Front Cover
 African Americans in South Florida:...
 The sweeting homestead on Elliot...
 Henry Flagler and the model land...
 Historical Association of Southern...
 Back Cover

Title: Tequesta
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101446/00056
 Material Information
Title: Tequesta
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Historical Association of Southern Florida
Publisher: (multiple)
Publication Date: 1996
Copyright Date: 2010
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101446
Volume ID: VID00056
Source Institution: Historical Museum of Southern Florida
Holding Location: Florida International University: Florida History and Heritage
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 2096319
lccn - 42015131
issn - 0363-3705


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    African Americans in South Florida: A home and a haven for reconstruction-era leaders
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
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        Page 18
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        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    The sweeting homestead on Elliot Key
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
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        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Henry Flagler and the model land company
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
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        Page 77
        Page 78
    Historical Association of Southern Florida membership list
        Page 79
        Page 80
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    Back Cover
        Page 99
        Page 100
Full Text

Editors Emeriti
Charlton W. Tebeau, Ph.D.

Paul S. George, Ph.D.

Managing Editor
Rebecca Eads

Number LVI 1996


Editor's Foreword ............................................................................. 3
by Paul S. George

African Americans in South Florida: A Home and a Haven for
Reconstruction-era Leaders ............................................................. 5
by Larry E. Rivers and Canter Brown, Jr.

The Sweeting Homestead on Elliott Key ......................................24
by Peg Niemiec

Henry Flagler and the Model Land Company ..............................46
by William E. Brown, Jr. and Karen Hudson

Historical Association of Southern Florida Members.................. 79


is published annually by the Historical Association of
14 estl-A Southern Florida. Communications should be addressed
to the Managing Editor of Tequesta, Historical Museum
of Southern Florida, 101 W. Flagler Street, Miami,
Florida 33130. Telephone: (305) 375-1492. The Association does not assume re-
sponsibility for statements of facts or opinions made by contributors. (ISSN 0363-3705)

On the Cover: North bank of the Miami River, ca. 1899. On the front, to the right,
is the St. Lucie steamer coming into the Miami River. The property of Flagler's
Royal Palm Hotel, which opened 100 years ago, is on the back. (HASF x-93-1)


Historical Association of Southern Florida, Inc.

John C. Harrison, Jr.
Robert B. Battle
Anna Price, Ph.D.
Stuart Block
Lynn Pike
George R. Harper
Randy F. Nimnicht
J. Andrew Brian
Paul S. George, Ph.D.
Charlton W. Tebeau, Ph.D.
Stuart B. McIver
Rebecca Eads

Chairman of the Board
First Vice Chair
Second Vice Chair
Past Chair
Museum Director
Editor, Tequesta
Editor Emeritus, Tequesta
Editor, South Florida History Magazine
Editor, South Florida History Magazine

Sherry Flagg Allen Roger Barreto
Anthony Barthelemy, Ph.D. Nancy W. Batchelor
Benjamin Bohlmann Thomas Daniel
James L. Davis William Ho
Keith Jennings Peter Lapham
Samuel D. LaRoue, Jr. Linda B. Lubitz
Raul Masvidal Charles P. Munroe
Thomas Paligraf Harold E. Patricoff
Raul L. Rodriguez Susan Shelley
Michael B. Smith Joel Stocker
Edward A. Swakon Lourdes Viciedo
The Rev. John F. White Judy Wiggins
Eric Williams Richard A. Wood

Editor's Foreword

This has been quite a year for history in Miami and South Florida.
The number, quality and variety of events, exhibits and publications
surrounding the City of Miami's one-hundredth birthday observance
far exceeded what many of us had anticipated. I felt the excitement
throughout the year from enthusiastic tour-goers, the institutions I had
the good fortune to visit and speak before, and the wonderful persons
who called to share a special memory or to offer an item of memora-
bilia. The birthday itself was one for the books, with so many meaning-
ful happenings coming together on a beautiful weekend filled with cel-
ebration. Clearly, the centennial observance provided the beleaguered
city of Miami with a great lift at a critical juncture in its history.
Appearing in the centennial year, this issue of Tequesta, a journal
that has been offering quality articles to readers for more than one-half
of Miami's corporate existence, represents one step toward attaining
my goal of broadening its offerings to include, in addition to Miami,
other parts of south Florida and even points south. With this in mind,
we offer readers an important article by historians Canter Brown and
Larry Rivers on African American leaders in late nineteenth-century
South Florida, defined here as the area from Tampa through the Florida
Keys. This topic has come under little scrutiny until now. One of the
men profiled here is Alexander C. Lightbourn, Sr., who was a promi-
nent figure at the City of Miami's incorporation meeting, the founder of
Greater Bethel AME church, Miami's first African-American congre-
gation, and a leader in a host of other matters both here and elsewhere
in Florida.
Peg Niemiec's article on Elliott Key, the longest in a chain of
islands in south Biscayne Bay, traces its "many lives" and legends.
With its rich array of legendary characters, hardy and industrious set-
tlers and layered history, Elliott Key has intrigued many south Florid-
ians for more than a century. Niemiec's essay examines these elements
in an interesting, informative manner.
William Brown and Karen Hudson have made splendid use of the
rich archives found within the Special Collections section of the Uni-
versity of Miami's Otto G. Richter Library. In examining the massive
records of Henry M. Flagler's Model Land Company, authors Brown
and Hudson have provided us with a behind-the-scenes peek at the mar-
keting strategies and developmental activities of the Flagler organiza-


tion in regard to the vast acreage it received from the state of Florida
for extending the railroad south to the tip of the peninsula and beyond.
The Model Land Company pursued an extremely ambitious agenda
with this land, which sometimes gave rise to complicated legal prob-
lems over its disposition.
Finally, we are excited over the increasing number of articles com-
ing into Tequesta from graduate students, professionals and the general
public eager to share their love of the area's history with readers of this
journal. I encourage you, the history-loving public, to continue to send
articles to Tequesta for consideration. We will be only too happy to
work with you in this enriching endeavor.

Paul S. George
Tequesta Editor

African Americans in South Florida:

A Home and a Haven for

Reconstruction-era Leaders

by Larry E. Rivers and Canter Brown, Jr.

Dating from 1528 when the slave Estevanico landed at Tampa
Bay with the Panfilo de Narvaez expedition, African Americans have
contributed substantially to South Florida's rich and diverse heritage.
Unfortunately, memories of their lives and efforts too often have dimmed
or flickered to extinction when placed in the care of historians of previ-
ous generations who sought to justify or, at least, not challenge Jim
Crow society and its reading of the past. Compounding the problem,
South Florida has grown so dynamically during the past century that
wave after wave of newcomers has arrived with little understanding
that permanent settlers toiled to make their livings in the area long be-
fore Henry Plant's railroad tracks entered Tampa in 1883 or Henry
Flagler's trains arrived at isolated Miami thirteen years later.'
Two aspects of South Florida's African American history may
prove especially surprising to today's residents. During Florida's Re-
construction period and, in some cases, for decades thereafter, black
leaders held public office in the region, participating in decisions and
political initiatives that had state and national, as well as local, implica-
tions. Further, as restrictions upon black political involvement became
increasingly severe after the late 1880s, South Florida offered a home
and retirement haven to some of the state's most-dynamic black lead-
ers. Just as do today's retirees, they came to love the area, where their
remains rest to this day.

Larry E. Rivers is Professor of History, Department of History, Political Science/
Public Administration, Geography, and African American Studies at Florida A&M
University in Tallahassee. Canter Brown, Jr., is Historian in Residence, Tampa Bay
History Center, Tampa.


