron S. Zeientz

Mr. Faustino Amesquita
Mr. Stephen M. Bander
Mr. Scott Barnett
Ms. Gilda M. Battle
Mr. Jeffrey L. Baxter
Ms. Rebecca Bearden
Ms. Maggy Beguiristain
Ms. Maria J. Beguiristain
Ms. Stephanie Berman
Ms. Loren Berot
Ms. Maria Berry
Ms. Anna Blackman
Mr. Roberto A. Blanchard
Ms. Lillian Blondet
Dr. Ricardo Blondet
Ms. Kathryn Bohlmann
Mr. Charles W. Braznell, HII
Ms. Theresa Bridges
Ms. Julia C. Brown
Mr. Walter Byrd
Ms. Kathleen Bymes
Ms. Catherine Cahill
Ms. Gail E. Cason
Ms. Maria Inez Castro
Ms. Mia Cavaco
Ms. Shannon Chamberlain
Ms. Amy Chillag
Ms. Susan E. Chwalik
Ms. MarcelaP. Cohen
Mr. Scott Cole
Ms. Karon M. Coleman
Mr. Gary A. Costales
Ms. Lourdes Couce
Mr. Elvis W. Cruz
Ms. Alys Daly
Mr. Erich de la Fuente
Mr. Joseph M. De La Viesca
Mr. Pierre J. DeAgostini
Mr. Frank G. Del Toro
Ms. Laura Delgado
Ms. Cheryl Devall
Mr. Al Diaz
Mr. Scott Dimond
Ms. Michelle Dominguez
Ms. Andrea Dougherty
Ms. Christine Dowlen
Mr. Bob Dunbar
Mr. Charles Duncan
Mr. Christopher R. Eck
Mr. Marvin Ellis
Mr. Philip R. Engelmann
Ms. Susan Ervin
Ms. Carmen Espinosa

Dr. and Mrs. Peter Zies
Dr. Sanford Ziff and Mrs. Dolores

Mrs. Christian Falco
Mr. Emerson Fales
Ms. Yelena Fernandez
Mr. Edward Flack
Ms. Laurie Flink
Ms. Denie Freyer
Ms. Elise Friedbauer
Ms. Marlene Garcia
Commander Paul J. Gilson,
Ms. Joyce Goldberg
Mr. Bothwell Gonas
Mr. Adrian Gonzalez
Mr. Alfredo J. Gonzalez
Ms. Ardis Gonzalez
Mr. Ariel Gonzalez
Mr. Israel A. Gonzalez
Ms. Maria I. Gonzalez
Ms. Patricia M. Gonzalez
Mr. Michael Graff
Mr. William E. Gregory
Mr. Erik Gunther
Ms. Sylvia Gurinsky
Ms. Kim Hammon
Mr. Douglas A. Harrison
Mr. Walter J. Harvey
Ms. Christiane Hayden
Mr. John H. Hickey, Esq.
Ms. Denie Hofer
Mr. John H. Holly
Ms. Maria Hurtak
Ms. Alissa Jaworski
Ms. Alise Johnson
Mr. David Johnson
Mr. Johnathan Jonasz
Mr. Dennis G. Kainen, Esq.
Ms. Valerie Karam
Mr. Robert W. Kerr
Mr. Bill Kilpatrick
Mr. Brian Knight
Mr. Christopher E. Knight
Mr. Robert F. Kohlman
Ms. Andrea Krensky
Mr. Michael W. Larkin
Ms. Stacey Levine
Mr. Steven Levine
Mr. Robert M. Levy
Ms. Sharyn Lewis
Ms. Neca M. Logan
Mr. MichaelA. Marinelli
Mr. Michael Marsjanik
Mr. Miguel Martell, Jr.
Ms. Patricia Anne Martinez
Mr. Raul Martinez, Jr.
Miss Hilda C. Masip

