Front Cover
 Midas returns: Miami goes to war,...
 Professional nurses in early Miami,...
 Dr. William B. Sawyer of colored...
 Historical Association of Southern...
 Back Cover

Title: Tequesta
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101446/00057
 Material Information
Title: Tequesta
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Historical Association of Southern Florida
Publisher: (multiple)
Publication Date: 1997
Copyright Date: 2010
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101446
Volume ID: VID00057
Source Institution: Historical Museum of Southern Florida
Holding Location: Florida International University: Florida History and Heritage
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 2096319
lccn - 42015131
issn - 0363-3705


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Midas returns: Miami goes to war, 1941-1945
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
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        Page 21
        Page 22
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        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
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        Page 37
        Page 38
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        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Professional nurses in early Miami, 1896-1925
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Dr. William B. Sawyer of colored town
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Historical Association of Southern Florida membership list
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
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        Page 93
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        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
    Back Cover
        Page 100
Full Text


Editor Emeritus
Charlton W. Tebeau, Ph.D.

Paul S. George, Ph.D.

Managing Editor
Rebecca Eads

Number LVII



Editor's Foreword
by Paul S. George

Midas Returns: Miami Goes to War, 1941-1945 ............................ 5
by Dr. Gary M. Mormino

Professional Nurses in Miami, 1896-1925..................................... 53
by Christine Ardalan

Dr. William B. Sawyer of Colored Town ....................................... 67
by Dr. Roderick Waters

Historical Association of Southern Florida Members................. 81


is published annually by the Historical Association of
Cr14 CSA Fto Southern Florida. Communications should be addressed
I to the Managing Editor of Tequesta, Historical Museum
of Southern Florida, 101 W. Flagler Street, Miami, Florida
33130. Telephone: (305) 375-1492. The Association does not assume responsibility
for statements of facts or opinions made by contributors. (ISSN 0363-3705)

On the Cover: "90 Day Wonders" taking basic training on Miami Beach. Many
got "sand in their shoes" and returned to Miami as permanent residents after
the war. (HASF, Miami News Collection, 1989-011-18440)


Ire I L4 CS t- &-A


Historical Association of Southern Florida, Inc.

Robert B. Battle
Anna Price, Ph.D.
William Ho
Eric Williams
Linda Lubitz
John C. Harrison, Jr.
Randy F. Nimnicht
J. Andrew Brian
Paul S. George, Ph.D.
Charlton W. Tebeau, Ph.D.
Stuart B. McIver
Rebecca Eads

Chairman of the Board
First Vice Chair
Second Vice Chair
Past Chair
Museum Director
Editor, Tequesta
Editor Emeritus, Tequesta
Editor, South Florida History Magazine
Editor South Florida History Magazine

Andrew Albury Nancy W. Batchelor
Angela Bellamy Stuart Block
Benjamin Bohlmann Thomas Daniel
Edward H. Davis, Jr. Paul Hanson
Peter Lapham Samuel D. LaRoue, Jr.
Raul Masvidal Charles P Munroe
Dorothy Norton Thomas Paligraf
Marie Pappas Harold E. Patricoff
Scott A. Poulin Susan Shelley
Michael B. Smith Edward A. Swakon
Dinizulu Gene S. Tinnie Lourdes Viciedo
Judy Wiggins Richard A. Wood

Editor's Foreword

In the quarter century since I began studying the rich history of
Miami and South Florida, I have been struck by the area's role in World
War II. Frequent research forays into the topic have only whet my
appetite for more information on a dramatic and dangerous era that
saw German submarines prowling the waters off of Miami Beach;
soldiers marching along Ocean Drive singing Big Band and patriotic
songs; sailors from China, Russia and the United States training to-
gether on Miami's bayfront; and the brief pandemonium associated
with V-J Day. By a wonderful coincidence, Gary R. Mormino, one of
Florida's premier historians and a superb stylist, has spent several years
researching the Sunshine State and World War II as part of a larger
study. Mormino answered our request for an article on Greater Miami
and the war with a stunning piece of scholarship that appears in this
issue of Tequesta.
Christine Ardalan, a graduate student in history at Florida Inter-
national University, is another contributor to this issue of Tequesta. In
"Professional Nurses in Early Miami, 1896-1925," Ardalan employs
the memoirs of Lillah B. Harley, a nurse, to examine many issues in-
volving her craft and medicine in the young city of Miami, as well as
the beginnings of the City Hospital, the predecessor of today's giant
Jackson Memorial Hospital. Professor Roderick Waters, who was in-
fluenced as an undergraduate student by Gary Mormino at the Univer-
sity of South Florida before earning his doctorate in history from Florida
State University, provides a fascinating look at Dr. William B. Sawyer,
one of the most important and versatile citizens of Miami's Colored
Town (today's Overtown), a segregated quarter in the northwest sec-
tor of the city. Sawyer arrived in the Magic City in 1910 and wasted
little time establishing a successful practice, one that stretched from
West Palm Beach to Homestead. Sawyer was also a founder of the
first black hospital, a civil rights leader and the owner of the community's
premier hotel.
History is alive and well in the Magic City. The recent spate of
anniversary celebrations has piqued a great deal of interest in our area's
history. This year's observance of the centennial of the Miami City
Cemetery and of the golden anniversary of the opening of the Ever-
glades National Park will be followed in 1998 with the recognition of
the one hundredth anniversary of Camp Miami, a problem-plagued


Spanish American War camp amid the piney woods north of down-
town, along with the opening of the Burdine store in Miami, which was
directly related to the encampment. The growing number of exhibits,
publications, classes, history tours and videos directed toward this com-
munity are testaments to our rising interest in its past. We are delighted
with this trend. Again, we encourage any of our readers with ideas for
an article to contact us so that we can assist you.

Paul S. George
Tequesta Editor


Midas Returns:

Miami Goes to War, 1941-1945

by Gary R. Mormino

For a city not yet half a century old, a city buffeted by hurricanes,
depressions, and real estate busts, Miami welcomed December of 1941
with a giddy optimism. Prosperity, the result of defense spending, re-
surgent tourism, and increased homebuilding and investment buoyed
the mood of Miami residents. A new Miami was emerging from the
sunshine and shadows of the past. Behind the great divide lie the graves
of John Collins, Carl Fisher, and George Merrick; on the other side
awaited a new Miami, a south Florida to be defined by year-round
tourism, a civil rights movement, and air-conditioned suburban sprawl.
December 7 dawned as no ordinary Sunday. For some time, the
first Sunday in December had been regarded as the start of the tourist
season. The Miami Herald prophecied, "2,000,000 Tourists Expected
this Season." The Herald's H. J. Aronstam enthused, "We've crossed
our fingers and donned rose-colored glasses today as the curtain goes
up for the best tourist season in history."'
Newspaper boys hawking early morning papers arose to a Cham-
ber of Commerce day: 62 degrees, warming to a high of 75. C. A.
Delancey, Jr., recounted that the Herald came with a fancy wrapper,
for the purpose of mailing to a snow-bound friend. A scan of the
world brought good news from an unlikely source: The Soviet Union,
seemingly on the brink of destruction by the German Juggernaut, had
finally launched a successful counterattack.2 The Miami Daily News,
upon hearing of the Soviet's success, editorialized, "Today is one of
the brightest [days] the civilized world has enjoyed since September
1939."3 Thousands of Jews, many having escaped pogroms in Russia
or fearing for relatives still living in Warsaw or Kiev, read the news
with bittersweet anxiety.

Gary M. Mormino holds the Frank E. Duckwall Professorship in Florida History
at the University of South Florida.


The word came first by radio. Many Miamians were listening to
their Zeniths or Philcos when announcers interrupted programs to read
a special bulletin: "This morning the forces of Imperial Japan attacked
Americans at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, this morning, from the air." The
news also came during Sunday dinner at favorite restaurants, such as
Edith and Fritz's, 3236 N. Miami Avenue, which featured "squab
chicken," or the Pig and Whistle, at N.W. 7th Avenue and 34th Street.
Others heard about the attack while attending Her First Romance, an
afternoon matinee at the "air conditioned" Royal Theatre, or the "adults
only" movie house, the Flagler. Miami's majestic Olympia Theatre on
East Flagler featured live performances that Sunday. The Miami Her-
ald immediately printed a special extra edition. C. A. Delancey sold
eight-hundred copies in two hours.4
When December seventh dawned, Miami tourist officials exuber-
antly hoped for a $175 million winter; by afternoon, the spectre of oil-
covered beaches, total blackouts, and a Dade Dunkirk haunted Miami.
Sheriff D.C. Coleman shrugged his shoulders and told reporters, "It's
bound to curtail our season.... I don't know of anything we can do but
take it on the chin."5
Questions peppered conversation. Where the hell is Pearl Har-
bor? How could we have been so unprepared? Why would Japan stoop
to such treachery? What will this mean for my family? For the Boris
Morguloffs and thousands of others, the war meant military service for
their sons. Don Morguloff soon joined the army. By nightfall, the war
in the Pacific lapped the shores of Biscayne Bay. "Navy guards with
bayonets fixed patrolled the Miami waterfront while civilians took up
posts at the city's water plant in Hialeah," the Herald somberly re-
ported. The war in Europe had already arrived at the University of
Miami in Coral Gables. There, American and British students studied
navigation training.6
On 12 December 1941, a messenger delivered a telegram at 1658
Ashton Court, Miami. The telegram, signed by Rear Admiral C. W.
Nimitz, read, "The navy department deeply regrets to inform you that
your son, William Lee Benny, seaman, first class, U.S. Navy, was lost
in action in the performance of his duty and in the service of his coun-
try. The department extends to you its sincerest sympathy in your great
loss. If his body is recovered it will be buried near the place he died and
you will be informed." Many other such telegrams arrived, but Miami
was stunned to learn of her first casualty. The family of William Lee

Miami Goes to War 7

Benny staged a symbolic ceremony after receiving the news: they burned
an expensive Japanese tablecloth.7 Accounts of heroic deeds followed.
Capt. Colin Kelly, Jr., the war's first great hero, died defending the
Philippines, but not before sinking the Japanese destroyer Haruna. In
1926, Kelly had lived in Miami with his parents at N.E. 20th Street.8
Miami received good news when it learned that two former residents,
Pan American Airways pilots, flew their planes to safety through Japa-
nese attackers at Honolulu and Wake Island,9
Wartime Miami resembled a combination of Casablanca and Grand
Central Station. The city bustled with newcomers bearing strange ac-
cents. "At the war's beginnings," reminisced journalist Nixon Smiley,
"Miami still had many of the qualities of a small town. As you walked
down Miami Avenue or Flagler Street you met person after person you
called by their first name ... the war changed all that."10
In 1940 and the numbers increased dramatically during the war
as refugees sought asylum in the Magic City Miami's foreign-born
totalled 12,517 inhabitants, exceeding Tampa's and trebling Jacksonville's
immigrant population. Boasting a diverse foreign population, chiefly com-
prised of small clusters of Canadians, English, Germans, Russians (mostly
Jews), and Cubans, Miami had not yet developed any single neighbor-
hood to rival an Ybor City. Neighborhoods such as Riverside and
Shenandoah had, by 1940, become identified as Jewish."
Miami's wartime hysteria bore little resemblence to Los Angeles
or San Francisco, cities where federal authorities conducted massive
round-ups of Japanese nationals and Japanese Americans. Only a handful
of Japanese resided in Miami. The remnants of a smald Japanese agri-
cultural colony, Yamato, existed near Boca Raton. Authorities arrested
a number of Italian and German "enemy aliens" after Italy and Ger-
many declared war against the U.S.
on December 10. By June 1942, fed-
eral agents had incarcerated 168 Ital-
if ~ i ians in Miami, most of whom were
]4 Fascist sympathizers sent to the
S United States by compliant South
American governments, only to be de-
': 5. stained and arrested by the FBI in
"Uncle Sam" fishes for the enemy Florida.12
during the annual Miami Metro- Across south Florida, civil and
politan Fishing Tournament, 1942. military authorities imposed wartime
(HASF 1980-203-22)


security measures, "for the duration." Miami Police chief Boatswain
announced that no longer would tourists or residents be allowed to take
photos of the city's skyline or waterfront.13
In early 1942, "for the duration" took on ominous overtones as
Japanese forces advanced victoriously across Asia and the South Pacific.
To bolster homefront morale, the Dade County Commission voted to
rename County Causeway in honor of the embattled General Douglas
MacArthur.14 Miamians felt the sting of war in a more personal way
when Washington imposed regulations and restrictions on everything from
new cars to gasoline to sugar. The Daily News bade farewell to the disap-
pearing sugar bowl from area diners, urging readers to keep a stiff upper
lip while consoling, "Already candied yams are off menus.""15 But in the
spirit that made capitalism flourish in Miami, the Green-Keys-Vanderpool
Agency touted the benefits of "War Risk and Bombardment Insurance.""'
In March 1942, an enterprising but very pessimistic Miamian built the
city's first air raid shelter. His bomb-proof fortress, located on N. Miami
Avenue and 71st Street, held space for 150 neighbors.17

By Dawn's Early Light

In spite of sugarless yams, bald tires, and air raid bunkers, most
Americans lived far away from the horror of Guadacanal or Kasserine
Pass. But the sting and smell of war came home in the spring of 1942.
German Admiral Karl Donitz was astonished to discover how vulner-
able Allied shipping was to enemy submarines. Unleashing a terrifying
assault upon Gulf Stream shipping, German U-boats sank twenty-four
ships off the
s tiFlorida coast be-
tween February
S and May 1942. In
spite of blackout
-. restrictions, Ger-
man crews claimed
7.- that Miami's glow
-- could be seen
PT Boats plied the waters of Biscayne Bay as sail- thirty-five miles
ors trained aboard them. Miami's boom-era sky-
line is in the background, with the Dade County out to sea.
Courthouse (to the right) as the tallest building with On May 4,
28 stories. (HASF 1985-136-105) 1942, a night

Miami Goes to War 9

watchman looked out of the window of the Miami News Tower and
saw "a vivid red glare," so strong that at first he thought Bayfront Park
was ablaze. He became the first to view the sinking of the 4,500 ton
Mexican tanker, Porto del Llavo, in the nearby waters of the Atlantic
Ocean. Later that day, thousands of shocked Miamians watched the
smoldering ship belch smoke and oil. Thirteen crewmen died in that U-
boat attack, but twenty-two survived.1 The Herald's Helen Muir pro-
vided an account of that tragedy's black humor, A young nurse at-
tended to one of the wreck's survivors, dabbing oil from his body. Em-
barrassed, she asked politely, "Is this your first visit to Florida?"20
In early 1942 German wolfpacks patrolled almost unchecked
along the Atlantic. Advances in anti-submarine warfare had not yet
hindered German audacity. Floridians volunteered. Yachtsmen, sail-
ors, and fishermen from Key West, Miami, and Palm Beach offered
their vessels and nautical skills. Admiral Ernest J. King initially sneered
at the suggestion that civilians help patrol the waters of the Carib-
bean and Atlantic, but German torpedoes and political pressure
changed his mind. Altogether, 143 vessels were repainted and outfit-
ted with .50 caliber machine guns, while erstwhile bankers and inves-
tors received temporary rank in the Coast Guard Reserves. The Her-
ald detailed expensive yachts *
being refinished with "that
dull, indeterminate blue-gray
paint which covers once bril-
liant white topsides and once
varnished mahogany." Called
derisively the Cockleshell
Fleet and the Hooligan Navy,
the Coast Guard Auxiliary
received high marks. Histo-
rian Michael Gannon credits
the civilian coastal patrol
with harassing and keeping
German U-boats underwater Much of Miami's waterfront came un-
for longer periods and ren- der military control during the war. This
during them less dangerous. 21 building was a part of the Port of Mi-
The U.S. Navy eventu- ami (near 8th Street and Biscayne
Blvd.), and was taken over by the Navy
ally countered German suc- as a U.S. Navy Sub Chaser Training
cesses in the Atlantic by Center. (HASF, MNC, 1989-011-24536)


adopting new tactics, such as the convoy system, and by introduc-
ing new weaponry, such as blimps, anti-submarine planes, and ef-
fective depth charges. The Navy established in Miami a center de-
scribed by the Herald as "an international postgraduate school in
submarine warfare."22

The Citadel

In 1942 khaki, olive drab, black navy bellbottoms, military dress
whites and Santiago blue pilot's uniforms encountered Bermuda shorts
and halter tops. A reporter describing Miami Beach wrote, "On Collins
Avenue, where the whisper of scissors cutting dividend coupons used to
fill the morning air, you can look up and down as far as you can see,
and see nothing but khaki."23
Miami had enjoyed a long but episodic relationship with the mili-
tary, dating back to nineteenth-century Fort Dallas and Camp Hell.
Nothing prepared the city for the tumult of the 1940s. Stem, rigid and
tradition-bound, the U.S. military establishment does not enjoy a repu-
tation for flexibility and experimentation, but in World War II, the Mi-
ami experience belies that stereotype.
In 1939, General "Hap" Arnold, fearful that the U.S. could not
respond quickly enough to meet the impending crisis, recommended
that the government authorize and encourage private companies to
prepare pilots and technicians. Six such flight schools opened in
Florida. J. Paul Riddle opened the Embry-Riddle School of Aviation
on County Causeway. The base inventory was modest: two flight in-
structors, one mechanic, and one pontoon-rigged plane. Time, how-
ever, was on Riddle's side.24
War contracts enriched Riddle and expanded Embry-Riddle's op-
erations. The firm soon purchased the eight-story Fritz Hotel, previ-
ously a chicken ranch and mushroom farm. By the fall of 1940, 500
students enrolled in flight school. Over 2,000 British Royal Air Force
fliers received their wings at Embry-Riddle. One historian has estimated
that "perhaps a tenth of all American World War II pilots" and "count-
less airframe and powerplant mechanics" trained at the Embry-Riddle
School ofAviation.25
Almost every conceivable type of air training could be found in
the Miami area, including blimp bases, navigation and flight schools,
and coastal patrols.26 The Herald recollected in 1945 that one-fifth of

Miami Goes to War 11

the entire Army Air Force received some training at Miami Beach.27
In June 1941, Moon Over Miami became a hit movie, starring
Betty Grable and Don Ameche. Quickly, wings over Miami became
even more popular, as an extraordinary variety of aircraft crisscrossed
south Florida. Residents learned to identify P-51 Mustangs, Navy
Hellcats, PBM Avengers, and B-18 "Bolo" bombers by their distinc-
tive markings and the sounds of their engines.
Few residents had trouble identifying the flotilla of blimps cir-
cling wartime Miami. In 1942 workers began clearing 2,100 acres of
slash pine south of Miami for the new Richmond Naval Air Station.
Part of a string of blimp bases stretching from New Jersey to Brazil,
the Richmond Station housed scores of massive air dirigibles, designed
to locate enemy subs and relay information. Each blimp commanded a
wooden hangar over a thousand feet long, 234 feet wide, and 200 feet
tall, in total requiring seven million feet of timber.28
In the early days of the war, military leaders realized the stagger-
ing logistical, training, supply, and manpower problems the U.S. faced.
Quite simply, the construction of conventional basic training facilities
was costly in time and money. The solution came from an unlikely place
- Florida's resort beaches. Leasing and converting hotels is credited
to Under Secretary of War Robert P. Patterson, who conceived of the
idea following a visit to Miami Beach. Skeptics ridiculed the notion of

Soldiers arriving at the Collins Park Hotel on Miami Beach. It was one
of hundreds of hotels and apartments taken over by the Armed Forces
during World War II. (HASF, MNC, 1989-011-18289)


a four-star resort entertaining eighteen-year-old recruits, but Patterson
disarmed critics with a star-spangled riposte: "The best hotel room is
none too good for the American soldier."29
In late January 1942 the armed services "asked" Gold Coast hotel
owners to consider the leasing idea. Ultimately they liked the financial
guarantees more than they disliked the prospects of a military invasion
upon their privileged sanctuaries. A growing stream of canceled reserva-
tions, tar balls washing ashore, and a ban on pleasure driving sealed the
deal. The Miami Herald headline exulted, "Pledge By 175 Hotel Owners
Revives Hope that Army will Bring Thousands to Miami Beach." The
paper noted that only a half dozen hotels balked at the proposal.3
On 20 February 1942, the first of 400 enlisted men the fabled
90 day wonders arrived, followed by 500 officer candidates. By that
fall, fully 342 hotels in Miami and Miami Beach had been converted
into military facilities. Miami Beach claimed one-quarter of Florida's
hotel rooms and housed 78,000 soldiers at one time. "The hotels," a
reporter wrote in 1943, "make good barracks. The baby pink and egg-
shell furniture is stored now. Three-decker army bunks jam the pastel-
tinted rooms, dance floors, night clubs."31
Journalists frequently chronicled the changing fashions and for-
tunes along Florida's Gold Coast. "The Royal Palm is a coast guard
barracks," explained the San Diego Union, while the "White House is
a cooks and bakers school." The Whiteman Hotel's famous sunken bar
now stocked magazines.32 The Herald Jack Bell detailed the opening
of the Army's first Air Corps officer candidate school at Miami Beach.
"So swiftly was the school formed that some Boulevard Hotel guests
were left virtually sitting on the curb with their baggage. Patrons on the
Beach golf courses ... [were] ordered to leave."33 The Surf Club, once
an exclusive retreat for the winter resort set, became a mess hall.34
Miami's Columbus Hotel, a fashionable hangout for the international
crowd, converted into a bachelor officers' quarters.35 The renowned
Everglades Hotel on Biscayne Boulevard surrendered to the navy for
use as a subchaser school.36 In 1942 the U.S. government bought the
luxurious Biltmore and converted it into the "mother hospital" for the
rehabilitation of Army Air Force personnel. The hotel hospital featured
1,200 rooms and housed 700 patients. The Nautilus and Gulf Stream
Hotels also became rehabilitation centers for wounded airmen.37
The hotel leasing program led a furiously intense but brief life.
Beginning in the summer of 1943, after millions of G.I.s had been shipped

Miami Goes to War 13

overseas, the War Department began informing Miami and Miami Beach
hotel owners that leases would soon end. By February 1944 the Chi-
cago Daily News reported sardonically, that in Miami, "war-torn vet-
erans of 50 and 100 missions overseas ... have joined the vacationing
rich and the fattening bookies.""38
Overall, the hotel leasing arrangement ranked as one of the rarest
government programs: the rental bill totaled $12.5 million, averaging
$175 per recruit; a Senate Investigating Committee concluded that the
military should have paid more for the hotels; and most amazingly, no
pork-barrel residuals continued to drain the treasury for decades after
the war's ending.
Hundreds of thousands of servicemen and women, most of whom
had never left home before, discovered Miami. Most left the Magic
City bewitched, vowing to return during better circumstances. Dan
Moody arrived for basic training in January 1944. From the Blackstone
Hotel he wrote home to Virginia: "Mother, this is the most beautiful
place I have ever seen. Green palm trees, green grass, blue ocean and
sky... it's like a fairy tale. I really think that when the war is over, I'll
move down here."39
Matinee idol Clark Gable eas-
ily qualifies as the region's most cel-
ebrated recruit. After his beloved
wife Carole Lombard died in a plane
crash, Gable volunteered for the
Army in the summer of 1942, en-
rolling at the Air Force Officer Can-
didate School in Miami Beach. Of-
fered a major's commission he
scoffed, "Hell, I haven't got any
more military experience than a
chorus girl!" Announcing "I just
want to carry my share,"he surren-
dered his moustache and accepted
a new salary scale of $66 a month. Clark Gable (center) at the Air Force
A wiseacre posted a sign in the ho- Officer Candidate School in Miami
tel lobby, "Clark Gable Swept Beach, 1942. (HASF 1981-90-4)
Here." For his valor in combat, Gable won a Distinguished Flying
Cross.40 Other notable veterans of Miami Beach include Robert Preston,
Gilbert Roland, Hank Greenberg, and Franklin Roosevelt, Jr.


World War II was a popular war, appealing to Americans across
class, racial, and ethnic lines. Gable and Greenberg personify the 16
million person army. In July 1942 George A. Smathers resigned his
post as U.S. Assistant District Attorney and enlisted in the Marines,
eventually seeing duty at Munda and Bougainville in the South Pacific
as a Fighting Leatherneck.41 In 1942 few Miamians knew Paul Tibbets.
A former University of Florida student and resident at 1716 S.W. 12th
Avenue, Tibbets would become the city's most famous war hero. In
October 1942, a portrait of Tibbets along with a feature-length, syndi-
cated story appeared in the Daily News. An articulate and sensitive
airman, he spoke about his concerns with civilian casualties in the air
war over Europe.42
During the winters, gossip columnists often remarked that it seemed
as if Miami had become Hollywood. In March 1945, Hollywood came
to Miami. Director John Ford, serving as Commander in the armed
services, brought MGM cameras and glamour to the Magic City for the
filming of They Were Expendable. Starring John Wayne, Donna Reed,
Ward Bond, and Robert Montgomery, the movie depicted the fall of
Manila. Biscayne Bay served as a stage set for the Philippine's Sissimo
Bay. Fifty Coast Guardsmen and Navy sailors served as extras, while
PT boats raced across the smoke-filled bay. Reviewed the Herald's
critic, "The 'War' with all its flame and fury, came within a bazooka
shot of Flagler Street but caused only a ripple of concern."43
S ^ Miamians must have thought they had
seen every conceivable type of soldier, from
British air cadets to Russian submarine crews
'; to Hollywood movie stars. But in mid-1944
a new group arrived: German prisoners-of-
war. Over two hundred prisoners settled at
an old CCC camp near today's Dadeland
Shopping Center in Kendall. During the win-
ter of 1945, another two hundred arrived at
a campsite at Mowry Road and Five-Mile
Road. Working South Dade's potato fields
and sweeping the streets of Miami Beach,
the prisoners-of-war symbolized the acute
Prisoner of war working in
a military garage. (HASF, shortage of labor and the crisis in city ser-
MNC, 1989-011-18474) vices gripping Miami.44

Miami Goes to War 15

Cities Under Siege

In 1940 the editor of the National Municipal Review warned that
American cities had less to fear from Stuka dive bombers and Japanese
Zeros than by mounting crises in public health, housing, and education.
American cities fought a rearguard battle throughout the conflict, at-
tempting to put out municipal fires caused by overcrowding, labor short-
ages, racial tensions, and overtaxed services. The war accelerated rates
of mobility and migration, and cities such as Miami received an influx
of new residents without warning or planning. The statistics are numb-
ing. During the war over twelve million women and men left their home-
towns to enter the armed services, a figure exceeded by the fifteen mil-
lion civilians who migrated to new jobs and homes. The South and
West figured most prominently in this shift of people, a shift which was
uneven. In Florida, many rural counties actually lost residents during
the war, while cities such as Miami boomed.45 Pandemonium resulted.
Not since the effervescent decade of the 1920s had Miami experi-
enced anything like the war years. Reporters and demographers searched
for new verbs, having overused "surged," "buoyed," "explodes," and
"skyrockets." Yet an examination of the census count yields a conclu-

The Miami Air Depot Headquarters was a huge military aviation facil-
ity, situated at Pan American Field (36th Street and LeJeune Road) as
well as points west and south. Thousands of soldiers came through this
facility during the course of the war. (HASF 1982-114-87)


sion of impressive but not extraordinary growth. In 1940, Miami's popu-
lation rested at 172,172 residents; by 1945, the city had grown to
192,122, a gain of nine percent,46 But the census measures a fixed tar-
get, and the censuses of 1940 and 1945 attempted to identify a dynamic
population on the move. Census takers had photographed a shadow and
missed much of the blur. The Herald, Daily News, and government
authorities knew too well what was happening. In December 1943,
Miami's "ration book" census stood at 212,000. One month later the
Herald estimated the city's population at 325,000, which included
115,000 winter visitors, soldiers, and sailors. Each February and March
that figure swelled to 400,000.47
Whatever the population, Miami was a city in flux, a study in
confusion, the result of a conflict between society's need for order and
security and individuals' desires for freedom and pleasure. Federal,
state, and local governments attempted to control the chaos, but private
decisions collided with the best public purpose.
Millions of Americans spent time in Miami between 1940-1945.
Some came because of military conscription, patriotism, love, and for-
tune; others sought the sun, glamour, and betting tracks. Regardless,
the newest tourist and oldest natives all encountered frustration marked
by delays and shortages. The case of Spearman Lewis encapsulates
these tensions. One week after Pearl Harbor, Lewis constructed an air
raid shelter at his home on Collins Avenue. By mid-March 1943 he
placed an advertisement, hoping to sell his shelter for a "washing ma-
chine, Kenmore preferred or a portable typewriter." Had Mr. Lewis
waited, he probably could have rented out his shelter as an apartment.48
Miami simply ran out of housing during the war. When compared
to Tampa and Jacksonville, cities also overwhelmed by new housing
demands, Miami seemed relatively prepared for the onslaught. During
the prewar period, 1935-1940, the city of Miami experienced a build-
ing boom, having constructed 10,950 new homes or apartments. Tampa
built 800 new structures during that same period. When one examines
Dade County, the growth is even more impressive; over 24,000 new
structures appeared, compared to 6,182 new homes in Duval County
(Jacksonville).49 Miami's prewar building spree scarcely met the de-
mand after 1941. The problems were manifold: a shortage of building
materials, a scarcity of carpenters, and an influx of soldiers, trailing
families, workers, and tourists. A nightclub singer at a Miami Beach
bistro rhapsodized about the housing blues:

Miami Goes to War 17

Ladies and Gentlemen,
I came to Miami for a vacation
But where do I live?
At the railroad station!
No! no we have no apartment-
we have no apartment today!"