To set the context for the story of South Florida's nineteenth-cen-
tury African American political leadership, perhaps a brief historical
and demographic overview might prove helpful. The Civil War ended
in 1865, but not until the advent of Congressional or Military Recon-
struction in 1867 were Florida's adult black males afforded the vote
and a chance to participate in the state's political life. Republican rule
then commenced in the summer of 1868 and lasted until January 1877.
Subsequently, African American leaders strove for over a decade to
regain their lost statewide power, while exercising substantial influence
within many municipal governments. Passage of a state poll tax in 1889
thereafter effectively undercut their base of support and presaged black
South Florida at the time of Reconstruction comprised all of the
peninsula's southern half, organized as the counties of Hillsborough,
Polk, Brevard, Manatee, Dade and Monroe. In 1880 their combined
population totalled only about 25,000. Of that number over 40 percent
resided in Monroe County where lay the state's largest city, Key West.
Blacks made up just under 20 percent of the regional total, ranging
from a low of 4 percent in Polk and Manatee counties to 26 and 29
percent, respectively, in Dade and Monroe. In the succeeding two de-
cades area population quadrupled, in recognition of which legislators
carved out new counties of Osceola, DeSoto and Lee. Thus, by the
beginning of the twentieth century approximately 96,000 individuals
called South Florida home. African American population totals had
climbed by then to 22 percent, with Hillsborough, Polk, Dade and
Monroe exceeding the average. In Monroe's case, 32 percent of the
1900 population total represented black residents.3
From the vantage point of the first year of the new century, Afri-
can Americans in South Florida could look back upon thirty-three years
during which members of their race had held some, and sometimes nu-
merous, political offices in the area. The era had opened after the pas-
sage of the Congressional Reconstruction acts in 1867 with the ap-
pointment of three-man boards of voter registrars for each county, one
of whose members had to be black. State registrar Ossian B. Hart named
the respected Washington Clarke to Monroe's board. In Polk he turned
to ex-slave Stepney Blount Dixon, for Manatee he chose Robert Taylor
(1867) and Union army veteran John Lomans (1868), and in
Hillsborough he placed Frederick Newberry on the panel. For Dade,
where but fifteen individuals (two of whom were African Americans)

African Americans in South Florida 7

would register to vote in 1867, he asked Key West's future postmaster
Nelson Francis deSales English to serve.4
From these beginnings black political involvement blossomed in
South Florida. The liberal Florida constitution drafted in 1868 permit-
ted the governor to appoint virtually all county officials except for con-
stables and state legislators. From 1868 until the Democratic Redemp-
tion of 1877, Republican governors Harrison Reed, Ossian B. Hart,
and Marcellus Stearns designated hundreds of African Americans to
local positions. Although Polk, Manatee and Brevard counties saw no
African Americans called into county office, the story evolved differ-
ently elsewhere in South Florida. In Hillsborough County five black
men sat on the county commission, including Mills Holloman, Cyrus
Charles, Robert Johnson, John Thomas and Adam Holloman. At one
time in 1871 they comprised the body's majority. Meanwhile, Frederick
Newberry and Peter W. Bryant presided as justices of the peace. In
Dade, Andrew Price sat as county commissioner during 1869-1873 and
again from 1874-1876.1
Monroe County deserves individual attention due to the numbers
and prominence of its African American officials. By gubernatorial
appointment, James D. English, Benjamin W. Roberts and Robert W.
Butler served on the county commission and, during 1874-1877, James
A. Roberts executed the responsibilities of sheriff. Local voters also
placed black leaders in office. They elected James A. Roberts and Charles
Brown as county constables in the early 1870s. Even after Reconstruc-
tion ended, they persisted in favoring some black candidates. In 1879
Robert Gabriel represented the county in the state legislature, as did
Charles Shavers in 1887. In 1888 county residents chose the state's
first popularly elected black sheriff, Charles F. Dupont, and Florida's
only nineteenth-century African American county judge, James Dean.
The achievements of Dupont and Dean merit a closer look at these two
remarkable individuals.6
Sheriff Charles F Dupont's story reflects a true Horatio Alger
rise in life. Born a slave at Tampa on September 3, 1861, he learned
carpentry skills from his father Rome Dupont, who had relocated the
family to Key West by the Civil War's end. By the mid- 1880s the young
man had involved himself in the city's Republican organization and,
seemingly, also had joined with many fellow islanders in support of the
Knights of Labor national labor organization, which had gained sig-
nificant political influence in Monroe County. Elected sheriff on the


Knights-endorsed Republican ticket in 1888, Dupont served a four-
year term in a manner that earned him community respect. On one oc-
casion in 1891 his personal courage and presence of mind saved a
prisoner's life from the demands of a local mob. Dupont died at Key
West on September 29, 1938.1
Judge James Dean's life offers a somewhat more-refined counter-
point to that of Sheriff Dupont. Born at Ocala on February 14, 1858,
he attended some of the best of Florida's schools founded after the Civil
War for African Americans. Beginning in 1874 he studied at
Jacksonville's Cookman Institute, from which he graduated in 1878.
By 1883 he had received the degree of Bachelor of Law from Howard
University, and, in the following year, he achieved admission to the
District of Columbia bar. In 1887 he successfully sought a license to
practice in Florida courts. Active in Florida politics from the late 1870s,
Dean was described by one correspondent in 1884 as "courteous, thor-
oughly posted in parliamentary law, and eloquent withal." His 1888
election as Florida's first black county judge provoked demands by
white conservatives for his removal from office by Governor Francis P.
Fleming. Fleming complied in 1889. As a Key West man put it, "[Dean]
was ousted from the position by members of his own party, because of
his intelligence and his refusal to be whipped into line, and because he
was in their way." Later, Dean practiced law in Key West and Jackson-
ville. During the period he also joined the clergy of the AME church.
He passed away at Jacksonville on December 18, 1914.8
While South Florida counties benefitted from the service of men
such as Dupont and Dean, two regional towns witnessed black involve-
ment in municipal government. At Tampa, Cyrus Charles achieved elec-
tion to the town council in 1869, followed by Joseph A. Walker in 1887.
Key West's African American officialdom dwarfed that of Tampa. At
least ten men-William M. Artrell, Benjamin W. Roberts, Jose Juan
Figueroa, James A. Roberts, Robert Gabriel, Charles R. Adams, Frank
Adams, Washington A. Cornell, R. M. Stevens and Charles Shavers-
labored as aldermen at some time between 1875 and 1907. Addition-
ally, John V. Cornell served as city clerk (1875-1876) and Frank Adams
acted as assessor (1886-1887, 1888-1889).9

The accomplishments of these men deserve modern recognition
and respect, but South Florida played a further and important role in
the lives of the state's black leadership by offering the possibility of a

African Americans in South Florida 9

haven from the onset of legally enforced racial discrimination and bars
to political participation. That it did so rested upon several founda-
tions: regional race relations patterns; the availability of United States
government jobs; and the possibilities for ministers, educators, and other
professional men in Florida's largest city and at some other area loca-
As to race relations patterns, the region retained at least some
flavor of the more-tolerant racial mores of Spanish colonial Florida.
Writing from Tampa in 1857, future Union army general and Freedmen's
Bureau head Oliver 0. Howard noticed the atmosphere. "Slavery here
is a very mild form," he remarked. "You wouldn't know the negroes
were slaves unless you were told."'1 Similarly, in 1853 at Key West a
newspaper correspondent observed:

The negroes, in a very large proportion [seemingly] out-
number the whites, and are possessed of such freedom as
renders their living in juxtaposition a matter almost of
impossibility, and the day does not beam far distant in the
horizon when the African sceptre will sway supreme."

Despite incidents of racial violence during and after Reconstruc-
tion, the patterns persisted to some extent particularly in coastal
areas, and especially at Key West. When Monroe County voters chose
a black county judge and sheriff in 1888, Lemuel W. Livingston boasted
to the New York Age that Key West was "the freest town in the South,
not even Washington excepted." He continued:

There are no attempts at bulldozing and intimidation dur-
ing campaigns and at elections here. No negroes are mur-
dered here in cold blood, and there are no gross miscar-
riages of justice against them as is so frequently seen
throughout the South, to her everlasting shame and dis-

Livingston concluded, "A vigilance committee here would meet with
the warmest kind of reception and a ku klux clan would be unceremoni-
ously run into the Gulf of Mexico or the Atlantic Ocean."'2 Unfortu-
nately, Livingston did not recognize the threat posed at Key West by a
minority of white residents who, within a short time, had colluded with