Maria Barwell-Ziff
Ms. Marcia Zull and Ms. Lisa

Ms. Deborah Matthews
Mr. Gus Maxwell
Ms. Sue McConnell
Mr. Peter McElwain
Ms. Jamie Lynn MeKinney
Mr. Larry T. McMillan
Mr. Darryl Menzies
Mr. Stephen Millan
USNR Mr. Alex Miller
Ms. Marcia Monserrat
Ms. Rhonda L. Montoya, Esq.
Mr. Thomas R. Mooney
Ms. Allison Moore
Mr. Kevin Moure
Ms. Elizabeth Moya
Mr. Wirth Munroe
Mr. Jorge Navarro
Ms. Katherine M. Norman
Ms. Phillis Oeters
Ms. Karen L. Oleet
Mr. Brian Olson
Ms. Anna Pacheco
Ms. Cathy Paines
Ms. Andrea Parker
Ms. Maria Pellerin
Dr. Jacqueline L. Pereira
Ms. Janette Perez
Ms. Patricia L. Perez
Ms. Lee-Anne Perkins, Esq.
Ms. Sandra Piligian
Mr. Juan Pinilla
Mr. Nick Pohlman
Mr. Wayne Ramoski
Mr. Gary Reeves
Ms. Susan Reilly
Ms. Mary Grace Richardson
Ms. Jena E. Rissman, Esq.
Mr. Will Robbins
Mr. Walter Robinson
Mr. Eric A. Rodriguez, Esq.
Ms. Ivette Marie Rodriguez
Ms. Raquel Rodriguez
Ms. Silvia M. Rodriguez
Mr. Felipe Sablon
Mr. Eugene Salzberger
Mr. David Sampedro
Ms. Liz Sarachek
Ms. Helen L. Scarr
Mr. Alan Schiffman
Ms. Sandra L. Scidmore
Mr. JeffScott
Mr. Matt Shannon
Ms. Christina Sherry
Ms. Sheryl A. Shoup


Mr. Richard Simring, Esq.
Mr. Paul Skoric
Mr. Robert G. Slater
Ms. Betsy Smalley
Mr. Peter Smalley
Ms. Catherine Smith
Ms. Maggie Socotes
Ms. Lourdes Sori
Ms. Heileen Sosa
Ms. Jane Spinney
Mr. Stephen Stansell

Mrs, Leatrice Abermnan
Mr. JimAdams
Ms. Molly S. Adams
Mrs. Lamar M. Adams-Jackson
Mr. AlAlschuler
Mrs. Gloria Alvarez
Mr. Luis L. Alvarez
Mr. Carl D. Amsterdam
Mrs. John Ancona
Mr. Cromwell A, Anderson
Ms. Olga Andres
Ms. Hope A. Apollony
Ms. Christine Ardalan
Mr. James Armour
Mr. Jorge Arocha
Mrs. Blanche T. August
Ms. Helen Baden
Mrs. John L. Bagg, Jr.
Ms. Joan L. Bailey
Mr. C. Jackson Baldwin
Mr. Charles L. Balli
Ms. Phyllis Barash
Ms. Yvonne Barkman
Ms. Ava R. Barnes
Mr. Paul D. Barns, Jr.
Mr. J.T. Barrett
Ms. Anne Bartlett
Ms. Maria C. Batista
Mr. Harry D. Bavly
Ms. Jacqueline Beatty
Ms. Mary G. Beazel
Ms. Mary Glenda F. Beeler
Ms. Virginia Benen
Ms. BarbaraK. Bennett
Ms. Louise F. Bennett
Ms. Sarah L. Bennett
Mr. Edwin J. Benson
Ms. Cyane H. Being
Mrs. Charlotte M. Biedron
Mrs. John T. Bills
Mrs, Thomas H. Birchmire
Mr. Charles Bishop
Mr. Warren R, Bittner
Ms. June F. Blair

Mr. Bradley R. Stark
Ms. Alice M. Stone
Mr. Max Strang
Ms. Kelly M. Strmthial, Esq.
Ms. Terri Swift
Ms. Julie G. Tatol, Esq.
Ms. Patti Lee Thompson
Ms. Sharon Thompson
Ms. Eileen Tugg
Ms. Wendy Tuttle
Dr. Alberto E. Vadillo