One solution to the housing crunch, and an increasingly popular
alternative, even icon of postwar Florida, was the trailer. In August
1943, the Herald observed, "The shortage of apartments and houses in
this area, along with the influx of war workers, has boomed business at
trailer camps until some sections of towns have become individual trailer
villages." Old time Miamians sneered at the appearance of such camps,
calling them "trailertowns."'' When the Miami Air Depot added 1,600
new positions in 1944, officials obtained 500 government-owned trail-
ers to accommodate the new residents. Renters paid $20 a month for
the trailers.52 Newspapers warned against overcrowding, especially the
"unsanitary conditions," but each announcement of a new facility, relo-
cation, or program was greeted with hurrahs.5 Pell-mell growth was
good; society will sort it all out after the war, so the philosophy went.
For the city of Opa-locka, the 1940s symbolized unplanned growth
and perplexing changes, not Arabian fantasies. On the eve of war, Opa-
locka's population of 497 residents
was scarcely greater than during its i
1920s heyday. The city, however, en- D
joyed the luxury of an airbase, and in A
1941 the U.S. Navy established a V
naval air station. Opa-locka grew rap-
idly during the war, its population P
spiraling to 1,855 in 1945. Such
growth came with steep costs. The
U.S. Navy enticed families to the
community with the construction of
inexpensive concrete-block housing,
such as Tishawauka Manor. Resi-
dents complained of the project's
"medieval conditions," and its re- tr wre fng e
Street were frequent during the
moteness. Doctors only reluctantly war to build local support. (HASF.
traveled the twelve-mile trek from MNC, 1989-011-18386)


Miami to Opa-locka. Racial tensions also flared during this period. In
the 1930s, urban planners developed Liberty City, a large black hous-
ing program northwest of Miami. Thus began a black corridor running
northwest from Miami, culminating in the 1930s and 40s with the cre-
ation of "second ghettos," Opa-locka's population reflected these de-
velopments. Hundreds of homes for black families went up in the years
after the war. By 1950, Opa-lacka's population had soared to 5,271,
which included 16 percent African American.54
The families of servicemen particularly felt the sting of the hous-
ing crisis. Conditions could not have been worse for spouses and chil-
dren desperate to see a husband, perhaps for the last time: high rents,
few vacancies, low military pay, a city geographically isolated, and a
tourist economy. Rent control, covering 80,000 structures in the Miami
area, was imposed in 1943, but did little to alleviate the critical prob-
lem of supply.5
Newspapers provide a steady account of the worsening problem.
Advertisements and headlines urged civic action and responsibility:
"Rents Here Out of Control, Military Warns Landlords," and "Wanted
at Once: 100 Houses to Rent For Navy and Army Officers and Their
Families."56 Mrs. Josine Tompkins of the Miami Chamber of
Commerce's Information/Housing Division spoke to a reporter in frus-
tration, "Wives of servicemen are coming to Miami and bringing their
babies with them regardless of any warnings they may receive that there
are no accommodations here for them."57 Mary Moore, manager of the
Coral Gables Chamber of Commerce, explained that she wrote thirty
letters a day telling potential visitors, "We advise you not to come to
Coral Gables.""5
Still, wives and loved ones came, determined to find a house, apart-
ment, or loft. A reporter for the Daily News left this poignant compos-
ite of a day at the Miami Chamber of Commerce:

Mothers with babies in carriages were there. Mothers with
babies in their arms, mothers with toddlers, mothers with
babies in their laps . tired mothers, footsore and weary
mothers, indignant and pitiful mothers. .. 'Why did you
come here?' The answer is always the same. 'This is his
port of embarkation... he will come back here: we thought
we could have just a few more months of life together ...
he may not come back . he wanted to see the baby so
much . .5

Miami Goes to War 19

Critics savaged a system which allowed tourists to play at the rac-
ing tracks while mothers slept on park benches. "It's a disgrace the way
servicemen with small children are turned away from homes and apart-
ments," wrote Miss Eleanor Wright.60 Novelist, social critic, and Miami
resident Philip Wylie turned his trenchant pen against the city of Miami
and the military in a series of national articles in 1944 and 1945. "Midas
has moved to Miami," he wrote, more sardonic then prideful. "This situ-
ation has worked excruciating hardship on military personnel. ... Both
the army and the navy seem unable or unwilling to house those myriad
families. Women and children walk the streets. They have slept in bor-
rowed automobiles." Wylie, the acclaimed author of A Generation of
Vipers (1942) concluded his essay with a savage line, "The men who
have sacrificed most meet in Miami those who have sacrificed least."6'
Lengthy recitations of similar housing nightmares in Panama City,
Willow Run, and Los Angeles did little to improve Miami's morale.
Visionaries carefully reading accounts of record savings accumulated
by workers must have contemplated a post-war housing market of stag-
gering potential. Meanwhile, Miamians endured the frustrating combi-
nation of government bureaucracy and indulgent capitalism.
Shortages plagued other public and private sectors. The first an-
niversary of Pearl Harbor brought the news that one half of Miami's
physicians were gone, claimed by the armed services.62 Municipal sala-
ries were so low and defense work so lucrative, that cities found it
impossible to recruit and retain policemen, clerks, and teachers. The
military allowed Navy firemen stationed at the Subchaser Training
Center to work for the Miami Fire Department on their off hours.63
Miami Beach, unable to hire new garbagemen, lobbied the British Con-
sulate for the importation of twenty to thirty Bahamian workers. Ad-
mitted the City Manager, "About one-third of our trucks here have
been kept in the garage due to absenteeism and a shortage of men."
Military police supplemented Miami Beach's overwhelmed staff by as
many as 300 officers.64
In January 1945, Governor Millard Caldwell wrote Dade County's
sheriff, urging him to take vigilant action to prevent loitering, loafing,
and absenteeism. Miami and other Dade County municipalities enacted
"Work or Fight" laws, which arrested idlers who were not at work or in
uniform. Predictably, the law came down hardest on African Americans.65
Persistent wartime rationing and shortages prompted nostalgic
stories about what one writer called "B. R. Miami," Before Rationing


Miami. The Herald printed a 1940 hotel menu which touted nine differ-
ent meats; by 1944, some Miami hotels offered meatless menus twice a
week. Butchers complained they could not even stock horsemeat. Some
restaurants closed their doors, frustrated in trying to keep supplies of
meat.66 To ameliorate the situation, the City of Miami relaxed its ordi-
nance on raising chickens within city limits.67 And since alarm clocks
were almost impossible to find, roosters bolstered the patriotic front.
Patriotism, however, often created problems. So many Miamians,
eager to save precious petrol, pedaled their bicycles to work that police
reported menacing traffic jams caused by cyclists.6 For obvious rea-
sons, many Miamians felt bicycles were more reliable than public trans-
portation. On New Year's day 1943, the Herald reported that 88 of the
city's 327 buses lacked tires or had broken down.69
Black markets flourished and disconsolate brides cursed Florida
for its callousness, but World War II also created a sense of community
in Miami, a shared feeling of sacrifice and goal, one of the last genuine
moments of national unity. World War II was our great patriotic war. In
schools, in factories, in neighborhoods, Miamians offered gestures of
help and inspiration, relief and comfort.
Neighbors and strangers shared mutual pride, anxiety, and too
often, grief. Symbols pervaded Miami. A window bearing a colored
star signified a son or daughter in the military; a gold star marked a
family's ultimate sacrifice. Miamians learned of the sacrifice of the
area's "First Gold Star Mother of the Year," in a Herald column writ-
ten by that mother, Mrs.
Abraham Kram.70
Miamians, like Ameri-
cans everywhere, volun-
teered to collect aluminum,
bundle newspapers, roll
bandages, and dance with
lonely soldiers. By the end
of the war Miamians had
purchased over $300 million
in war bonds, which aver-
Dade County's scrap metal drive, centered aged about $1,000 per
around the FEC Railway tracks near ed b t 1,0 e
Flagler Street and NW 1st Avenue, county resident.71 Warbond
brought hundreds of people out to contrib- rallies and sales crossed eth-
ute to the war effort. (HASF 1980-189-43) nic and racial lines. The

Miami Goes to War 21

Miami Chamber of Commerce's J. Kennard Johnson lashed out at criti-
cism that the Magic City had shirked its duty; rather, he pointed to
evidence that Miami had oversubscribed every bond drive. During 1943
and 1944, citizens donated over one million dollars to the War Chest
and half as much to the Red Cross.72
In December 1943, the Herald's publisher John Knight made a
startling announcement. Due to a surge in newspaper readership and a
shortage of newsprint, the Herald would henceforth eliminate most ad-
vertising from the paper. The Herald suffered financially, but reader
confidence and respect soared.73
Readers lived the war through the experiences of trusted Herald
and News reporters. In June 1944 the Herald announced that Jack Bell,
the beloved "Town Crier, is going to cover the India Burma campaign
for the Knight chain," In May 1945 the peripatetic journalist sent back
a remarkable interview: "Gen. Von Rundstedt Tells Jack Bell How Ger-
mans Were Defeated By U.S."74

The Arsenal

World War II, not the New Deal, ended the Great Depression. The
war, ignited by unimagined levels of federal spending, harnessed the
awesome creative powers and industry of America. During the years
1940-45, the number of federal employees quadrupled while federal
expenditures soared tenfold.75
The South in general and Florida in particular were beneficiaries
of the federal largesse. The war brought prosperity to a region Franklin
Roosevelt had only recently labeled "America's number one economic

problem." In 1933, the earnings
of Floridians totalled $423 mil-
lion; a decade later that figure
reached $2 billion.76 In a stunning
announcement in 1944, the Her-
ald reported that "Greater Miami
residents will have accumulated
savings estimated at $284 million
[at war's end]."77
Miami's pre-war economy,
based largely on tourism, service,
construction, and trade with the


Float used by the Miami Air Depot
in the parade which opened the 6th
War Loan Drive in Miami, Novem-
ber 20, 1944. (HASF 1980-56-179)


Caribbean, rebounded in the mid-1930s. But Miami faced the demands
of war with a woefully underdeveloped and uneven economy: in 1940
Miami held the distinction of being the least industrialized metropolitan
area in the United States." Writing in 1943, the Daily News' Carl Ogle
analyzed what this war had wrought. "The arrival of war made Miami
over. Whether folks like it or not, it is generally accepted that the Miami
area will never be the same again." The old Miami, "a playground for a
nation," died December 7, 1941. Ogle envisioned the new Miami as "an
industrial city, a city of light and semi-heavy industry, of ballooning pay-
rolls, with uniformed men marching its streets, ships of war in its har-
bors, and warplanes flying over head.""79
Miami remained more campground and playground than the arse-
nal Ogle envisioned, but the war profoundly altered the city's economic
rhythms and patterns. Miami acquired a modest industrial base. By
December 1942, fifty local firms with 7,500 employees had received
$50 million in war contracts.8 By 1944 the Herald exulted, "Greater
Miami has become much more of an industrial center. . For instance,
the Smaller War Plants Corporation has channeled $16 million worth
of contracts to 112 plants in the last 23 months.""8
Creativity and pluck characterized entrepreneurs, such as L. P.
Evans. Once the largest dealer in used cars in America, Evans
backpeddled after Pearl Harbor. Left with rusting hulks of worn-out
Studebakers and Hudsons, Evans formed a company to make 32-pas-
senger Victory Buses. Fashioned from discarded cars, the buses helped
ease the traffic gridlock.2
Miami businessmen came up with ingenious ideas to recruit and
retain workers. The problem of labor shortages was endemic and epi-
demic. "Miami Needs 10,000 More Workers" the Herald announced in
August 1943.83 J. W. Strong,
.foreman for Miami's Semi-
nole Rock and Sand Com-
r- pany, recruited fourteen
S"draft-exempt" workers-
iSeminole Indians.84
Miami's most notable
Military planes flying over downtown wartime business triumphs
underlined the vital role that Greater occurred on the water and in
Miami played as a training center in the air. Paul Prigg, called by
World War II. (HASF 1985-136-162) one commentator the A.J.

Miami Goes to War 23

Higgins of Miami, organized the Miami Ship Building Company, con-
structing sub-hunters for the navy. Earlier Prigg had designed and built
pleasure boats, but the wartime emergency created new opportunities.
He converted the old Clyde Docks into a subchaser facility. Miami also
served as an important repair base for merchant and naval vessels."
"The Herald's Jeanne Bellamy observed these changes, noting, "Blue
sparks began to fly into the Miami River as welders and riveters did
their work on war vessels."86
When the Navy commandeered Miami's commercial docks,
naysayers feared it would doom the thriving trade with the Caribbean.
Instead, vessels in increasing numbers came up the Miami River to
develop and take advantage of new docking facilities. In August 1943
the Herald surveyed the maritime work, "Commercial dock facilities
were started last January with bulk-heading of most of the 1,500 feet of
river frontage by concrete walls six feet wide at the base and tapering to
a four-foot walkway."87
Miami's reputation as an aviation center began in the 1920s but
solidified in the 1940s. The war endowed Miami with the expertise,
infrastructure, and capital to claim status as a leading air hub. The
region benefited tremendously but also seized the advantages of its geo-
graphic location. This was literally a world war, and Miami emerged as
a vital transportation center for delivering passengers and cargos to the
southern hemisphere. Early in the war the Army Air Force's Air Trans-
port Command established a base in Miami. In its first great test, the
Air Transport Command dispatched desperately needed anti-tank am-
munition to besieged British __-- F_ .. _.__ _ _
forces in North Africa. In a I 'i ;t- -
single month, the Air Trans-
port Command flew four and -,.
one-half million pounds of
cargo and eight thousand
troops out of Miami.88 In
1943 the Army Air Forces A
bl te Ama Aiv ,1r0ce Richmond Naval Air Station contained
built a massive 1,100 acre
buiplt a ea e the largest aircraft hangars in the world
supply depot near the 36th in order to house these large dirigibles
Street airport.89 Near the end that patrolled the Atlantic Ocean. It was
of the war, the city became a said that its three hangars reached so
major port of embarkation for high that rain clouds formed inside of
soldiers returning from the them. (HASF 1982-141-3)


European and African fronts. Daily, thousands poured into Miami.90
In 1944, a Chicago Daily News reporter toured Miami's Pan
American Airway's facility. Astonished by the bustle and international
tone, Pan American received daily streams of dignitaries and visitors
from Rio de Janeiro, Barranquilla, Havana, and San Juan.1 Increas-
ingly, wealthy Latin Americans envisioned Miami as a place to vaca-
tion, invest, and in case of revolution, exile.
The war also caused businessmen to consider the endless possi-
bilities of postwar expansion and investment. The Daily News noted 7
February 1943, "The war which already has produced the startling
paradox of a banner winter season sans great numbers of rich Northern
Tourists, may still make a further contribution to the economy of south
Florida-a balanced year-round sales curve. Already plans are afoot to
make something more of the coming spring and summer months than
the dull, fruitless periods they have long been,.... "9
In summarizing Miami's wartime economic experience, caution
should be used while analyzing the fulsome conclusions made by con-
temporaries. Miami did not become an industrial arsenal. Miami ben-
efitted little from the new industries and institutions which prospered
during the war: chemicals, plastics, electronics, aviation, scientific re-
search, and the emerging military-industrial-educational complex. Mi-
ami capitalized on its strengths tourism, air travel, and trade with
Latin America and developed a military presence and infrastructure
which benefitted the region in the postwar era. Most importantly, Mi-
ami accumulated capital, investment, and exposure.
Miami became the Magic City, not because of blast furnaces or
assembly lines. Miami produced and cultivated an image, embodying
the American Dream, a sun-loving, easy-going paradise where one could
escape and indulge. It miraculously maintained this image throughout
World War II. Dream sellers discovered, however, that images bear
consequences, that fun and guns did not always mix.

Playgrounds Amidst Campgrounds

The Roman poet Juvenal understood the sins of the flesh when he
wrote, "Luxury is more ruthless than war." That ancient truth bit Mi-
ami hard in 1944 and 1945. Americans had always been ambivalent
about the idea of pleasure in January, and Florida's metamorphosis as
the American Babylon grated many who still drank deeply from the cup

Miami Goes to War 25

of John Calvin and Billy Sunday. The twentieth century, with its economy
of abundance, made commercialized leisure available to millions. But
the war raised old and new questions. Just how much fun and profit
should be consumed and enjoyed during a war which preached sacri-
fice? Subscriptions to war-bond drives appealed to the old-fashioned
American virtues of patriotism, order, generosity, and sacrifice. Miami
appealed to new fashions and values: leisure, pleasure, individualism,
and profits.
The Magic City had become a synonym for leisure. In the 1890s
Biscayne Bay offered tubercular Yankees and high-living Robber Bar-
ons rejuvenation; in the 1920s Coral Gables and Miami Beach allowed
the middle class and the nouveaux riches the chance to buy into the
Florida version of the American dream with sunshine and moonshine;
and in the 1940s the Magic City wrapped its Mediterranean pleasures
around patriotism, encouraging dollar-a-year men and defense workers
to bring their war-shattered nerves to Hialeah or the Surf Club.
Tourism remained vital to a war-charged Miami economy. "There
are no boll weevils in the tourist crop," the chamber of commerce
preached.93 The Herald dressed up the old saying, suggesting "Come
wars, booms, or depressions, there will always be a Greater Miami
tourist crop, and a pretty lusty one."94
The spectre of Japanese Zeros and German U-boats threatened
life and liberty, not the American pursuit of happiness. Pearl Harbor
and Operation Drumbeat
soon seemed as distant as
Iwo Jima and Normandy.
Only the U.S. among the
great powers was "fighting
the war on imagination
alone."" The U.S. govern-
ment was unwilling to im-
pose Draconian restrictions
upon leisure and relaxation.
Symbols sufficed.
In the 1940s, few -
symbols commanded the
emotional pull of baseball. Soldiers enjoying lunch in the Main Dining
In 1941, Joe DiMaggio cap- Room of the Club House at Hialeah Park,
tivated America with his November 2, 1943. (HASF 1982-114-78)


fifty-six game hitting streak while Ted Williams became the last player
to hit .400. Days after Pearl Harbor, major league owners offered to
shut the game down, but President Roosevelt replied, "I honestly feel
that it would be best for the country to keep baseball going." Baseball
transcended its status as a mere game; indeed baseball represented one
of the reasons we were fighting to preserve democracy. Moreover, base-
ball provided workers and soldiers a valuable safety valve in times of
crisis and stress.96
While the game endured, the same could not be said of the Grape-
fruit League. Since the 1920s, major league baseball had enjoyed a salu-
brious and profitable relationship with Miami and other Florida commu-
nities during spring training. Miamians and tourists had become accus-
tomed to cheering the New York Giants and Philadelphia Phillies. In a
symbolic sacrifice, baseball deserted Florida in 1943, "for the duration."
Teams practiced north of the so-called Landis-Eastman Line (named af-
ter baseball commissioner Kennesaw Mountain Landis and transporta-
tion czar Joseph B. Eastman). The Giants and Phillies, who once enjoyed
the springtime warmth of Flamingo Park at Miami Beach and Miami
Field (N.W. 3rd Street and 16th Avenue) encountered instead the chillier
turf of Lakewood, New Jersey, and Wilmington, Delaware.
It is said of Dr. Samuel Johnson's Amazing Dancing Dog, the amaz-
ing thing was not that it danced so well, but that it danced at all. Might
not the same be said of Miami tourism in World War II? Florida politi-
cians lobbied furiously to save the Sunshine State from total travel bans,
the equivalent of a nuclear winter. Governor Spessard Holland helped
secure more trains on the popular East Coast Florida route. Helen Muir
aptly summarized the phenomenon, "The predictions of pessimists that
Miami would become a deserted
S- playground for the duration were
Lost in the ring of the cash regis-
ter, the beat of the rhumba, and
the splash of the surf off Miami
Beach."" Secretary of Interior
A.- r: Harold Ickes promoted travel "as
',..- an aid in the promotion for na-
The Miami Air Depot Band perform- tional health and morale." Ickes
ing at the Employees Association even cited studies suggesting that
dance and beauty contest, June 1944. German productivity suffered
(HASF 1980-56-73) because of wartime stress.99

Miami Goes to War 27

At the state level, officials maintained that a Florida vacation was
not a luxury, but rather a necessity in these troubled times, rationaliz-
ing that rest and relaxation improved morale and productivity. "Sun-
shine is not being rationed," proclaimed Florida Highways. The Atlan-
tic Coast Line ran advertisements suggesting, "Civilians need furloughs
too!" Press agents, in perhaps one of the war's worst advertisements,
decreed a "blitzkrieg of joy" for civilian morale.100
Florida tourism attracted the attention of the national press. Crit-
ics generally ignored small pleasures enjoyed by defense workers, but
concentrated their fury upon three areas of concern: the black markets,
profligate gambling at the race tracks, and conspicuous consumption.
In every economy of scarcity, injustices prevail. So it was in World
War II. For the right price, T-bone steaks, tires, Pullman berths, and
gasoline could easily be obtained. Housewives were furious at the break-
down in the distribution and fairness in the rationing system. By April
1945, chickens were sold at a stunning $3 a pound.10' "It was no prob-
lem to obtain scarce and rationed goods at black markets," declared
John Blum.102 Such a system, especially in a national crisis, violated
the American sense of fair play.
In the winter of 1944, thousands of tourists became stranded in
Florida, unable to purchase return bus or rail tickets to the north. The
final "Refugee special" left with stranded tourists in late March. The
Rhode Island State Senate passed a resolution condemning Florida
for withholding gasoline to return trips. "War is Hell!" commented
Time. The Federal Bureau of Investigation arrested sixteen Miami
ticket agents, thirteen hotel "flunkies," and one Miami cab driver for
ticket scalping.103
Florida's parimutuel gaming business horse and dog racing and
Jai Alai barely a decade old when the war began, fluctuated wildly
depending upon the national mood, the length of the seasons, and the
opportunities for travel. The 1943 season ended prematurely because of
a national ban on pleasure driving. The Daily News proclaimed Miami a
"deserted village" in January 1943.104 Hialeah and Tropical Tracks felt
the blow, as did state and local revenues, heavily dependent upon south
Florida betting receipts. Hialeah Park, for example, levied a ten-cent
municipal tax for each admission, which contributed about $50,000 a
year to the city of Hialeah. In 1942, each county in Florida received
about $33,000 in racing revenues. For counties such as Okeechobee and
Martin, this meant a windfall of about $8 per resident 105


Attendance for the 1942-43 season (854,256) fell drastically from
the 1941-42 crowds of 2,195,080.106 With heaping doses of sarcasm,
New York Post columnist Stanley Frank wrote, "Sounds very harrow-
ing indeed until you stop and consider that the citizens of other states do
not educate their children on tourist, sucker and gambling money."107
If the 1942-43 racing season suffered because of national self
doubt and pleasure bans, Hialeah and Tropical swelled with fans and
profits in 1944-45. Hialeah's 1944 season debut attracted 12,726 fans
who wagered a record $635,758; at the Tropical, 10,900 fans crowded
the grandstands. On New Year's Day 1944, almost 3,500 fans bet
$100,000 at Miami's West Flagler Kennel Club [dog track]. A Time
correspondent disdainfully observed that most racegoers drove their
cars to the track."08
Miami vice flourished during the war, if one is to believe reports
of illegal gambling and bookmaking. The FBI's J. Edgar Hoover, had
been concerned about such activities for some time. In 1940 he wrote
the Attorney General: "It is a fact that the Miami area has been and is at
the present time a mecca for criminals, gangsters, racketeers and fed-
eral fugitives from justice during the winter season because .. of the
wide open manner in which various illegal enterprises are operated."'09
The Arcadia Arcadian quipped, "To stop gambling in Miami is almost
equivalent to stopping Miami. 10
The sensational series of arrests in 1944 must have shocked the
most jaded Miamians. Authorities raided a notorious night spot called,
suggestively, Tobacco Road. When the evidence reached the bench of
Judge Cecil C. Curry, the senior jurist closed down Tobacco Road. An
expos revealed that the club routinely hired male strippers, prompting
the Herald to speculate that "prosecuting attorneys [were] thumbing
their dictionaries for new words to describe the sexy, lewd and lascivi-
ous shows." In March 1944, Miami's vice squad began a sweep, hitting
bookie joints and gambling dens. In one raid police arrested U.S. Rep.
A. Pat Cannon. The congressman, a former policeman, explained he
was "politicking for votes."'"
Robber barons, baseball stars, and movie queens had been spend-
ing winters at Miami for half a century. Americans, in spite of declara-
tions of a classless society, vicariously admired freespending lifestyles
of the rich and famous. The press covered the misdeeds with paparazzi
zeal. In The Rise of the Leisure Class, Thorstein Veblen observed that
the rich indulged in extravagant behavior, in large part to revel in "con-

Miami Goes to War 29

spicuous consumption." Conspicuous consumption collided with the
earnest warning, "Don't you know there's a war going on?"
In 1944, south Florida was the place to be and be seen. A new
confidence, borne by the success of the indomitable Red Army and the
U.S. army in Europe and the Pacific, buoyed civilian morale. Stagger-
ing wartime profits bankrolled winters of contentment and extravagance.
New Year's Eve 1943 was as Babylonian as New Year's Eve 1942
was Spartan. The Herald's society columnist wistfully recalled the past
when describing December 31, 1942. "Gay, rowdy Miami, which looks
upon a party with the tender affection of a southern planter for a mint
julep was just a whisper of the soaring rejoicing of old." The reporter
explained, "with fewer than a dozen full-fledged night clubs in opera-
tion where more than 50 had operated in past years. . ..12
By New Year's Eve 1943, Time proclaimed, "Simply everybody
was in Florida, it seemed," Society reporters and national correspon-
dents converging on Miami Beach announced, "It was like old times."
The fashionable casinos and watering holes, only months earlier serv-
ing hash and Spam, now presented Persian caviar and Canadian whis-
key. Ciro's and Lou Walter's -
Latin Quarter sparkled as "the
places-one-must-be-seen- in."
The exclusive, million-dollar
Surf Club also reopened. 13
Helen Muir recollected, "Mi-
ami Beach never had it so gay
as titled European 'refugees,'
wartime manufacturers, and t
government big wigs crowded
the night spots, attended the
horse races, and brunched in
cabanas."l'4 Sally Rand and
her exotic fan dance opened at
Al Berlin's Hurricane Club in One of the tanks on parade on Flagler
Miami, while the Latin Quar- Street to rally patriotic support. In the
background, the Olympia Theater
ter required a $15 minimum. (today's Gusman Center) is on the left
Reportedly, Cornelius Vander- and the DuPont Building, which served
bilt, Jr., paid $4 for a pony of as headquarters for Seventh Naval
Bisquit brandy. Star spotters District, is to the right, behind the sol-
soon identified Paulette der. (HASF, MNC, 1989-011-18456)


Goddard, Joel McCrae, Noel Coward, Al Jolson, Orson Welles -
"carefully attended by his wife, Rita Hayworth," Jeanette MacDonald,
Ann Sheridan, Chico Marx, Leo Durocher, Jersey City Mayor Frank
Hague, Drew Pearson, Walter Winchell, and President Alfonso Lopez
of Columbia."5
The lifestyles of the glitterati became subject of a national jer-
emiad. Life magazine opined, "It's not entirely Florida's fault that it
seems to fiddle while the rest of the world bums."''6 Philip Wylie an-
grily wrote, "Only the very ill and war-connected had a right to drive
here from the rest of the U.S.A." His essay in New Republic concluded
with an indignant flourish, "It is a disgraceful panorama of selfishness
- of wishful, witless self indulgence of the failure not merely of a
city but a great cross-section of the American people to understand
even vaguely the meaning of these days.""'7 The Herald replied frostily,
"All the snipers are not confined to the trees of the battle fronts of the
Pacific or Italy.""'
Tourism paralleled America's alternating moods of anxiety and
confidence. In 1945, 2' million tourists flocked to Florida, matching
the pre-war record of 1940."9
The war reinforced Miami's image as Florida's and America's
most important tourist center. Countless servicemen encountered palm
trees, the surf, and the Gold Coast for the first time. The reportage
helped glamorize Miami's image as a naughty but respectable place to
visit; no postwar trip to South Florida was complete without dinner and
dancing at a nightclub.
Tourism also de-
fined Miami as a south-
erm city which followed
the strictures of a Jim
Crow society. But Mi-
t ami and Miami Beach
were no ordinary Deep
South towns. When
":J". .Jews arrived in the
Senator Claude Pepper (right) tells Colonel 1930s they encountered
Guttenberger (left) and civilian employees anti-Semitic signs and
why it is necessary to buy more War Bonds statutes. But Jewish
during the Second War Loan Drive, Septem- residents realized new
ber 17, 1943. (HASF 1982-114-81) opportunities in south

Miami Goes to War 31

Florida during the 1940s and 50s, especially in business and politics.
Throughout the war, Governor Spessard Holland maintained a warm
correspondence with Miami Beach city councilman and Army Major
Mitch Wolfson.120 Would the war bring new freedom and respect for
Miami's African Americans?

The Race War

World War II was a war of contrasts: incredible bursts of exhila-
ration and joy punctuated by bouts of despair and gloom. Like a
Caravaggio painting, the history of civil rights during the war also sug-
gests chiaroscuro, intense frames of sunshine and shadows.121
When the war began, African-American leaders faced a dilemma.
During the First World War, blacks had enthusiastically supported the
war, assured that common sacrifice would result in new respect and
rights. Instead, race riots, a revived Ku Klux Klan, and angry editorials
greeted returning veterans. In December 1941, African-American lead-
ers unfurled the "Double V" campaign: victory abroad against Fascism
and Totalitarianism, but also victory against racism at home.'22
Black America discovered Miami during the war. Northern-born
blacks, northern-raised blacks, rural southern blacks, and urban blacks
encountered Miami as soldiers and civilians. They found a city rigidly
divided along racial and class lines. Racial restrictive covenants and
social policy proscribed blacks to segregated neighborhoods in Colored
Town, Coconut Grove, and Liberty City. Attempts to defy the status
quo moving into a white neighborhood, swimming at a white beach,
or attempting to register as a Democrat met swift resistance and
occasional violence. Blacks were expected, in the vernacular of the pe-
riod, to know their place. Place meant low-skill, service jobs: "Colored
Woman, kitchen work ..," "Colored Maid," "Colored Girl, general
housekeeping," and "Colored Woman to Iron." When the war began,
no African Americans served on the Miami police force. The Daily
News in February 1942 touted military service as an excellent opportu-
nity for blacks "to qualify as caterers, stewards or waiters or hotel
workers when they return to civilian life."123
Miami, at least when compared with Tampa, Pensacola, and Jack-
sonville, offered black servicemen an environment largely free of physical
intimidation and explosive racial incidents. African American person-
nel migrated to Colored Town, which offered a wide variety of enter-


tainment. In Miami, the armed services conducted a radical experi-
ment, one orchestrated without publicity or fanfare. In spite of staunch
resistance from Congressman Pat Cannon, from officials in Miami
Beach, from the tourist industry the Army Air Force proceeded with
plans to accept blacks in an integrated officers candidate school. Judge
William Hastie, aide to the Secretary of War, fought hard for this ex-
periment. The school operated smoothly without noteworthy incident.
Eldridge Williams, a graduate of Xavier University, was one of several
airmen to train in white units. He arrived at Miami Beach in 1942 to
attend the Army Air Corps Officer Training School.124
When Eleanor Roosevelt visited Miami, the First Lady made a
special point to visit the Negro USO Center at 535 N.W. Third Ave.
The Herald editorialized in the aftermath of the Detroit race riots, "The
Eleanor Roosevelt School of Thought has been feeding the Negro a
heady mixture of social equality that provokes such tragic incidents as
Detroit's bloody battle."125
In 1943, anxious over deteriorating conditions and potentially
explosive incidents, the FBI embarked on a massive examination of
America's race problem. "A Survey of Racial Conditions in the United
States" included agents' reports from Florida. The FBI report from
Miami concluded, "Excellent recreational facilities have been provided
for white soldiers and sailors but those available for Negroes have been
seriously neglected. This fact has caused resentment and some racial
tensions." Yet they characterized the degree of racial tensions in Miami
as "Class D," a category "in which undercurrents of racial tension may
result in minor conflicts and may interfere with war production." The
FBI considered the likelihood of rioting and protest far more serious in
Pensacola, Panama City, Jacksonville, and Tampa.'26
War spared Miami any violent racial demonstrations, although
state and federal officials prepared for that eventuality. In August 1944
Florida's State Defense Council and the Army service forces prepared
top secret plans in the event of race riots at Miami and other cities. The
report indicated that Miami's "Negro dives and joints" produced "Ne-
groes of the trouble-maker type," but officials maintained that Miami
was not an urban volcano. "The racial tension in this city is related as
The war provided new energy for the swelling civil rights move-
ment. In Miami, black leaders pressed for change along several lines:
the appointment of black policemen, educational equality, and a more

Miami Goes to War 33

equitable share of municipal services. For decades, Miami blacks had
complained of police brutality in their neighborhoods. By 1945, a
significant breakthrough had occurred: Miami's police force included
eighteen African Americans, more than all of the other Florida cities
combined. 28
African Americans also achieved a milestone in public education.
for decades, area blacks took special pride in their schools. Elry Taylor
Sands, class of 1942, reminisced, "Booker T. [Washington] was the
hub of our life. Anything of significance, it was held in our audito-
rium."'29 But black pride did not translate to equal educational funding.
In 1941, Dade County schools were considered the finest in Florida,
but black teachers earned on the average one half the salary of their
white counterparts, $829 to $1,687. Galvanized by the war and the
irrepressible leadership of Thurgood Marshall of the NAACP, African-
American teachers sued Dade County. Marshall won this and other
landmark cases in Florida. By 1945, Dade County had equalized the
pay for black and white teachers.130
In 1945, African Americans tested their right to use county-owned
bathing beaches, a right previously denied. Leaders of the Negro Citi-
zens Service League informed Sheriff Jimmy Sullivan of the bathe-in at
Baker's Haulover. White officers encountered the protesting bathers,

Eleanor Rooselvelt visiting members of Miami's black community. She
visited many military installations in the Greater Miami area during
the war. (HASF 1975-34-5)


but chose to leave them alone. This marked a signal victory in Florida's
civil rights history. In 1945, Virginia Beach on Biscayne Bay's Virgin-
ian Key became Miami's "colored beach." 131
Events on the national stage also brought a new sense of rising
expectations. In April 1944, the U.S. Supreme court ruled in a land-
mark decision, Smith v. Allwright, that the white primary was unconsti-
tutional. The Smith decision was hailed by blacks, but bitterly resented
by whites. In Miami, "liberal" Senator Claude Pepper thundered, "South-
erners will not allow matters peculiar to us to be determined by those
who do not know and understand our problem. The South will allow
nothing to impair white supremecy.""32
World War II marked a turning point in the history of Miami's
black communities, a seed time for the modem civil rights movement.
Energized, African Americans prepared to assault other barriers block-
ing the American dream. One should note that the achievements wrested
during the war were quite moderate. Equalization of teacher salaries,
the creation of a black beach, the hiring of black police to patrol black
neighborhoods-none of these victories shook or even challenged the
foundations of a segregated society. In 1945, African-American lead-
ers simply sought respect and equality within a segregated Miami. Yet
the war had brought change. Never again would blacks accept dis-
crimination without protest. Ironically, days before the end of the war,
a resurgent Ku Klux Klan, also energized by the conflict, erected a ten-
foot burning cross as a warning to blacks who sought homes in white
neighborhoods.'33 The war had graduated future leaders and prepared a
generation to resist inequity.