Democratic state officials to oust Judge James Dean from office and to
place municipal government for a time in the hands of gubernatorial
appointees.13 Still, his remarks honestly reflected circumstances as he
observed them in 1888.
Even with state government in the hands of white, conservative
Democrats after 1876, some government positions remained available
for African Americans. Except for President Grover Cleveland's two
administrations (1885-1889 and 1893-1897), the White House rested
in Republican control until 1913. Party incumbents through the period
appointed blacks to offices of responsibility in Florida. Prime jobs in-
cluded postmasterships, customs service inspectorships and internal
revenue service positions.
Other jobs also beckoned. During the late-nineteenth century Bap-
tist and Methodist churches enhanced their positions within the black
community, and, reacting to South Florida's tremendous growth, the
denominations expanded their networks to encompass new and larger
African American congregations in the southern peninsula. Key West
and Tampa churches, because of their cities' prominence as the state's
largest and soon-to-be largest urban centers, became prestige assign-
ments. Ministers often had emerged to lead Florida blacks in politics,
as well as in matters spiritual. The involvement continued after the end
of Reconstruction, although another trend became discernable as poli-
ticians began moving into the ministry in a search for acceptable alter-
native employment. Accordingly, South Florida's churches became home
for many ex-officeholders from other areas of the state, and Key West
and Tampa would host the elite of the political clergy.14
Finally, South Florida schools and the need for businessmen to
service black communities permitted employment to some of Florida's
one-time black officeholders. In the former case, Key West's Douglass
School provided the most-coveted area position. Founded in 1870, the
institution was led in its formative years by Nassau-born educator Wil-
liam Middleton Artrell, who sat on Key West's city council in 1875-
1876. Artrell used the Douglass School position as a platform from
which to urge the temperance cause upon black and white Floridians.
He later served as principal of Jacksonville's Stanton Institute before
returning to the island city, where he died in 1903.15
As Artrell offers an example of politically active educators, Owen
B. Armstrong illustrates how former officeholders could retire to a South
Florida business. A Pennsylvania-born Union army veteran, Armstrong

African Americans in South Florida 11

fought in Florida during the Civil War and remained in the vicinity of
Tallahassee as a teacher and a carpenter. He attended the 1868 consti-
tutional convention as a delegate from Leon and Wakulla counties and
occupied a seat on the Leon County commission during 1869-1870. By
the mid-1880s he had relocated to Punta Gorda, where on December 7,
1887, he served as one of the town's incorporators. Through the 1890s
he conducted a grocery business that catered to white and black cus-
tomers, and afterward he entered the restaurant business. All the while
Armstrong remained a firm activist within the Republican party, at-
tending district congressional nomination conventions, for instance, as
late as 1904. He died at Punta Gorda on July 4, 1914.16

The experiences of the following individuals show how a combi-
nation of the factors already mentioned drew many other former office-
holders to South Florida and kept a good number of them as area resi-
Alexander C. Lightbourn, Sr.'s journey to the southern peninsula
began in Nassau and took him through most of Florida. Born in 1846,
he was working twenty-three years later as an assistant teacher in Tal-
lahassee. That year 1869 and the following year, he served as
sergeant-at-arms of the Florida House of Representatives. Soon Gover-
nor Harrison Reed had appointed the young man as a justice of the
peace in violent Gadsden County, in which capacity he worked until
1874. At Quincy he helped found the AME church and also emerged as
a county Republican leader. Becoming a railroad postal employee in
1877, he remained in Gadsden until the mid-1880s, when he removed
his family to Jacksonville. His Republican involvements continued there
and evolved into a close association with the Knights of Labor. In the
1890s his work, still probably related to the postal system, took him to
Cocoa and Palm Beach.17
Subsequently, Lightboum moved to Miami, the intensity of his
commitment to public affairs still evident. In 1896 he helped to achieve
the incorporation of his new hometown. Almost one half of the men
involved in the July 28 incorporation of Miami were African Ameri-
cans, but, as one diarist recorded of the event, "Lightbourn delivered
the best speech."18 The same year, Lightbourn represented Dade County
at the state Republican convention and sat also as its representative on
the state Republican executive committee. In 1897 he supervised the
"Colored Schools of Miami" and urged local leaders to provide ad-


equate school facilities for black children. Lightboum was also a founder
of the Greater Bethel AME church, Miami's first African-American
congregation. At the century's turn he continued to live at the family
home on Fourth Street. He died in Miami in October 1908 and is buried
Unlike Lightbourn, John Willis Menard did not remain in South
Florida, but as an area resident he profoundly influenced state and na-
tional affairs. Menard was born free at Kaskaskia, Illinois, on April 3,
1838. Educated in local schools and at Iberia College, he labored dur-
ing the Civil War in the United States Department of the Interior. In
1865 he moved to New Orleans, and voters there elected him to the
United States Congress in 1868, although its white membership de-
clined to seat him. Menard became a Jacksonville resident in the early
1870s. He sat in the Florida House of Representatives in 1874 and
presided as a Duval County justice of the peace during 1874 to 1877.
His book of poems, Lays in Summer Lands, was published in 1879.20
By the time Menard's poetry book came into print, Bourbon Demo-
crats were consolidating their control of Florida government and the
former legislator found himself seriously in need of employment. Within
months of the publication, he accepted a Republican patronage posi-
tion as inspector of customs at Key West. In 1882 Menard took control
of the Key West News, later renamed the Florida News. As its editor he
denounced the Bourbons and advocated the Independent movement's
call for coalition of good men from both races. Historian Jerrell H.
Shofner has noted, "Menard was the most influential black editor [in
Florida] speaking for and to blacks in the 1880s, and his vigorous edi-
torials were aimed at the political, economic, moral, and educational
improvement of his race." President Grover Cleveland's administration
removed Menard from his Key West customs inspectorship in 1885. He
relocated the Florida News to Jacksonville and continued it there as the
Southern Leader. He died at Jacksonville on October 9, 1893, remem-
bered the Florida Times-Union declared as "a man of brains and
education" and "a good friend and wise counsellor to his race."21
Willis Menard's South Florida sojourn launched him on a suc-
cessful career as an editor, but Peter W. Bryant's search for profes-
sional standing led him into law. Entering the world in Thomas County,
Georgia, on October 18, 1853, he became a Floridian three years later
when his family was taken to Tampa. In the Reconstruction days he
organized Hillsborough County blacks for the Republican party, and

African Americans in South Florida 13

Governor Hart commissioned him a major in the state militia. He at-
tended the Republican national convention as a delegate in 1876 and,
eventually, sat on the First District Republican executive committee for
twelve years. During 1877 to 1879 he acted as a justice of the peace.
Afterward, he achieved a patronage position in the Key West Customs
Bryant's course shifted once the Democrats regained the White
House. During the Cleveland Administration he attended Howard
University's law department with the support and encouragement of
two South Florida white leaders, Judge James W. Locke of Key West
and Joseph B. Wall of Tampa. He graduated in 1889. Bryant returned
to Key West, still active in Republican political affairs, and opened a
law practice. "The only colored lawyer in the city is Hon. Peter W.
Bryant," observed the state's principal African American newspaper in
1895, "a young attorney at the bar, but who is rapidly building up a
large practice." The account added: "Mr. Bryant practices in all the
courts State and Federal, and has a large clientage. He is one of the
most affable of men, ever ready for a business or social confab and
numbers his friends by the hundreds." Poor health limited Bryant's ac-
tivities after the turn of the century, and he sought medical care in New
York City. He died there July 30, 1912, and was returned for burial to
Key West.23
Although Peter Bryant left Hillsborough County in the late 1870s
for better prospects at Key West, by the late 1890s growth had opened
opportunities that drew numerous former public officials to Tampa.
Two, in particular, came to hold federal positions of real authority and
would remain in those offices well into the twentieth century.
The first of the two African American officeholders was Joseph
Newman Clinton, the son of AME bishop Joseph N. Clinton. He was
born at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on November 19, 1854, and gradu-
ated from Lincoln University nineteen years later. A teacher by profes-
sion, he came to Florida to work in the schools of Alachua County, but
he soon accepted a position in the federal land office at Gainesville.
Afterward, Clinton worked for a time as an inspector of customs at
Pensacola. He won a two-year term on the Gainesville town council in
1883 and claimed a seat in the Florida House of Representatives in
Following his legislative tenure, Clinton maintained a political
interest while spending time with church, business and educational con-


cerns. In 1891 he joined the ministry of
the AME church and, the next year, af-
filiated as well with the AME Zion
church. Within four years he had become
an AME presiding elder. As a distin-
guished and proven public servant and
civic leader, the administration of Presi-
f dent William McKinley turned to him
Ae Din 1898 to run federal internal revenue
collection operations at Tampa. Subse-
quently, Clinton occupied the position
until 1913, when he was dismissed from
office by the Democratic administration
Joseph N. Clintdon, 154-1927. of President Woodrow Wilson, At the
Joseph N. Clinton, 1854-1927.
(Florida State Archives) time, the Tampa Tribune related of him,

Clinton has been in charge of the office for 15 years, and
its patrons give him credit for being efficient and polite.
He has handled at least $10 million of the government's
money during his administration, and at no time has there
been cause for questioning his honesty.