Mr. JeffBlakley
Mrs. Margaret S. Blue
Dr. Stephen E. Blythe
Ms. Elisabeth Boggs
Ms. Patricia J. Borcz
Ms. Maria L. Bosque
Mr. Leonard G. Boymer
Ms, Jean Bradfisch
Mrs. Martha Lou Bradley
Mr. Scott Brady
Mr. Don Brammer
Dr. Ellen B. Brandt
Dr. Miguel A. Bretos
Ms. Sharlene T. Brimo
Ms. Dorothy Brisbin
Ms. Eleanor Bristol
Ms. Susan Browman
Ms. Lynn W. Brown
Mrs. Mary C. Brown
Mr. William E. Brown, Jr.
Mr. Phillip A. Buhler
Mrs. T.C. Buhler
Dr. E. Carter Burrus, Jr.
Mrs. Robert A. Burton, Jr.
Mr. Gregory W. Bush
Ms. Ann Bussel
Mr. Theo Byrd
Mrs. Florence H. Cadwallader-
Ms. Mary Caffee
Mrs. Elsa Calderwood
Ms. Mairi Callam
Mr. John Cansfield
Ms. Robin Caple
Mr. William H. Cary
Mr. David J. Charles
Ms. Josephine C. Chesley
Mrs. Anita Christ
Mrs. Walter J. Chwalik
Ms. Kathy Cibula
Ms. Dana L, Clay
Ms. Malinda Cleary
Ms. Joan Cleveland
Ms. Cathy Coates

Ms. Julia A. Van
Ms. Sharon Van Smith
Mr. Kurt A. Von Gonten
Mr. John S. Waldo
Mr. Joe Waltman
Ms. Cheryl S. Waters
Mr. Roy L. Weinfeld
Mr. Craig Wheeling
Ms. Jacqueline Woodward
Mr. 0. Oliver Wragg
Mr. Joe Zaydon
Mr. Darin I. Zenov, Esq.

Ms. Caroline Coffey
Mr. C. Patrick Collins
Ms. Martha Anne Collins
Ms. Mabel Conde
Ms. Catherine J. Conduitte
Ms. Rebecca Conner
Ms. Rose Connett-Richards
Ms. Eileen Costello
Ms. Carol Coverdale
Ms. Norma J. Craig
Mrs. Beverly Craig Butler
Mrs. Alma L. Crawford
Ms. Diane Cressy
Mr. Andrew T. Cullison
Mrs. K. M. Culpepper
Ms. Susan Cumins
Mr. George Cummings, III
Mrs. Charlotte Curry Christensen
Mr. Robert Curtis
Ms. Lorenda Dasher
Mrs. Martha Dasher Howl
Ms. Ursula M. Davidson
Mr. Jim F. Davis
Mr. and Mrs. John W. Davis
Ms. Marinell Davis
The Hon. Mattie B. Davis
Mrs. Walter R. Davison
Ms. Sandy Dayhoff
Mrs. Emilia de Quesada
Ms. Lynda de Velasco
Ms. Mary Ann De Weese
Ms. Susan Demorsky
Mrs. Florence H. Dence
Ms. Sylvia P. Diaz
Ms. Sharon Dick
Ms. Yvonne M. Dietrich
Mr. Marion E. Dinsmore
Mrs. JohnW. Dix
Ms. Perdita Dobinchick
Dr. Stephen Dobrow
Mr. Steve Dodge
Ms. Patricia Dolan
Mr. William Dollaway
Mr. J.F. Donnelly