Another group of Miamians also witnessed a new order. Miami
women discovered and created brave new worlds of opportunity and
achievement during the 1940s.
Within days after Pearl harbor, it was evident that America suf-
fered from an acute shortage of manpower. The solution seemed simple.
"The first thing to do to win the war," columnist Dorothy Parker chal-
lenged American women, "is to lose your amateur standing."'34 A
Florida newspaper explained, "Womanpower is available everywhere.
Women are eager to give it wherever and whenever they can. Why

Miami Goes to War 35

does not the government take steps to organize, recognize and use this
valuable asset?"135
In Miami, a crazyquilt pattern of government incentives, private
initiative, and individual will brought women into the workplace. Women
had always worked in Miami. The war brought large numbers of white
married women into the wage market. In the past, black women and work-
ing-class women had worked the service trades; increasingly the 1920s
and 30s introduced single women into the city's department stores and
offices as secretaries and clerks. The war accelerated these patterns.
Rosie the Riveter and Joan of Arc embody the prototypical fe-
male employee during the war, but in Miami she was more likely work-
ing as a clerk, typist, maid, flight technician, or in a seemingly endless
variety of new occupations. Such stories became common newspaper
fare. "Several hotels are employing women clerks and hotel elevator
operators now are almost all women," reported the Herald in 1943.136
Florida Power and Light hired six pole painters in 1945."13 During the
conflict, milkmen became milkmaids at Miami's Southern Dairies, while
lumberjacks became lumber ills at area mill sites."'38 Women could also
be found as truck drivers, and freight handlers, and aircraft workers.139
The Herald 's Jeanne Bellamy wrote early in 1942, "Ladies, are you
really seeking war jobs? Then
you'll find they're easy to
... get."140
News accounts often
linked the compatibility of
._ work, domesticity, and feminin-
ity. Mrs. Inez Kennedy, for in-
stance, "goes through the same
.i... s an a n motions at a drill press that she
N.\e uses to squeeze the morning or-
ange juice for her family." 141
The Herald saluted Miss
Genevieve Mary Boehm, a
former beautician and now "the
only welder at the Army Post
Engineers Shop." Miss Boehm
An original "Rosie the Riveter" in ac- also volunteered for the Molly
tion as an airplane mechanic assistant, Pitcher day war stamp and
November 1943. (HASF, 1980-56-7) bond drive.'2 In Miami facto-


ries, offices, and barracks, beauty and popularity contests were com-
monplace. Wartime restrictions and new freedoms generated fashion
change at the workplace and elsewhere. Women's dresses became tighter
and shorter and the light feather cut took advantage of the bobby pin
shortage. Girdles were cast away. Some businesses responded to the
problem of child care. Tycoon Tackle Inc. opened a twenty-four hour
nursery staffed by seven registered nurses.143
Black women responded to the new opportunities, but documen-
tation is lacking. When the war began, no black woman in Miami worked
as an actress, artist, professor, dentist, or physician. White collars on
black women were rare: in 1940 Miami, 176 black women taught school
and thirty served as nurses. Another 115 black women worked as beau-
ticians. Two-thirds of black women 6,297 worked as domestics
(laundress, maid, housekeeper). By 1950, changes had occurred. Al-
most 350 black women worked as school teachers and 97 as nurses.
While the largest number of black women continued to work as un-
skilled or semi-skilled laborers, some progress had been made.'44 The
war, albeit slowly, opened opportunities in defense work, factories, and
the military,

Twin sisters employed as radio mechanics at the Miami Air Depot, shown
here testing sea rescue equipment. (HASF 1980-56-42)
Over 16 million Americans served in the military during the Sec-
ond World War, and women represented 350,000 of those veterans. On
the eve of Pearl Harbor, only registered nurses qualified for military
service,t45 The war expanded opportunities for women in the military.
Co-eds at Barry College met with recruiters in March 1942 for the
topic, "Physical Fitness for Victory." The Herald called it the "Petti-
coat Army."146

Miami Goes to War 37

By the summer of 1943, Miami's Robert Clay Hotel had been
taken over by 165 WAVES and SPARS. The WAVES (Women Ac-
cepted for Voluntary Emergency Service) had been created in June 1942,
and the SPARS (Women's Reserve of the U.S. Coast Guard; the name
Spars is taken from the Coast Guard motto, Semper Paratus) was formed
in November 1942.147 "As the war became more devastating, and as my
three brothers entered military service, reminisced Ruth Elsasser, a
native of Cocoa, "I became restless in my job as social worker ...
[then] became a home service worker for the American Red Cross....
Suddenly there I was, pictured in the Miami Herald of Sept. 2, 1942,
taking the aptitude test [for the WAVES]." Elsasser fondly recalls her
experience in Miami:

For young people in the military, Miami was a great place
to be stationed. . For the WAVES, the hospitality was
endless. Since there were so few of us in the beginning,
we were a distinct curiosity. To start with, our uniforms
were smart looking, having been designed by a top fash-
ion designer. Even the officer's hat was famous, having
been styled by Mainbocher. 14

Three Women's Army Corps (WAC) officers assigned to the Miami Air
Depot, November 18, 1943. (HASF 1980-56-8)
Women could aid the military without donning a uniform. Norma
Pennoyer, a Miami student at Florida State College for Women, be-
came a cartographer, training at the Army Mapping Service.149 Women
excelled in the meritocratic environment established at Miami's Embry-
Riddle School of Aviation. When the war began, only 160 women in
the United States had earned a commercial pilot's license. Two of
them, Helen Cavis and Nancy Batson, taught at Embry-Riddle. By


1943, twenty-five women served as flight instructors at the Miami
headquarters. 50
Wartime Miami witnessed a kaleidoscope of change: women fly-
ing airplanes, driving trucks, delivering milk. The presence of women
in the workforce touched off a national debate with local echoes. J.
Edgar Hoover, who had already stigmatized Miami as a din of iniquity,
pontificated that the "new woman" posed "a national scandal."'1 Com-
mentators expressed special concern over the war's effects upon young
women. For whatever reason, young women seemed especially vulner-
able to young men in uniforms. The words "Khaki Wacky" or "Victory
Girl" described this phenomenon.
Far more serious problems existed than teen age infatuations. Dur-
ing the war, commentators observed a disturbing, but predictable rise in
the divorce rate. By 1944, 17 percent of Dade county divorce petitions
cited wartime stress; the percentage would rise even more dramatically.152
Prostitution posed an alarming social health problem for cities
such as Miami. No sociologist is needed to understand behavioral pat-
terns of eighteen-year-old men on leave for the first time in Miami. On
a typical month in the early 1940s, thirty-thousand sailors passed through
Bayfront Park.153 Nor does one need an economist to understand why
some women migrated to Miami to become prostitutes. One is hard
pressed to pin labels on victims and villains in the wartime milieu. What
concerns historians are the consequences of such events. In 1944, the
U.S. Public Health Service Venereal Disease Control Division singled
out Miami for its "high and still rising" rates of infection among naval
personnel.154 Such problems plagued many U.S. cities during this pe-
riod. Only the widescale application of penicillin, truly the war's won-
der drug, saved America from a postwar social catastrophe.
Miami officials, embarrassed by the stigma of social disease, co-
operated with the military, but prostitution was not a centralized indus-
try which could be easily regulated. Helen Muir remembers,

The military closed all houses of prostitution, among them
Gertie Walsh's .. [her] bordello with a berth for yachts.
. The military closed the houses of prostitution and
Miami teenagers turned prostitute in Bayfront Park . .
Early park closings and extra policing failed to stop this
mass prostitution until all shrubbery was ordered trimmed
and thinned from the bottom.155

Miami Goes to War 39

Lost between the more sensational histories of Khaki Wackers
and Rosie the Riveter is the volunteer. Historically, women had left
their mark on Miami through selfless efforts to create voluntary as-
sociations. Women's clubs, improvement societies, garden associa-
tions, and educational programs made Miami a better place. So it was
in World War II. Shortly after Pearl Harbor, the Herald printed a
headline, "Wanted Immediately: 500 Patriotic Women!"'1 In one year
alone, Red Cross volunteers prepared two million surgical dressings.157
Countless women volunteered at USO canteens and military recre-
ation centers.
In Miami Beach, a group of women led by Zel P. Renshaw volun-
teered and refurbished Minsky Pier so military recruits might have a
gathering spot. The women organized the Miami Beach Pier Assoc.,
elected Kay Pancoast president, and entertained 235,000 soldiers the
first year. Fully 18,000 local women volunteered in this endeavor.158

V-J Day

The date was 5 August 1945. On the Pacific island of Tinian,
technicians and crew had carefully loaded the most single important
bomb of World War II. Col. Paul Tibbets stood by the bomb bay of his
B-29 Superfortress and called for a sign painter. The painter inscribed
the name Enola Gay in foot-high letters beneath the pilot's window.
The next day Miami's Enola Gay, the mother of Paul Tibbets, became
the most famous woman in America.
The news of V-J day, 15 August 1945, rocked Miami. V-J day
marked the greatest single concentration of joy ever witnessed in Mi-
ami history. According to accounts, 30,000 people flocked to down-
town Miami to celebrate the moment. The crowd "carpeted the town in
confetti and ticker tape, tied down their auto horns and blasted gloom to
the winds...." The Herald noted that it "looked like Rio at carnival."'59
Firecrackers, which had disappeared since Pearl Harbor, exploded un-
til late in the night. Flagler Street served as the symbolic center of the
celebration, a recognition of the role of downtown Miami in the lives of
citizens. A reporter wrote that "Flagler Street, before it was blocked
off, became a race track within seconds. Cars were traveling 65 mph on
both sides of the street. Strangely enough the drivers were obeying the
traffic lights."160




V-J Day celebration on Flagler Street in downtown Miami on August
15, 1945. The crowd "carpeted the town in confetti and ticker tape,"
reported the Miami Herald. (HASF, MNC, 1989-011-18446)

Miami Goes to War 41

The Herald's Jack Bell had just returned from his war odyssey.
His reportorial eye caught an elderly woman entering a church. She
walked toward a statue of the Virgin Mary.

She raised her head and the tears rolled unheeded down
her cheeks .... A giant master sergeant who was kneeling
beside her rose awkwardly and took the taper from her
hands. She said to him, 'This one is for Edgar, my young-
est. He was killed in Germany .... Edgar was my favorite
son, my baby, And he doesn't know.'"


The war had caused many people to rethink the future of Miami.
Few Miamians have ever offered such a vision for the Magic City as
did Philip Wylie in a breathtaking 1943 Herald essay. The acerbic Wylie
had taken up residence in Coral Gables in the 1930s. Friends ques-
tioned his sanity. He reminisced, "I am sick of the surprise and the
chuckles sick of the perpetual implication that my wife and I, for
some incomprehensible reason, have chosen to reside in a honky-tonk -
sick of the blank universal belief that Greater Miami is a third-rate city,
garish, vulgar and trivial sick of the assumption that because I live
in this area I am somehow a social parasite."162
In this essay, Wylie chose not to caustically attack Miami's lead-
ers for past errors, but laid out a searing prophecy for postwar Miami.
Wylie understood Miami was poised for a dramatic takeoff as soon as
the swords were turned into automobiles and refrigerators. "Universal
cheap air-conditioning after the war," Wylie wrote, "plus the knowl-
edge of tropical living we have gained during the war is going to end
every problem of comfortable year-round living in south Florida. It is
going to open this area potentially to millions of people .. ."163
Wylie pleaded for Miamians to take a new fork in the postwar
road. "We should be a cultural center of the continent," he contended.
"Painters like Winslow Homer have put our seascapes and landscapes
in the Metropolitan Museum but we Floridians let our artists struggle,
starve, and even commit suicide for want of attention and victuals." He
added, "We could and should be the center in the western world for
those architects and engineers who are experimenting with designs in


housing, public buildings, materials, lighting, solar energy, heat con-
trol, ventilation, and a hundred other problems of tropical living.. ."'6
Wylie challenged Miamians, "We ought to have the greatest uni-
versity in the nation, here. Perhaps we should have several great uni-
versities. Florida, not California, should be the focal point for the study
of applied aerodynamics .. [W]e are richer by five times in marine
life than any other place in the United States. ... This follows that our
university our putative universities should lead the world in the
study of marine biology."'65
A new Miami pondered Philip Wylie's brandishments and
dreamscape. Many must have asked the Dickensian question Ebenezer
Scrooge beseeched the Spirit of a hundred years earlier: "Are these the
shadows of things that will be or are they the shadow of things that may
be, only?"
World War II officially commenced a new gold rush for Miami,
an experience more Odyssey than liad. By war's end, hundreds of thou-
sands of servicemen, bureaucrats, tourists, celebrities, gamblers, pros-
titutes, and workers had descended upon Miami. Miami expounded si-
multaneous exhilaration and horror, a communal experience shared by
citizen and soldier, black and white, rich and poor.
Unlike the deeds of Julia Tuttle, Henry Flagler, or George Merrick,
no single individual stamped his or her identity on Miami in the 1940s or
1950s; rather Pearl Harbor set off a chain reaction of events, unleashing
vast forces which shaped and reshaped south Florida. The military-in-
dustrial complex, anti-communism, the leisure revolution, air travel, year
round tourism, federal grants to housing and education, the G.I. Bill, the
Interstate Highway Program, shopping malls, air conditioning and DDT,
all have their roots in or were greatly enhanced by World War II.

V-J Day celebration on Flagler Street. (HASF 1981-91-16)

Miami Goes to War 43


Note on Sources: Miami is a lodestar for scholars interested in Florida his-
tory, and this writer has been especially fortunate to have been encouraged
and assisted by many generous Miamians. Anyone interested in researching
Miami in the 1940s must make a point to visit the Charlton Tebeau Library
at the Historical Association of South Florida. Rebecca Smith serves as one
of the helpful archivists. Paul George is a walking goldmine of Miami's
past, and has generously shared his love for the city. Across the plaza stands
the Miami-Dade Public Library, where Sam Bolderick heads the Special
Collections. The Library holds some especially valuable scrapbooks, the
Agnew Welsh Collection, containing a rich number of wartime clippings.
The State Archives in Tallahassee contain government reports dealing with
wartime Florida, as well as the papers of Governors Spessard Holland and
Millard Caldwell. Readers will find the most useful single source in day by
day study of Miami Herald and Miami Daily News. Sadly, no issues of
Miami's black newspapers, the Miami Times and the Miami Whip, survive
for this period.

1. "2,000,000 Tourists Expected this season," Miami Herald
(Hereafter cited as Herald), 7 December 1941, 1.
2. Herald, 8 December 1941, A-14; "City Life Transformed,"
Herald, 5 December 1943; 7 December 1941.
3. Miami Daily News (hereafter cited as Daily News, 1 December
1941, editorial.
4. "City Life Transformed," Herald, 5 December 1943; Herald
and Daily News, 7-8 December 1941.
5. "War's Impact Felt," Herald, 8 December 1941, 1.
6. "War's Impact Felt at Once in Miami Area," Herald, 1; "Citylife
Transformed," Herald, 5 December 1943.
7. "Miami War Victim's Kin Vengeful," Herald, 14 December
1941, 1.
8. "Ex-Miamian's Bombs Sink Jap Battleship," Herald, 13 De-
cember 1941, 1.
9. "Two Ex-Miamians Outwit Japanese Invaders," Herald, 10
December 1941, 1.
10. Nixon Smiley, Knights of the Fourth Estate: The Story of the
Miami Herald (Miami: E.A. Seeman Publishing Co., 1974), 209.
11. Sixteenth Census of the United States: 1940. Population, Vol.


II, Characteristics of the Population (Washington, D.C., U.S. Govt.
Printing Office, 1943), Table 64, 163.
12. George E. Pozzetta, "Foreign Colonies in South Florida, 1865-
1910," Tequesta 34 (1974) 45-56." 10 Germans Held at Miami," Tampa
Tribune, 10 December 1941, 6; "Stop Bahama Negro Expedition on
Japs,"Palm Beach Post, 16 December 1941; FBI, General Intelligence
Survey in the United States," July 1942, contained in Record Group
59, State Department Records, Box 3019, National Archives.
13. Daily News, 22 February 1942, Agnew Welch Collection,
Miami Dade Public Library (hereafter cites as Welch Coll. MDPL).
14. Howard Kleinberg, Miami Beach: A History (Miami: Cen-
tennial Press, 1994), 142.
15. Daily News, 29 January 1942, Welch Coll. MDPL.
16. Herald, 4 January 1942, Welch Coll. MDPL.
17. Daily News, 17 March 1942, Welch Coll. MDPL.
18. Michael Gannon, Operation Drumbeat (New York: Harper
and Row, 1990), 347-48; "Navy Reveals U-Boat Attacks," St. Peters-
burg Times, 3 June 1945; Eliot Kleinberg, "A Battle field Right Off-
shore," Palm Beach Post, 16 February 1992, F-8; "German Subs Sank
24 Allied Vessels off Florida Coast," Miami Herald, 3 August 1945.
19. Daily News, 5 May, 1942.
20. Helen Muir, Miami, U.S.A. (New York: Henry Holt and Co.,
1953), 226.
21. "Yachting Fleet at Miami Turns to Grim Task of War," Her-
ald, 8 March 1942, A-2; Gannon, 309,350-54; Allen Cronenberg, Faith
to the Mighty Conflict: Alabama and World War II (Tuscaloosa: Uni-
versity of Alabama Press, 1995), 23-24.
22. "War Touched Closer to Florida," Herald, 8 May 1945.
23. Sigrid Arne, "Miami Greatly Changed," San Diego (Califor-
nia) Union, 11 April 1943.
24. Robert J. Jakeman, Divided Skies (Tuscaloosa: University of
Alabama Press, 1992), 88-89.
25. Steve Glassman "Riddle's 'Wild Blue Yonder,'" South Florida
History Magazine 3 (Summer 1989), 5-12.
26. "Aerial Navigation," Herald, 13 May 1945, sec. B-I; "Navy
Uses Dozen Air Fields," St. Petersburg Times, 4 July 1943, 22; "War
Touched Closer to Florida," Herald, 8 May 1945.
27. "Army Frees," Herald, 21 December 1945, Sec. B.
28. "Work on $6 Million Blimp Base To Start Soon," Herald, 26

Miami Goes to War 45

March 1942; Herald, 27 June 1943; "Gigantic Job Requires 7 Million
Feet of Timber," Herald, 23 September 1943; "War Touched Closer to
Florida," Herald, 8 May 1945; Connett-Richards, 31-32.
29. "Florida at War," Life, 23 March 1942, 92-97.
30. "Pledge By 175 Hotel Owners," Herald, 24 March 1942;
"Army Asks 200 Beach Hotels If They Will House Troops," Herald,
25 March 1942, 1.
31. Arne, "Miami Greatly Changed," San Diego Union, 11 April
1943; "Army Doubles Training Plan At Miami Beach," Herald, 8 No-
vember 1942; "Army Frees Last Beach Hotel," Herald, 21 December
32. Arne, "Miami Greatly Changed," San Diego Union, 11 April
33. Jack Bell, "Army Life on the Beach," Herald, 19 February
34. "Surf Club," Daily News, 13 November 1942, Welch Coll.
35. St. Petersburg Times, 15 May 1943.
36. "Landmark to Become School for Subchasers," Herald, 31
July 1942.
37. "War-weary Veterans Rehabilitated at Busy Miami Beach
Army Center," Herald, 4 June 1944; Sigrid Arne, "Miami's Biltmore
Resort Hotel," San Diego Union, 13 June 1943; "Miami Biltmore
Luxury Hotel," (Jacksonville) Florida Times Union, 13 June 1943;
"The Psychiatric Toll," Fortune XXVIII (December 1943), 141-43,
38. "Veteran Flyers Enjoy Rest," Chicago Daily News, 19 Febru-
ary 1944; Herald, 20 June 1943; Buker, p. 185.
39. Quoted in William Edwin Hemphill, Aerial Gunner from Vir-
ginia (Richmond: Virginia State Library, 1950), 9.
40. "Clark Gable Begins Life of Corporal," Florida Times Union,
18 August 1942; "Clark Gable, Minus Hair, Mustache, starts Army
Grind for Bomber Job," Stockton (California) Record, 16 August 1942;
"Corporal Gable," New Haven (Connecticut) Journal-Courier, 18 Au-
gust 1942; "Corporal Clark Gable Dons Pair of No. 11 Army Shoes,"
Fort Myers News Press, 18 August 1942; "Clark Gable Graduates With
Class Honors," Daily News, 27 August 1942.
41. Daily News, 10 February 1943; Brian Lewis Crispell, "Test-
ing the Limits: George Armistead Smathers and Cold War America,


1946-1968," Ph.D. dissertation, Florida State University, 1996, 23-26.
42. Daily News, 19 October 1942, Welch Coll. MDPL.
43. "Film 'Expendable' Brings 'War' To Miami's Waterfront,"
Herald, 3 March 1945, 1; "Miami Waterfront Becomes Replica of
Cavite," Herald, 6 March 1945, 1; Palm Beach Post, 1 May 1945.
44. Kleinberg, Miami Beach, 170; Herald or News, 3 February
1945, Welch Coll. MDPL; "German POWs," Herald, 18 July 1965,
45. Polenberg, 139; Pete Daniel, Standing at the Crossroad: South-
ern Life in the Twentieth Century (New York: Hill and Wang, 1986);
Seventh Census of the State of Florida, 1945 (Tallahassee, 1945).
46. Seventh Census of the State of Florida, 1945, Table 22.
47. "City's Population," Herald, 2 January 1944; "Impact of War,"
News, 5 December 1943;
48. Herald, 21 March 1943.
49. Sixteenth Census of the Untied States: 1940. Housing. Vol.
II. General Characteristics (Washington, D.C., U.S. Govt. Printing
Office, 1943), Table 5; "Miami Beach Building Jumps 53.5 per cent,"
Herald, 16 February 1941, Sec. C-I; "Gain of 6,470 Dwelling Units
Shown by Miami in 3 Years," Herald, 24 March 1940, C-3.
50. Quoted in Kleinberg, Miami Beach, 131.
51. "War Brings Boom Business to Trailertown," Herald, 29
August 1943, sec. A. p. 10.
52. Herald, 16 January 1944.
53. Herald, 29 January 1944; Daily News, 13 January 1945, Welch
Coll. MDPL.
54. Herald, 17 March 1945, 8 February 1945; The Seventh Cen-
sus of the State of Florida, 1945, 85-86; Census of the Population:
1950. vol II. Characteristics of the Population. part 10, Florida (Wash-
ington 1952), 8, 28.
55. Herald, 4 October 1943; Daily News, 3-4 October 1943, Welch
Coll. MDPL.
56. Herald, 11 November 1942.
57. Quoted in Daily News, 9 December 1943, Welch Coll. MDPL.
58. "Jammed Gables," Herald, 6 January 1944.
59. Quoted in Daily News, 9 December 1943, Welch Coll. MDPL.
60. Herald, 7 August 1943, letter to editor; see also "Disgusted
Sailer," letter to editor, 3 August 1943.
61. Philip Wylie, Time, 27 February 1944, 23.
62. Herald, 2 December 1942; Daily News, 7 June 1943, Welch

Miami Goes to War 47

Coll. MDPL.
63. "Navy Men Will Help," Herald, 11 June 1944.
64. "Beach Seeks Bahamians," Herald, 2 March 1944; "MPs
Handle Ticklish Tab," Herald, 7 May 1945; Herald, 1 January 1943.
65. Governor Millard Caldwell Papers, State Archives, Tallahas-
see, Box 3, "Press Releases."
66. "Nine Different Meats," Herald, 13 February 1944; Daily
News, 26 June 1945; "Horsemeat Scarce," Daily News, 5 July 1945.
67. Herald, 13 June 1944.
68. "Hundreds of Cyclists Now Dot City Streets," Herald, 23
March 1942, sec. B-1.
69. Herald, 1 January 1943.
70. "Domestic Front," Herald, 1, January 1943.
71. "County Buys More Than $304,628,000 in War Bonds Since
1941," Herald, 20 May 1945.
72. "Miami's Prodigious War Effort," Herald, 4 March 1944, 1-2.
73. Herald, 6 February 1991, sec. A, 4; 2 December 1943;
74. "Jack Bell in Germany," Herald, 1 June 1945, 1; Herald, 5
June 1944; "Gen. Von Rundstedt Tells Jack Bell," Herald, May 1945, 1.
75. Polenberg, 240.
76. Herald, 2 January 1945, 2 January 1944.
77. "What Miamians Want to Buy," Herald, 14 February 1944.
78. Raymond A. Mohl, "Changing Economic Patterns in the Mi-
ami Metropolitan Area, 1940-1948," Tequesta XLII (1982), 66.
79. Carl Ogle, "Impact of War Brings Vast Changes in Miami,"
Daily News, 5 December 1943.
80. Herald, 6 December 1942, Welch Coll. MDPL; "Miamians
Get Millions in War Contracts," 25 March 1942, sec. B-1.
81. Herald, 11 June 1944.
82. Herald, 21 March 1943.
83. "Miami Industry Needs 10,000 More Workers," Herald, edi-
torial magazine, 1 August 1943.
84. Herald, 1 August 1943, sec. A-4; For other Seminole-related
stories, see Herald, 7 August 1943, sec. B-2; Fort Myers News-Press,
17 October 1943, 1.
85. "Miami's Prodigious War Effort," Herald, 4 March 1944;
Cronenberg, 24-25; Bob Lamme, "War in the Gulfstream," New River
News, XXV (Winter 1988-89), 3-10; Frederick C. Lane, Ships for Vic-
tory (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1951).


86. Jeanne Bellamy, "City's Life Transformed," Herald, Decem-
ber 1943, Welch coll. MDPL;
87. "Waterway Hums With New Activity," Herald, 22 January
1943; "Miami River Goes To War!" Herald, 22 August 1943, sec. B-1.
88. "War Touched Closer To Florida," Herald, 8 May 1945.
89. "Air Force Depot Largest Project In Miami's History Daily
News, 4 July 1943.
90. Herald, 14 May 1945; 1.
91. Chicago Daily News, 12 February 1944; "Miami #1 Port of
Entry By Air," Herald, 4 May 1945.
92. Daily News, 7 February 1943.
93. Time, 19 February 1940, 18.
94. Herald, 14 March 1942, 1.
95. Quoted in John Blum, V Was For Victory (New York: Harcourt
Brace Jovanovich, 1976), 16.
96. Ben F. Rogers, "Florida in World war II: Tourists and Cit-
rus," Florida Historical Quarterly 39 (July 1960), 34-35; Robert W.
Creamer, Baseball in '41 (New York: Penguin Books, 1991); "' Stay in
There and Pitch': F.D.R." Chicago Sun, 17 January 1941, 21.
97. "Welcome New York Giants and Philadelphia Phils," Herald,
7 March 1942, 11; 16 February 1941, see D, p. 1; "Giant Squad in as
Good Shape As Though Training in South." New York Post, 20 March
1943, 37.
98. Muir, Miami, U.S.A., 221.
99. New York Times, 20 January 1942, 29 March 1942; "Florida
at War," Life, 23 March 1942, 92-97.
100. Ibid., "Boom as Usual," Business Week, 15 January 1944,
20-24; Florida Highways, June 1942, 9.
101. Daily News, 9 April 1945.
102. Blum, 97.
103. Black Market Gas Smashed in Miami," Fort Myers News-
Press," 7 January 1943, 1; Florida Refugees," Time, 13 March 1944,
p. 13; Daily News, 4 March 1945; Herald, 25 May 1943, 6 June 1943;
"Final 'Refugee Special,' Loaded to Capacity," 1 April 1944, 1.
104. "Deserted Village," Daily News, 10 January 1943; New York
Post, 7 January 1943, 43; Herald, 9-10 January, 1943.
105. "Thoroughbreds Pay Two-thirds of Hialeah's Cost of Gov-
ernment,"Herald, 16 February 1941; C-1; Jack Bell, "The Town Crier,"
Herald, 6 March 1942, C-1.