Never to return to federal office, Clinton tended his business invest-
ments at Tampa until his death on September 6, 1927.25
Henry Wilkins Chandler's career took a similar path. A native of
Bath, Maine, he was born on September 22, 1852. After graduating
from Bath High School, he earned a bachelor's degree from Bates Col-
lege. During 1874 to 1876 he taught at Howard University while pur-
suing studies there in law. When his course of study was completed, he
accepted a teaching position in Ocala. The Pennsylvania native achieved
admission to the Florida bar in 1878. Within two years he had won
election to the state senate, where he served two four-year terms. Chan-
dler represented Marion County in the Florida constitutional conven-
tion of 1885. At Ocala he acted as city clerk in 1883 through 1884 and
remained on the town council from 1886 to 1893. The senator attended
every Republican national convention from 1884 to 1908 as a Florida
delegate. In 1888 he was the Republican party's nominee for Florida
secretary of state.26

African Americans in South Florida 15

The availability of a federal patronage position at Tampa caused
Chandler's departure from Ocala. In 1908 he accepted appointment as
inspector of customs, from which -just as had happened to Joseph N.
Clinton the Wilson administration fired him in 1913. Chandler had
purchased property in Tampa and managed it for a number of years.
Declining health compelled him in 1926 to relocate to Polk County,
where his daughter and son-in-law, Dr. and Mrs. D. J. Simpson, then
lived. He died at Lakeland on March 27, 1938, and was buried there.
Chandler's obituary in the Lakeland Evening Ledger and Star Tele-
gram recognized his accomplishments, while properly noting his ser-
vice from previous decades in numerous positions of "honor and trust."'
Two other individuals of renown whose lives intertwined and
who rose to positions of great power in Florida also found them-
selves South Floridians when their political careers had ended. Each
had grounded himself in the AME church; each had built political
strength out of the turmoil of Jefferson County politics; and each arbi-
trarily would be frustrated in his desire to represent the state in the
United States Congress. And, the memory of each would be revered
among Florida's African American community.
Robert Meacham held position at the forefront of Florida's politi-
cal scene when George Washington Witherspoon yet remained a boy.
Meacham had been born in May 1835, his mother a slave and his father
a white Gadsden County physician and planter. Asked later of his sta-
tus before emancipation, he observed, "I do not know how to answer
that exactly, for my father was my master and always told me that I was
free." Learning to read and write from his father, young Meacham
emerged from the Civil War as Tallahassee's first AME minister. Soon
he was transferred to nearby Jefferson County, where ten percent of
Florida's registered electorate resided during Congressional Reconstruc-
tion. Meacham labored as voter registrar in 1867 and 1868, served in
the constitutional convention of 1868, and later in the year took a seat
in the Florida Senate. He continued to act as senator until 1879, while
also serving at various times as Monticello's postmaster and Jefferson
County's clerk of the circuit court and superintendent of schools. On
several occasions he was denied the Republican nomination for United
States representative only through the chicanery of white carpetbag-
gers. He survived numerous death threats and at least one attempted


o .. Following his legislative career,
the senator struggled to secure remu-
nerative employment, particularly dur-
ing the years of the Cleveland adminis-
tration. By 1887 he was living at Key
West, where he ministered to the town's
largest black congregation, the Zion
AME church. Already, though,
Meacham's connection with the AME
church had weakened, and, if he had not
done so earlier, he then transferred to
the AME Zion clergy. That body appar-
ently posted him to Punta Gorda and, in
1888, to Fort Myers. The following year
Robert Meacham, 1835-1902. Republican president Benjamin
(Florida State Archives) Harrison assumed office, and, at the urg-
ing of Punta Gorda founder Isaac Trabue, Harrison in 1890 named
Meacham as Punta Gorda's postmaster. Local whites joined in an in-
dignation meeting, and the community newspaper referred to the ap-
pointment as a "studied insult to the people of that town." Meacham's
stewardship of the local post office soon turned the negative sentiment
around. He returned to preaching early in 1892, and the same newspa-
per later proclaimed that "notwithstanding his color and his politics, he
stood high in the esteem of the white people. 29
The one-time Republican powerbroker's connections with South
Florida persisted after leaving the Punta Gorda post office. By 1894
Meacham was preaching within the "Colored Conference" of the Meth-
odist Episcopal church from an appointment at New Smyrna. While
visiting Tampa in 1896 he was gunned down by a black policeman,
seemingly because of the minister's support for the policeman's es-
tranged girlfriend. Meacham again survived the attempt on his life but
decided not to leave the city. He engaged in business as a shoemaker in
West Tampa until his death on February 27, 1902. "Meacham's death,"
reported the Punta Gorda Herald, "is regretted both in Tampa and
Punta Gorda.""3
George Washington Witherspoon's rivalry with Robert Meacham
began because of a split within the AME church. Born in Sumter Dis-
trict, South Carolina, on December 15, 1845, he was brought to Florida
by his master at the age of nine. Having lived since that time in Franklin

African Americans in South Florida 17

and Gadsden counties, soon after the Civil War's end he came under the
influence of AME presiding elder Charles H. Pearce, who had assumed
the Tallahassee AME pulpit when he transferred Meacham to Jefferson
County. Soon Pearce and Meacham were "warring" over church lead-
ership and policy, and the presiding elder was grooming Witherspoon
as a strong right arm. In 1872 Pearce dispatched his protege to Jefferson
County. By his action, the church and political feud was served up on
Meacham's doorstep.3'
Witherspoon's preaching and political skills within a few years
destroyed Meacham's career and launched his own quest for a congres-
sional seat. He offered a more-aggressive approach to religion and poli-
tics and stirred passions that Meacham no longer could kindle.
"Witherspoon [became] the most popular colored man in the country
districts in the state," one newspaper recalled, "and whenever it was
announced that Witherspoon would preach anywhere in the state, the
roads would be full of women, children, horses, and wagons." He
achieved election to the Florida House of Representatives as early as
1874 and sat in the body as late as 1883. In the meantime, in 1880 he
probably was elected to the Congress, but a combination of Demo-
cratic fraud and carpetbagger duplicity denied him the seat. Angered at
Republican whites, within five years he had acquiesced to Democratic
Governor Edward A. Perry's legislative seizure of Pensacola's Repub-
lican city government. At Perry's appointment, Witherspoon served on
the city council until 1889.32
In the aftermath of his Pensacola experience, Witherspoon set his
sights on South Florida. He arranged employment as an inspector of cus-
toms at Key West and also secured designation as Meacham's successor
as the town's AME minister. Though suffering from ill health, his minis-
try flourished while he attempted to help African Americans organize
statewide resistance to the onset of Jim Crow discrimination and disfran-
chisement. He died at Key West on January 2, 1892, while his rival
Meacham yet served as Punta Gorda's postmaster. "The funeral cortege
was the largest ever seen in this city, being fully a quarter of a mile in
length," noted a Key West correspondent. "It was headed by the Key
West band, which played one of its most solemn funeral dirges." He added,
"Three white and three colored ministers acted as pall-bearers." Of a
subsequent memorial service held at Jacksonville, a mourner declared,
"All are requested to turn out as a mark of respect and honor to this
Christian brother and co-worker, who is sadly missed from the ranks."33


These men made significant contributions to their respective com-
munities in South Florida through and after the Reconstruction period.
During their lifetime, some were politicians, entrepreneurs, educators,
ministers, and lawyers. They had learned to work with other citizens
for the common good of South Florida and the state. Some held influen-
tial political positions at the state and local level. Others embraced their
communities as public school teachers, business owners, religious leaders
and law enforcement officers. Much like these men, others contributed
to the building of South Florida during this period. Perhaps most will
remain unknown to the public due to the lack of retrievable data, fading
memories and simple lack of knowledge of this rich past. Nonetheless,
out of "respect and honor," the preservation of the accomplishments
and contributions of them all remains important for our world and for

The authors appreciate the encouragement and assistance of Leland
Hawes, Tampa Tribune; Tom Hambright, Monroe County May Hill Russell
Library; Vernon Peeples, Punta Gorda; Julius J. Gordon, former chairman
of the Hillsborough County Historical Commission; and Hal Hubener, Lake-
land Public Library.