List of Members 87

Mrs. Leslie Dom
Ms. Gayle Doyle
Mrs. H.E. Drew
Mrs. Gladys Dubbin
Mrs. Faye Dugas
Ms. Alden Dunwody
Mr. F. Sennett Duttenhofer
Ms. Sarah Eaton
Ms. Norma Ederer
Mr. Jim Edward
Ms. Lena Ekdahl
Mr. John D. Ellis
Ms. Ruth B. Elsasser
Mrs. Richard P Emerson
Mrs. Harold Emerson Mahony
Ms. Patricia G. Ernst
Mrs. Beatrice Esplin
Brother Eugene
Ms. Linda Lee Evans
Mrs. Mary Ann Faber
Ms. Monica Faraldo
Ms. Jane Faysash
Mr. J. W. Fell
Mrs. Lourdes Fernandez
Mrs. Nell Finenco
Ms. Cynthia A. Finney
Mr. Leopoldo Florez
Mrs. Mary A. Flournoy
Mr. Robert L. Floyd
Dr. Rita M. Fojaco
Miss Elizabeth Foote
Ms. Elizabeth Ford
Mr. Scott Forthman
Ms. Fanny Fraynd
Miss Renee Z. Fritsch
Ms. Margaret Froehling
Ms. Marjorie L. Galatis
Mr. Tom Gallaher
Mr. Rafael Gallardo
Ms. Janet P. Gardiner
Mr. Robert W. Gardner
Dr. Bruce Garrison
Ms. Dena R. Garvue
Ms. Carolyn Garwood
Ms, Carol T. Gassaway
Ms. Mary Gaulding
Mrs. Terence Gerace
Ms. Marilyn Gerow
Mr. David C. Gibson
Mr. Norman M. Giller
Ms. Gertrude Ginsburg
Mr. Robert N. Ginsburg
Mr. Charles Goldstein
Mr. Alfredo Gonzalez
Mr. Robert L. Gonzalez
Mr. William Gonzalez

Ms. Ana B. Gonzalez-Machin
Ms. Betty Ann Good
Mary Ann Goodlett-Taylor
Mrs. Beth Gopman
Mr. Harold H. Gordon
Ms. Betsye B. Gorman
Ms. Julia Gottlieb
Ms. Connie Goudie
Ms. Mary Louise Grant
Mrs. Cami Green
Dr. Henry Green
Mr. Mitchell S. Green
Mr. Gordon Gregory
Dr. Zade B. Gross
Ms. Gayle L. Grossman
Ms. Marlene Grover
Mr. Harry Guenther
Ms. Carol Guzman
Ms. Nancy F. Haddock
Ms. Victoria Hadley
Ms. Kay K. Hale
Ms. Judi S. Hamelburg
Mr. James Hamilton
Ms. Elizabeth T. Hand
Ms. Jan Hanna-McKenna
Ms. Ingrid Hansen
Mr. Paul S. Hanson
Mr. Robert S. Harris
Miss Wanda Harwell
Mrs. Muriel Hathorn
Mr. Leland M. Hawes, Jr.
Ms. June Hawthome-Harbett
Ms. Patricia Hayes
Mrs. Isadore Hecht
Mrs. Ruth Heckerling
Mr. Roy Vann Helms
Ms. Rosemary E. Helsabeck
Mrs. Gayle Henderson
Ms. Eileen W. Herald
Ms. Mary-Alice Herbert
Dr. Roberto E. Hernandez
Mrs. Virginia R. Herring
Ms. Linda C. Hertz
Ms. Jean M. Hewitt
Ms. Jeanne D. Higgins
Mr. Herbert L. Hiller
Mr. Richard Hoberman
Ms. Nedra A. Hodge
Mrs. Doris S. Hodges
Ms. Janet S. Hodges
Ms. Susan Hofstein
Ms. Ritta K. Hogan
Ms. Margaret P. Holsenbeck
Ms. Patricia Hooper
Ms. Teresa Horta
Mrs. Eddie Hoskins
Mr. Joseph B. Hourihan