Miami Goes to War 49

106. Eleventh Annual Report of the Florida State Racing Com-
mission for Fiscal Year Ending July 1, 1942, p. 6; Twelfth Annual
Report of the Florida State Racing Commission for Fiscal Year End-
ing June 30, 1943, p. 10.
107. "Stanley Frank Reports," New York Post, 11 January 1943.
108. "Race Revival," Herald, 1 January 1943; 25 January 1944;
"Florida Report," Time, 10 January 1944, p. 23; Blum, 97.
109. Hoover quote in St. Petersburg Times, 30 June 1991, sec. B-6.
110. Arcadia Arcadian quoted in the Ocala Evening Star, 25 No-
vember 1991, 2.
111. "City's Bookie Joints Running Wide Open," Herald, 9
June 1944; "Miami: Hot Spots Closed," Tampa Morning Tribune,
24 March 1944; "Pat Cannon Arrested in Bookie Raid," Herald, 15
March 1944, 1.
112. Herald, 1 January 1943.
113. "Florida Refugees," Time, 13 March 1944, p. 13; "Florida
Report," Time, 10 January 1944, 23.
114. Muir, Miami U.S.A., 221.
115. "Florida Refugees," Time, 13; "Florida Report," Time, 23;
Herald, 2 January 1944; 13 March 1944, sec. B-1; Jack Thale, "Mi-
ami Night Life Booms Bigger Than Ever," Herald 3 April 1944, 1.
116. "Florida at War," Life, 23 March 1942, 94.
117. Wylie, "War and Peace in Miami," 239.
118. Herald, 4 March 1944, 1.
119. Edward F. Keuchel, Florida: Enterprise Under the Sun
(Chatsworth, Cal.: Windsor Publications, 1990), 104.
120. Deborah Dash Moore, To The Golden Cities: Pursuing the
American Jewish Dream in Miami: and L.A. (New York: Free Press,
1994), 151-57; Letters, Mitchell Wolfson to Governor Spessard Hol-
land, 1942-45, Box 170, Service Men's Letters File, Spessard Holland
Papers, University of Florida.
121. Gary R. Mormino, "GI Joe Meets Jim Crow: Racial Vio-
lence and Reform in World War II Florida," Florida Historical Quar-
terly LXXIII (July 1994): 23-42.
122. Richard M. Dalfiume, Desegregation of the U.S. Armed
Forces: Fighting on Two Fronts, 1939-1953 (Columbia, Mo.: Univer-
sity of Missouri Press, 1969), Lee Finkle, Forum for Protest: The Black
Press During World War II (Rutherford, NJ: Farleigh Dickinson Uni-
versity Press, 1975.


123. Advertisements taken from Herald, 1 January 1943 and 17
June 1945; Daily News, 8 February 1942, sec. A-9.
124. Herald, 7 May 1985, sec. B-3; Alan M. Osur, Blacks in the
Army Air Forces During World War II (Washington, D.C.: Office of
Air Force History, 1977), 7, 20, 35-37, 42, 71.
125. "Detroit a Challenge," Herald, editorial, 23 June 1943; Her-
aid, 6 March 1944, 1.
126. Survey of Racial Conditions in the United States," Sec. 1,
FBI, Miami Field Report, Franklin Delano Roosevelt Library, Hyde
Park, New York.
127. State Defense Council, Subject Files, Box 57, "Secret Ra-
cial Disturbance Plan, District No. 5, Fourth Service Command for
Miami-Miami Beach, Florida, 1 August 1944, Florida State Archives.
128. "Race Police in Miami: Plea of Leaders," Pittsburgh Cou-
rier, 13 November 1943, 9 December 1943, 14; Jacksonville Looks at
Its Negro Community (Jacksonville: Southern Regional Council, Inc.
1945), 84; For background, see Paul S. George, "Policing Miami's
Black Community, 1896-1930," Florida Historical Quartrly LVII (April
1979), 434-450.
129. Herald, 26 April 1992, sec. B-2.
130. Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction
of the State ofFlorida 1940-41, 118-19; "Negro Teachers' Suit Opens
Today," Herald 4 March 1943; Gilbert L. Porter and Leedell W.
Neyland, History of the Florida State Teachers Association (Washing-
ton, D.C.: 1977).
131. "Negroes Test Beach Rights at Haulover," Herald, 10 May
1945; "Overtown," Herald, 25 February 1985.
132. "Pepper Ready to Fight Negro Vote In Primary," Herald, 5
April 1944, 1, 2.
133. Pittsburgh Courier, 11 August 1945, 5.
134. Quoted in Doris Weatherford, American Women and World
War II (New York: Facts on File, 1990), 128.
135. Daytona Beach Evening News, 5 October 1942, editorial.
136. "Greater Miami Hotels," Herald, 16 August 1943.
137. Herald, 1 April 1945.
138. Anderson, Julia s Daughters, p. 94. "Lady Lumberjacks Work
in Forests," Herald, 22 August 1943.
139. Daily News, 6 March 1942,6 June 1943, Welch Coll. MDPL;
Herald, 7 August 1943, sec. B. p. 1; Muir, 234;

Miami Goes to War 51

140. Jeanne Bellamy, "Ladies, Are Your Really Seeking War
Jobs?" Herald, 9 March 1942, B-1.
141. Herald, 2 January 1944.
142. Herald, 7 August 1943, sec. B-i.
143. Daily News, 21 January 1944, Welch Coll. MDPL.
144. Sixteenth Census of the United States: 1940 Population.
Vol. III. The Labor Force (Washington, D.C., U.S. Govt. Printing Of-
fice, 1943), 664-65; ScteLentiith Census of the United States: 1950.
Census of Population, vol. II, Characteristics of the Population, pt.
10, Florida (Washington, 1952), Table 76.
145. Judy B. Litoff & David C. Smith, We're in this War, Too
(New York: Oxford Press, 1994), 12, 29.
146. "Barry Students Discuss Possibility of Being Drafted in Pet-
ticoat Army," Herald, 1 March 1942, B-4.
147. Litoff and Smith, 29-30. Black women were finally allowed
to join the WAVES and SPARS in November 1944, 65.
148. Ruth Elsasser, "The First WAVE of Miami Beach," South
Florida History Magazine 23 (Summer 1994), 10-11.
149. Herald, 20 June 1943.
150. Herald, 20 June 1943.
151. Hoover quoted in "Khaki-Wacky 'Victory Girls,'" San Di-
ego Union, 30 May 1943.
152. "Divorce Pleas," Herald, 8 January 1944.
153. Herald, 1 January 1944.
154. "Official Cites High Rate of VD in Miami," Herald, 2 March
1944, sec. B. p. 1;
155. Muir, 233.
156. "Wanted Immediately: 500 Patriotic Women!" Herald, 8
march 1942, B-1.
157. "Women's News," Herald, 18 May 1943.
158. Anderson, 92; Kleinberg, Miami Beach, 143-44; Herald, 24
March 1942.
159. Herald, 15 August 1945.
160. Ibid.
161. Jack Bell, "A Woman's Sobs," Herald, 15 August 1945.
162. Philip Wylie, "True Greatness In Culture, Industry Seen If
Area Forsakes False Gods," Herald, 5 December 1943, 1.
163. Ibid., 11.
164. Ibid.
165. Ibid.

This Page Blank in Original
Source Document

Professional Nurses in Early

Miami, 1896-1925

by Christine Ardalan

From the time Miami was a frontier in the 1880s and 1890s, women
played decisive roles in the health care of both their families and their
community. The frontierswomen's practice of midwifery along with their
ability to cure and care with the limited available resources became the
foundation of women's involvement in health care during the era of
Miami's early growth. The decade following the founding of the new
city in 1896 brought many changes to Miami, including the beginnings
of institutionalized health care. Midwives who practiced outside the
realm of professional medicine were either controlled or discredited; in
the process, their voices have been lost. Likewise, the story of the trained
nurse, who worked within the realm of professionalized medicine, has
been overshadowed by the history of medicine in Miami.
Before Miami was chartered as a city in 1896, it was little more
than an outpost at the mouth of the Miami River. Two small commu-
nities, Lemon City to the north and Coconut Grove to the south, at-
tracted those seeking a frontier life. Miami author Helen Muir ex-
pounds upon the vital roles women played in curing and caring in the
frontier community:

If you got a toothache, you headed for Brickell's [trading
post at the mouth of the Miami River] and the toothache
drops never failed to ease the pain. Any other disability
was taken care of at home by your wife or mother. If she or
the rest of the women called into consultation could not
cure you, they loaded you on a sail boat and prayed for a
good wind to get you to Key West.'

Christine Ardalan is a Ph.D. student at Florida International University. After com-
pleting nursing school at King s College Hospital in London, England, she received
her State Registered Nurse certificate in 1970. At present she is researching "Black
Nurses and Midwives in Miami. "


Significantly, Muir alludes to a supportive network of women respon-
sible for the health care of the community. Thus, in the sparsely popu-
lated area, accessible only by boat, the residents of the area greatly
relied upon the women to keep them healthy.

A Doctor's Voice

In 1954, John DuPuis, a pioneer doctor who arrived in Miami in
1898, published a history of early medicine in Dade County. His book
is valuable because it is one of the few surviving primary records of
early medicine in South Florida. Contained in his account are both his
medical experiences as well as what he considered to be the medical
milestones occurring in the new frontier city. However, in spite of his
factual style and methodical documentation of early records, his his-
tory does not provide a holistic picture of the medical care in early
Miami. A consideration of nurses' perspectives, absent in his account,
would surely offer a more comprehensive medical history. So while the
history of medicine through doctors has been recorded in Miami, little
has been written about the history of nurses.
Although DuPuis admitted that physicians were "handicapped"
without the assistance of nurses, these "helpers" remained undeveloped,
unexplored figures in his account. Indeed, while DuPuis explicitly indi-
cated how he relied on nurses for their supportive roles in treating pa-
tients before there was a public hospital, he affords them only a cursory
mention in his history. DuPuis's history reflects the prevalent perspec-
tive of historians up to the 1960s; ordinary people were neglected in
place of famous names, places and events.
When DuPuis does mention nurses, it is often in condescending
fashion. For instance, in discussing his first forceps delivery, the first
procedure of that kind in Miami, he noted how a practical nurse, de-
scribed as an elderly white woman, was hired to take care of the house
and assist the doctor. However, she was unwilling to cooperate with the
new surgical intervention. Suddenly and quietly, the unnamed nurse
disappeared from the site. In DuPuis's eyes her stubbornness was a
reflection of her backwardness. He was exasperated that she did not
endorse this procedure. DuPuis records that, upon leaving, the nurse
remarked to nearby residents that "she did not believe in any such do-
ings as that doctor was going to do." The nurse obviously was not
comfortable in participating in a delivery she did not understand. While

Professional Nurses in Early Miami 55

Dr. DuPuis noted this particular instance, the voices of many nurses
who resisted medical advancements in favor of more traditional meth-
ods are lost to history forever.
Although the historical record here is silent, the act of resistance
by the anonymous nurse demonstrates a power that historian and theo-
rist Michel Foucault contends "comes from below . not [from] an
institution, and not a structure."2 Thus the historian is asked to con-
sider the power operating at different levels and to examine the silences
that can recreate nurses' roles. As historian Linda Kerber points out:

When we find silences we seek not simply to find still
voices, but to discern how it was possible to write history
from which women's voices have been excluded: when we
find spaces that seem empty, we ask how boundaries have
been imposed and maintained.3

Therefore, the nurse who disappeared at the first delivery is not to be
dismissed as irrelevant or erased from the pages of history. Her resis-
tance can tell another story, one that is not apparent when dominant
authoritative voices have documented the history. Examining the si-
lences allows women to be brought into the picture and shows how
institutionalized relations of inequality between women and men shaped
the development of this community, the lives of nurses, and the health
care profession in general.


Nurse Harley describes the City Hospital of Miami: "The first little hospital
was a low rambling, dingy, white frame structure on Biscayne Boulevard
facing a few fishing docks on the waterfront immediately east of the
Boulevard." Originally organized in 1908 as the Friendly Hospital, this
building became the City Hospital in 1911. The building on the left was
leased for additional beds and the annex on the right was added in 1910 as
an operating room. (Photograph from History of Early Medicine by Dr.
John DuPuis, Privately Published, 1954, p. 67)


History of Nursing in the United States

Nurses' perspective can be better appreciated if their stories in
Miami are placed within the context of nursing within the United States.
The crude and unstructured hospitals of the Civil War underscored the
need for organized nursing schools. Together with the American Medi-
cal Association (AMA),4 socially prominent women who had cared for
the wounded in the war supported the movement to train nurses. In the
1869 AMA meeting in New Orleans, it was proposed "that every large
and well-organized hospital should have a school for the training of
nurses."5 By 1873 three nurse training schools were organized: Bellevue
Training School in New York City, the Connecticut Training School in
New Haven, and the Boston Training School. These three schools were
initially based on the "Nightingale" model of a training school. Flo-
rence Nightingale developed the first organized training program for
nurses in London; her institution was independent from the hospital
and financed by the Nightingale fund.6 Thus the early nursing schools
were created independently of the hospitals.
Lack of endowment, however, caused nursing schools to become
absorbed by hospitals. Many hospitals soon realized that nursing schools
could be created to serve their own needs: "Nursing care became the
major product dispensed by the hospitals. The real function of the school
of nursing became not education but service."7 Not surprisingly, the
training schools proliferated, especially as there was not a standard of
admission or graduation. By 1879 there were 11 training schools; in
1900 the number had increased to 432, and in 1915, one year before
attempts were made to institute the first training school in Miami, there
were about 1,509 new schools in the United States.'
The beginning of an important era in nursing education began in
1893, the year of the World's Fair in Chicago. Ethel Bedford Fenwick,
who had founded the British Nurses Association in 1888, visited the
World's Fair to encourage American nursing leaders to organize into a
professional body. Fenwick wanted "her profession of nursing to be
brought into the same category, if not on level, with the medical profes-
sion."9 Subsequently, the American Society of Superintendents of Train-
ing Schools for Nursing was founded. The first task was to organize
standards of admission to the nursing schools. In 1896, the year that
Flagler's train opened up the new city of Miami to points north, the
Nurses' Associated Alumnae of the United States and Canada was

Professional Nurses in Early Miami 57

formed with the specific intention of securing legislation to differenti-
ate between the trained and untrained nurse.'0 In Florida, an act requir-
ing the state registration of Nurses was passed in 1913, making it "un-
lawful to practice professional nursing as a registered nurse without a
certificate."" A short time prior to the passing of this act, the first
meeting of all graduate nurses was held in 1912 in Dade County. DuPuis
lists sixteen charter members. During her tenure as superintendent of
the City Hospital in Miami, Lillah B. Harley insisted that new nurses
who came to Miami join the Association so that their credentials could
be verified.12
Piecing together the fragmented accounts and references to nursing
in early Miami opens, at least partially, a window into the professional
lives of some early nurses. For example, Mildred Hamilton appears in
many records but has never been recognized for her nursing accomplish-
ments. Willie May, the first nurse in charge of the Friendly Hospital (which
became the City Hospital, and later Jackson Memorial Hospital) offers a
perspective on the dichotomy between the doctor and nurse relationship.
An oral history from the descendants of Ida and Clara Vihilen illustrates
how they were able to combine their domestic responsibilities with their
nursing work. Certainly the reconstruction of the lives of a few named
nurses improves upon the collective identity of the nurses who were vi-
tally important to the containment of the yellow fever epidemic of 1899-
1900, However, without their own
voices, their own perspectives or
their own language, the historical

to be a nurse in early Miami?

A Nurse's Voice

Lillah B. Harley provides the
answer to this question. Harley be-
gan nursing at the City Hospital in
late 1913, became the superinten- -
Sand maintained Miss Willie May (right) and Miss
dent in June 1916, and maintained
Cantlin sitting on the steps of the
that position until 1920. She re- City Hospital, ca. 1911. (Courtesy
corded her memories of the early Dr. William M. Straight)


hospital to the secretary of the nursing school in 1950. The intention was
for her to trace the history of the early City Hospital. However, in her
recollections, she documented much more than the medical milestones of
the early City Hospital; not surprisingly, she revealed a great deal about
herself. Nursing was her life, her love and her family.
Harley's love of nursing and her doting respect for doctors was
evident in her description of the early City Hospital. Her very wording
conveyed the gratification of her profession.

The first little hospital was a low rambling, dingy, white
frame structure on Biscayne Boulevard facing a few fishing
docks on the waterfront immediately east of the Boulevard.
I can see it now and feel again the thrill of satisfaction which
came when a patient from a fishing boat was resuscitated
on the front porch, as many were in emergencies.13

The hospital elicited warm memories in Harley: "I have an abiding
affection for that first hospital, and also for the improved buildings to
which we later moved, as they were in every sense my home." Harley's
life revolved around the hospital as she "assumed the operating respon-
sibilities ... under the direction of Dr. John L. North." Harley had the
utmost respect for Dr. North.

[Dr. North's] life was one of love and charity and consid-
eration for the weak, and suffering. He was respected uni-
versally for these humane qualities and was also held in
the highest esteem by his colleagues as a man of rare abil-
ity in diagnosis and treatment.14

Thus, Harley turned for support and guidance to Dr. North and Dr.
Sayle "whose daily visits were like benedictions.""5 Harley, in fact, be-
came the symbolic mother caring for her symbolic children under the
guidance of the patriarch symbol.

In my training as a nurse I had learned to work hard -
even to the point of drudgery at times. I later put this into
practice at the City Hospital sometimes I worked all day
after having been up all night, as one would do for her
own family.'6

Professional Nurses in Early Miami 59

Harley's selfless commitment to hard work was a quality attrib-
uted to the ideal nurse in popular journals of the time. A 1915 article in
Good Housekeeping, "Your Daughter's Career," promoted and reaf-
firmed the essential qualities deemed necessary for nursing:

Unless she has the fundamental qualities physical, intel-
lectual, and spiritual which will be demanding day in
and day out, she might as well weed herself out before the
ruthless process of life does that weeding for her. .. The
self forgetting which others' suffering enforce is more pow-
erful remedy than any medicine yet compounded.17

True to the article, Harley was not self-serving; rather, she ac-
knowledged the industrious efforts of her staff at the City Hospital,
"those who worked with me and under me were equally self-sacrificing
in time and attention.""8 However, she does not mention the details or
even the names of any of the women workers in her accounts. Just as
women like herself were deemed "unimportant" in written histories, it
seems women were not important in her history, either.

The staff employed at the city hospital consisted of a gradu-
ate nurse for night duty, a combination cook and maid, an
orderly and myself, special nurses being called in when
necessary. As the hospital census increased, a practical
nurse was employed who had been a former patient.19

The doctors' names, however, were en-
graved in her memory. In addition to Dr. North
and Dr. C. F. Sayle, she recalled that "Dr. E.
K. Jaudon, County Physician .. comes to
mind. Dr. Jaudon was never too weary to call
on the sick poor."20 By specifying the doctors,
but merging the women together in her
memory, Harley is indirectly revealing the
power imbalance.
However, there was one nurse that Harley
specified, only because it was unusual for a
man to perform nursing duties. Thus, George
Atherton, the "first orderly and male nurse,"


Mrs. F. Stone at the
City Hospital, 1920.
(Courtesy Dr. William
M. Straight)


received more recognition than his female counterparts combined. Harley
recalled that Atherton

[W]as a Princeton man with a license to practice law, but
he remained with us always ready for an emergency day or
night. .. During his early life he had served in the Navy
and following his discharge worked for several years as a
nurse in Massachusetts's General Hospital. We were for-
tunate back in 1916 to have the advantage of his broad
experience at a small cost.21

When Atherton joined the City Hospital staff, he was not subject
to the same societal pressures and expectations as female nurses. The
most notable difference was his marital status; he was married and had
children. In fact, Harley revealed that "he used my car to go back and
forth from home, for his wife and children lived so far from the hospital
that otherwise he would not have been easily available."22
Indeed, Harley provided for the hospital as if she were working for
her own family. She needed two five-passenger Ford cars for transporta-
tion of everyday materials and people to and from the hospital. Whereas
the city fathers furnished the gasoline, she bought the cars and funded
many supplies from her own salary! She accomplished this feat by buy-
ing on her own credit; she noted that "since my salary was small, pur-
chases were made on the installment plan.""23 Furthermore, until the Board

The City Hospital moved to this buidling in 1917, which eventually
became Jackson Memorial Hospital. (HASF, Matlack Collection C35)

Professional Nurses in Early Miami 61

of Trustees was established, the city council sometimes neglected to ap-
propriate money for such everyday items as food. Harley "went food
shopping and often [the hospital] had no credit. So sometimes [even the]
hospital food came out of her own pocket."24 Ainah Royce, who took
Harley's place as superintendent, recalled that "Miss Harley did the cook-
ing too, when she'd wake up and find no cooks in the kitchen."25 Harley,
however, considered these contributions not as a burden, but as part of
her duty as a nurse.

It was a pleasure for me to spend all I earned to run the
hospital (my home) as efficiently as I had knowledge to
do. All my salary was spent on hospital management maga-
zines, nursing magazines, books, [and] two vitrolas, one
each for nurse and patients.26

Harley evidently kept pace with the growing institutionalization
of nursing because she noted that "doctors and nurses were flocking to
the city, [and she] recognized the need for securing proper nursing cre-
dentials."27 She insisted that new nurses join the Dade County Nurses
Association so that their credentials could be checked. All the while she
still considered the hospital to be her family. She worked at the hospital
for more than six years, spending the first four without a vacation. In
fact, Harley's first leave from the hospital was prompted by her sick-
ness at the time of the great influenza epidemic of 1918.
In that year the City Hospital also had to cope with the impact of
World War I. Harley remembers how Miami was affected with this
national crisis:

During World War I the hospital had a contract with the
Federal Government to admit and care for all acute cases
that could not be sent to the Marine Hospital in Key West.
The hospital staff consisted of one registered nurse on duty
besides myself with many private citizens. Mrs. Anna L.
Andrus, suffrage worker and W.C.T.U. [Women's Chris-
tian Temperance Union] member volunteered and help with

While nurses like Marie Jackson, RN, had left the operating room to
join the Red Cross for war duty, women in the community volunteered


to help with the nursing in the hospital. World War 1 also affected the
actual building of the new hospital. With a shortage of both building
material and skilled labor, the construction of the new City Hospital
was delayed.29 Eventually, the new hospital was opened on June 25,
1918, during the great influenza epidemic. Nonetheless, Harley was
proud to be appointed superintendent of this newly constructed City
Hospital: "To me that was a happy day which I cherish."30
Even before the new hospital was constructed, Harley had at-
tempted to start the first nursing school in Miami at the old City Hos-
pital in 1916.3' With an initial class of six nursing students, Harley
recalled that by 1918, "we had six to ten student nurses on duty at
small pay." The "small pay" of the first student nurses was expected,
substantiating the notion that student nurses were a source of cheap
labor. Under the guidance of Dr. North and Dr. Sayle, the school "as
an organization was taking form."32 Nationally, early nurse leaders
rallied against this input from the doctors. Lavinia Dock, a national
radical nurse leader, argued that working with physicians and admin-
istrators on joint committees would not give nurses autonomy.33 By
seeking male approval rather than liberation, she believed nurses would
remain in subordinated positions. Miami's new nursing school, like
those nationwide, did not heed her warning. The school was incorpo-
rated on January 8, 1919.34 While Drs. Sayle and North taught sub-
jects required by state boards, Harley taught nursing principles and
ethics. What had once been learned and shared through experience
was now formally taught.
From the start, this first nursing school experienced several prob-
lems. Ainah Royce, who replaced Harley as Superintendent of the hos-
pital, recounted:

The type of applicant lacked the necessary requirements;
it was difficult to interest the doctors in teaching; and [in]
supporting the plan; and finally the setting up of forms
and records as required by the State Board of [Nurse] Ex-
aminers and maintaining same was more than could be
done. So the effort failed.35

There were problems not only with the nursing school but also in the
organization of the hospital, which had to conform to the regulations
set by the American Hospital Association and the American College of
Surgeons. In 1920, Mayor William P. Smith appointed a Board of Trust-

Professional Nurses in Early Miami 63

ees, comprised of "men and women [who] were representative of the
best in business and social life of the City, and they took a very active
interest in all Hospital affairs."36 In 1920, Miss Francis Stone, a well
known hospital organizer and a graduate of the Presbyterian Hospital
of New York, was hired for two months to reorganize the hospital.37
One of her recommendations was to "junk all the buildings and move
nearer town."38
In recollecting her final days at the hospital, Harley matter-of-
factly states: "In March, 1920, I resigned from the hospital and Miss
Ainah Royce was secured after my departure.""39 One can only specu-
late how she felt when she left her "family." Certainly, her memory was
colored with nostalgia at the time of her interview, Jackson Memorial
Hospital had, of course, grown significantly. Harley commented, "Surely
this hospital, with its magnificent outlay, could never look back to the
time when nurses held umbrellas over hospitals beds to protect patients
against rain dripping through the roof." The poignancy lies in the fact
that she did not see the nurses' contribution as significant: she attrib-
uted changes in her "old home .. [the] modem discoveries or meth-
ods," indeed, the growth of the hospital, to "the men whose labors have
made the present possible."40

It is only by listening to the actual voice of Lillah Harley that the
historian can begin to understand the intrinsic subtleties of early nurs-
ing in Miami. A description of famous people or important buildings
could not possibly capture this nurse's love for her profession or her
admiration for the doctors. Indeed, it is clear from her own voice that
she contributed to her own
marginalization. While she played
an essential role in the history of
the hospital, to Harley it was "the 1
men whose labors have made the
present possible" while "doctors'
daily visits were like benedictions."
Ironically, she was given a voice,
but by chance she voiced how she
was really marginalized.

Lillah B. Harley, October 1964.
(Courtesy Dr. William M. Straight)



1. Helen Muir, Miami USA (Miami: The Pickering Press, 1953),
2. The very ill were sometimes taken to Key West by boat, a thriving
town (well known as a wrecking center) with established doctors as
early as 1829.
2. Michael Foucault, The History of Sexuality (New York: Vin-
tage, 1990), 94.
3. Linda Kerber, Alice Kessler-Harris and Kathryn Kish Sklar,
eds., U.S. History as Women 's History (Chapel Hill: University of North
Carolina Press, 1995), 7.
4. The American Medical Association (AMA) was founded in
1848 to set enforceable standards for regular practice. The AMA urged
states to pass a law for licensing doctors. Florida's was passed in 1889.
The Acts and Resolutions Adopted by the Legislature of Florida, 1889
(Tallahassee: Bowen, 1889), 113.
5. Patricia M. Donahue, Nursing: The FinestArt (St. Louis, MO:
Mosby, 1983), 308.
6. Florence Nightingale was lionized as the compassionate nurse
who, in the hour of the soldiers' desperate need, brought relief to the
men involved in the Crimean War in southern Russia (1854-56), a con-
flict pitting England and France against Russia. Her experience at Crimea
empowered her to do more for humanity. She was an intellectual, edu-
cated, well traveled and accomplished member of the upper class, who
not only elevated the status of the nurse and the soldier, but also pro-
moted reforms in the army, public health nursing and sanitation of In-
dia. Nightingale scholars Martha Vicinus and Bea Nergard describe
her as the "engine that drove the machinery of sanitation." Her status
enabled her to work through a great many people to achieve her goals,
even though after the Crimean War she spent the rest of her life as an
invalid. Martha Vicinus and Bea Nergard, eds., Ever Yours: Florence
Nightingale Selected Letters (Cambridge: Harvard University Press,
1989), 10.
7. Donahue, Nursing: The Finest Art, 319.
8. Darlene Clark Hine, Black Women in White Racial Conflict
and Cooperation in the Nursing Profession (Bloomington: Indiana
University Press, 1989), 197.
9. Nurse historian Gerald Bowman noted that there was conflict
between Fenwick and Nightingale's philosophy for training nurses.

Professional Nurses in Early Miami 65

Fenwick wanted only registered nurses to be allowed to practice but
Nightingale believed that requirement would preclude over 40,000 nurses
already in practice. Nightingale further asserted that to place nursing
on an equal level with medicine would seriously damage the profession.
Gerald Bowman, The Lamp and the Book: The Story of the R. C.N.
[Royal College of Nurses] 1916-1966 (London: Queen Ann Press,
1967), 4.
10. The successor of the Nurses' Associated Alumnae of the United
States became the American Nurses' Association in 1911.
11. Laws of the State of Florida adopted by the Legislature of
Florida 1913 (Tallahassee: Appleyard, 1913), 313.
12. Lillah B. Harley, "Miami City Hospital Its Early History,"
as told to Susan Burkhardt, March 30, 1950. Manuscript in the Ar-
chives of Jackson Memorial Hospital, School of Nursing.
13. Ibid., 1.
14. Ibid., 2.
15. Ibid., 4.
16. Ibid., 3 (emphasis added by the author).
17. Sarah Comstock, "Your Daughter's Career," Good House-
keeping 61 (December 1915): 731, 736.
18. Harley, 3.
19. Ibid., 2.
20. Ibid., 3.
21. Al Pagel, "It Started in a Livery Stable," Miami Herald, 6
August 1967, p.5.
22. Harley, 5.
23. Ibid., 3.
24. Jean Voltz, "Supervising Hospital Here in 1920 as a Difficult
Job," Miami Herald, 26 April 1953, p. 13-F.
25. Ibid.
26. Harley, 3.
27. Ibid., 3.
28. Harley, 6.
29. Dr. William M. Straight, "Jackson Memorial Hospital: A Half
Century of Community Service," Journal of the Florida Medical As-
sociation 54 (August 1967): 788.
30. Harley, 4.
31. Straight, 788.
32. Harley, 4.


33. Lavinia Dock (1858-1956) worked relentlessly for the women's
vote. She also worked with Lillian Wald at the Henry Street settlement
house in New York. She was outspoken, and shocked many people when
she wrote about venereal disease in the Hygiene and Morality journal
(1910). A prolific author, she wrote many articles and a four volume
History of Nursing. For biographical information on Dock see Patricia
M. Donahue, Nursing: The Finest Art (St. Louis: Mosby, 1983), 357.
34. Harley notes that the incorporation is recorded in the Dade
County Court House in Book 22, page 285.
35. Ainah Royce to Miss Richel, "Reminiscences," 1954, Manu-
script in the Archives of Jackson Memorial Hospital, School of Nurs-
ing, 6.
36. Ibid.
37. Untitled, Archives of Jackson Memorial Hospital, School of
38. Voltz, p. 13-F.
39. Harley, 7.
40. Ibid.

Dr. William B. Sawyer of Colored Town

by Dr. Roderick Waters

Dr. William B. Sawyer was born November 23, 1886, in Waldo,
Florida, a small community about fifteen miles northeast of Gainesville.
Little is known about his parents except that they were from South Caro-
lina. While working as a water boy at Waldo's train depot, a misunder-
standing resulted in a fight with a white youth. Although Sawyer won the
fight, his parents, fearing that whites would seek retaliation in a commu-
nity not unlike thousands of others in the region with their rampant rac-
ism as manifested in a system of Jim Crowism or racial segregation, put
their son on the next train out of town. Details of Sawyer's years after
leaving Waldo and before enrolling in college are unknown.'
He began his undergraduate college education at Edward Waters
College in Jacksonville and then transferred to Atlanta University. While
attending Atlanta University, Sawyer earned money to finance his edu-
cation by cooking breakfast and firing the furnace for notable scholar
W. E. B. DuBois. DuBois, serving as a mentor to Sawyer, encouraged
him to attain the highest personal goals in life. Obviously, Sawyer heeded
Dubois's advice for after graduating from Atlanta University, he en-
rolled in the Meharry Medical School in Nashville, Tennessee, the lead-
ing predominantly African-American medical school in the nation at
the turn of the century.2
To earn money for his tuition at Meharry, Sawyer rose early in the
morning and fired the furnaces "for the wealthy white students at
Vanderbilt" so they could "awaken in warm dormitory rooms and get
ready for their classes." Sawyer also augmented his academic training
by enrolling in preparatory literary courses prior to matriculating at
Meharry. Nevertheless, he graduated with honors in 1908, the youngest
student in a class of one hundred seven.

Dr Roderick Dion Waters is Assistant Professor of History and Area Coordinator
of Social Science Education at Bethune-Cookman College in Daytona Beach, Florida.