1. Maxine D. Jones and Kevin M. McCarthy, African Americans
in Florida (Sarasota: Pineapple Press, 1993), 9-10; Charlton W. Tebeau,
A History of Florida (Coral Gables: University of Miami Press, 1971),
2. On Reconstruction generally, see Eric Foner, Reconstruction,
1863-1877: America's Unfinished Revolution (New York: Harper &
Row, 1988). For Florida's Reconstruction experiences, see William
Watson Davis, The Civil War and Reconstruction in Florida (New
York: Columbia University Press, 1913); Jerrell H. Shofner, Nor Is It
Over Yet: Florida in the Era of Reconstruction 1863-1877 (Gainesville:
University of Florida Press, 1974); and Canter Brown, Jr., "Ossian

African Americans in South Florida 19

Bingley Hart, Florida's Loyalist Reconstruction Governor" (Ph.D. dis-
sertation, Florida State University, 1994). On Florida government and
politics during Redemption, see Edward C. Williamson, Florida Poli-
tics in the Gilded Age 1877-1893 (Gainesville: University of Florida
Press, 1976).
3. Edward A. Fernald, ed., Atlas of Florida (Tallahassee: Florida
State University Foundation, Inc., 1981), 130-31; United States Cen-
sus Office, Twelfth Census of the United States, Taken in the Year
1900, Population, Part 1 (Washington, DC: United States Census Of-
fice, 1901), 13; Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Ne-
gro Population in the United States 1790-1915 (Washington, DC:
Government Printing Office, 1918), 778.
4. Ossian B. Hart to J. F. Meline, September 5, 1867, Incoming
corr., Third Military District, 1867-68, Bureau of Civil Affairs, Record
Group 393, part one, entry 5782, National Archives (hereafter, NA);
Canter Brown, Jr., Florida's Peace River Frontier (Orlando: Univer-
sity of Central Florida Press, 1991), 188; Jeanne E. English, Nelson
Francis desales English, 1848-1914 (Key West, priv. pub., 1991), 3-5.
5. Appointment records are contained, primarily, in Record Group
156, Records of the Department of State, at the Florida State Archives
in Tallahassee. See, particularly: Commissions, 1827-1978, series, 259;
Appointments, series 1284; Oaths and Bonds, series 622; Removals
from Office, 1869-1885, series 261; and Resignations from Office, 1868-
1975, series 260.
6. For gubernatorial appointments, see note 5. See, also, Office of
the Clerk, Florida House of Representatives, The People of Lawmak-
ing in Florida 1822-1991 (Tallahassee: Florida House of Representa-
tives, 1991), 35, 87; Jefferson B. Browne, Key West: The Old and The
New (St. Augustine: The Record Co., 1912; reprint ed., Gainesville:
University of Florida Press, 1973), 212; New York Age, December 1,
7. New York Age, December 1, 1888; Tampa Tribune, July 23,
1995; Jacksonville Florida Times-Union, June 16, 1891, July 13, 1995;
Key West Citizen, October 3, 1938.
8. Philadelphia Christian Recorder, October 19, 1876, Novem-
ber 28, 1878; New York Globe, February 16, 1884; Jacksonville Florida
Times-Union, April 6, 1892, December 23, 1914; New York Age, Au-
gust 17, 1889, January 14, 1915.


9. Leland Hawes, "Diary Leads to Rediscovery," Tampa Tribune,
May 9, 1993; Tampa Florida Peninsular, January 9, 1869; Walter C.
Maloney, A Sketch of the History of Key West, Florida (Newark, NJ:
Advertiser Printing House, 1876; reprint ed., Gainesville: University of
Florida Press, 1968), 76; Tallahassee Weekly Floridian, October 31,
1876, October 25, 1881; October 24, 1882; Savannah Morning News,
October 20, 1877, October 13, 1886; Tom Hambright, Monroe County
May Hill Russell Library, to Canter Brown, Jr., December 27, 1993,
collection of Canter Brown, Jr.; Tallahassee Semi-Weekly Floridian,
October 19, 1880; Key West Key of the Gulf, October 14, 1882, Au-
gust 6, 1887; Jacksonville Florida Times-Union, October 26, 1883,
February 5, 1896, September 9, 1897, Florida and Christmas Edition
December 1897, September 10, 1898, September 8, 1900, April 28,
1901, September 6, 1902, July 12, 1904, October 16, 1905, November
18, 1907; Elliott's Florida Encyclopedia or Pocket Directory (Jack-
sonville: E. J. Elliott, 1889), 172.
10. Oliver 0. Howard to Lizzie Howard, March 29, 1857, Oliver
0. Howard Papers, Bowdoin College Library, Brunswick, ME. On sla-
very and race relations patterns in East Florida, see Jane Landers, "Black
Society in Spanish St. Augustine, 1784-1821" (Ph.D. dissertation,
University of Florida, 1988); Daniel L. Schafer, "'A Class of People
Neither Freemen nor Slaves': From Spanish to American Race Rela-
tions in Florida, 1821-1861,"Journal of Social History 26 (spring 1993),
587-609; Larry E. Rivers, "'Dignity and Importance': Slavery in
Jefferson County, Florida-1827-1860," Florida Historical Quarterly
61 (April 1983), 404-30; idem, "Slavery in Microcosm: Leon County,
Florida, 1824-1860," Journal of Negro History 46 (fall 1981), 235-45;
idem, "Slave and the Political Economy of Gadsden County, Florida,
1823-1861," Florida Historical Quarterly 70 (July 1991), 1-19.
11. Savannah Daily Georgian, May 14, 1853.
12. Canter Brown, Jr., "Politics, Greed, Regulator Violence, and
Race in Tampa, 1858-1859," Sunland Tribune 20 (November 1994),
25-30; Robert P. Ingalls, Urban Vigilantes in the New South: Tampa,
1882-1936 (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1988);New York
Age, December 1, 1888.
13. Browne, Key West, 55; Jacksonville Florida Times-Union,
July 11, 24, August 7, 1889.
14. On Florida's black churches, see Charles Sumner Long, His-
tory of theA.M.E. Church in Florida (Philadelphia: A.M.E. Book Con-

African Americans in South Florida 21

cern, 1939), and George Patterson McKinney, Sr., and Richard I.
McKinney, History of the Black Baptists of Florida, 1850-1985 (Mi-
ami: Florida Memorial College Press, 1987).
15. Maloney, Sketch, 40; Birmingham [England] Good Templars'
Watchword, September 29, 1890; Jacksonville Florida Times-Union,
April 3, 1903.
16. Owen B. Armstrong biographical notes, collection of Canter
Brown, Jr., Tallahassee; Vernon Peeples historical files, Punta Gorda;
Owen B. Armstrong military pension record, certificate #783295, NA.
17. The 1900 Dade County census suggests Lightboum was born
in 1852, but an earlier Gadsden County census gives the 1846 date.
Manuscript returns, Ninth United States Decennial Census, 1870, Leon
County, and Twelfth United States Decennial Census, 1900, Dade County;
Office of the Clerk, People ofLawmaking in Florida, 57; School report,
Tallahassee, June 16-July 16, 1869, American Missionary Association
Papers, Florida, roll 1 (microfilm available at Florida State University
Library); Lists of territorial, state, and county officers, 1827-1923, 1960,
Record Group 151, series 1284, vol. 2, 90, Florida State Archives (here-
after, FSA); Jacksonville Daily Florida Union, May 3, 1877; Jackson-
ville Evening Telegram, June 3, December 13, 1893; Jacksonville Florida
Times-Union, July 24, 1884, July 26, 1888, September 21, 1891.
18. Isidor Cohen diary, July 28, 1896, quoted in Howard Kleinberg,
"Discovering black participation in Miami's birth," Miami Herald,
October 8, 1991.
19. Kleinberg, "Discovering black participation"; Howard
Kleinberg, "Miami pioneer Lightburn: Too long forgotten," Miami
Herald, January 23, 1996; Tallahassee Weekly Floridian, March 14,
20. Thomas V. Gibbs, "John Willis Menard," The A.M.E. Church
Review 3 (April 1887), 426-32; Bess Beatty, "John Willis Menard: A
Progressive Black in Post-Civil War Florida," Florida Historical Quar-
terly 59 (October 1980), 123-43; J. Willis Menard, Lays in Summer
Lands (Washington, DC: Enterprise Publishing Company, 1879).
21. Tampa Guardian, January 10, 1880; Tallahassee Weekly Flo-
ridian, July 4, 1882; New York Globe, April 21, 1883; Jacksonville
Florida Times-Union, February 7, 1884, January 5, 1886, October 11,
1893; Jerrell H. Shofner, "Florida," 92-94, in The Black Press in the
South, 1865-1979, ed. by Henry Lewis Suggs (Westport, CT: Green-
wood Press, 1983); Beatty, "John Willis Menard," 140-41.