Mr. Roland M. Howell
Mrs. Anna L. Huber
Mrs. Helen B. Hudnall
Mr. Russell V. Hughes
Mr. Kenneth Hughs
Mr. Joseph Hunkey
Mr. William A. Ingraham, Jr.
Mrs. Ruth Jacobs
Dr. Helen Jacobstein
Mr. H.L. James
Ms. Mary C. James
Dr. Eric Jarvis
Dr. William T. Jerome, III
Mr. Vicente Jimenez
Ms. Georgina Johnson
Mr. Thomas E. Johnson
Ms. Donna M. Johnston
Mrs. Betty Jones
Mrs. Frank E. Jones
Ms. Molly B. Jones
Ms. Roberta Kaiser
Ms. Barbara M. Kanzer
Mrs. Ruth B. Kassewitz
Mrs. Barbara Katzen
Ms. Elizabeth H. Kaynor
Maureen Keenan
Mr. Scott G. Keith
Dr. Robert L. Kelley
Ms. Margaret S. Kern
Mr. Neal S. Keys
Ms. Janet Kilgard Barbour
Ms. Nancy Kilmartin
Mr. Arthur King, Sr.
Ms. Lillian Kirchheiner
Mr Bill Kirklen
Mr. John Klein
Mr. Eliot Kleinberg
Ms. Carolyn Klepser
Ms. Diane Klimoski
Ms. Marie L. Knepper
Mr. Jeffrey D. Knight
Mr. Homer W. Knowles
Mr. Clifford M. Kolber
Mrs. Patricia M. Kolski
Mr. Theodore E. Koper, Jr.
Ms. Elaine Kradjan
Ms. Kathy S. Kramer-Martin
Ms. Rita Krasno
Mr. Robert V. Kriebs
Mr. Donald M. Kuhn
Mr. Walter Kutrip
Mr. Charles Kyriazos
Mr. Dexter La Belle
Ms. Leah La Plante
Ms. Barbara Labuzan
Mr. Richard David Lancaster
Ms. Carol Lang
Mr. Martin J. Lann


Mr. Paul W. Larsen
Dr. Abraham D. Lavender
Ms. Karen Lawrence
Dr. H.L. Lawson
Mr. James R. Lawson, III
Mr. James R. Lawson
Mr. Dan D. Laxson, Sr.
Mr. Robert A. Leathers
Ms. Christine Lee
Ms. Jo Lee
Ms. Linda Lee
Mrs. David M. Lehman
Ms. Aldo M. Leiva
Mr. Manuel Leon
Mr. Salvador Leon, Jr.
Mr. Joseph S. Leonard
Ms. Nancy L. Leslie
Mr. Robert L. Levis
Ms. Sara B. Leviten
Mr. Scott P. Lewis
Ms. Theresa L. Lianzi
Mr. Mark Lighterman
Ms. Ellen M. Linardi
Ms. M. Diane Linder
Ms. Janet A. Lineback
Mr. Michael Jon Littman
Mr. Grant Livingston
Ms. Judith Loffredo
Mr. Robert Lopez
Mr. James S. Lord
Ms. Mildred A. Love
Mr. Charles T. Lowe
Mrs. Jaywood Lukens
Ms. Joyce M. Lund
Mr. WL. Lunsford
Ms. Hillelene S. Lustig
Mr. Joseph M. Lynch
Mr. James K. MacAvoy
Mr. Don MacCullough
Ms. Valerie MacLaren
The Rev. Richard D. Maholm
Mrs. Dorothy Malinin
Ms. Angela Maltzman
Ms. Pat Manfredi
Dr. Celia C. Mangels
Ms. Linda W. Mansperger
Ms. Jeanmarie Manze Massa
Ms. Liliana Maresma
Mrs. Edna P. Martin
Ms, Jane Mason
Mr. Robert D. Masterson
Ms. Wendie Mateu
Mr. James F. Matheson
Ms. Marguerite Mathews
Ms. Judith Matz
Mr. Jim McAllister
Mrs. Arva Moore Parks McCabe