After graduation, Dr. Sawyer moved to Miami, settled in Colored
Town, and established his practice in a three-room office.3 Established
soon after the incorporation of the City of Miami in 1896, Colored
Town was a segregated quarter for African-Americans lying in the north-
west sector of the young community. Like other segregated communi-
ties in the south, it lacked many of the services and amenities of Miami's
dominant white section.
African-Americans had resided in the Miami area since the
early 1800s, when two slave plantations arose, at different times,
along the banks of the Miami River. In the late 1800s, many black
Bahamians who left their islands with their faltering economies for
Coconut Grove and the prospect of new economic opportunities.
Their growing presence led to the establishment of a sizable community
sometimes called Kebo.4
While black Coconut Grove or Kebo was developing, Henry M.
Flagler, a wealthy developer and oilman, had decided to extend his
Florida East Coast Railway to the Miami River five miles to the north,
lay out a city on that site, and build a grand hotel framed by the
waters of the river and Biscayne Bay. On March 3, 1896, twelve Af-
rican-American men accompanied John and E. G. Sewell, brothers
who hailed from Hartwell, Georgia, to Miami to begin construction.
They "landed at the dock at Avenue D, now Miami Avenue." The
head of Sewell's crew, an African-American named A. W. Brown,
"threw the first shovel of dirt to begin [construction of the] Royal
Palm Hotel." Flagler's railroad endeavors resulted in a building boom
which attracted many African-American men to the Miami area seek-
ing to improve their lot in life.5
African-Americans were instrumental in the incorporation as well
as the construction of Miami. On July 28, 1896, there were 424 regis-
tered voters in the territory, 181 of whom were African-American. Two
thirds of the registered voters were required to vote on the question of
incorporation. The required number was met and of the 344 votes cast,
162 were cast by African-Americans, who were also were instrumental
in determining the winners in Miami's first municipal elections. The
enfranchisement of African-Americans in Miami was short-lived and
the same mentality which resulted in disfranchisement also made it vir-
tually impossible for African-Americans to live anywhere in Miami
save Colored Town.6
Miami and south Florida grew rapidly following incorporation.
The city and area's growth and potential attracted many Bahamians,

Dr. William B. Sawyer of Colored Town 69

who, as before, came primarily for economic opportunities. Baha-
mian historian Paul Albury explained that the exodus of his country-
men was spurred by the widely-held belief that: ". . wonderful things
were going on in Miami, and there was a great demand for labour
there. Flagler's railroad was bringing in Northerners by the thousands,
all anxious to stake a claim in southern Florida with its gentle cli-
mate. A remarkable building boom was on, and any Bahamian who
wanted a job could find it."7
Between 1900 and 1920, ten to twelve thousand Bahamians, ap-
proximately twenty per cent of that country's population, immigrated
to Florida. The Anglo-Bahamian culture was clearly evident in Col-
ored Town; British holidays such as Guy Fawkes Day were celebrated
there in recognition of this Bahamian presence. W. P. A. writers claimed
that West Indian customs were predominant in Miami's African-Ameri-
can neighborhoods, especially in terms of dress, customs, and reli-
gious practices.
Colored Town's population rose rapidly due to the large Baha-
mian, and to a lesser degree Jamaican and Haitian immigration, coupled
with a high birth rate. Although Colored Town at times contained at
least twenty-five percent of Miami's population, it did not receive its
fair proportion of city improvements. The quarter possessed inadequate
streets, drainage and sewage collection, and lacked fresh water. This
and the quarter's overall impoverishment contributed to epidemics of
yellow fever, influenza, small pox and venereal diseases. Although the
birth rate was high in Colored Town, its infant mortality rate, twice that
of white Miami, was higher still.9
Dr. Sawyer, among the first African-American physicians in Mi-
ami, was a welcomed addition to Colored Town. (Despite popular be-
lief, he was not the first African-American physician in Dade County.)
Dr. Sawyer was quite committed to his work and made tireless efforts
to enhance his medical expertise. To remain current on the latest medi-
cal advances, he continued to study medicine, earning post-graduate
certificates from, among other places, Frederick Douglass Hospital in
Philadelphia and Providence Hospital in Chicago. Among other ac-
complishments, Dr. Sawyer became a well known surgeon in Miami.10
In 1910 Dr. Sawyer married Alberta Preston. How and where
they met and fell in love is unknown. According to Gwendolyn Saw-
yer Cherry, their daughter, her parents made their wedding plans in
1910 as Alberta was returning to Benedict College in Columbia, South
Carolina. Alberta and William Sawyer both boarded the train in West


Palm Beach. Exactly what transpired between West Palm Beach and
Ft. Pierce is unclear, but when they reached the latter city, they left
the train station and were married. After the ceremony, Dr. Sawyer
threatened to remove his medical practice to California if Alberta re-
turned to college. Yielding to his threat, the new bride returned to
Miami with her husband."
Dr. Sawyer and Dr. S. M. Fraizer, the only other local African-
American physician in Miami at the time, were extremely busy. Sawyer's
practice included house calls from West Palm Beach to Homestead "in
an area of more than 100 miles." Over the years, Sawyer's mode of
transportation to make his medical visits included a bicycle, a mule
named Nellie, a horse and buggy, and automobiles of various models.12
Drs. Sawyer and Fraizer were constantly frustrated by their lack
of support and the absence of a hospital in which to treat their patients.
They were compelled to take patients in need of major surgery to Meharry
College in Nashville, Tennessee, for the operation. One of Sawyer's
personal goals was to build an adequate hospital facility for Miami's
white and African-American communities." In an 1948 interview, Dr.
Sawyer told of how and why this goal was obtained:

During those early days there were no hospitals available
for Negro patients in this area.... A committee was formed
. to organize the effort and find a solution. A white
wealthy visitor, a Mrs. Cross, became interested and im-
pressed by the committee's plan and she raised $5,000 from
her friends. In addition the committee raised $4,000 of its
own and the $9,000 was given to the building of [City

After City Hospital was erected, hospital director Dr. James Jack-
son not only permitted African-Americans patients to be treated at the
hospital, but allowed them to choose black physicians to treat them.
African-American doctors were also permitted to intern there. How-
ever, after Jackson's death in 1924, black physicians were no longer
allowed to treat patients in the hospital.15
Sawyer and the committee realized that their "next move was to
make arrangements for an all Negro hospital and thus the idea of the
Christian hospital first came to light." Financing the hospital was fa-
cilitated by a "substantial contribution" from a white donor, Clarence
Bush. Lots on which to build the hospital were purchased in 1920 and

Dr. William B. Sawyer of Colored Town 71

construction of the hospital building began soon after. Thus "the first
unit of the all Negro hospital was started." Dr. Sawyer became chair-
man of the board of Christian Hospital, a position he held for almost
three decades. Clara Taylor of Dunnellon, Florida, became the hospital's
first supervisory nurse.16
Christian Hospital experienced difficulty in its early years. In 1924
it was destroyed by fire, but a new building was erected which con-
tained eighteen more beds than the original. Moreover, many people
feared that they would receive inferior treatment at a small African-
American owned hospital, causing them to stay away. Eventually the
handicaps "of a poorly equipped and privately sustained hospital" and
the "natural doubt and reluctance" of the African-American commu-
nity as to the quality of medical treatment and hospital service were
overcome by qualified and dedicated physicians. One feat that enhanced
the hospital's reputation was that in a span of ninety days in late 1932,
its physicians "performed seven successful major operations."17
Dr. Sawyer was involved in medical endeavors other than those
with his private practice or as director of Christian Hospital. He served
as a Dade County Public Health physician for fifteen years and he
"worked closely" with the University of Miami in an unsuccessful at-
tempt to establish an African-American medical school.1

The Mary Elizabeth Hotel in Overtown, 1981. Built in 1921, the Mary
Elizabeth was an integral hub of Colored Town's festive night life. (HASF,
Miami News Collection, 1989-011-7550)


Dr. Sawyer's pioneer activities also included several significant
contributions to Colored Town's business and social scene. In 1921, he
built the Mary Elizabeth Hotel, which was operated by his wife. Alberta
Sawyer was a businesswoman at a time when such vocations for women
were exceptional. The hotel was named after their first child, Mary
Elizabeth, who had died in infancy.19
According to the Miami Times, the Mary Elizabeth with three
floors was the tallest building in Colored Town. The ninety-room hotel
was located on the comer of Northwest Second Avenue and Seventh
Street and was considered quite "up-to-date" with "elevator service and
an inter-communication system" connecting the rooms to the desk clerk
in the lobby. Private bathroom facilities were available for thirty-seven
of the rooms and there was a "penthouse and a beautiful roof garden"
for all the visitors to enjoy.20 The Mary Elizabeth was a favorite retreat
for dignitaries. Sawyer renewed acquaintances with his former mentor,
W. E. B. DuBois, who stayed there "on his way to and from confer-
ences in the West Indies." Mary McLeod Bethune, a close friend of the
Sawyers, and whose son Burt managed Sawyer's hotel-based drug store
for many years, stopped at the hotel frequently. Other dignitaries who
stayed at the hotel included A. Phillip Randolph, Thurgood Marshall,
and Adam Clayton Powell.21
The hotel boasted of hosting a large number of Latin-American
visitors.22 On at least one occasion, the Mary Elizabeth Hotel hosted
the Miss Latin-America beauty pageant. On July 23, 1950, the Latin-
American Club sponsored the event, which was held in the hotel's pa-
tio. Representatives of many Latin-Americans countries as well as nu-
merous guests from the United States attended the beauty contest where
Monica Major of Puerto Rico was crowned Miss Latin-America.23
Although many white Miamians thought of Colored Town only
"in a criminal context or during periods of unrest," the community had
"a bustling black business community ... [and] variety of entertain-
ment." The business and entertainment establishments were located on
a segment of Northwest Second Avenue between Sixth and Tenth Streets
known as "The Strip" or "Little Broadway."24 The Mary Elizabeth was
an integral hub of Colored Town's festive night life. Historian Paul S.
George wrote of the active social scene of Colored Town:

Northwest Second Avenue acquired fame for . enter-
tainment. The syncopated sounds of jazz and the blues

Dr. William B. Sawyer of Colored Town 73

issued nightly from its nightclubs and dance halls. North-
west Second Avenue also contained the Lyric, a legitimate
theater and several movie houses as well as its own trolley
car line. The strip's rich entertainment accounted for a
new sobriquet, "Little Broadway," and a growing national
reputation. In the 1930s its clubs presented such stars as
Marian Anderson, Bessie Smith, Hazel Scott, and Nat
"King" Cole.25

The reason so many renowned African-Americans, such as Ander-
son and Smith, lodged in Colored Town with such frequency was that
while they performed in the great hotels on Miami Beach, they could
not stay in these hostelries because of racial segregation, which forced
them, regardless of status, to seek lodging in the African-American
sections of cities and towns. After their last shows, these entertainers
journeyed to Colored Town's hotels and nightclubs, often holding all-
night jam sessions for their African-American audiences. The two
lounges of the Mary Elizabeth, the Flamingo Room and the Zebra Lounge
(so named because of its black-and-white motif), were among the fa-
vorite stops for entertainers. Ironically, the oppressive acts of racial
segregation made "little Broadway" an economically vibrant section of
Colored Town.26
Because of Sawyer's status in the community, it was inevitable
that he would become a spokesperson for Colored Town. In 1932,
when black Miamians were unsuccessful in their attempt to vote in
white primaries, the NAACP wrote Sawyer to canvass his opinion as
well as those of other prominent civic leaders about their personal
battles to vote.27
Another example of Sawyer's civic prominence was illustrated
when he became part of a peaceful effort to secure a portion of Virginia
Key in Biscayne Bay for a black beach in 1945. His daughter, Gwendolyn
Sawyer Cherry, provided an account of how this development:

I remember very vividly how Virginia Beach was first
opened for our use, before blacks had no safe place to go
swimming in Miami. One day a group of blacks decided
to go swimming along with the other swimmers on Miami
Beach. This created pandemonium. I remember Jack Bell,
from the local newspaper (he was called the town crier)
coming to daddy's office where they talked about the situ-


ation. Later a group of well intentioned, white citizens
came over to daddy's with the astonishing information that
we were going to be allowed to use Virginia Key for bath-
ing in the surf. The only catch was there was not [a] way
to get to it. . However, this was eventually solved by
[use of] a ferry boat.28

Virginia Beach offered cabins for rent, "picnic tables, barbecue
pits, pavilions for dancing and places to buy ... hot dogs hamburgers
and peanuts."29
Sawyer's influence in civic affairs even affected the lives of those
affiliated with Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, at the
time the only state-supported college for African-Americans. The Or-
ange Blossom Classic was a football game that this institution, whose
nickname was the Rattlers, hosted in December. This game often deter-
mined the National Black College Chmpionship. From 1933 to 1946,
Jacksonville and Tampa were home for the Classic. In 1947, the Clas-
sic headed south to Miami.30
The Orange Blossom Classic brought a strong festive atmosphere
to an already vibrant Colored Town as well as to other portions of

The Florida A&M University marching band in the Orange Blossom
Classic Parade, 1972, in Downtown Miami. (HASF, Miami News
Collection, 1989-011-12043)

Dr. William B. Sawyer of Colored Town 75

Miami. The classic was akin to "a grand homecoming or a large family
gathering with all the festivities planned to go along with it." There
were two parades in honor of the Classic. One was held downtown on
Flagler Street on the day before the game, and the second took place on
the following day in Colored Town on Second and Third Avenues. At
the Colored Town parade, proud African-Americans "showed off their
convertibles in the high noon day parade." Gwendolyn Cherry recalled
how "both Second and Third Avenue[s] were lined with people ....
Visiting couples strolled casually down the street, happy, carefree ...
looking forward to enjoying themselves for the remainder of their stay."
One way in which Florida A & M alumni, or Famcians, displayed their
college pride was to wear their college colors orange and green. Lodging
for the African-American visitors was a simple matter for "hospitality
was open to all. No matter how humble, homes were open to share what
they had with friends and visitors alike."31
The Miami-hosted Classic was such a huge success that the city
became its permanent home. The Classic was great for the business
sector of Colored Town, including the Sawyers, who did their best to
accommodate the crowds that the activities associated with the Classic
generated. By 1948, the second year the Classic was held in Miami, the
Mary Elizabeth Hotel had added a large dormitory room "especially to
accommodate the visiting athletic teams." In that year, both the Rat-
tlers and the Virginia Union Tigers were housed in the dormitory. The
hotel also served as a ticket outlet for the Classic.32
Besides upgrading the hotel for the Classic's guests, the Sawyers
made sure that their hotel was up-to-date in every way possible. Sawyer's
son, William (Bill) Jr., who, by the late forties, became owner of the
hotel, had installed "a first class cafeteria." He believed that "no ex-
penses should be spared in making" the hotel the best it could be. The
elder Sawyer echoed his son's sentiments when he asked "why our people
should not be able to enjoy the best of everything?"33
Dr. Sawyer's business and civic influence extended beyond the
boundaries of Colored Town. In November 1949, Sawyer began a half
million dollar housing project, Alberta Heights, named in honor of his
wife, in the Brown subdivision, (later renamed Brownsville by the resi-
dents) another African-American community located in northwest Mi-
ami. This subdivision was bounded by N.W. 27th Avenue on the east,
N.W. 37 Avenue on the west, N.W. 54th Street on the north and N. W.
41 st Street on the south. According to the Miami Times, Alberta Heights
was to have 80 units, including 64 one-bedroom and 16 two-bedroom


apartments. In 1950, the Miami Times reported that the construction of
Alberta Heights was almost complete and that Dr. Sawyer was the "only
colored man we know of to build such a project in the South."34
Dr. Sawyer's tireless efforts to improve the quality of life for Af-
rican-Americans led the Miami Times to name him outstanding citizen
in January 1950. It was one of the last times Dr. Sawyer's community
would have the opportunity to recognize his achievements while he was
alive. On July 29, 1950, the aging physician entered Jackson Memorial
Hospital at 3:00 A.M. after "he felt [a heart] attack coming on," He was
unable to overcome his illness and died 8:30 P.M. the same day at the
age of sixty-three.35
Prior to the funeral, "hundreds of men and women from all over
Dade County viewed his body as it lay in state in the upstairs lobby of
the hotel." The funeral was held in Bethel A. M. E. Church, which
counted Dr. Sawyer as a member. The spacious church was barely
able to accommodate the large numbers of dignitaries and common
citizens who came to pay their final respects. After the funeral, Dr.
Sawyer's body was sent to West Palm Beach to be buried in the
Sawyer's family plot.36
Dr. Sawyer's daughter, Gwendolyn, gave this tribute to her fa-
ther, which illustrates his close relationship with her:

He was my friend, my pal, my father, and my confidant. We
were happiest when we were together. We dearly loved one
another and spent as much time together as possible. Daddy
built a hotel, a housing project and a hospital during diffi-
cult times. If I am able to do half as much, I'll be happy.37

Cherry's father was a great role model
for his intelligent and ambitious daughter.
He worked hard, was successful and he gave
back to the community. Sawyer's popular-
4 'l < ity, philanthropy, and wide circle of friends
Helped Gwendolyn Cherry become the first
African-American woman elected to the
SFlorida legislature in 1970 twenty years
after his death. Her district included Colored
Gwendolyn S. Cherry. Town, presently known as Overtown, the
(HASF 1977-171-1) neighborhood Dr. Sawyer helped develop.

Dr. William B. Sawyer of Colored Town 77


1. Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910, Population,
Florida, Dade County, Miami, April 21, 1910, Enumeration District
55, Sheet 12-B, Line 353; Kelsey Leroy Pharr, "Colored Town Section
of the City of Miami is a Thriving Community," Miami Metropolis,
October 16, 1915, 46; Gwendolyn Cherry, "Mother and Me ... Christ-
mas 1974," Miami Times, January 9, 1975, 6; Charles C. North,
"Miamians Mourn the Passing of Dr. W. B. Sawyer," Miami Times,
August 5, 1950, 2.
2. William B. Sawyer, Jr., and Bernice C. Sawyer, Telephone con-
versation with author, February 4, 1994; Pharr, "Colored Town Sec-
tion of the City," 46.
3. Gwendolyn Cherry, "Cherry '74 Legislative Package," Miami
Times, February 14, 1974, 6; Pharr, "Colored Town," 46; North,
"Miamians Mourn the Passing of Dr. W. B. Sawyer," 2; MeharryMedi-
cal, Dental, and Pharmaceutical Colleges, Walden University, Cata-
logue of 1907-1908, Announcement for 1908-1909 (Nashville, Ten-
nessee: Marshall & Bruce Co., Printers, 1908), 17; Thirteenth Census
of the United States, 1910, Population, Florida, Dade County, Miami,
April 21, 1910, Enumeration District 55, Sheet 12-B, Line 353.
4. From Wilderness to Metropolis: The History and Architecture
of Dade County, Florida, 1825-1940, Researched and written by Met-
ropolitan Dade County Office of Community and Economic Develop-
ment, Historic Preservation Division (Miami: Metropolitan Dade
County, 1982), 36.
5. Ibid. See also Edward F. Keuchel, Florida Enterprise Under
the Sun (Chatsworth, California: Windsdor Publications, Inc., 1990),
58, 65-68, 94, 95.
6. From Wilderness to Metropolis, 29, 39; Paul S. George, "Col-
ored Town: Miami's Black Community, 1896-1930," Florida Historical
Quarterly 56 (April 1978): 433, 435; Dorothy J. Fields, "Blacks Played
Major Role in Building of Miami," Miami Times, July 1, 1976,24; George,
"Colored Town," 435; "From Wilderness to Metropolis," 36.
7. Paul Albury, The Story of the Bahamas (London: Macmillan
Caribbean, 1975), 168-169.
8. Albury, The Story of the Bahamas, 169; Raymond A. Mohl,
"Black Immigrants: Bahamian in Early Twentieth-Century Miami,"
Florida Historical Quarterly, 65 (January 1987): 296; George, "Col-


ored Town," 439; Gary W. McDonogh, ed., The Florida Negro: A Fed-
eral Writer 's Project Legacy (Jackson, Mississippi: University Press
of Mississippi, 1993), 16.
9. George, "Colored Town," 436-437;
10. Gwendolyn Cherry, "Blacks and the Bicentennial," Miami
Times, June 24, 1976, 6; Dorothy J. Fields, "Black Miami, The Way it
Was: What Can We Tell the Children," Miami Times, December 2,
1982, 17; L. E. Thomas, "The Professions in Miami," Crisis 49 (March
1942): 85; Pharr, "Colored Town," 46. Dorothy J. Fields, an historian
who specializes in the social history of Miami's African-Americans,
claimed that the first African-American physician to practice in Miami
was Dr. Rivers, who is believed to had begun his practice as early as
1896. Rivers only stayed in Miami for a few months before moving his
practice to Tampa. Dr. James A. Butler was reputed to have been Miami's
second African-American physician. However, Thomas March's 1942
Crisis article claimed that the first African-American physicians to prac-
tice in Miami were Dr. James Butler and Dr. Culp. They arrived prior
to 1904, the year that Dr. S. M. Fraizer began his practice. The article
listed Dr. W. B. Sawyer as the fourth African-American physician to
practice in Miami. In succeeding order came Dr. A. P. Holly, Dr. H. H.
Green, Dr. W. A. Chapman, Dr. N. R. Benjamin and Dr. T. L. Lowrie.
After 1920, these African-American physicians came to establish their
practices in Miami: Dr. F. D. Mazon, and Dr. R. B. Ford. By 1942,
with the addition of Drs. R. H. Portier, C. M. Smith, J. H. Smith, and
S. H. Johnson (with Dr. Fraizer the dean of this group), there were ten
African-American doctors practicing in Miami (Drs. Benjamin,
Chapman, Ford, and Mazon were deceased by 1942). The Crisis ar-
ticle emphasized the diversity the physicians' specialties. Miami's Af-
rican-American community could boast often well trained physicians,
whose ranks included three surgeons, Benson, Sawyer, and Smith; an
anaesthetist, Portier; a tubercular specialist, Green; and a roentgenolo-
gist, Johnson. In addition, Dr. Portier was reputed to have "the most
extensive x-ray equipment of any private Negro practitioner in the United
States. It is equal of any in private practice in Miami."
11. Cherry, "Mother and Me," 6; Thirteenth Census of the United
States, 1910 Population, Florida, Palm Beach County, West Palm Beach,
April 27, 1910, Enumeration District 124, Sheet 12-A, Line 295;
Meharry Medical, Dental, and Pharmaceutical Colleges, Walden
University, 17; Meharry News, 6, (January 1, 1908): n.p.

Dr. William B. Sawyer of Colored Town 79

12. North, "Miamians Mourn," 2; Cherry, "Blacks and the Bi-
centennial," 6.
13. North, "Miamians Mourn," 2.
14. Ibid.
15. Ibid. Soon after Jackson's death, City Hospital was renamed
Jackson Memorial Hospital.
16. Ibid.; See also John Gordon DuPuis, History of Early Medi-
cine in Dade County (Miami, Published by author, 1954), 71.
17. "In Miami," Crisis 39 (December 1932):381. See also Fields,
"Blacks Played A Major Role in Building Miami," Miami Times, July
1, 1976, 24. According to Fields, Christian Hospital was moved to
4700 N. W. 32nd Avenue in 1959. According to Lia Fish in her article
"History Around Us," Neighbors, Northwest Edition, Miami Herald
on June 4, 1989, 16, Christian Hospital was closed in 1983. Her claim
was substantiated by the American Hospital Association Guide for it
was in 1983 when Christian Hospital had its last entry.
18. Allen Morris, A Changing Pattern: Women in the Legislature
(4th ed., Tallahassee, Florida: Office of the Historian, Florida House of
Representatives, 1991), 128; Gwendolyn Cherry, Interview by Jack Best
and Walter De Vries, May 21, 1974, Transcribed by Joe Jaros, #4667
A-47 transcript, Southern Oral History Program, University of North
Carolina Library, Chapel Hill, 5.
19. Ellyn Fergerson, "Page of History Razed with Hotel," Miami
Herald, December 6, 1983, 1-D, Sandra Ross, Dennis M. Ross, John
Rosner, and Hy Rosner, The Dade County Environmental Study (Mi-
ami, 1985), 147.
20. "Miami's Mary Elizabeth Hotel Finest in the South," Miami
Times, December 14, 1948, 13.
21. "Miami's Mary Elizabeth Hotel," 13; Ross, et. al., The Dade
County Environmental Study, 147; Gwendolyn Cherry, "To a Great
Lady," Miami Times, July 11, 1974, 6.
22. "Miami's Mary Elizabeth Hotel," 13.
23. "Miss Latin-America to be Selected," Miami Times, July 22,
1950, 2; "Miss Puerto Rico Crowned 'Miss Latin-America.'" Miami
Times, July 29, 1950, 2.
24. George, "Colored Town," 440; Ross, et. al., The Dade County
Environmental Study, 147-148.
25. George, "Colored Town," 440.
26. Ross et. al., The Dade County Environmental Study, 147,


Fergerson, "Page of History Razed," 1-D.
27. Papers of the NAACP: Part 4, "The Voting Rights Campaign,
1916-1950," Bethesda, Maryland: University Publications of America,
1991, Reel 1, Frame 00968. See also Frames 00956-00957, 00963-
28. Gwendolyn Cherry, "What's Next???" Miami Times, March
6, 1975, 6; Sandra Ross, et. al., The Dade County Environmental Study,
53; Dr. S. H. Johnson as told to Dorothy Jenkins Field,"Reflections on
Black History," Update, 4 (August 1977): 8-9, 11.
29. Cherry, "What's Next???" 6.
30. Neyland, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University,
200-201; Gwendolyn Cherry, "I Remember," Miami Times, December
12, 1974, 6.
31. Cherry, "I Remember," 6.
32. "Miami's Mary Elizabeth Hotel," 13. An advertisement for
ticket sales appeared in the Miami Times on December 10, 1949, 6.
33. "Sawyer Enterprises Readies 80 Apts.," Miami Times, No-
vember 26, 1949, 1.
34. Dade County Environmental Study, 52; "Sawyer Enterprises,"
1; "Times Select Sawyer, Ward, Nickerson as Outstanding Citizens,"
Miami Times, January 28, 1950, 1.
35. "Times Select Sawyer, Ward, Nickerson as Outstanding Citi-
zens," 1; North, "Miamians Mourn," 2.
36. Ibid.
37. Gwendolyn Cherry, "The Harry T. Moore Story," Miami
Times, December 29, 1977, 6.

List of Members 81

Historical Association of Southern Florida
Membership List

Members of the Historical Association of Southern Florida enjoy a
wide variety of benefits. These include free admission to the museum;
subscriptions to three museum periodicals: Tequesta, South Florida
History Magazine and Currents; invitations to special events; use of
the Research Center; discounts on purchases at the museum store; and
discounts on educational and recreational programs.

Each membership category offers the benefits as outlined above, plus
additional gifts and privileges for the higher levels of support.

Membership revenues primarily cover the cost of the benefits pro-
vided, educational programs, special exhibitions and daily operations
of the museum. The membership listing is made up of these persons
and organizations that have paid dues since November 1996; those
who joined after November 1, 1997, will be published in the 1998

Life Members
Mr. and Mrs. Mitchell Franklin
Mr. and Mrs. James C. Merrill. Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Ralph B, Ryder
Mrs. Sylvia Sowards

Honorary Life
Mrs. Wayne E. Withers
Mr. Fred M. Water, Jr.

Fellow Humanitarian
Mr. Peter L. Bermont
Mr. and Mrs. Lee Hills
Mr. Mitchell Wolfson, Jr.


Bank of Boston Florida
Brown-Forman Worldwide
Chisholm-Mingo Group, Inc.
First Union National Bank
Groove Jet

Aero Peru
American Airlines, Inc.
Anheuser-Busch Companies
Barnett Bank of South Florida
Beber Silverstein & Partners
Certified Training & Consulting, Inc.
Coral Gables Hospital, Tenet Health
CurbsideFlorist & Gifts, Inc.
Daniel Electrical Contractors, Inc.
De Lara Travel Consultants

2K Insulation, Inc.
7 Star Limousines, Inc.
A & A Energy Systems Corp
A & V Refrigeration Corp.
A Customer First A/C & Refrigeration
A-1 Sun Protection, Inc.
Al Fargo Van & Storage
AAA Able Appliance Service Co.
Adco Patch, Inc.
Adorno & Zeder PA
Aerofloral, Inc.
Aeroservice Aviation Center, Inc.
Allied Specialty Co.
Amazon Printing
Around The Clock A/C Service, Inc.
Arrow Air
Associated Printing, Corp.
AT&T Wireless Services
AutoNation, A Republic Company
Bank of New York
BC Silver
Bell South
Berkowitz, Dick Pollack & Brant
Biltmore Hotel
Borders Picture Framing
Bravo Musicians
Christy's Restaurant
City National Bank
Coconut Grove Bank
Collinsworth Alter & Associate
Comet Trucking, Inc.

Corporate Benefactors
Hyatt Regency Hotel, Coral Gables
Keen, Battle, Mead & Company
Morrison Brown Argiz & Company
Northern Trust Bank of Florida

Corporate Patrons
Eagle Brands, Inc.
Eastman Kodak Company
Equitrac Corporation
Fidelity Investments
Florida Power & Light Company
Greater Miami Chamber of Commerce
Greenberg Traurig Hoffman, et al
Holland & Knight
Honeywell, Inc.
Johnathans Catering

Corporate Members
Community Air Conditioning
Confianza Window Tinting, Inc.
Coopers & Lybrand
Cordis Corporation, A J&J Company
Corporate Advisors, Inc.
Culligan Water Conditioning
Cypress Consulting
Deering Bay Associates
Direct Response Promotions
Dolphin Insulation Co.
EAS Engineering, Inc.
Energy Cost Savers Inc.
Energy Technologies International
Esslinger Wooten Maxwell
Fence Masters
Firehouse Brewing Company
Flamingo Formalwear
Florida Yacht Charters & Sales
Golden Press
Greater Miami Convention & Visitors
Guillermo Pena, Attorney At Law
H.A. Contracting, Corp.
InoHalegua, M.D.
Harrison Construction
Helios Ceiling Insulation
Honshy Electric Co., Inc.

Southern Wine & Spirits
Steel Hector & Davis
SunTrustMiami, N.A.
The National Hotel
U.S. Sugar Corporation

Jimmy Johnson's Three Rings Bar &
La PalmaRistorante & Bar
New Tunes
Norwegian Cruise Line Ltd.
South Beach Brasserie
Star Clippers Ltd.
We're Having a Party Catering

Hopkins-Carter Company
Indian Creek Hotel
JGR & Associates
Kaufman Rossin & Co, PA.
Kimbrell & Hamann, P.A.
L.P. Evans Motors WPB, Inc.
La Tradicion Cubana
M & M Backhoe
Mayfair Grill at Mayfair House
McClain & Company, LLP
Mercy Hospital
Mobile Chiropractic of FL
Moe's Cantina
Montenay Power Corp.
Mount Sinai Medical Center
New Times
Norseman Shipbuilding Corp,
Ocean Bank
Omnifax, A Danka Company
Pan American Hospital
Pompeii Casual Furniture
Popular Bank of Florida
Rechtien International Trucks
Reflect-A-Light, Inc.
Republic National Bank
Reyes & Son's Painting Co.
RobertA. Sterling D.D.S., P.A
Ron Matusalem Co.