22. Peter W. Bryant to John F. Horr, August 26, 1889, General
Records of the Dept. of the Treasury, Records Relating to Customs
Service Appointments, Key West, Record Group 56, entry 246, box
069, NA; Peter W. Bryant biographical materials, collection of Julius
J. Gordon, Tampa; Jacksonville Daily Florida Union, August 14, 1876;
New York Globe, June 16, 1883.
23. Bryant to Horr, August 26, 1889; Peter W. Bryant biographi-
cal materials, collection of Julius J. Gordon; Pensacola Florida Senti-
nel, 1895 Special Edition; New York Age, August 1, 1912.
24. Clement Richardson, ed., National Cyclopedia of the Col-
ored Race, Volume One (Montgomery, AL: National Publishing Co.,
1919), 381; Joseph Newman Clinton death certificate, Florida Office
of Vital Statistics.
25. Leland Hawes, "One official's untold story," Tampa Tribune,
February 13, 1994; Jacksonville Florida Times-Union, February 22,
1891, February 11, 1892, April 11, 1895, November 9, 1898; Tampa
Tribune, June 4, 1913, September 8, 1927; Tampa Daily Times, Sep-
tember 8, 1927.
26. J. V. Drake, The Florida Legislature (Twelfth Session), The
Official Directory of the State Government (Jacksonville: Times-Union
Book and Job Office, 1883), 55; Jacksonville Daily Florida Union,
January 16, 1883; "Some Negro Members of Reconstruction Conven-
tions and Legislatures and of Congress," Journal of Negro History 5
(1920), 70; Jacksonville Florida Times-Union, November 15, 1888.
27. New York Age, March 26, 1914; telephone interview, Hal
Hubener, Lakeland Public Library, by Canter Brown, Jr., July 28, 1993
(notes in collection of Canter Brown, Jr.); Lakeland Evening Ledger
and Star-Telegram, March 30, 31, 1938.
28. Canter Brown, Jr., "'Where are now the hopes I cherished?'
The Life and Times of Robert Meacham," Florida Historical Quar-
terly 69 (July 1990), 1-30; "Testimony Taken by the Joint Select Com-
mittee to Inquire Into the Condition of Affairs in the Late Insurrection-
ary States," House Report No. 22, pt. 13, 42d Congress, 2d sess., 101,
105, 108; Manuscript returns, Twelfth United States Decennial Cen-
sus, 1900, Hillsborough County, Florida.
29. Brown, "Robert Meacham," 32-34; New York Freeman, Feb-
ruary 19, 1887; Fort Myers Weekly Press, November 8, 1888; Jack-
sonville Florida Times-Union, February 8, June 6, 1890; Punta Gorda
Herald, March 7, 1902.

African Americans in South Florida 23

30. Jacksonville Evening Telegram, January 30, 1894; Brown,
"Robert Meacham," 34-36; Punta Gorda Herald, March 7, 1902.
31. Canter Brown, Jr., "George Washington Witherspoon: Florida's
Second Generation Black Political Leadership" (unpublished paper
delivered at the Florida Historical Society Annual Meeting, Fort Myers,
May 20, 1994) (copy in the possession of the authors); Drake, Florida
Legislature, 37-38; Tallahassee Sentinel, April 9, 1868.
32. Jacksonville Evening Telegram, January 6, 1892; Brown,
"George Washington Witherspoon"; Pensacola Daily News, March 7,
33. Jacksonville Florida Times-Union, August 22, 1889, January
7, 1892; Jacksonville Evening Telegram, September 9, 1891, January
6, 1892, January 30, 1892.


Sweeting Homestead

Elliott Key, Florida



Section 7
Section 18



University (S
Dock (SElofN



Lime Grov



S Section 18

Lime Groves
Lime Groves

o Fields

e Fields



1. Home of Abner W. & Cornelia Sweeting
2. Chicken house
3. Cabin for farmlands
4. Grocery Store
5, Home of Asa E. & Lillian Sweeting
6. Home of William B. & Rosa Parker
7. Hurricane house
8. Seaside School/Church
9. Home of John & Nellie Sweeting Russell
10. Home of George & Mary Sweeting
11. Cabin for farmhands
12. Home of Thomas & Mary Ann Sweeting
t Grave site of Asa Sweeting

Not drawn to scale L=G SMentLo
"Big Beach" extends along the shore between
Buildings 1 and 10

Site plan of the Sweeting Homestead on Elliott Key, Florida, 1882-1930.
This site plan is a composite of information recalled by former residents
of Homestead. (Courtesy of Peg Niemiec)


tceS on 19

The Sweeting Homestead on Elliott Key

by Peg Niemiec

Elliott Key off the Florida coast is a place of exquisite beauty and
rich history. The long slender island, eight miles long and one-half mile
wide, lies between Biscayne Bay and the Atlantic Ocean twenty miles
southwest of Miami. Early Indian tribes hunted and fished here, and
pirates once roamed the area. In the late nineteenth century, Elliott Key's
pristine environment attracted many pioneers. On this coral-reef sub-
tropical island, they found a luxuriant, jungle-like hardwood forest.
These adventurers settled this remote frontier while precariously perched
on an island racked by tempests. They built thriving pineapple planta-
tions and established a close-knit community. Typical of these pioneers
was the Sweeting family, whose small settlement flourished for nearly
twenty-five years. Then one tragic day in 1906, a severe hurricane struck
and destroyed all they had worked to attain. Undeterred by this misfor-
tune, they continued to live on the island for another twenty-five years.
Two important factors contributed to pioneers settling on the South
Florida coastal regions in search of land and livelihood. The Home-
stead Act of 1862 offered 160 acres to any citizen who agreed to culti-
vate, improve and live on the land for at least five years. Two years
before the Act was passed, Captain Benjamin Baker's experimental
patch of pineapples on Plantation Key proved that there was money to
be made off the rocky land of the South Florida Keys. The warm sub-
tropical climate provided the plants with frost-free temperatures. The
porous coral bedrock retained moisture and provided nutritious phos-
phate for pineapples. Baker's successful endeavor proved so profit-
able that the industry grew rapidly. By 1890 it extended into the famous

Peg Niemiec, a native Miamian, lives in Kensington, Maryland, with her husband.
She holds a B.S. degree from the University of Maryland. Currently, she is a docent
in the Ancient Culture Hall at the Smithsonian's Natural History Museum in Wash-
ington, D.C., and is a volunteer for Biscayne National Park.


east-coast pineapple belt from Fort Pierce to the Florida Keys.' Kirk
Munroe, an author and well-known resident of Coconut Grove, wrote
in 1896, "... there is no better pineapple land in the world, and none
from which the fruit obtains so fine a flavor."2
The Sweeting family was representative of English Bahamian set-
tlers who immigrated to Key West. Asa Sweeting and his family sailed
from Harbour Island in the Bahamas to Key West in March 1866.3
While in Key West they learned about the opportunities offered by the
Homestead Act and the new pineapple industry, and set out in search of
land to settle.
In April 1882, Asa, age 64, and his two sons, George, age 36, and
Thomas, age 30, sailed north from Key West along the sparsely settled
Florida Keys.4 They looked for a place that resembled the land they left
in the Bahamas, and found it on Elliott Key. After looking the land
over, Asa and George sailed to Fort Dallas in Miami to claim 154.4
acres on the island.5 After claiming the homestead they returned to Key
West, packed their belongings, and sailed with their family to their new
home. Later, in 1896 they purchased an additional 85.4 adjacent acres
for a total of 239.8 acres.6
They built a temporary wood-frame dwelling called the "old house"
that measured sixteen by twenty-four feet From Key West they hauled
timber and other supplies. With no fresh water on the island, barrels of
water from springs in Biscayne Bay or water from the mainland were
brought to the island. Eventually, a 6,280 gallon cistern was built. It

I,- .- .. ._
View of Elliot Key from offshore, ca. 1900. Pioneers settled this desolate
frontier where coconut trees looked like an oasis surrounded by the rocky
soil and scrub. (HASF, Ralph Munroe Collection, 1977-146-48)