Mr. Chuck McCartney
Mrs. Eugenie McCarty
Ms. Helena McCauley
Ms. Marion L. McCool
Ms. Carmen McGarry
Ms. Joy N. McGarry
Ms. Judy McGraw
Mr. Daniel C. McKenna
Ms. Abbie McKenzie
Mrs. Beverly McKeon
Mr. John F. McLean
Ms. Lou McLean
Mr. William Edward
McMichael, Jr.
Mrs. Virginia D. McNaughton
Dr. Donald McNeill
Mr. Oscar Mederos
Ms. Toni Meltzer
Mr. Jesus Mendez
Ms. Marguerite Merrill
Mr. Roger F. Messer
Ms. Linda M. Meyer
Mr. Frank C. Meyers
Dr. Joan Mickelson
Mr. William R. Middelthon, Jr.
Mr. Timothy R. Mielke
Ms. Jeannie Milberg
Ms. Mary A. Millard
Ms, Evalyn H. Milledge
Ms. Gertrude R. Miller
Mrs. Graham Miller
Ms. Mary E. Miller
Mrs. J.B. Millero
Mr. Jose Miranda
Mr. Roger G. Misleh
Ms. Katherine Mitchell
Mr. Thomas A. Mitchell
Ms. Jeri Mitrani
Mr. RaymondA. Mohl, Jr.
Ms. Diana R. Molinari
Mr. J. Floyd Monk
Mr. Virginia G. Montgomery
Mrs. Cynthia A. Moore
Mr. Patrick F. Moore
Mrs. Bianca Moreiras
Ms. Cynthia A. Morgan
Mrs. Theodora J. Morris
Ms. Emily Moynihan
Mrs. W. W. Muir
Mr, John D. Muncey
Mr. Manuel I. Muniz
Miss Margaret Mustard
Mrs. Jeannette Myer
Ms. Patricia Myer
Ms. Lillian G. Myers
Mrs. Shirley L. Nagy
Ms. Suzanne Nasca

Mr. Donald A. Nash
Ms. Avis Navarro
Ms. Brenda Nelson
Ms. Gay M.Nemeti
Mr. Robert S. Neumann
Mrs. J. Colgan Norman, Jr.
Mr. Herb Northrup
Ms. Karen Novick
Mr. B.P. Nuckols, Jr.
Ms. Patty Nygaard
Ms. Leslie Olle
Mr. Cesar Onate
Mr. Frank Orifici
Ms. Roberta C, Orlen
Mr. Peter Osman
Ms. Estelle C, Overstreet
Mrs. JohnW. Owens
Mr. Robert A. Pampe
Mrs. Denise Paparella
Mr. Dabney G. Park, Jr.
Mr. Austin S. Parker
Ms. Jeanne M. Parks
Ms. Mary B. Parsons
Ms. Denise Pasternak
Ms. Madeline S. Pearson
Mr. Douglas T. Peck
Mr. Vernon Peeples
Dr. Margaret M. Pelton
Ms. Lourdes T. Pena
Mr. Raul A. Perez
Mrs. Rita Perlman
Mrs. Henry J. Pemrner
Ms. Marilyn Perrone
Mr. Joseph Peters, Jr.
Mrs. Carmen Petsoules
Mr. Juvenal Pina
Ms. Paula Pines
Mr. Juan Pino
Mr. Nicholas J. Pisaris
Mr. David M. Plane
Ms. Barbara A. Poleo
Mrs. Suzette S. Pope
Ms. Eva-Lynn M. Powell
Mrs. Maude Primus
Mr. Jason Psaltides, Esq.
Ms. Lucy S. Puello-Capone
Mrs. Hugh F. Purvis
Mrs. Helen Quinton
Mrs. Virginia S. Rahm
Mr. Michael E. Raiden
Ms. Pauline E. Ramos
Dr. Edward Rappaport
Mr. Sandy Ravelo
Mr. Edward K. Rawls, Jr.
Ms. Susan P. Redding
Ms. Beatriz Reed
Mr. Barry Reese

List of Members 89

Ms. Martha L. Reiner
Mrs. Brenda G. Reisman
Mrs. Elisabeth Reiter
Ms. Mollie C. Reubert
Sister Eileen F. Rice
Ms. Mary Richardson Miller
Ms. Juana G. Rippes
Mr. Larry Rivers
Ms. Theresa Rizzo
Ms. Ruth Roberts
Mr. Leland M. Robinson
Mr. Domingo Rodriguez
Mrs. Rachel P. Roller
Ms. Elizabeth Rom
Mr. Benard Rosenblatt
Ms. Myriam Ross
Ms. Sally Rosselet
Mr. David L. Roumm
Mrs. Eliza P. Ruden
Ms. Carol-Ann Rudy
Ms. Raquel Ruiz
Mrs. Agnes Rush Bowles
Mrs. Betty Rushmer Adams
Mr. Denis A. Russ
Mr. Alvin M. Samet
Ms. Shirley Sapp
Ms. Anne Sargent Perry
Mr. Michael Sasser
Ms. Connie A. Sax
Mrs. Chaffee Scarborough
Mr. Dennis Scarnecchia
Mr. David Schoenfeld
Mr. Niles Schuh
Mr. Gary Schumann
Mrs. Sunny Schurr
Mrs. Geraldine Schwartz
Mrs. Natalie J. Segal
Mr. Robert L. Semes
Ms. Claire Seminario
Mr. Manuel Serkin
Mr. Stuart Serkin
Ms. Janet L. Shad
Mr. Cyrus J. Sharer
Dr. Martha Luelle Shaw
Mrs. Charlotte Sheffield
Mrs. Vergil A. Shipley
Ms. Christina G. Shoffner
Ms. Abbie H. Shouse
Ms. Audrey Sicilia
Mrs. Doris S. Silver
Ms. Suzanne Silver
Mr. J. Paul Simons
Ms. Sharon Simpkins