Rubin Barney & Birger Inc
Saks Fifth Avenue, Bal Harbour
Save-A-Watt, Inc.
Sheraton Bal Harbour
Sheraton Key Largo Resort
Skags Office Products
Sokolow & Burell
South Florida A/C and Refrigeration
South Pointe Seafood House
Spillis Candela & Partners Inc

5809 South Miami
ABC Costume Shop
Ace Tire
Actors Playhouse
Advanced Services, Inc.
Aircraft Electric Motors Inc.
Akashi Japanese Restaurant
Arthur Murray Studio
Blue Door
Brickell World-Wide Flower Company
Mr. Richard H. Butler
Buller, Buckley, Deets, Inc.
Caldwell Theatre Company
Caff Med
Camelot House of Beauty
Cardiology Center
Carroll's Jewelers
Dr. Emilio J Carullo, M.D.
Casa Grande Hotel
Coastal Refining & Marketing, Inc.
Coconut Grove Playhouse
Confection Connection
Core Outfitters
Cosmyl Spa
CPC Baking Business Products
Crown Liquors & Wine Merchants
David's Cafell
Desjardins Federal Savings
Details at Home
Don Shula's Hotel & Golf Club
Enterprise Rent a-Car
Essex House Hotel
ExecutiveAssociationof GreaterMiami
Falls Chiropractic
Farrey's Wholesale Hardware Co.

Staffing Concepts International, Inc.
State Farm Insurance
Sterling, Robert A. and Craig A.
Summers Painting and Roof Coating
Swanson Printing, Inc.
Temptrol Air Conditioning, Inc
Terrabank, N.A.
The Cardiology Center
The Clevelander Hotel
The Lowell Dunn Company
Tobacco Road

Corporate Contributors
Film Society of Miami Inc
Fisher Island Club
Fleming A Taste of Denmark
Florida Golf Properties
Florida Philharmonic
Florida Shakspeare Theatre
Fritz Skate Shop 11
Garden Botanika
Giancarlo Jewelry Designs
Grand Bay Hotel
Hail Mary
Mr. Douglas M. Halsey
Hannah and Her Scissors Hair Art
Hard Rock Cafe
Harold Mealick Enterprises
Hibiscus House Bed & Breakfast
HNTB Corporation
Holiday Inn Calder
IBJ Schroder International Bank
Isabel Fine Home Accessories
Jack Nicklaus/Golden Bear [ntl
Key West Florist
Kunde, Sprecher & Associates, Inc.
Langer Electric
Lario's on the Beach
Mary Louise Designs
Mayfair House
Meli Electrical Service, Inc.
Miami Airport Marriott
Miami Beach Ocean Resort
Miami City Ballet
Miami Fire Equipment Co.
N ,h, i..., !l I,.[rr.i.tu,; .- '-.. hu
New Theatre
Nita Flowers & Gift Baskets
Pacific Time Restaurant
Palace Bar & Grill
Pan Coast Restaurant

List of Members 83

Turnberry Isle Resort & Club
Turner Construction Company
United Distillers
United States Sugar Corporation
Virgin Atlantic Airways
Weekley AsphaltPaving Inc.
Windancer Charters
Wingerter Laboratories
Witty Air

Party Time DJ, Inc.
PhotoFlash I Hour Developing
Precision Art Printing
Mr. Aris Quiroga
Randazzo Electric Inc
Richey & Diaz, RAP
Riverview Hotel
Riviera Country Club
Ruth's Chris Steak House
Scotty's Grocery
Signature Limousines
Sir Galloway Dry Cleaners
Skags Office Products
St. Francis Inn
Supreme International Corp.
Tap Tap
The Breakers
The Forge
The Cigar Connection
The Seagram Classics Wine Co.
Tri City Electric Company
University of Miami
University of Miami's Ring Theatre
Van Dyke Cafe
Vichon Napa Valley
Vigi Miami
Westview Country Club
Mr, James E. Whiddon
Wicker, Smith, Tutan, O'Hara,
McCoy, Graham & Lane
Withers/Suddath Relocation Systems
Worldwide Holidays


Alma Jennings Foundation, Inc.
Florida East Coast Foundation
Goldsmith Family Foundation
John S. and James L. Knight

Dr. and Mrs. William Way Anderson
Mr, and Mrs. Benjamin B. Battle, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Alvah H. Chapman, Jr.
Mr. JamesL. Davis
Mrs. Douglas Erickson
Dr. and Mrs. Joseph H. Fitzgerald
Mr. and Mrs. Bertram Goldsmith
Mrs. Avis K. Goodlove
Mr. and Mrs. William A. Graham

Dr. and Mrs. Jeffrey Block
Mr. and Mrs. Allen G. Caldwell
Mr. and Mrs, Charles E. Cobb
Mr. and Mrs. Carlton W. Cole
Mrs. Plato A. Cox
Mr. Walter R. Ferguson
Mr. and Mrs. Frank Fierro, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Jerrold F Goodman

Mr. Timothy G. Anagnost
Mr. and Mrs. Robert B. Battle
Mr. Steve Becker
Mr. Benjamin Bohlmann and Ms.
Ellen Kanner
Mr. and Mrs. Gregory M. Cesarano
Mr. Rick Covert
Mr. and Mrs, Richard Fain
Mr. George Feldenkreis
Mr. and Mrs. George R. Harper
Mr and Mrs. John C. Harrison, Jr.
Mr. Robert C. Hector Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Louis J. Hester

Mr. and Mrs. Geoff W. Anderson
Mr, and Mrs, Alvin Atlass
Mr, and Mrs. Stuart Block
Mr. George H. DeCarion
Dr. and Mrs. Lawrence M. Fishman
Mr. and Mrs. Doug Gallagher

Kramer Memorial Fund
Leigh Foundation, Inc.
Peacock Foundation, Inc.
Rosenberg Foundation
Ryder System Charitable Foundation

Fellow Benefactors
Mr. and Mrs. ArnoldL, Greenfield
Mr, and Mrs. R. Layton Mank
Mrs. C. T. McCrimmon
Mrs. James W. McLamore
Dr. and Mrs. Joseph S. Mensch
Mr. and Mrs. David Mesnekoff
Dr. and Mrs. Glenn Morrison
Dr. and Mrs. John C. Nordt, EI
Mr. and Mrs. Ted J. Pappas

Fellow Patrons
Mr. and Mrs. Jay I, Kislak
Mr. and Mrs. C. Frasuer Knight
Mr. Samuel D. LaRoue, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Jack Lowell
Mr. and Mrs. Alan H. Lubitz
Mr. and Mrs. Finlay L. Matheson
Mr and Mrs. D. R. Mead, Jr,
Mr. James C. Merrill, III

Fellow Members
Mr and Mrs. William Ho
Mr. and Mrs. Tom Huston, Jr
Mr. Mark Kaplan.
Mr Gerald Katcher
Mr Peter Laphami
Mr Kenneth Laurence
Mr. and Mrs. Jay W. Lotspeich
Dr. and Mrs. Thomas Mark
Ms. Michele Moskonas Guillen and
Mr. Roldan Guillen
Mr, and Mrs. William Myers
Mr. and Mrs. Paul Neidhart
Mr. and Mrs. Henry Norton

Mr. and Mrs. Louis J. Hector
Mr. and Mrs. Larry Jacobson
Mr. and Mrs. Howard Kleinberg
Ms. Ruth D. Myers
Bob and Lyn Parks
Mr. Kenneth Sellati

The Federated Department Stores
The Ruth and August Geiger Charity

Dr. and Mrs. T. Hunter Pryor, Jr.
Mr, and Mrs. Robert J. Shelley, Il
Dr. Louis C. Skinner, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. William D. Soman
Mr. and Mrs. Gerald E. Toms
Mr. and Mrs. Robert H. Traurig
Mrs. Robert J. Woodruff, Jr.
Mr and Mrs. David Younts
Dr. and Mrs. Howard L. Zwibel

Mr. and Mrs. Wilianm T. Muir
Dr. and Mrs. Robert M. Oliver, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Albert A. Rayle, Ill
Mr. and Mrs. David W, Swetland
Mr. John W. Thatcher
Mr. and Mrs. Parker D. Thomson
Mr. and Mrs. J. Calvin Winter

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Paligraf
Mr. Harold E. Patricoff
Ms. AnnaPrice, Ph.D
Mr. and Mrs. William Rocker
Ms. Phyllis A. Shapiro
Mr. and Mrs. George R. Shelley
Mr. and Mrs. Brian Snyder
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas R. Spencer
Mr. Arthur Stein
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Viciedo
Mr, and Mrs. Richard A. Wood
Mrs. Cicely L. Zeppa

Mr. and Mrs. Alan W. Steinberg
Dr. and Mrs. William M. Straight
Ms. Sandra Villa
Mr. and Mrs. Otis O. Wragg, Ul

Mr. Leonard L. Abess, Sr,
Ms. Helen W. Adelman
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph A. Aguilera
Mr and Mrs, Charles Allen
Mr. Larry Apple and Ms, EstherPerez
Mr. and Mrs. Leslie J. August
Mr. Joseph Averill
Mr. and Mrs. Leonard A. Baker
Mr. and Mrs. Ivan E. Ball
Mr, and Mrs. Michael A. Bander
Mr. and Mrs. Charles G. Barker
Dr. and Mrs. James W. Barrow
Dr. and Mrs. RobertT. Bass
Mr. and Mrs. Jon Batchelor
Mr. and Mrs. Charles H. Baumberger
Mr. and Mrs. Richard B. Bermont
Ms. Jacquelyn Biggane
Mr. and Mrs. Hugo L. Black, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Bernard G. Blanck
Mr. and Mrs. Luis J. Botifoll
Mr. and Mrs. G. Brian Brodeur
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Brown
Mr. and Mrs. Mark Buchbinder
Mr. and Mrs. Billy Cameron
Dr. and Mrs. Robert J. Carbonell
Dr. and Mrs. Wayne H. Case
Mr, and Mrs. Alvin Cassel
Mr. and Mrs. Don Caster
Mr. and Mrs. Pedro Castillo
Mr, and Mrs. Charles L. Clements, Ill
Mr. Richard P. Cole
Mr. and Mrs. William H. Collins
Mr. and Mrs. Marc Cooper
Mrs. Patricia Crow
Mr. Roger B. Davis
Mr. PierreDeAgostini
Mr. Gary Dellapa
Ms. Betty Ruth Dewitt
Mr. and Mrs. J. Leonard Diamond
Mr. Julio P, Dominguez
Dr. and Mrs. Leonidas W. Dowlen, Jr.
Ms. Debra Durant-Schoendorf
The Hon Joe 0, Eaton and Mrs.
Patricia Eaton
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph J. Echevarria, Jr.
Mrs. James C. Ellenburg
Ms. Nancy Entenmann
Mr. and Mrs. James D. Evans
Mrs. Charles Finkelstein
Miss Bertha Fontaine and Miss Cecilia
Mr. Richard E. Ford
Mr, and Mrs, William Freeman

Mr. and Mrs. Philip Freidin
Mr. and Mrs. Vincent Funigiello
Mr. and Mrs. Robert E, Gallagher, Jr.
Mrs. Dick B. Gardner
Mr. and Mrs. Donald F. Gardner
Mr. Jeffry Gillman
Mr. and Mrs. Franklyn B. Glinn
Sue Searcy Goldman
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Gomes
Mr. and Mrs. Martin B. Goodman
Mr. and Mrs. Reed Gordon
Mr. and Mrs. Richard Gossett
Mrs. Carol-Jane Gottfried
Mr. and Mrs. Stanton Greene
Ms. Helen R. Grier
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Grund
Mr. and Mrs. Phil Guerra
Mr. and Mrs. Robert D. Guthrie
Mr. and Mrs. Edward P Guttenmacher
Mr. and Mrs. George K. Haas
Dr. Henry C. Hardin
Ms. Klara Hauri
Mr. and Mrs. Robert C. Hector, Sr
Mr. and Mrs. Brent L. Helms
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Hemmings
Mr, Arthur H. Hertz
Ms. Jeanne D. Higgins
Ms. Margery A. Hilliard
Mr. and Mrs. James C, Hobbs, ]]
Mr. and Mrs. Ray N. Hunt
Dr. and Mrs. Francisco Izaguirre
Mrs. Marilyn Jacobs
Mrs. Mary D. Jenkins
Mr. Juan Jimenez
Mr. and Mrs. Francis T. Kain
Mr. and Mrs. William A. Kaynor
Ms. Susanne Kayyali
Mrs. George H. Keen, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Ted Klinghoffer
Dr. John M. Knapp
Mr. and Mrs. KennethF. Kniskern
Mr. and Mrs. Gary Kobialka
Ms. CamillaB. Komorowski
Mr. and Mrs. Irvin Korach
Mr. and Mrs. James E. Korth
Mr. and Mrs. Irving Kreisberg
Mr. and Mrs. Ralph E. Lambrecht
Mr. and Mrs. Martin Leake
Dr. and Mrs. Roswell E. Lee, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Dennis Lefebvre
Dr. and Mrs. William A. Little
Mr, and Mrs. Thomas S. Loane
Mr. and Mrs. I. Edward London

List of Members 85

Ms. Joyce T. Long
Ms. Sandra C, Lopez
Mr. and Mrs. Norman L. Madan
Mr. and Mrs. Raul P. Masvidal
Mr Finlay B. Matheson
Mr. and Mrs. Frederick J. Maxted
Mr. Luis Maza
Mr. Chuck McCartney
Mrs. C. Deering McCormick
Mr. John Fred McMath
Mr. John H. McMinn
Mr. and Mrs. Jack McQuale
Mr. and Mrs. David Melin
Dr. and Mrs. Ramon Mendoza
Mr. S. Randall Merritt
Mr. and Mrs. Howard A. Mesh
Mr. and Mrs. Jack L. Meyer
Mrs. Claire W Mooers
Mr. Gerald W. Moore
Mr. Stephen J. Moorman
Mr. and Mrs. George L. Morat
Mr. and Mrs. David M. Morris
Mr. and Mrs. Michael Moses
Mr. and Mrs. Jay Mussman
Dr, Thomas A. Natiello
Dr. Mervin H. Needell and Dr. Elaine
F Needell
Mr. Theodore R. Nelson
Mrs, Mary Jo Nimnicht
Mr. Bryan Norcross
Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Oroshnik
Ms. Betty Osborn
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Pallot
Ms. Barbara J. Parker
Dr. and Mrs. Edmund I. Pames
Mr. and Mrs. John C. Pistoriao
Mr. Bernard Plotkin
Mr. Douglas J Pracher
Ms. Judith Price and Mr. Charles Corn
Mr. J. David Puga
Mr. and Mrs. Fred Radelman
Mr. Edward K. Rawls, Jr.
Ms. Rikki Ricciardelli
Dr. and Mrs. Thomas Righetti
Mr, and Mrs. Federico Rivero
Robert MLevy & Assoc
Mr. and Mrs. lose L. Rodriguez
Mr. and Mrs. Raul L. Rodriguez
Ms. Darlene Russell
Dr. and Mrs. Theodore Sarafoglu
Mr. and Mrs. Michael Scheck
Ms. Martha M. Scott
Ms. Abbie H. Shouse


Mr. and Mrs. Larry E. Silvester
Mr. and Mrs. Murray Sisselman
Mr. and Mrs. Donald Slesnick, I
Mr andMrs. Samuel Smith
Mr. and Mrs. Neal R. Sonnett
Mr. and Mrs. Theodore Spak
Mr Joseph B. Spence
Ms. Edeane W. Stirrup
Mr. and Mr. William G. Story
Mr. and Mrs. William Sutton
Mr. and Mrs. Armando Tabemilla
Ms. Jean M. Thorpe
Ms. Ruth Tinsman and Ms. Leann

The Hon. and Mrs. C. Clyde Atkins
Mr. Paul D. Barns, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Steve Benson
Mr. and Mrs. Patrick Bey
Mr. and Mrs. Jack N. Brown
Mr. and Mrs. Vernon Corbitt
Mr. and Mrs. Phillip E. Daunm
Ms. Diane M. Dorick
Dr. and Mrs. Maurice Downs
Dr. and Mrs. Robert Feltman
Ms. Pamela Garrison
Mr. Miguel A. German
Mr. and Mrs. William Goodson, Jr.

Mr. and Mrs. Florio Abbate
Mr. Douglas Abbott and Ms. Eileen
Mr. and Mrs. Allan T. Abess, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Leonard L. Abess, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Roberto Abrahante
Mr. and Mrs. Armando Aiguesvives
Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Albury
Ms. Janet R. Alford
Mrs. Eugenia D. Allen
Mrs. Sherry E Allen
Mr. and Mrs. Herbert E. Allenson
Mr, and Mrs. J. Harvey Alligood
Mr. and Mrs. David Alter
Dr. and Mrs. Claudio I. Alvarez
Mr. and Mrs. Luis L. Alvarez
Mr. and Mrs. Neal Anmdur
Mr. and Mrs. John S. Ammarell
Mr. and Mrs. Otto Anderhub
Mr. and Mrs. Duane Anderson
Mr. Edward Anderson
Mr. and Mrs. Fred Anderson
Mr. and Mrs. Greg Anderson

Mr. Geoffrey Tomb
Mr. and Mrs. Antonio M. Tremols
Dr. and Mrs. Michael B. Troner
Mrs. RobertaH. Turner
Mr. and Mrs. Christopher G. Tyson
Dr. and Mrs. Alfred H. Underwood
Mr. Jack Vallega
Mrs. Jane Van Denend
Mr. PedroL. Velar
Mr. and Mrs. Manuel G. Vera
Mr. and Mrs. Carl D. Ward
Mr. and Mrs. Bernard Weksler
Mr. and Mrs. David Weston

Mrs. Edward G. Grafton
Ms, Rosemary E. Helsabeck
Mr. and Mrs. James R. Jorgenson
Mr. and Mrs. Ralph A. Juncosa
Mrs. Betsy H. Kaplan
Mr Vincent T. Lobracco
Mr. and Mrs. David McDonald
Mr. andMrs. StuartB. Melver
Dr. and Mrs. Robert A. McNaughton
Mr. and Mrs. William Mitchell
Mr. and Mrs. Mark Modugno
Mr. and Mrs. David Owen
Mr. and Mrs. John Perez

Mr. and Mrs. John Anderson
Mr. Theodore Andros
Ms. Andrea Angelo
Mr and Mrs. Ross E. Apgar
Mr, and Mrs. James W, Apthorp
Mr. and Mrs. Ted Arch
Mr and Mrs. Craig Arnold
Mr, and Mrs. Mike Arnold
Mrs. Fay Aronson
Mr. and Mrs. Gerald N Askowitz
Mr. and Mrs. William B.W. Arrington
Mr. Daniel Baden and Ms. Alina
Mr. Walter Baggesen
Mr. and Mrs. David R. Baker
Mr. and Mrs. John W. Baker
Mr. and Mrs. Clive Baldwin
Mr. and Mrs. Rod C. Ball
Mr. and Mrs. Charles W. Bare
Mr. and Mrs. James W. Barfield
Mr, and Mrs. John Barkett
Mr. and Mrs. Paul J. Barko
Mr. and Mrs. Jeffrey A. Barnes

Mr. and Mrs. Michael J. Whalin
Mr. and Mrs. George M. Wilson
Mrs. PeytonL, Wilson
Mr. Paul C. Wimbish
Ms. Pauline Winick
Mrs. and Mrs. Richard F. Wolfson
Ms. Edna Wolkowsky
Mrs. Warren C Wood, Sr.
Mr. and Mrs. James A. Wright, III
Dr. Ronald K. Wright and Ms. Judith
A. Hunt
Mrs. Eunice P. Yates
Mr. and Mrs. Stefan H. Zachar, Il1

Mr. and Mrs. RoderickN. Petrey
Mr. and Mrs. A. James Reagan, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Reilly
Ms. Carmen Sanchez
Ms. Rona Sawyer
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Schloss
Ms. Phyllis L. Segor
Mr. andMrs. Saul H. Silverman
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas T. Taylor
Mr. and Mrs. James B. Tilghman, Jr.
Ms. Jo Wilder
Mr. and Mrs. William L. Wood

Ms. Beverly Barnett Allen
Ms. Christine M. Barney and Mr.
Bob Bishopric
Mr. Jorge Baro
Mr. and Mrs. Michael Barrett
Mr. and Mrs. John Bartosek
Mrs. David Batcheller
Mr. and Mrs. Ronald Batlersby
Mr. and Mrs. Michael W. Battle
Mr, and Mrs. Timothy A. Battle
Mr. and Mrs. Gary L. Baumgartner
Mr. and Mrs. Harry D. Bavly
Mr. and Mrs. Eugene Bechamps
Mr. and Mrs. Allen M. Beck
Mr. Charles F. Belmont
Mr. and Mrs. Richard L. Bendinger
Mr. and Mrs. Randall C. Berg
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Berger
Mr. and Mrs. David M. Berkowitz
Mr. and Mrs. Hugo Bemal
Mr. and Mrs. James Bernhardt
Ms. Cyane Berning and Ms. Barbara
Bernming Sauba

Mre and Mrs. Bruce Bernstein
Mr. and Mrs. Ronald Bernstein
Mr and Mrs. Ray Berrin
Mr. and Mrs. Ralph H. Benrelson
Mr. and Mrs. Amaury Betancourt
Mrs. John Birch
Mr. and Mrs. Anthony J. Bischoff
Dr. and Mrs. AlanBisno
Mr, William Bjorkman and Ms. Pam
Mr. and Mrs. David M. Blackard
Mr. and Mrs. Ace J. Blackburn, Sr.
Mr. and Mrs. Jose Blanco
Mr. and Mrs. Jose M. Blanco
Mr, and Mrs. Ted R. Blue, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. William Bodenhamer, Jr.
Mr. Steve Boone and Ms. Susan
Mr. and Mrs Thomas Boswell
Mr. and Mrs. William H. Bourne
Dr, and Mrs. Russell Boyd
Mr. and Mrs. Robert E Brack
Mr. and Mrs. Daniel T. Brady
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas B. Brady
Ms. Donna Jean Bragassa
Mr, and Mrs. Kenneth E.
Mr. and Mrs. Charles E. Breit
Mr. and Mrs. William Brewis
Mr. and Mrs. J,. Andrew Brian
Mr. and Mrs. Patrick I Brickman
Mr. and Mrs. Harry Brion
Mr, and Mrs. Roger Britton
Mr. and Mrs. Lester I. Brookner
Mr. Jeffrey Brosco and Ms. Angela
Mr. and Mrs. Bradford E. Brown
Dr. Harvey Brown andDr. Maijorie
Mr. and Mrs. E.R. Brownell
Dr. and Mrs. Thomas Bruce
Mr. and Mrs. John M. Brumbaugh
Mr. and Mrs. RobertP. Bryant
Mr. and Mrs. Jean E. Buhler
Dr. and Mrs. Brinsley Burbidge
Mr. Neil A. Burell
Ms. Sandy Burnett and Mr. Worth
Mr, and Mrs. Donald B, Butter
Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence W. Cahill
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Call
Mr. and Mrs. Wilfredo Calvino
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Campbell
Mr. and Mrs. Hilario Candela

Mr. and Mrs. Femando A. Capablanca
Mr. David Carlisle
Mr. and Mrs. Albert Marvin Carr
Mr and Mrs. Michael Carricarte
Mr. and Mrs. Robert B. Cast
Mr. and Mrs. Alfredo Castro
Mr. and Mrs. Joe Catarineau
Mr. and Mrs. Todd Cates
Mr. Alex Ceron
Dr. James Chandler and Dr. Peggy
Dr. and Mrs. Arthur E, Chapman
Mr, and Mrs. J.F. Chapman
Mr. and Mrs. Frank Chase
Mr. and Mrs. Edwin H. Cheatharn, Jr.
Mr, and Mrs. James Cherry
Mr. and Mrs. Anthony Chifari
Mr. and Mrs. Frank Childers
Mr. and Mrs. John S. Chowning
Mr. and Mrs. David Church
Mr. and Mrs. James K. Clark
Ms, Sharon Clark
Mr. Peter Clayton and Mrs. Ann
Ms. Carol Clothier and Ms. Lorraine
Mr, andMrs, Louis Coburn
Mr. and Mrs. Kendall Coffey
Mr. and Mrs. George Cohen
Mr. and Mrs. Ronald F. Cold
Mr. and Mrs. Philip Cole
Mr. Robert B. Cole
Ms, Catherine J. Conduitte
Ms DianeM. Congdon
Dr. and Mrs. James W. Conley
Mr, and Mrs. Lyman H. Conover
Mr. W.L Cook
Mr. Thomas J. Cooper, Jr. and Ms.
Otmara Diaz
Ms. Kay Coppock
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Corradino
Mr. Hal Corson and Mrs. Germ
Campbell Corson
Mr. and Mrs. John W. Cowling
Karl and April Cox
Mrs. John E. Culmer
Mr. and Mrs. Paul M. Cummings
Mr. Charles D. Cunningham
Mr. and Mrs. DeVere H. Curtis
Mr. and Mrs. GuillermoCutie
Mr. and Mrs. Peter Cutler
Mr. and Mrs. Dan Danforth
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Daniel
Ms. Betty J. Davis

List of Members 87

Mr. and Mrs. Edward H. Davis, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. John R. Davis
Mr. and Mrs. John W. Davis
Mr. and Mrs. Richard Davis
Mr. and Mrs. Joel B. Day
Ms. Susan L. Dayhoff
Mr Enrique de Alba
Mr. and Mrs. Richard A. De Aguero
Mr. and Mrs. Enrique de la Aguilera
Mr. and Mrs. EduardodeZayas
Mr. and Mrs. Jose Dearing
Mr. and Mrs. Robert W Decker
Mr. and Mrs. Floy B. Denton
Ms. Lou Dessaint andMs. Ginger
Ms. Donna Dial and Mr. Art
Mr. and Mrs. Odilio Diaz
Mr. and Mrs. Ronald E Diehl
Mr. and Mrs. Ray Dieppa
Ms. Yvonne M. Dietrich
Mr. Pedro Doimeadios and Mr.
Mr. Roger Doucha
Mr. and Mrs. William Downs
Ms. Cynthia Doyle
Mr. and Mrs, Ed Drew
Mr. and Mrs. Stan Drillick
Mr and Mrs. Daniel S. Dubbin
Dr. and Mrs. Charles A. Dunn
Mr. and Mrs. David J. Dutcher
Dr. and Mrs. William H. Eaglstein
Mr. Jorge Echenique
Mr. and Mrs. James M, Eckhart
Mr. Ronald Edwards
Dr. and Mrs. Albert 1. Ehlert
Mr. and Mrs, Harold Emerson Mahony
Dr. Ralph Engle and Dr. Mary Allen
Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Esteves
Mr. and Mrs. Bob Everhard
Mi jrJ'.lr. H'-IfrL[ L nril.j-n
Ms. Doreen Evers
The Lunnon Fleeger Family
Mr. and Mrs. Charles E. Fancher, Jr.
Mr. William Farkas and Ms. Beth
Mr. and Mrs. Dante B. Fascell
The Hon. Harold Featherstone and
Mrs. Ruth Featheistone
Mr. Alan H. Fein and Ms. Susan
Dr. and Mrs. Alfred Feingold
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas A. Fennell


Mr. Jose Fernandez
Ms. Rosa Fernandez
Ms. Elizabeth Ferrer
Ms, Harriet Feuerman and Ms.
Carolee Ludwig
Mr. and Mrs. C.S.B Field
Mr. and Mrs. Glenn Firestone
Sue and Ray Fisher
Mr. and Mrs. Willard L. Fitzgerald
Mr. and Mrs, Dan Fitzgerald
Dr. J.M Fitzgibbon
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Filzsimmons
Mr. and Mrs. Michael Flattery, Jr.
Mr. Jurgen Fleischmann
Mr. and Mrs. Edward T. Foote
Mr. and Mrs. Marcel Franck
Ms. Peggy L. Frankel Test
Mr. Paul Fraynd and Mrs. Linda
Stein Fraynd
Mr. and Mrs. Dwight E. Frazier
Mrs. Lois Fredrick
Mr. and Mrs. Stephen Freeman
Miss Arlene Freier
Mr. and Mrs. Richard E. Friberg
Mr. David Frumn
Ms. Olive Frye
Mr. and Mrs. John Fumeaux
Mr. and Mrs. Donald C. Gaby
Mr. and Mrs. Jorge Gallo
Mr. and Mrs. Carl Gallo
Mr. and Mrs. Tomas F. Gamba
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph H. Ganguzza
Mrs. Martha Gannon
Ms. Evelyn and Arlyn Garcia
Mr. Jorge L. Garcia
Dr. and Mrs. Victor Garcia
Dr. and Mrs. Stanley G. Garner
Dr. Bruce Garrison
Mr. and Mrs. Peter B. Garvert
Mr. and Mrs, Gerald Geffen
Ms. Mona Geilin and Mr. David Reuter
Mr. Harold Gelber and Ms. Pat
Mackin Gelber
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Gelberg
Dr. and Mrs. Paul S. George
Dr. Paul U. Gerber
Mr. and Mrs. Mehdi Ghomeshi
Mr. and Mrs. W. TuckerGibbs
Mr. and Mrs. John Gillan
Mre and Mrs. Norman M. Giller
Dr. and Mrs. Gene Gitin
Mr. and Mrs. John Gladstone
Mr and Mrs. Saul Glottmarm
Mr. and Mrs. Sig M. Glukstad

Mr. and Mrs. Peter Glynn
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Godfrey
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Goeser
Mr. and Mrs. Eddy Goicolea
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Goldberg
Mr. and Mrs. Harold Goldberg
Mr. Steven Goldman and Mrs.
Trecey-Sunshine Goldman
Mre and Mrs. Seymour Goldweber
Mr. and Mrs. Jose A. Gonzalez
Mr, and Mrs. Eduardo Gonzalez
Mr. and Mrs. Jorge Gonzalez
Ms. SandraB. Gonzalez-Levy
Mr. Rene J. Gonzalez-Llorens
Mr. Armando Gonzalez-Rua and Ms.
Martina Gomez
Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin F Gooden, Jr.
Ms. Mary Ann Goodlett-Taylor
Mr, and Mrs. C. Ray E. Goodwin
Dr. and Mrs. Richard Gottlieb
Mr. and Mrs. Henry A. Grady
Ms. Dorothy W. Grahamn
Mr. and Mrs. Michael Gray
Mr. and Mrs. Robert W. Green
Mr. and Mrs. Barry N. Greenberg
Mr. and Mrs. Nathan Greenhouse
The Rev. and Mrs. Robb Grimm
Dr. Jay Grossman and Dri Alana
Mr. and Mrs. Carl Grozan
Mr. and Mrs. George C. Grunwell
Mre and Mrs. Dan Guernsey
Mr and Mrs. Richard M. Guttman
Dr. and Mrs. Thomas B. Guyton
Mr. Stephen F Hackley
Ms. Claire Hagga Altman
Mr. and Mrs. Earl V. Hagood, IV
Mr. and Mrs. Jack D,. Hahn
Mr, and Mrs. Charles Hall
Mr. and Mrs. John Hall
Mr. Thomas L. Hambright
Mr. and Mrs. Rex Hamilton
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Hammond
Dr. and Mrs. Gregory Han
Ms. Lucy H. Hanafourde and Mr.
Bradley K. Hanafourde
Mr. Frederick H. Harrington
Ms. Gail Harris
Mr. and Mrs. Jay Harris
Mr. and Mrs. Charles M. Hartz
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph J. Hatton
Mrs. Jean M Hawa
Mr. and Mrs. James Hayes
Mr. and Mrs. W. Hamilton Hayes