The Sweeting Homestead on Elliott Key 27

measured twelve by fourteen feet, was five feet deep, had walls one-
foot in width made of cement and coral rock, and was covered with a
wood-gabled roof. Wooden gutters from the house channeled rainwater
into the cistern.8
Later, on the ridge facing the Atlantic Ocean, George and Mary
Sweeting built a two-story New England colonial style frame house,
painted white with dark-green louvered shutters and sash windows. Key
West pink roses, white and pink periwinkles, and hibiscus grew in the
garden. Clusters of date and coconut palms surrounded the house.9 As
George and Mary Sweeting's six children reached adulthood and mar-
ried, some built houses on the homestead. In time, six homes with docks
stood on the ridge along the shore. Several other buildings constructed
to accommodate their needs included a one-room school house used
also for church services, a general store, cabins for the farmhands, and
packing houses. A small house nestled in the forest in the center of the
island provided a retreat for the family when hurricanes threatened the
By 1887 thirty acres of land were cultivated and planted in pine-
apples, key limes and tomatoes." Eventually, the family's pineapple
fields covered 100 acres.12 Kirk Munroe eloquently described the pine-
apple fields on the Florida Keys during harvest time:

In May and June the coloring of these ten, twenty, forty,
and sometimes one hundred acre fields is wonderfully beau-
tiful. Scarlet, bronze, orange, green, yellows, and browns
are blended in glowing masses, while the whole picture is
framed by the encircling forest and arched with cloudless
blue. The landscape is oppressively still; for a gale of wind
could hardly impart movement to the stiff bayonet-like
leaves of the 'pines' and even the great glossy fronds of
the bananas, that are set here and there in crowding clus-
ters like dark green islets in a sea of color, stand motion-
less in the lee of the protecting wind-break."

While harvesting the pineapples, "cutters" wore heavy shoes, en-
tire suits of canvas and stout gloves that protected their hands from the
sharp spines of the pineapple leaves. Since harvest time was also mos-
quito season, the men wore net head coverings to protect themselves
from the swarming myriads of the bloodthirsty menacing insects. The

go t1nitb -States of nmtrica,
Homestal Crtilcate No. I
Application / N, Whereas die I swu&l A X GENERAL LAND OFICE V/i
'n/ tac&4 a CERTIFICATE d d dn' /

ir/ Asp i a4n' ^ a 4 n
r 1A7
44; ~ ~ g~txU C

Homestead patent for Asa Sweeting, June 29, 1889. (National Archives)

The Sweeting Homestead on Elliott Key 29

toterss" cut and placed the pineapples in a mat basket woven of pal-
metto, and carried them to the shore. At low tide the baskets were placed
on a large barge which carried them through the shallow water to the
moored schooners off shore. The fruit was then sailed to New Orleans
and to northern ports as far away as Boston.14
As the pineapple yield increased, George needed more sailing ves-
sels to ship his fruit. When needed for large yields, he chartered a three-
mast schooner to transport his pineapples to Boston and New York. In
Key West in 1898, he purchased the Two Brothers, a new 36-foot, 12-
ton schooner.16 George hired ship carpenters from Key West to build
the hulls for a pair of two-mast schooners on Elliott Key. Madeira ma-
hogany from the island's dense forest provided material for part of the
construction. The carpenters went into the forest, cut the timber with
axes, and used roots of large trees to get the type of crooks for the knees
and other parts. They completed the hulls of the ships on the island,
rigged them with temporary sails, and sailed them to Key West for
completion.7 The Mt. Vernon, built on Elliott Key in 1901, weighed 49
tons and measured 65 feet long."8 It was probably the largest schooner
built on the Florida Keys outside of Key West.19 The Mt. Pleasant,
built on the island in 1902 weighed 25 tons and measured 50 feet
long.20 The Centennial, bought in 1910 in Key West, weighed 18 tons
and measured 36 feet long.21 In 1918, George's son, Abner, bought the
Vole, a gas engine boat used for coastal trading and for family trips to
the mainland.22

A pineapple field with thousands of pineapple or "pines," as the settlers
called them. When picked green, the pineapples could usually survive the
trip by boat to the northern ports of Boston. (HASF, Ralph Munroe Collection,
1977-146-57). Inset: Detail of a pineapple plant. (HASF 1986-167-2)


During the growing season, businessmen from New York visited
the pineapple fields and sometimes bought the entire crop on sight?.23
Before Henry M. Flagler extended his railroad to Miami in 1896, the
farmers transported their farm produce only by sea. After 1896 the
railroad provided the farmers another means of transporting their pro-
duce: shipping it to Miami by schooner, loading it on trains, and carry-
ing it to northern cities. Shipping by railroad had its drawbacks, though,
and the growers paid dearly for the convenience it offered. It charged
high rates and paid rebates to favored customers growing produce in
the West Indies. Because of this unfair practice, the Key's plantation
owners complained to the Florida State legislature, who tried to regu-
late the rates, but without success. Consequently, many of them who
were dependent on the railroad to transport their produce went out of
business because the high railroad rates increased their costs and re-
duced their profits.4 Since George Sweeting owned several schooners
to transport his produce, he was not dependent on the railroads. Fortu-
nately, he avoided the financial ruin that befell many of his neighbors.5
In addition to transporting their farm products to the mainland,
the Sweeting men engaged in coastal trading. They transported mer-
chandise and mail, and carried passengers around the southern coast of
Florida. George and Mary Sweeting's eldest son, Abner, sailed the Mt.
Vernon and the Centennial between Lemon City, Coconut Grove and
Key West, from the early 1890s until he moved to Miami in 1924.26
Sailing vessels were the lifeline to those living in the Florida Keys.
Whenever the schooners announced their arrival by blowing their conch-
shell horn, everyone who heard ran to the waterfront to pick up mail,
get the latest news or greet someone they knew.27 Once, while George
Sweeting was sailing his schooner from New York to Key West, actors
on the boat performed for people on the docks.28
Many of the Keys settlers rigged and licensed their schooners to
salvage distressed ships on the reef. On Thursday, April 20, 1905, Abner
Sweeting sailed the Mt. Vernon to try to rescue a 1,500-ton Spanish
steamship that had crashed into Long Reef about three miles off Elliott
Key. The S.S. Alicia was headed from the port of Liverpool, England,
for Havana, Cuba, when it lost its way. Abner, other salvors, and Calixto
Luzarrage, the steamship Master, agreed in writing that for the sum of
$5000 the salvors would float the ship with their schooners within twenty-
four hours. As they dropped the port anchor of the steamship out into
twenty-six feet of water, a severe squall moved over the area further

The Sweeting Homestead on Elliott Key 31

grounding the ship. Since it was impossible to extricate the ship from
the reef, the men agreed to save the cargo. The salvors unloaded the
cargo onto their schooners, sailed it to the port of Key West, and deliv-
ered it to the Master Consignee for disposal and sale.29 One of the last
wrecks off the Florida coast, the S.S. Alicia still lies on the floor of the
Atlantic Ocean off Long Reef.
Even though the Sweetings homesteaded on Elliott Key, they never
broke their ties with Key West. Their activities shifted from the home-
stead to Key West depending on the farm crops and the economics of
the time. During most of the nineteenth century, Key West was the
wealthiest city per capital in Florida. The town offered cultural activi-
ties and was the hub of a bustling maritime center. The family main-
tained two homes and several businesses in Key West. Between 1870
and 1914 George engaged in several occupations there, U.S. Census
records and the Key West city directories list him as a seaman and a
farmer. He also owned a coffee-shop, a grocery store and a ship
chandler's business.3
Like Key West, Elliott Key flourished, though on a much smaller
scale. The island's pineapple plantations expanded, and its families grew
larger. The growing number of children needed a school. Consequently,
in 1887, the Dade County School Board established School District
Number 4 to serve Elliott Key and the adjacent islands. The School
Board named Henry Filer as trustee for the District. One half acre of
land was donated by Rob-
ert Thompson, and a frame
building was built in the cen-
ter of the hammock.3' Later,
another small school house,
Seaside School, was con-
structed near the oceanfront
on the Sweeting property.
Music for school activities
and church services was
provided by an organ trans-
ported by schooner from
Key West. Dade County
sent one school teacher
Seaside School, Building 8 on Site Plan on each year to Elliott Key to
page 24. (Courtesy Charles Theron Lowe) teach all twelve grades. She


boarded with the families, who shared the cost of her salary.32 The
1896 school census for the school district lists the following students
and their ages:33