Ms. Dolores Simpson
Mrs. Eleanor Simpson
Ms. Audrey E. Singleton
Miss Benedicte Sisto
Mr. Bill Sketchley
Ms. Marjorie L. Skipp
Mrs. Evelyn Smiley
Ms. Allie Smith
Dr. Donald G. Smith
Ms. Eunice M. Smith
Mrs. Jean Z. Smith
Ms. June C. Smith
Ms. Leslie Smith
Mr. Robert O. Smith
Mrs. Samuel S. Smith
Ms. Graciela Solares
Mr. Mervyn M. Solomon
Ms. Suzanne A. Solomon
Mr. Brent Spector
Mr. John Spielman
Miss Judi Stark
Ms. Laura P. Steams
Mrs. Margaret G. Steel
Dr. Elizabeth Stevens
Mrs. Rosemary D. Stieglitz
Ms. Susan L. Stinson
Mrs. Muriel E. Stone
Ms. Larue Storm
Ms. Patricia A. Suiter
Mrs. Joseph Sures
Mrs. Florence B. Swain
Mr. George H. Sweet
Ms. Blanche Szita
Mrs. James S. Taintor, Jr.
Ms. Mary Anne Taylor
Mr. David Teems
Ms. Laura Thayer
Ms. Margaret J. Thayer
Mrs. Elizabeth D. Theobald
Mr. Phillip A. Thomas
Mr, Lawrence A. Thompson
Mr. Michael A. Thompson
Ms. Polly Thompson
Mr. Richard J. Thornton
Mr. Robert Threadgill
Mr. Sam J. Threadgill
Mr. Craig E. Tigerman
Ms. Russica P. Tighe
Ms. Teresita Torres
Mrs. Helen C. Towle
Mr. Michael A. Tranchida
Mr. Tony I. Tremols
Ms. Mary Jo Trepka

Ms. Maria Trias
Ms. Molly Turner
Ms. Marilyn Udell
Mrs. Jean B. Underwood
Ms. Bette J. Upchurch
Ms. Julia T. Valentine
Mr. Jack Vallega
Ms. Eleanor Van Eaton
Mrs. Clifford D. Van Orsdel
Ms. Jo Von Funk
Ms. Juanita Vazquez-Hemandez
Mr. Robert E. Venditti
Ms. Margaret Vento
Mr. JohnW. Viele
Mr. Dana Vihlen
Mr. Juan M. Villamil
Mrs. Nancy Voss
Ms. Harriet Wasserbeck
Miss Elva J. Waters
Mrs. Elizabeth Watson
Mr. Bob Weeks
Ms. Susan Weiss
Ms. Barbara Weitz
Ms. Barbara F. Wenzel
Mrs. Marcella U. Werblow
Ms, Bonnie M. Wheatley
Ms. Anna White
Ms. Brenda L. Whitney
Mr. Lewis Whitworth
Mr. Larry Wiggins
Mr. Lucius L. Wilcox, Jr.
Mrs. George Williams, Jr.
Ms. Geraldine H. Williams
Mrs. Mari Williams
Ms. Sarah Williams
Mr. David L. Willing
Mrs. Louise D. Wilson
Mrs. Mary Wind
Capt. Edward H. Wiser
Ms. Marcilene K. Wittmer
Ms. Migdalia Wong
Mrs, Sharon L. Wynne
Ms. Joan C. Yarborough
Mr. Charles H. Yatman
Mr. Warren M. Young
Mr. Harold J. Zabsky
Ms. Christina Zawisza
Mrs. Elena A. Zayas
Mrs. Marcia Kerstein Zerivitz
Ms. Frances R. Zierer
Mrs. Betty Zipse
Ms. Jane Zucker
Mr. Vladimir Zzzyd