Mr. and Mrs. Charles R. Helweick
Mr. and Mrs. William Henry
Mr. and Mrs. Jorge Hemandez
Mr, and Mrs. Richard A. Herron
Mr. and Mrs. Jeff Hershman
Mr. and Mrs. Bernard P. Herskowitz
Mr, and Mrs. Herman Herst, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. W. Warfield Hester
Mrs. Elizabeth Hicks and Mr. David
Mr. and Mrs. Robert A. Hicks
Mr. and Mrs. Ron Hill
Mrs. TE Hipps
Dr. and Mrs. Andy Hirschi
Mr. and Mrs. Robert A. Hittel
Mr, and Mrs. Jack Hodus
Dr. and Mrs. William Hoffman
Ms. Lucinda A. Hofmann and Mr.
William T. McCauley
Mr. and Mrs. Harry Hokanson
Mr. and Mrs. Roy Hollenbeck
Mr. Carl House and Ms. Nancy Stroud
Dr. Laurie R. Householder
Mr, and Mrs. Hadleigh Howd
Mr. and Mrs. Al Hower
Mr. and Mrs. Robert H. Hubsch
Dr. and Mrs. Stuart M. Huff
Mr. Russell V. Hughes
Mr. George Hunker
Dr. and Mrs. James J. Hutson
Mr. Tom Hutton
Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth Hynes
Mr and Mrs, Charles Iselin
Mr. and Mrs. Jay Issod
Ms. Patti Jackson
Mr. and Mrs. Richard Jacobs
Mr. and Mrs. T.M. Jacobsen
Dr. and Mrs. George Jacobson
Mr. and Mrs. James R. James
Mr and Mrs. John Jensen
Mr. and Mrs. Carlos Jimenez
Ms. Dorothy B. Johnson
Ms. Jean Johnson and Ms. Beny Priscak
Mr. and Mrs. Lester R. Johnson
Mr. and Mrs. Lyle Johnson
Dr, and Mrs. Stanley Jonas
Mrs. FrankE. Jones
Mr. and Mrs. Albert Jones
Mr. and Mrs. Daniel C. Jones
Dr, and Mrs. J.R. Jude
Mr. and Mrs. John E. Junkin, III
Dr. and Mrs. FedericoJustiniani
Mr. and Mrs. Joel Kaiser
Mr. and Mrs. John Kanelidis

Mr. and Mrs. Mark Karris
Ms. Ann Kashmer and Mr. Lee Price
Mr. and Mrs. Sid Kaskey
The Rev. J.C. Katon and Mr. Robert
Mrs. Barbara P. Keller and Mrs.
Fannie Reid
Ms. Cynthia J. Kelley
Ms.Pat Kelly
Mr HaroldE. Kendall
Mr. and Mrs. Charles L. Kennon, Jr,
Mr. and Mrs. Edward C. Kenny
Mrs, Gertrude Kent and Mr.
Frederick J. Kent
Dr. and Mrs. Norman M. Kenyon
Mr. and Mrs. C.M. Keppie
Dr. and Mrs. Kenneth Keusch
Mr. Al A. Key
Mr. Neal S. Keys
Mr. and Mrs. Timothy Kimmons
Mr. and Mrs. Randy King
Mayor Mitchell Kinzer and Mrs.
Regan Kinzer
Ms. Judy Kliger-Rosenbaum
Dr. and Mrs. Joe Knetsch
Mr. and Mrs. Tom Knotts
Mr. and Mrs. Earl R. Knowles
Mr. and Mrs. John Kostelak
Mr. and Mrs. Franklin D. Kreutzer
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Krulik
Mr. and Mrs. Elmer Kucks
Mr. Bob Kulpa
Mr, and Mrs. David E. Lair
Mr. John Lake
Mr, and Mrs. Mark Lamb
Ms, Donna A. Lancaster
Mr, and Mrs. Calvin J Landau
Ms. Ketty Landin
Mr. and Mrs. Wright Langley
Ms. Linda Lasch
Ms. Michael Lederberg and Ms.
Linda Barocas
Mr, Dick Lederer
Mr. and Mrs. Terry R. Lee
Mr. Richard Lehman and Mr. Scott
Dr. Harold Levine
Dr. and Mrs. Richard Levitt
Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Lewis
Mr. and Mrs. Wallace L. Lewis, Jr.
Mr. Ralph Llera
Mr. and Mrs. Bernard R. Limegrover
Mr. and Mrs. Norman HI Lipoff
Mr. and Mrs. Leigh Livesay

Mr. Don R. Livingstone
Mr. Steve Long
Mr, and Mrs. Joe Longo
Mr. and Mrs. Carlos J. Lopez
Mr. and Mrs. Cesar Lopez
Mr. Sergio Lopez de Mesa
Mr. and Mrs. Tom Lopez
Mr. and Mrs. Jose Lorenzo
Mr. Douglas S. Loria
Mr. and Mrs. Rafael T. Lorie
Mr and Mrs. Richard Loughner
Mr. Howard Lubel and Ms. Rose Flynn
Mr. and Mrs. Philip F Ludovici
Mrs. Stephen C. Lutton
Ms. Lisa Lynch and Mr. Julian Paul
Ms Kathryn R. Lynn
Mr. and Mrs. LeeMacCallum
Mr. and Mrs. Robert MacDonald
Mr. and Mrs. Frederic Macera
Mr. and Mrs. Alexander C. Maclnlyre
Dr. and Mrs. Brace Mahaffey
Mr, and Mrs. Richard M, Mahoney
Mr, and Mrs. Richard H. Maloy
Mr. Chris Mancini
Mr. and Mrs. Philip J. Mank, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Dimitrios Maratos
Mr. Jorge Marchena and Ms.
Margaret Souto
Mr, and Mrs. Robert Mark
Dr. and Mrs. Clifford Marks
Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Markus
Dr. and Mrs. Michael E. Marmesh
Mr. and Mrs. Frank C. Martin
Majot and Mrs, J. William Martin
Mr. and Mrs. Alberto Martinez-Ramos
Mr. and Mrs. Frank Mascari
Mr. and Mrs. Jerry Mashburn
Ms. Margaret A. Mastrotaro
Mr. and Mrs. Parks Masterson
Mr. and Mrs. Michael Matheson
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas J. Matkov
Mr, Thomas C Maxwell
Ms. Janet R. McAliley
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas F. McAuliffe, HI
Mr. and Mrs. Lloyd McAvoy
Mr. Robert McCammor and Mrs.
Karen Corlett-McCammor
Dr. and Mrs. Donald McCorquodale. Jr.
Ms. Kay McCoy
Mr. John E McCulloch
Mr. and Mrs. Scott McDaniel
Mr. and Mrs. J. Gordon McDonald
Mr. and Mrs. RobertMcDougal. IV

List of Members 89

Mr. and Mrs, Robert D,. McDougal, HIl
Mr. and Mrs. Richard M. McGarry
Mr. and Mrs. Michael E McGlannan
Mr. Brian McGuinness and Mrs.
Linda McGuinness
Mr, and Mrs, Charles F McKay
Ms. Beverly McKeon
Mr. and Mrs. Oilen McLane
Mr. Tajyjohn W. McManus
Mr. and Mrs. Richard McMichael
Mr. and Mrs. R.H. McTague
Ms. Bonnie McWheatley and Mr,
Russell McWheadey
Dr. and Mrs. Diego Medina
Mr. and Mrs. Don M. Meginley
Mr. and Mrs. Carlos Melendez
Mr. Roberto Melendez and Ms.
Mr. and Mrs. Santiago Melians
Mr. and Mrs. Leo Mesa
Dr. George Metcalf and Dr. Elizabeth
Mr. and Mrs. Addison J. Meyers
Mr. Robert Meyerson
Dr. and Mrs. Max Millard
Mr. and Mrs. Aristides J. Millas
Mr. and Mrs. David Miller
Mr. and Mrs. William J. Miller
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Miller
Mr. and Mrs. H. Dale Miller, Jr.
Ms, Daire Miner
Mr. Sanford B. Miol
Ms. Mary Ann Miranda
Mr. Karlsson Mitchell
Ms. Nanci B, Mitchell and Mr. Simon
Mr. and Mrs. Larry Mizrach
Mr. and Mrs. Lloyd L. Moeller
Mr. and Mrs. Fawdrey A. Molt
The Hon. and Mrs. Joseph Monsanto
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Monson
Mr. and Mrs. George Monticino
Mr. and Mrs. Christopher Mooers
Mr. and Mrs. Donald R. Moore
Mr. and Mrs. William Moore
Mr. and Mrs. Santiago D. Morales
Mr. and Mrs. Frederick Morosini
Mr. and Mrs. Dale Morris
Mr. and Mrs. Theodore Mormson
Mr. and Mrs. Ronald Mossman
Mr. and Mrs. Ronald Mould
Mr. and Mrs. John H. Moynahan, Sr.
Mr IvanMuguerciaandMs.TanzaRoss
Mr. and Mrs, Bryan L. Mulcahy


Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Mulshine
Mr. William Multack
Mr. and Mrs. William Multack
Mr. and Mrs. Charles P. Munroe, Sr.
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph T. Munroe
Mr. and Mrs. John Murphy
Mr, and Mrs. CraigJ. Nagel
Ms. Barbara Neil Young and Mr.
Robert Huff
Mr. Burnham S. Neill and Mrs,
Mildred C. Neill
Mr. Thomas Neilson andMs.
Elizabeth Powers
Mr. and Mrs. Denis Nerney
Mr. and Mrs. Robert S. Neumann
Mr. and Mrs, Charles W, Newcomb
Mr. and Mrs. Richard F. Newman
Mr. and Mrs. Frank 0. Nichols
Mr. and Mrs. Auguste Nicoleau
Ms. Ines Nistal
Mr. and Mrs. John Nobili
Mr. and Mrs. Gaillard Nolan
Mr. and Mrs. Nils Nordh
Mr. and Mrs. J. Colgan Norman, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Sam Normandia
Mrs. Luz Norwood
Mr. and Mrs. Ronald Nuehring
Ms. Sharon O'Brien
Ms. Jeanette O'Connor
Ms. Nancy Obrien and Mr, Ted Jewell
Mr. and Mrs. Cesar Odio
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Ogle
Mr. and Mrs. Diedrich Oglesbee
Mr. and Mrs. Bob Oliver
Dr. and Mrs. George Onoprienko
Mr. and Mrs. Eddie Otto
Mr. and Mrs. Robert A. Pampe
Dr. and Mrs. Emanuel M. Papper
Ms Nilda I. Paredes
Mr. and Mrs. Robin Parker
Mr. and Mrs. William Parry
Ms. Marcia Pawley and Ms, Anita
Ms. Cynthia Pawley-Martin
Mr. and Mrs, Lawrence A. Peacock
Mr. and Mrs. William Peacon
Mr. and Mrs. RaymondPearlson
The Hon, Ray Pearson and Mrs.
Mr. and Mrs. Marvin S. Pehr
Ms. Jacqueline Pena
Mr. and Mrs. William A. Pena
Mr. John D. Pennekamp, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Alexis P. Perdomo

Mr. Andres Perez
Mr. and Mrs. Galo Perez
Mr. and Mrs. Jorge F. Perez
Mr. Ricardo Perez and Mrs. Elizabeth
Mr. Paul Pergakis and Ms. Deborah
S, Klem
Mrs. Jean Perwin and Mr. Joel Perwin
Mr. and Mrs. Michael Pfefer
Mr, John Pfeiffer and Ms. Rebecca
Mr. and Mrs. Mark Pfrenger
Mrs. Audrey Pilafian
Mr. Rafael M. Pina
Mr. and Mrs. Luis C. Pino
Ms. Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk and Mr.
Andres Duany
Mr. and Mrs. Paul Plotkin
Mr. and Mrs. Morton C. Pollack
Mr. and Mrs. Edward D, Porro
Mr. and Mrs. Budd Post
Mr Vince Post
Dr. and Mrs. Irwin Potash
Mr Alfred H. Powell
Mr. and Mrs. Anthony Prado, Jr.
Mr, V.M. Press and Mr. T.L. Rivers
Mr. and Mrs. Phillip Proctor
Dr. and Mrs. Eugene F. Provenzo
Mr. and Mrs. Walter Provost
Mr. Peter T Pruitt
Mr. and Mrs. Gordon Pryor
Mr. and Mrs. L. Scott Quackenbush
Mr. and Mrs. Herbert S. Quartin
Mrs. William F. Quesenberry
Mr. and Mrs. Henry Raanttama
Mr and Mrs, Gabe Radi
Mr. and Mrs. Constantine Railey
Dr. Jerome Raim and Ms. Nina Jacks
Dr, and Mrs. Salvador M. Ramirez
Ms. Jeannette Ramos
Mr. and Mrs. John J. Randall
Mr, and Mrs. William G. Randall
Mr, and Mrs. William W, Randolph
Mr. and Mrs. Stuart M. Rapee
Mr. and Mrs. John A. Reams
Dr. and Mrs. Philip J. Reckford
Mr. and Mrs. Barrie T. Reed
Mr. and Mrs. Randolph Reich
Mr. and Mrs. Paul L. Reiner
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Reisinger
Mr and Mrs. Jeff Reiter
Dr. Kenneth Relyea and Dr. Tamela
The Hon. Janet Reno

Mr. Steve Reoch
Mr. and Mrs. Lewis M. Ress
Mr. and Mrs. Art Reyes
Ms. Diana Reyes
Mr. and Ms. John Reyes
Mr. and Mrs. Juan D. Reyes
Mr. and Mrs. Patrick Reyna
Dr. and Mrs. Milton Rhodes
Mr. R.H. Rice, Jr.
Dr. and Mrs. Maurice Rich
Mrs D.E. Richards
Mr. and Mrs. Bruce Ricke
Mr. and Mrs. Norman C. Ridgely
Mre and Mrs. Thomas Rieder
Mrs. William D. Rieder
Mr. and Mrs. Karsten A. Rist
Mr, and Mrs. David W. Rivers
Mr. and Mrs. Robert E. Roache
Mr. and Mrs. Ross C. Roadman
Mr, and Mrs. Rafael L, Robayna
Dr. and Mrs. James A. Robb
Mr. and Mrs. William R. Robbins
Mr. and Mrs. JeffT. Roberts
Dr. and Mrs. E.G. Robertson
Mr. and Mrs. Neil P. Robertson
Mr. and Mrs. Alan Robinson
The Hon. Steven D. Robinson
Mr. and Mrs. Pedro L. Roca
Mr. and Mrs. Victor Rodriguez
Mrs. Dorothy Rodwell
Mr. and Mrs. Laurence J Rohan
Mr. and Mrs. Pedro Rojas
Mr. and Mrs. ErnestoRomero
Mr. and Mrs. Keith Root
Mr. and Mrs. B.H. Ropeik
Mr. and Mrs. Mack Roper
Mr. Luis 1. Rosas-Guyon, Sr.
Mr. and Mrs. Jason Rose
Mr. Paul Rosen
Dr. and Mrs. Michael Rosenberg
Mr. and Mrs. Stanley Rosenblati
Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Rosenblatt
Mr. and Mrs. Louis Rosenthal
Mr. Barney Rosenzweig and Ms.
Sharon Gless
Mr, and Mrs, Jeffrey Rosinek
Mr. and Mrs. Stanley E. Ross
Mr. William Rothman and Ms. Kitty
Mr. Peter Roulhac
Mr. and Mrs. Ricardo Ruano
Mr. and Mrs. Herman P. Rubin
Dr. and Mrs. Howard A. Rubinson
Mr. and Mrs. Lloyd Ruskin

Ms. Constance Ryan and Mr. Tom Bales
Mr. and Mrs. Charles P. Sacher
Ms. Jacqueline Sack and Mr. Harry
C. Geisler
Mr, and Mrs. Joseph A. Sackett
Mr. Herbert Saffir
Mr. and Mrs. Louis Sager
Mr. and Mrs. Bert Sager
Mr. and Mrs. A.A. Sakhnovsky
Mr. Carlos M. Salomon
Ms. Nury Saltos
Mr Mark Saltzman
Mr. and Mrs. Ron Samter
Mr. Alan Sanchez
Dr. Stephen Sapp and Dr. Mary Sapp
Mr. and Mrs. Barth Satuloff
Mr. and Mrs. Paul M. Schaefer
Ms. Becky S. Schaffer
Mr. and Mrs. Leo Scherker
Dr. and Mrs. William M. Schiff
Mr. and Mrs. Roy E Schoen
Mr. and Mrs. Sol Schreiber
Mr. and Mrs. Allan Schwartz
Mr, and Mrs. Philip Schwartz
Mr. and Mrs. Warren S. Schwartz
Mr. and Mrs. James H. Scott
Ms, Kathy A. Scott and Mr. Bill Swank
Dr. and Mrs. Daniel Seckinger
Ms. Patrician Seitz and Mr. AlanGreer
Mr. and Mrs. Don Senften
Ms. Jan Serig
Ms. Sandy Sharp and Mr. Stuart
Mr and Mrs. Carey Shea
Ms. Tamara Sheffman
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Shevin
Mr. and Mrs, Vergil A. Shipley
Dr. and Mrs. Robert W. Shippee
Mr. and Mrs. Don Shoemaker
Mr. and Mrs. Mark A. Siegel
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Siegel
Mr. and Mrs. Gerald Silverman
Mr. David Silverstein
Mr. and Mrs. Glen Simmons
Mr. Jose Simonet and Ms. Rema
Mr. and Mrs GeorgeE Sims
Mr. and Mrs. Howard W. Sims
Dr. and Mrs. Joseph A. Singer
Mr. and Mrs. Michael C. Slotnick
Mrs. Diane Smallen-Grob and Mr.
Werner Grob
Dr, and Mrs. Karl Smiley
Dr. Donald Smith

Mr. and Mrs. McGregor Smith, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Smith
Ms. Vicki Smith and Mr. Harvey Bilt
Mr. and Mrs. James M. Snedigar
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Snook
Dr, and Mrs, Selig D. Snow
Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert Snyder
Mr. and Mrs. Larry R. Snyder
Mr Manuel Sola
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph M. Solomon
Mr. and Mrs. Robert P. Soper
Mr. and Mrs. Cesar Sotelo
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Solo
Mr. and Mrs. Jose Sotolongo
Mr. and Mrs. Carl A. Spatez
Mr. and Mrs. Martin Spector
Mr. and Mrs. James P. Spillis
Mr. and Mrs. Peter Spillis
Mr. and Mrs. George R. Splane, Jr.
Mr. Jim Stamps and Ms. Ami Keslov
Dr. and Mrs. L.M, Stanfill
Mrs. Mary Stanley and Mr. Donald
Mr. Ronald Steams and Ms. Marlene
Mr. and Mrs. John Steinbauer
Mr. and Mrs. Adolph Steinhaner
Mr. and Mrs. Richard Stewart
Mr. and Mrs. Ronald Y. Stllman
Mr. and Mrs. Fred Stockhausen
Dr. and Mrs G,J. Stocks, Jr,
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas J. Stokes
Mr. and Mrs. John L. Stokesberry
Ms. Lame Storm
Mr. and Mrs, Saul Strachman
Mr. and Mrs. Jose Strauss
Ms. Joanne Strauss
Dr. and Mrs, Theodore Struhl
Mr. and Mrs. Morton D. Stubins
Dr. and Mrs. James N. Sussex
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Swain
Mr. and Mrs. Stephen Swaney
Mr. and Mrs. Mark D. Swanson
Mr. and Ms. Thomas Talmadge
Mr. Thomas L. Tatham
Mr. and Mrs. Ronald E. Temkin
Mr. and Mrs. Raymond Thaler
Mr. and Mrs. Mark R. Thaw
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas V. Thompson
Mr. and Mrs. John Thornton
Dr. and Mrs. Richard J. Thurer
Mr. and Mrs, Tom Thurlow, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. BillTimmeny
Mr. and Mrs. Robert C. Tipton

List of Members 91

Mr. and Mrs. Donald Tomlinson
Mr. and Mrs. Ruben Torres
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas J. Tonchton
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Traenlde
Mr. and Mrs. Sydney S. Traum
Mr. Coleman Travelstead and Ms.
Brookes McIntyre
Mr. and Mrs. Alan Troop
Mr. and Mrs. Sid Tulin
Mr. Stephen C. Turner and Ms.
Elizabeth A. Debs
Mr. and Mrs. William G. Urban
Mr. and Mrs. Franklin Valdes
Ms. Glendys Valls and Ms.
Ms. Anuca Valverde and Mr. Jay
Mr. Charles M. van der Laan
Mr, and Mrs. Roger Vanhoff
Mr. Carlos Vazquez
Mr. and Mrs. Tom H. Veenstra
Mr. and Mrs. Antonio Vega
Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Vladimir
Mr. and Mrs. Earl D. Waldin, Jr.
Mr. John S. Waldo
Mr. and Mrs. Bernard B. Wall
Mr. and Mrs. Robert G. Wallace
Mr, and Mrs, Joseph Ward
Mr. and Mrs. Bill Watkins
Mr. and Mrs. Howard Watson
Mr. and Mrs. Preston C. Watters
Mr. and Mrs. William A. Webb
Ms. Nancy K. Webster
Mr. and Mrs. Maxwell L. Weisberg
Mr. and Mrs. A. Rodney Wellens
Mr. and Mrs. Scott Wellman
Mr. and Mrs. Stuart A. Werner
Mr. and Mrs. Everett G,. West
Mr. and Mrs. Michael West
Mr. and Mrs. Michael R Whalen
Mr. and Mrs. Dean Wheeler
Ms. Irene White
Ms. Maria B, White
Mr. and Mrs. Robert White
Mr. Ted E. White and Mrs. Christine
H. Kurtz-White
Mr. and Mrs. Eric Whiteside
Ms. Kathy Widger
Mr. Joe Wilkins
Mr. and Ms. Harvey Willensky
Mr. Richard Williams
Mr. and Mrs, Richard H. Williams
Mr. and Mrs. William M. Williams
Mr. and Mrs. Norman Willis


Mr. and Mrs. R.L. Wilson
Ms. Barbara W. Wilson
Mr, and Mrs, Howard L. Wimmers
Dr. Oliver P. Winslow, Jr.
Ms. Jill Wingerter
Mr. and Mrs. Craig Witty
Mr. and Mrs. John C. Witty, Sr.
Mr. and Mrs. John C. Witty, Jr.
Dr, and Mrs. Benjamin Wolf
Mr. and Mrs. William Fred Wolff
Mr. and Mrs. Bernard Wolfson

Mrs. Leatrice Aberman
Mr. Jim Adams
Mrs. Marlene E. Adams
Ms. Molly S. Adams
Mrs, Lamar M. Adams-Jackson
Mr. Oscar M. Alabarces
Mr. Manuel Albalate
Mr, James R. Albury
Mr. Al Alschuler
Ms. Veronica Altschuler
Mr. LinoAlvarez
Mrs. GloriaAlvarez
Mr. Carl D. Amsterdam
Mrs. John Ancona
Ms. Nancy Anderson
Mr. Cromwell A. Anderson
Mr. Tim Anderson
Mr. Ellen Andrews-Bydt
Ms. Hope A. Apollony
Ms. Christina Ardavan
Mr. James Armour
Mr. Jorge Arocha
Mrs. June Atherton
Mr. Anthony D. Atwood
Mrs. Blanche T. August
Ms. Araida Avila
Mrsm John L. Bagg, Jr,
Ms. Joan L. Bailey
Ms. Mary Helen Baillie
Ms. Elizabeth S. Baker
Mr. C. Jackson Baldwin
Ms. Joanne Baldwin
Mrs. E. Hutchins Balfe
Mr. Charles L. Balli
Ms. Phyllis Barash
Ms. Nerida Barciela
Ms. Yvonne Barkman
Ms. Ava R. Barnes
Mr. J.T. Barrett
Ms. Janis Barrett
Mr. Richard Basten

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas C Woods
Mr. James S. Wooten
Mr. and Mrs. Don Worth
Mr. and Mrs. James G. Worth
Dr. and Mrs. Lloyd L. Wruble
Mr, and Mrs. Jerry A. Wutzler
Ms. MarilynM. Yaeger
Mr. and Mrs. L. Douglas Yoder
Mr. and Mrs. Jeff Youmans
Mr. and Mrs. John F Young
Mr. and Mrs. Stefan H. Zachar, Jr.

Ms. Maria C. Batista
Ms. Alice Baz
Ms. Jacqueline Beatty
Ms. Mary G. Beazel
Mr. John M. Beck, Sr.
Ms. Mary Glenda F. Beeler
Mr. Michael W. Beeman
Ms. Louise F. Bennett
Ms. Barbara K. Bennett
Ms. Sarah L. Bennett
Mr. Edwin Benson
Mr. Donald Berg
Ms. Georgiana Bethel
Ms. Diane E. Bill
Mrs. John T. Bills
Mrs. Thomas H. Birchmire
Mr. Charles Bishop
Mr. Warren R. Bitter
Ms. June F Blair
Mr. JeffBlakley
Ms. Brabara L. Blatt
Mrs. Sylvia S. Blount
Mrs. Margaret S. Blue
Mr. G.Boehm
Mr. Samuel J. Boldrick
Mr. Joe Bond, Jr.
Ms. Patricia Bonilla
Mr. John W. Borsa, Jr.
Mr. Thomas Boswell
Mr. Leonard G. Boymer
Ms. Jean Bradfisch
Mrs. Martha Lou Bradley
Ms. Rosemary A. Brady
Mr Scott Brady
Mr. Don Brammer
Mrs. K W. Breeze
Dr Miguel A. Bretos
Mrs. Geraldine Brian
Mr. Allen Brierly
Ms. Eleanor Bristol
Ms. Karen Q. Broder

Mr. and Mrs. John Zahl
Ms. Michele Lynn Zakis and Ms,
Mary Zakis
Mr. and Mrs. Levys E. Zangronis
Mr. and Mrs. Jon W. Zeder
Mr. and Mrs. Myron S. Zeientz
Mr. and Mrs. Steven Zenker
Dr. and Mrs. Peter Zies
Dr. Sanford Ziff and Mrs. Dolores
Mr, and Mrs. Craig A. Zimmett

Mr. A.L. Brown, Jr.
Ms. Bernadine Y Brown
Mrs. Mary C. Brown
Mr. William E. Brown, Jr.
Ms. Edna Buchanan
Mrs. Evelyn J. Budde
Mr. PhilipA. Buhler
Mrs. T.C. Bier
Ms. Anita Bullough
Ms. MarisabelBurge
Ms. Barbara Burnham
Dr. E. Carter Burros
Mrs. Robert A. Burton, Jr.
Mr. Gregory W. Bush
Ms. Ann Bussel
Mr. Emesto Bustillo
Mr. Theo Byrd
Mrs. FlorenceH. Cadwallader-McClure
Ms. Patricia Campuzano
Ms, Beverly Cardona
Ms. Susie Cardozo
Ms. Gail Carter
Mr. Carlos Caso
Mr. David Charles
Mrs. Dixie H. Chastain
Ms. Josephine C. Chesley
Mrs. Ann Chesney
Ms. Grace Cheung
Mrs. Anita Christ
Ms. Fran Christopher
Mrs. Walter J. Chwalik
Ms. Kathy Cibula
Ms. Margie Clark
Ms. Lydia S. Clark
Ms, Dana L. Clay
Ms. MalindaCleary
Ms. Suellen Clopton Blanton
Dr. ArmandoF Cobelo
Ms. Caroline Coffey
Ms. Anna M. Collins
Mr. C. Patrick Collins

Ms. Martha Anne Collins
Dr. Irene Colsky
Ms. Patricia Combine
Mr BurtCompton
Ms. Mabel Conde
Ms. Rebecca Conner
Mr, Steven R. Cook
Mrs. Winifred S. Cook
Ms. Carol Coverdale
Ms. Gerri S. Cox
Mrs. Prudence Cox
Ms. Norma J. Craig
Mrs. AlmaL. Crawford
Mr. Jan Crona
Mr. Andrew T. Cullison
K. M. Culpepper
Mr. George Cummings, III
Mr. Donald W. Curl
Mrs. Charlotte Curry Christensen
Ms. DawnDalziel
Ms. Sandra Darrall
Mrs. Martha Dasher Howl
Ms. Lorenda Dasher
Dr. Dewitt C. Daughtry
Ms. Liv M. Davalos
Ms. Ursula M. Davidson
Mr. Jim F. Davis
Ms. Marion P. Davis
The Hon. Mattie B. Davis
Mr. William L. Davis
Mrs. Walter R. Davison
Ms. Sandy Dayhoff
Mr.J. Allison De Foor, EI
Ms. Lynda de Velasco
Mrs. Florence H. Dence
Ms. Barbara Denny
Ms. Lucille Di Crescenzo
Mrs. Barbara Dick
Mr. Marion E. Dinsmore
Mr. Gregory Dix
Mrs. John W Dix
Ms. Janine Doane
Dr. Stephen Dobrow
Mrs. Rosemary Doerner
Mr. J.E Donnelly
Mrs. Leslie Dora
Mr. Richard P. Douthit
Mrs. H.E. Drew
Mrs. Faye Dugas
Mr. Hampton Dunn
Ms. Grace Y, Durbin
Ms. Audree K. DuVal
Mrs. JohnE. Duvall
Ms. Sarah Eaton

Ms. Norma Ederer
Mr. Jim Edward
Ms. Carol Elder
Mr. John D. Ellis
Ms. Ruth B. Elsasser
Mrs. Richard P Emerson
Mr. Grant N. Epstein
Ms. Patricia G. Ernst
Ms. Jacquelyn Esco
Ms. Lynn Esco
Mrs. Beatrice Esplin
Mr. Hall Estrada
Ms. Linda Lee Evans
Mr. Irving R. Eysler
Mrs. Mary Ann Faber
Ms. Jane Faysash
Mr. J. W. Fell
Ms. Gwen Fernandez
Mrs. Lourdes Fernandez Echemendia
Ms. Mariann Fineberg
Mrs. Nell Finenco
Mr. James N. Finlay
Ms. Cynthia A. Finney
Mr. Joseph Fishwick
Mr. Frank S Fitzgerald-Bush
Mr. Joseph M. Flanagan
Mr. Leopoldo Florez
Dr. RitaM. Fojaco
Miss Elizabeth Foote
Ms. Elizabeth Ford
Ms. Chirley C. Forthman
Mr. Scott Forthman
Mrs. Leona Foster
Miss ReneeZ. Fritsch
Ms. Margaret Froehling
Mr. Ron Gabor
Ms. Marjorie L. Galatis
Mr. Tom Gallaher
Mr. Robert W. Gardner
Ms Gretchen Garren
Ms. Dena R. Garvue
Mr. Enrique Gaston
Ms. Marcia Gauger
Mrs. Gloria G. Gautier
Ms. RosannaGelberg
Mr. Alexander S. George
Ms. Edith Georgi
Mrs. Terence Gerace
Mr. David C. Gibson
Mr. Robert N. Ginsburg
Mr. Darwin Glaese
Mrs. Anna C. Goldenberg
Mr. Charles Goldstein