Alachua County Library District
Allen County Public Library
American Antiquarian Society
Barry University
Boca Raton Historical Society
Boston College
Brandeis University
Broward County Historical
Broward County Main Library
Broward County North Regional
Broward County South Regional
Broward County West Regional
Brown University
Charlotte Harbor Area Historical
City of Hialeah Library
City of Lake Worth
Clewiston Museum, Inc.
Collier County Public Library
Cornell University
Dade Heritage Trust Historic
Preservation Center
Duke University
El Portal Womans Club
Florida Atlantic University
Florida Gulf Coast University

Life Members
Mr. Maurice D. Alpert
Mr. and Mrs. Mitchell Franklin
Mr. and Mrs. James C. Merrill, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Ralph B. Ryder, Jr.
Mrs. Sylvia Sowards

Honorary Life Members
Mr. Fred M. Waters, Jr.
Mrs. Wayne E. Withers

Florida Historical Quarterly
Florida International University
Florida International University-
University Park
Florida Southern College
Florida State University
Ft. Lauderdale Historical Society
Ft. Myers Historical Museum
Harvard College
Highland Oaks Middle School
Historical Preservation Society of
the Upper Keys
Huntington Library
Indian River County Main Library
Islamorada Branch Library
Key West Maritime Historical
Society for the Florida Keys
Library of Congress
Library of Florida History-
University of Florida
Martin County Library System
Miami Dade Community College
Kendall Campus
Miami Public Library Coral
Gables Branch
Miami Public Library Main
Library Branch
Miami Public Library Miami
Beach Branch
Miami Public Library North Dade

Miami Public Library South Dade
Miami Public Library West
Kendall Branch
Monroe County Library
Newberry Library Serials
Rollins College
Pembroke Pines City Historian
SIRS Mandarin, Inc.
Society of the Four Arts Library
St. Thomas University
St. Lucie County Library System
Stanford University
State Historical Society of
State Library of Florida
Stetson University
Tamnpa-Hillsborough Public
Tennessee State Library Archives
The Villagers, Inc.
University of Central Florida
University of Iowa
University ofMiami
University of Michigan
University of South Florida
University of Washington
West Palm Beach Public Library
Wilton Manors Public Library

List of Members 91

Please notify the Historical
Association's Membership Coor-
Membership dinator, Hilda Masip, of any
Fellow ...................................................... $500 (and up) changes to the membership listing.
Telephone: (305) 375-1492.
Corporation/Foundation ............................ $500 (and up)
Benefactor............ ...................... $250
Sponsor .......... ............ ................... $100
Donor .............. ................................................... $75
Fam ily ...... ................. ...................... $45
Individual/Institutional ............................... .......... $35
Tropee Individual ........ ..................... $35
Tropee Family .......... ..................... $50

Tequesta Advisory Board

Miguel Bretos, Ph.D. Bill Brown
Cantor Brown, Jr., Ph.D. Gregory Bush, Ph.D.
Robert S. Carr Juan Clark, Ph.D.
Donald Curl, Ph.D. Rodney Dillon
Dorothy Fields Ph.D. Howard Kleinberg
Eugene Lyon, Ph.D. Raymond A. Mobl, Ph.D.
Gary Mormino, Ph.D. Larry Rivers, Ph.D.
Frank Sicius, Ph.D. Donald Spivey, Ph.D.

Complete Your Library with
Back Issues of Tequesta

Issues of Tequesta are available for years 1941-1979 for $10.00 each and 1980-1999 for $5.00
each. Most Years are available. Call Hilda Masip to complete your collection at (305) 375-1492, or
e-mail your request to: membership@historical-museum.org

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