List of Members 93

Ms. Maria I. Gonzalez
Mr. R.L. Gonzalez
Mr. William Gonzalez
Mr. Eduardo Gonzalez-Machado
Ms. Betty AnnGood
Ms. Maryon Goodell
Mrs. Beth Gopman
Ms. Lanna Gordich
Mr. Harold H. Gordon
Ms. Betsye B. Gorman
Mrs. Cami Green
Mr. David Green
Dr. Henry Green
Ms. Lloma G. Green
Mr. Mitchell S. Green
Mr. Gordon Gregory
Dr. Zade B. Gross
Ms. Gayle L. Grossman
Ms. Marlene Grover
Mr. Harry Guenther
Ms. Nancy F. Haddock
Ms. Victoria Hadley
Ms. Cindy Hahamovitch
Ms. Kay K. Hale
Ms. Michelle Z. Hall
Mr. Frank D. Hall
Ms. Judi S. Hamelburg
Mr. McHenry Hamilton
Ms. Juliet Hananian
Ms. Ingrid Hansen
Mr. Paul S. Hanson
Mr. John Harbom
Ms. Anne Harris
Mr. Robert S. Harris
Dr. RobertJ. Harrison
Miss Wanda Harwell
Mrs. Muriel Hathom
Mr, Leland M. Hawes, Jr.
Ms. Patricia Hayes
Mrs. Isadore Hecht
Mrs. Ruth Heckerling
Ms. CaroleHeinlein
Ms, Anne E. Helliwell
Mr Terry Helmers
Mr. Roy Vann Helms
Mrs. Gayle Henderson
Mr, John E. Hennessy
Ms. Eva Herran
Mrs. VirginiaHerring
Ms, Linda C, Hertz
Ms. Jean Hewitt
Mrs. Florence Hill C. McClure
Mr. John W. Hill
Mr. Herbert L. Hiller


Mr. Michael Hiscano
Ms. Nedra A Hodge
Mrs. Doris S. Hodges
Ms. Janet S. Hodges
Ms. Susan Hofstein
Ms. Ritta K. Hogan
Mr. Charles W. Holland, Jr.
Ms. Patricia Hooper
Ms. Teresa Horta
Mrs. Eddie Hoskins
Mr. Joseph B. Hourihan
Mr. Roland M. Howell
Mrs, Anna L Huber
Mrs. Helen B. Hudnall
Mr. Kenneth Hughs
Mr. Joseph Hunkey
Ms. Frances G. Hunter
Mr. William A. Hunter
Mr. William A. Ingraham, Jr.
Dr. and Mrs. George L Irvin, IlI
Ms. Shirley A. Jackson
Mrs. Ruth Jacobs
Ms. Eileen Jacobson
Dr. Helen Jacobstein
Mr. H.L. James
Ms. Mary C. James
Mr. Richmond A. James, Jr.
Ms. Gracie Janson
Dr. EricJarvis
Ms. Theodora Jensen
Dr. William T. Jerome, III
Mrs. Wallen A. Johnson
Mr. David Johnson
Ms. Georgina Johnson
Mrs. Henrietta Jones
Ms. ClaireJordi
Mr. Bill Juliano
Mr. Dennis G Kainen, Esq.
Ms. Roberta Kaiser
Ms. BarbaraM. Kanzer
Mrs. Ruth B. Kassewitz
Mr. Guy Kathe
Mrs. Barbara Katzen
Ms. Susan Kawalerski
Ms. Elizabeth Kaynor
Ms. Gloria L. V. Keigans
Mr. Scott G. Keith
Dr. Robert L. Kelley
Ms. Kimberly Kennedy
Ms. Sally M. Kennedy
Ms. Carolyn M. Kem
Mr. Bill Kilpatrick
Mr. Arthur King, Sr.
Mr. Charles J. King

Mr. James L. King
Mr. William P. King
Ms. Lillian Kirchheiner
Mr. Bill Kirklen
Ms. Barbara L Kirton
Mr. John Klein
Mr. Eliot Kleinberg
Ms. Marie L. Knepper
Mr. Jeffrey D. Knight
Mrs. Homer W. Knowles
Ms. Frances G. Koestline
Mr. Clifford M. Kolber
Mrs. Patricia M. Kolski
Mr. Theodore E. Koper
Ms. Elaine Kradjan
Ms. Kathy S. Kramer-Martin
Mrs James A. Kridel
Mr. Robert V Kriebs
Mr. David A. Kroner
Mr. Donald M. Kuhn
Mr, Dexter La Belle
Ms. Leah LaPlante
Mr. Richard David Lancaster
Mr. Martin J Lann
Mr. Paul W. Larsen
Ms. Janet F. Launcelott
Dr Abraham D. Lavender
Dr. Karen Lawrence
Ms. Linda R. Lawrence
Dr. HL. Lawson
Mr. Dan D. Laxson, Sr.
Ms. Nancy Lazcano
Mr, Robert A. Leathers
Ms. Christine Lee
Ms. Jo Lee
Ms. Linda Lee
Mr. Robert W. Lee
Mr. Roswell E. Lee
Mrs. David M. Lehman
Mr. Salvador Leon, Jr.
Mr. Joseph S. Leonard
Ms. Nancy L. Leslie
Mr. Paul A. Lester
Mr. Robert L. Levis
Ms. Sara B. Leviten
Mr. Scott Lewis
Ms. Theresa L. Lianzi
Mr. David M. Ligerman
Mr. Mark Lighterman
Mrs. Harriet S. Liles
Ms. EllenM. Linardi
Ms. Kristin Elise Lindley
Ms. Janet A. Lineback
Mrs. John Linehan

Mr. W, Kemp Lippert, II
Mr. Michael Jon Littman
Mr. Grant Livingston
Mr, Robert Lopez
Mr. James S. Lord
Ms. Mildred A. Love
Mr. Charles T. Lowe
Mr. David Lowry
Mr. Frank Luca
Mrs. Jaywood Lukens
Ms. Joyce M. Lund
Ms. Hillelene S. Lustig
Mr. Joseph M. Lynch
Ms. EricaLynne
Mr. James K. MacAvoy
Mr. Don MacCullough
Ms. Milbrey W. Mackie
Ms. Valerie MacLaren
Mre Angel Madera
The Rev. Richard D. Maholm
Mrs. Dorothy Malinin
Mrs. Katharine Malone
Ms. Angela Maltzman
Ms. Pat Manfredi
Dr. Celia C. Mangels
Ms. DarleneM. Mann
Ms. Patricia Manosalvas
Ms. LindaW. Mansperger
Mr. Ted Thomas Martin
Mrs. Edna P. Martin
Ms. Lillian Martin
Ms, Elizabeth Martinez
Ms. Lourdes Martinez
Ms. Andrea B. Marzouca
Ms. Jane Mason
Mrs. Jeanmarie M. Massa
Mrs. Nancy S. Masterson
Mr. Bruce C. Matheson
Mr. James F. Matheson
Ms. Marguerite Mathews
Ms. June Maura
Mr. Jim McAllister
Mrs, Arva Moore Parks McCabe
Mr. Bill McDonald
Ms. Carmen McGarry
Mr. George Percy McGown
Ms. Judy McGraw
Mrs. Alice M. McKenna
Mr. John F McLean
Ms. Carolyn A. McLeavey
Mr. William Edward McMichael, Jr.
Mrs. Virginia D. McNaughton
Dr. Donald McNeill

List of Members 95

Ms. KathrynW. McPhee
Mr. Oscar Mederos
Mrs, Charlotte M. Meggs Biedron
Ms. Toni Meltzer
Mr. Jesus Mendez
Mrs, Isabel A. Merrnitt
Ms. Linda M. Meyer
Mr, Frank C. Meyers
Dr. Joan Mickelson
Mr. Samuel Mickler
Mr. William R. Middelthon, Jr.
Mr. Timothy R. Mielke
Ms. Jeannie Milberg
Ms. Mary A. Millard
Ms. EvalynH. Milledge
Ms. Arlene Miller
Ms. Gertrude R. Miller
Ms. Mary E. Miller
Mr. Roger G. Misleh
Mr. Thomas A. Mitchell
Ms. Katherine Mitchell
Mr. Carlos J. Miyares
Mr, Raymond A. Mohl, Jr.
Ms. Diana R. Molinari
Ms. Irmnn Moller
Mr J.oyd Monk
Ms. Claudia M. Monroe
Mr. Patrick F. Moore
Ms. Cynthia Morgan
Ms. Gail Morgan
Ms. Colleen Morgan-Hobbs
Mrs. Edwin S. Morris
Mrs Florence Morris
Ms. Leslie Morton
Ms. Laura Moseley
Ms' Jo Moyes
Ms. Emily Moynihan
Mrs. W. W. Muir
Ms, Syble Mullinax
Mr. John D. Muncey
Mr. Manuel 1. Muniz
Mr. John Murphy
Mr. O.C. Murray
Mrs. Elizabeth Murray
Miss Margaret Mustard
Mrs. Jeannette Myer
Ms. Lillian G. Myers
Mrs. Shirley L. Nagy
Ms. Ada Nardone
Ms. Suzanne Nasca
Ms. Gay M. Nemeti
Ms. Peg G. Niemiec

Mr. James P. Niles
Mr. Randy F Nimnicht
Ms, Anita Nodarse
Mr. Charles E Nolan
Mr. Herbert Northrup
Mr. B.P. Nuckols, Jr.
Ms. LeslieOlle
Ms. Maita L Oppenheimer
Mr. Frank Orifici
Ms. RobertaC. Orlen
Mr. W. James Orovitz
Ms. Marie Oscar
Mr. Peter Osman
Ms. Dana Otterson
Nancy J. Overholser
Ms. EstelIe C. Overstreet
Mrs. John W. Owens
Ms. Betty 0. Packler
Mrs. Denise Paparella
Ms. Matilde Paredes-Manzanero
Mr. Dabney G. Park, Jr.
Mr. Austin S. Parker
Mr. Crawford H. Parker
Ms. Jeanne M. Parks
Mrs. MerleE FParks
Ms. Mary B. Parsons
Ms. Denise Pasternak
Mr. Edward L. Peabody
Ms. Madeline S. Pearson
Mr. Douglas T. Peck
Capt Dario Pedrajo
Mr. Vernon Peeples
Dr. Margaret M. Pelton
Mr Raul A. Perez
Mrs. Rita Perlman
Mrs. Henry J, Perner
Ms Joette Perrone
Mr. Joseph Peters, Jr.
Mrs. Carmen Petsoules
Mr. Allan Phillips
Mrs. Julius E. Pierce
Mrs. Margie K. Pierce
Mrs. Virginia R, Pietro
Mr. Gordon Pimm
Mr. Nicholas J. Pisaris
Mr. David M. Plane
Mr. Jeffrey Plait
Mrs. Suzette S. Pope
Ms. Sylvia Porro
Ms. Beatriz Portela
Ms. Nina Postlethwaite
Ms. Eva-Lynn M. Powell
Mr. Thomas A. Price
Mrs. Made Primus

Mr. Jason Psaltides, Esq.
Mrs. Hugh F Purvis
Ms. Betty Quibell
Mrs. Helen Quinton
Mr. Sam Rabin
Mrs. Virginia S. Rahm
Mr. Michael E. Raiden
Ms. Pauline E. Ramos
Mr. Ed Ranet, Jr.
Dr. Edward Rappaport
Dr. Alan S. Rapperport
Mrs. Ray S. Rasmussen
Ms. Elizabeth R. Read
Ms. Susan P. Redding
Ms. MarthaL. Reiner
Mrs. BrendaG. Reisman
Ms. Mollie C. Reubert
Sister Eileen F Rice
Mrs. Ralph E. Rice
Ms. Julie M. Richardson
Mr. Frank R. Richman
Ms. Diane Ricobene
Ms. JuanaRippes
Ms. Carol Ann Riser
Mr. Larry Rivers
Ms. TheresaRizzo
Ms. Joanne H. Roberts
Ms. Ruth Roberts
Ms. Yvonne Roberts
Ms. Ellyn Robinson
Mr. William A. Robinson
Mr. John A. Rodgers, III
Mr. Domingo Rodriguez
Ms. LaydaRodriguez
Ms. Ofelia M. Rodriguez
Mrs. Rachel P. Roller
Mr. Benard Rosenblatt
Ms. Judy Rosenthal
Mr. H.J. Ross
Mr. David L. Roumm
Ms. Anne Ruben
Mrs. Eliza P. Ruden
Ms. Carol-Ann Rudy
Ms. Raquel Ruiz
Mrs. Agnes Rush Bowles
Mrs. Betty Rushmer Adams
Mr. Denis A. Russ
Mrs. Shirley Russell-Hinnant
Ms. Evelyn Salerno
Mrs. Sadie S. Salley
Mr. Alvin M. Samet
Ms. Virginia Sanchez
Ms. Sandra K. Sanders
Mrs. Ellen M. Sanford


Mr. Arnold Santos
Dr. Sylvan Sarasohn
Ms. Anne Sargent Perry
Mrs. Chaffee Scarborough
Mr. Dennis Scamecchia
Ms. Helen L. Scarr
Mr. Michael Schiff
The Hon. Judge Eleanor Schockett
Ms. Mary L. Scholtz
Mr. Niles Schuh
Mrs. Geraldine Schwartz
Mr. Matthew Schwartz
Ms. Linda Seaward
Mrs. Natalie J. Segal
Ms. Margaret Sellers Kern
Mr. Robert L. Semes
Mr. Manuel Serkin
Mr. Stuart Serkin
Ms. Ellen G. Sessions
Ms. Janet L. Shad
Mr. Cyrus J. Sharer
Dr. Martha Luelle Shaw
Ms. Elaine Sheehan
Mrs. Charlotte Sheffield
Mr Ronald Shimko
Ms. Christina G. Shoffner
Ms. Marilyn Shrater
Mrs. Doris S. Silver
Mrs. Sam Silver
Ms. Suzanne Silver
Mr. J. Paul Simons
Mrs. Charles M. Simpson
Mrs. Eleanor Simpson
Ms. Holly Simpson
Ms. Audrey E. Singleton
Miss Benedicte Sisto
Dr. Arthur Sitrin
Ms. Marjorie L. Sipp
Mrs. Evelyn Smiley
Mrs. Jean Z. Smith
Ms. Rebecca A. Smith
Mr. Emanuel J. Smith
Ms. June C. Smith
Mr. Lee D. Smith
Ms. Leslie Smith
Mr. Robert 0. Smith
Ms. Bunty Smithers
Ms. Gail Solarana
Mrs. Lillian B. Soldinger
Mr. Mervyn M. Solomon
Mr. James Sottile
Mr. Brent Spector
Mr. George L. Stacey

Ms, S.L, Stanage
Miss Judi Stark
Ms. Ko Stark
Ms, Laura P. Stearnms
Mrs. William C. Steel
Dr. Elizabeth Stevens
Ms. Rosemary D, Stieglitz
Mr, Wade Stiles
Mrs. Muriel E. Stone
Ms. Patricia A. Suiter
Mrs. Joseph Sures
Ms. Donna C. Swartz
Mr. George H. Sweet
Ms. Blanche Szita
Ms. Jane Tallman
Mrs. Barbara W. Tansey
Ms. Jane I. Taylor
Mrs. Jean C. Taylor
Mr. John J. Taylor, Jr.
Ms. Mary Anne Taylor
Mr. David Teems
Ms. Laura Thayer
Ms. MargaretJ. Thayer
Mrs. Elizabeth D. Theobald
Mr. PhillipA. Thomas
Mr. Jay Thompson
Mr, Lawrence A. Thompson
Mr. Michael A. Thompson
Ms. Polly Thompson
Mr. Dale A. Thorn
Mr. Richard J. Thornton
Mrs. Fran H. Thorpe
Mr. Craig E. Tigerman
Ms. RussicaP. Tighe
Ms. Teresita Torres
Mrs. Helen C. Towle
Mr. Michael A. Tranchida
Mr. Tony I. Tremols
Mr. John G. Troast
Ms. Ann Sofit Truby
Mr. Joe Trudeau
Mr. Earl H. Tudor
Ms. Molly Turmer
Mrs. William Tuttle
Mrs. Jean B. Underwood
Ms. Rosemary Usher Jones
Ms. Eleanor Van Eaton
Mrs. Clifford D. Van Orsdel
Mr. Manuel 0. Vazquez
Mr. Robert E. Venditti
Mrs. Jody Verrengia
Ms. Kay Vestal
Mr. John W. Viele
Mr. Juan M. Villamil

Ms. Jo Von Funk
Ms. Carita S. Vonk
Mrs. Nancy Voss
Ms. Sue Vrana-Brogan
Mr. Gerard F. Wade
Mr, Scott Walker
Mr. Michael D. Wallace
Ms. Holly Walsh
Mr David Walters
Mrs. Nancy Washburn
Mr. Joseph A. Wasilewski
Ms. Harriet Wasserbeck
Miss ElvaJ. Waters
Ms. Hattie E. Watson
Mrs. Elizabeth Watson
Mr. Bob Weeks
Mr. Daniel A. Weiss
Ms. Meryle Weiss
Ms. Susan Weiss
Ms. Muriel Welsh
Ms. Barbara F. Wenzel
Mrs. Marcella U. Werblow
Ms. Arlene Weyrick
Ms. Bonnie M. Wheatley
Ms. Anna White
Ms. Brenda L. Whitney
Dr. Richard A. Whittington
Mr. Don Wiener
Mr. Larry Wiggins
Mr. William Wilbanks
Mr. Lucius L. Wilcox, Jr.
Ms. Geraldine H. Williams
Lt. Col. Freeman J. Williams
Mr. G.L. Williams
Mrs. George Williams, Jr.
Mr. David L Willing
Mr. Daniel E Wilson
Mrs Gaines R. Wilson
Mrs. Louise D. Wilson
Capt. Edward H. Wiser
Ms. Marcilene K. Wittmer
Mr. Thomas D. Wood, CHA
Ms. Ellen E Wooten
Mr. Horace Wunderle
Mrs. Sharon L. Wynne
Ms. Patricia Yanes
Mr. Mario M. Yanez
Mrs. Dorothy B. Yates
Mr. Robert Yates
Mr. CharlesH. Yatman
Ms. JeanT. Yehle
Mr. Montgomery L. Young
Ms. ChristinaZawisza

List of Members 97

Mrs. Elena A. Zayas
Mrs. Marcia KersteinZerivitz

Mr, and Mrs. Steve Avdakov
Ms. Susan Marie Ball-Molina
Dr. Jose Francisco Barros and Ms.
Helen Torres
Mr. and Mrs. Patrick Battle
Mr. Harlan D. Beck and Ms. Anna M.
Mr. and Mrs. Brian Belis
Ms. Kathryn Bohlmann
Mr. and Mrs. John Bolton
Mr and Mrs. Earl Boyette
Mr. and Mrs, Roger L. Carrillo
Mr. and Dr. Robert A. Chitty
Mr. and Mrs. Dwayne D. Clein
Mr. and Mrs. StephenD'Oench Field
Mr. and Mrs. Philip R. Engelmann
Dr. Andreas Fischer and Ms. Meryl
Dr. and Mrs. Luis H. Fonseca
Mr. Jed L, Frankel
Mr. Douglas Goldman
Mr. and Mrs. Rene J. Gutierrez
Mr. and Mrs. Kent D. Hamill
Ms. ShawnHelms andMr.DonDuprey
Dr. and Mrs. van Jonas
Mr. Ronald Kauffman

Ms. Julia S. Adams
Mr. Robert C. Alexander
Mr.Frank Ali
Mr. Harold D. Andrews
Dr. Danette Arthur
Ms. Mariele Bacon Jones
Mr. Bill Bailey
Mr. Scott Barnett
Ms. Gilda M. Battle
Mr. CesarBecerra
Ms. Mary Ellen Beneke
Mr. Charles L. Berg
Ms. Carolyn Best
Ms. Anna Blackman
Mr. JorgeA. Blanco
Mr. Keith Blum
Mr. K.C. Borden
Ms. Paula Brandao
Mr. Charles W. Braznell, II
Mr. Gary Bremen
Ms. JuliaC. Brown
Mr, Ken Bruce

Ms. Frances R. Zierer
Mrs. Betty Zipse

Tropee Families
Mr. and Mrs, Samuel Kohlenberg
Ms. Lauren Lancaster
Ms. Keith Landon and Mr. Robert
Mr. and Mrs, Jeremy P Leathe
Mr. Scan Lilly
Mr. Raul Lopez
Mr. William Mahoney and Ms. Maria
Cynthia Lopez
Mr and Mrs D. W. Matson
Ms. Janeau C. McKee-Vegaand Mr.
Mr, and Mrs. Robert McNaughton
Mr. and Mrs. Michael Messer
Mr. Ralph Miles and Mrs. Helen
Mr. Greg Mulvihill and Ms. Kathleen
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Munroe
Mr, Manny Nogueira and Ms. Cuqui
Mr. and Mrs. Ian Norris
Ms. Janet Parker and Mr. David Mycko
Mr. and Mrs. Nelo Patton
Mr. Zoltan Pinter and Mrs. Cristina

Tropee Individuals
Ms. Rachel Camber
Ms. Jennifer Channing
Ms. Sarah Clasby
Ms. Karen Clement
Mr. Lawrence A. Clifford
Ms. Marcela Cohen
Ms. Karon M. Coleman
Ms. AnneMarie Collins
Ms. Vicki Cornelius
Ms. CristinaCoronel
Ms. Jennifer Coronel
Ms. Lourdes Couce
Mr, Elvis W Cruz
Mr, Michael David Cushing
Ms. Laurin Dayton
Mr. Joseph M. DeLa Viesca
Mr. Frank G. del Toro
Ms. Laura Delgado
Ms, Stephanie Demos
Mr. DevangDesai
Ms. Lorraine DeWitt

Mr. Vladimir Zzzyd

Ms. Elvra M. Pita
Mr. John Portal and Mrs. Cecilia
Mr. and Mrs. Peter Raffalski
Dr. Michael Robinson and Mrs.
Jennifer Shelley-Robinson
Ms. Angela Rodrigues and Mr. Dan
Mr. and Mrs. Abelardo E. Rodriguez
Mr. and Mrs. Stephen F. Rossman
Dr. and Mrs. Eugenio M. Rothe
Dr. and Mrs. Gerard Sais
Mr, and Mrs. Javier F. Salman
Mr. Will Sekoff and Ms. Laura Pincus
Mrs. Oriana Serrano-Nicolas and Mr.
Charles Nicolas
Mrs. Genie Shayne
Mr. Blair Sibley
Mr. and Mrs. Leonardo Simon
Dr. and Mrs. Donald Spivey
Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence Terry
Ms. Vivian Vieta and Mr. Felix Moran
Mr. and Mrs. Juan Werner
Mr. and Mrs. Todd Williams
Mr. and Mrs. Tom Worley

Mr. A Diaz
Ms. Ingrid Diaz
Ms. Robin Dice-Goodman
Mr, Andrew Dickman
Mr. Thomas J. Donahoo
Ms. Andrea Dougherty
Ms. Christine Dowlen
Ms. Karen Dowling
Ms. MichelleDunaj
Mr. BobDunbar
Mr. S.D. Edge
Ms. Raquel Egusquiza
Mr, Marvin Ellis
Ms. Carmen Espinosa
Ms. Maria R. Estorino
Ms. Christian Falco
Mr. Emerson Fales
Ms. YelenaFernmandez
Mr. Alberto Femandez-Sabater
Ms Marianne Finizio
Mr. Frank Fuentes
Ms. Ana Margarita Gamonal


Ms. Tamara E. Garcia
Ms. Joyce Geiger
Mr. Noel Gil
Commander Paul ]. Gilson, USNR
Ms. Joyce Goldberg
Mr. John P. Gomes
Mr. Arthur Gomez
Mr. Alex Gonzalez
Ms. Anal. Gonzalez
Mr. Adrian Gonzalez
Mr. Alfredo J. Gonzalez
Mr. George Gonzalez
Mr. Israel Gonzalez
Mr. William E. Gregory
Ms. Christine Griffard
Mr. Mark S. Grogan
Ms. Alison M. Gunn
Ms. Sylvia Gurinsky
Ms. Sarah Halherg
Mr. Geoffrey Harris
Mr. Douglas A. Harrison
Mr. Walter J. Harvey
Ms. Christiane Hayden
Mr. Jose L. Hemrnandez
Ms. Cindy B. Hill
Ms. Lisa Hillier
Mr. Jack Holly
Mr. William H. Holly
Mr. Lee Irvin
Mr. Lawton Jackson
Ms. Jena K. Jenkins
Ms. Francine Johnson
Mr. Michael Kaminer.Esq.
Mr. Mike E. Kennedy
Mr. Brian J. Kiedrowski
Ms. Kelly Klauder
Mr. Christopher E. Knight
Mr. Robert F. Kohlman
Mr. Craig Kolhoff
Ms. Andrea Krensky
Mr. Tyler P. Kurau
Mr. Brian E. Lee
Ms. Muffy Lewis
Mr. Kevin Love
Mrs. Nicole Lozano
Mrs. Patty Lubian
Mr. Mark Lunt
Ms. Kelly A. Luther, Esq.
Ms. Suzanne Lynch
Ms. Kathleen MacMahon Nichols
Ms. Rebecca Madan
Ms. Deborah Magid, Esq.
Dr. Mike Mahaffey
Mr. Brian Mahoney

Ms. Legia Maranon
Ms. Yery Marrero
Mr. and Miguel Martell, Jr.
Ms. AleidaMartinez
Mr. Carlos Martinez
Miss Hilda C. Masip
Mr. Ryon McCabe
Ms. Cynthia McDaniel
Mr. Peter McElwain
Ms. Claire Menard
Mr. Michael Mennes
Mr. Alex Miller
Ms. Rhonda Montoya, Esq.
Mr. Thomas R. Mooney
Ms. Eileen L Mouly
Mr. Kevin Moure
Ms. Raquel Muniz
Mr. Alejandro Munoz
Ms. Mary Munroe
Ms. Catherine Murray
Ms. Diana Neringbogel
Mr. DouglasL. O'Keefe
Dr. Jules Oaklander
Ms. Phillis Oeters
Mr. Carlos F. Ora
Ms. Aileen Ortega
Ms. Anna Pacheco
Mr. Michael J. Palenscar
Ms. Morgan E. Park
Ms. Kristin Pearce
Mr. J. Michael Pennekamp
Dr. Jacqueline Pereira, DVM
Ms. Patricia Perez-Benitoa
Mr. Robert H. Pike
Ms. Sandra Piligian
Ms. Michelle Pivar
Mr. William S. Pollak
Mr. Scott A. Poulin
Mr. John Price
Ms. SharlaRabin
Mr. Edward Rahn
Mr. Sham Rajadhmaksha
Mr. Gary Reeves
Mr. Dean C. Richardson
Mr, Tom L. Robison, Jr.
Ms. Melisa Robles
Mr. Eric A. Rodriguez, Esq.
Ms. Lizzeette Rodriguez
Mr. Rick Rodriguez Pina
Ms. Raquel Rodriguez
Mr. FelipeSablon
Ms. Adalyn Saladrigas
Ms. Sonia Y. Santana
Mr. David C. Schneider

Mr. Jeff Scott
Mr, Matt Shannon
Mr. Robert J. Shelley, IV
Mr Mike Shurm
Mr Paul Skoric
Mr. Robert G. Slater
Mr. Michael K. Slawson
Ms. Sharyn Spalten
Mr. Bradley R- Stark
Ms. Kati Steurer
Ms. Alice M. Stone
Mr. Michael A. Strahm
Mr. Brian L. Tannenbaum
Ms. Julie G. Tatol, Esq.
Mr. Alex Techoueyres
Ms. Sharon Thompson
Ms. Barbara J. Throne
Mr. Bret Tobey
Ms. Crisele Torres
Mr. Michael Trebiloock
Ms. ElisabethTruby
Ms. Stacey A. Tucker
Ms. Wendy Tuttle
Mr. Chris Utkus
Dr Alberto E. Vadillo
Mr. Carlos Xavier Valdano
Ms. Sara N. Valle
Ms. Julia Van
Ms. Bonnie L. Vernareli
Mr. Kurt A. Von Gonten
Mr. Tim D. Warmath
Mr. Richard Webster
Mr. Craig Wheeling
Mr. Robert Wolfarth
Ms. Heidi Woodhead
Ms. Valerie Yaeger
Mr. Raymond Yueller
Mr. Jorge Zamanillo

Alachua County Library District
Alien County Public Library
Army Corp of Engineers
Barry University
Boston College
Brandeis University
Broward County Historical Commission
Broward County Main Library
BrowardCounty NorthRegionalLibrary
Broward County SouthRegionalLibrary
BrowardCountyWest Regional Library
Brown University
Charlote Harbor AreaHistorical Society
City of Lake Worth
Clewiston Museum, Inc.
Collier County Public Library
Comell University
Dade Heritage Trust Historic
Preservation Center
Duke University
El Portal Womans Club
Florida Gulf Coast University
Florida Atlantic University
Florida International University-
North Campus
Florida International University-
University Park

Institutional Members
Florida Southern College
Florida State University
Ft. Myers Historical Museum
Ft. Lauderdale Historical Society
Harvard College
Henry M. Fhgler Museum
Highland Oaks Middle School
Historical Preservation Society of the
Upper Keys
Historical Society of Martin County
Huntington Library
Islamorada Branch Library
Janus Research
Key West Maritime Historical
Society for the Florida Keys
Martin County Public Library
Mashantucket Pequot
Miami Dade Community College-
Kendall Campus
Miami Public Library-Coral Gables
Miami Public Library-Main Library
Miami Public Library-Miami Beach
Miami Public Library-North Dade
Miami Public Library-South Dade
Miami Public Library-West Dade
Miami Public Library-West Kendall
Miami Springs Historical Preservation

List of Members 99

Monroe County Library
Newberry Library
Rollins College
Orange County Historical Museum
Palm Springs Public Library
Pembroke Pines City Historian
Ransom Everglades
SIRS, Inc. Discoverer
Society of the Four Arts Library
St. Thomas University
St. Lucie County Library System
Stanford University
State Historical Soctiety of Wisconsin
State Library of Florida
Stetson University
Tampa Public Library
Tennessee State Library Archives
The Villagers
University of Central Florida
University of Florida
University of Iowa
University of Miami
University of Michigan
University of Pennsylvania
University of South Florida
University of Washington
West Palm Beach Public Library

Please notify the Historical
Association's Membership
Coordinator, Hilda Masip,
of any changes to the mem-
bership listing. Telephone:
(305) 375-1492.

Fellow nefactor...... ........ ........... ......... ............ $500 (and up)
Conroration/Foundation ..............................$500 (and up)
Benefactor.................................................. .......... ... $250
Sponsor ....................................................................... $ 100
D onor ............................................................................ $ 7 5
Family ................................................ ..................... $45
Individual/Institutional ................ ..................... $35
Tropee Individual ............................. $35
Tropee Family ....................... ....................... $50

Tequesta Advisory Board

Miguel Bretos, Ph.D.
Cantor Brown, Jr., Ph.D.
Robert S. Carr
Donald Curl, Ph.D.
Dorothy Fields
Eugene Lyon, Ph.D.
Gary Mormino, Ph.D.
Frank Sicius, Ph.D.

Bill Brown
Gregory Bush, Ph.D.
Juan Clark, Ph.D.
Rodney Dillon
Howard Kleinberg
Raymond A. Mohl, Ph.D.
Larry Rivers, Ph.D.
Donald Spivey, Ph.D.

Complete Your Library with
Back Issues of Tequesta

Issues of Tequesta going back to 1941 are available for most years
for just $5 each. Call Hilda Masip to complete your collection at
(305) 375-1492, or e-mail your request to hasf@ix.netcom.com.

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