Franklin Thompson, 16 Nellie B. Sweeting, 8
Arena Thompson, 14 Geneva S. Sweeting, 6
Robert E. Thompson, 11 George E. Demerit, 6
Mamie Thompson, 9 Horace M. Albury, 14
Abner W. Sweeting, 16 Roland S. Albury, 10
Asa C. Sweeting, 14 Flossie B. Albury, 8
Elizabeth Sweeting, 12 Lillian Johnson 12
Ella F. Sweeting, 10 Sealy Sweeting, 12

As the children grew older, some attended schools in Key West.
The 1906-07 Key West City Directory lists Nellie and Geneva Sweeting
as students.34 Elliott Lowe's 1929 sixth grade report card from Seaside
School shows Inez Chipman as teacher and principal.35 Charles Theron
Lowe remembers the school teacher boarding with George and Mary
Sweeting. School segregation at the time affected a black family who
lived on Porgy Key just south of Elliott Key. Israel Lafayette Jones,
known as Parson Jones, and his wife, Mozelle, had two sons, King
Arthur and Sir Lancelot. Since the boys were not allowed to attend the
school on Elliott Key, their parents taught the boys at home until they
were fourteen years old, when they were sent to live with an uncle in
Jacksonville to attend a black high school. There, the Jones brothers
continued their education at a junior college in St. Augustine.36
Young children who lived on the island considered it a paradise.
When not in school they enjoyed the beach and the forest. Katherine
Sweeting Roberts said:

While growing up on the island, we spent many hours
playing with our small boats. In the early evening we hung
a lighted kerosene lantern on the front of our dinghy and
went out into the shallow water off shore. The light from
the lantern lit up the clear water so that we could see the
lobster crawfish on the bottom. We picked them up out of
the water, placed them in the boat, and took them home to
eat. We roamed in the hardwood forest, looked for bird's
nests, and caught butterflies and insects.37

The Sweeting Homestead on Elliott Key 33

Charles Theron Lowe recalls:

There were so many fun things for kids to do on the island.
We learned to swim at a very early age and often played our
favorite water sport. We turned our skiff upside down in the
water, dove in under the boat, and raised our heads in its
hollow. Then we would shout, make loud noises, and eat
mangoes and key limes under the boat.38

Responsibilities of men and women on Elliott Key were clearly
divided. While the pioneer men sailed the schooners, worked the land
and built the houses, the pioneer women provided the amenities of a
comfortable home and fostered the social life of the community. Mary
Sweeting trained at Mrs. Cate's boarding house in Key West to be a
"homemaker and proper lady." She used the acquired skills in her homes
on Elliott Key and in Key West.39 She was proud to be the wife of
George, a prosperous and well-known sea captain. When he returned
from his sailing trips, she served him meals at a special table set for him
with fine linens in their dining room.40
George and Mary Sweeting were described in an article in The
Miami Herald in 1925 as people of exceptional force and activity and
were for many years considered "leaders of the key colony." Mary, 67
years old in 1925, was described as strong and hearty. Because of her
forceful character, broad-minded views, deep sympathy and great hos-
pitality and graciousness, she might be called the "queen of the key."
Her welcome to everyone was always most cordial. She had six chil-
dren, twenty-four grandchildren, and four great-grandchildren who gave
her great joy.41
Charles Theron Lowe described how his grandmother, Mary
Sweeting, began her day: "She arose in the morning, walked down-
stairs to the kitchen, threw some wood in the stove, sprinkled it with a
little kerosene, lit a small piece of paper and threw it on top of the
wood." In about ten minutes after the stove heated, she prepared freshly
ground coffee.42 At 5:30 A.M. she served coffee and molasses cookies
for those who worked in the fields. At 8:00 A.M. the workers came in
from the fields and ate a hearty breakfast. Mary served the main meal
of the day at 1:00 P.M., a snack in the afternoon and a light meal in the
evening around 7:00 P.M. During pineapple harvest time, besides cook-
ing for her large family, Mary planned and supervised meal preparation
in her kitchen for the farmhands as many as forty at one time.


These photographs show the different styles of early houses built on Elliott
Key. Above: A typical Elliott Key planter's home, 1890s. The layout of
the house included one story and a loft for sleeping called a "jump." A
rain barrel was kept outside to catch rain for their drinking water supply.
(HASF, Ralph Munroe Collection, 78D) Below: Home of Abner W.
Sweeting, Sr., and Cornelia Russell Sweeting, both pictured with seven
children. Inset: Full view of their home. (Both photographs courtesy of
Katherine Sweeting Roberts)

The Sweeting Homestead on Elliott Key 35

Every week or ten days a sailboat left Elliott Key for Key West
or Miami to take family members shopping and for provisions. When in
Key West they stayed in their home on Elizabeth Street. When in Mi-
ami they stayed in boarding houses on the Miami River. Food pur-
chased in bulk included 100-pound bags of flour, 25-pound bags of
sugar, smoked hams, grits, rice, barrels of salt pork, spices and herbs.
The pioneers thrived on the abundant tropical fruits and vegetables grown
on the land and seafood off shore.43 Childcare and domestic chores
occupied the women's time from dawn to dusk. Each day had its rou-
tine. In addition to daily meal preparation and baking bread, other chores
included laundry, cleaning and sewing. The women spent at least two
days each week on laundry tasks. Three large galvanized tubs stood
next to the cistern. Beginning early in the morning the women used
buckets of water from the cistern and filled the three tubs. Clothes and
bedding were scrubbed in one tub, boiled in another, rinsed in a third,
wrung by hand and hung on the line to dry. They heated heavy metal
irons on the wood stove and ironed nearly everything laundered, includ-
ing sheets and pillowcases.44 Laundry soap contained fat and lye boiled
at a certain time of the month, depending on the lunar cycle. Supersti-
tion had it that soap made on the waxing of the moon retained its vol-
ume, but if boiled on the waning of the moon, it shrank. Mary Sweeting,
as a meticulous housekeeper, scrubbed her wood floors on hands and
knees. She used the skin of the turbot fish that was rough like sandpa-
per, and lime juice, which whitened the floors. The women used Singer
and New Home treadle machines for sewing.45
At the turn of the century, most married women in their childbear-
ing years gave birth about every two years. Since there were no doctors
or midwives on the island, the pregnant women traveled to Key West
about a month before giving birth. Before the railroad was extended to
Key West in 1912, they sailed directly to Key West, staying at their
home on Elizabeth Street where one room was set aside as a birthing
room. Katherine Sweeting Roberts, who lived on Elliott Key between
1910 and 1924, remembers her experience when she was a young child.
She and her mother sailed to Miami, where they boarded Flagler's over-
seas railroad train to Key West. In the birthing bedroom her mother,
with a doctor in attendance, gave birth to her sister in 1914 and to her
brother in 1915. When a doctor was not available, a midwife delivered
the babies. A month after each birth Katherine, her mother and the
baby made the return trip by train and sailboat to Elliott Key.46


When urgent medical care was needed on the island, its absence
was felt acutely. George and Mary Sweeting's daughter, Nellie, received
severe bums over her body when a gas lantern exploded in her face.
Members of the family covered her bums with cellophane, and sailed
her for the three hour trip to Miami for medical care.47
Sunday a day of rest was strictly observed for attending
religious services conducted by visiting ministers who came from a
nearby Key or from the mainland. Families on the island rotated their
hospitality. When there were no ministers attending, some of the older
men on the island conducted church services.4 Sunday school provided
the children with their religious instruction, which was planned and
directed by one of the women who served as Sunday School superinten-
dent. The families were of various Protestant denominations, but got
along well. After Sunday morning services, the Sweetings gathered in
George and Mary Sweeting's parlor, used only on Sunday, where they
spent a lively afternoon socializing. They sat in rocking chairs around
the room, and in the middle of the room the family Bible lay on an
ornate table. A wagon-wheel chandelier hung in the parlor and held six
or eight kerosene lamps. Pulleys raised and lowered the chandelier for
lighting the lamps.49
Social gatherings at various homes, functions at the school house,
swimming, boating, fishing and trips to Miami or Key West provided
respite from their daily laborious work. Family and friends from Key
West and the mainland visited Elliott Key for birthdays, holidays and
wedding receptions with lively celebrations and large feasts. On occa-
sion, they sailed a few miles north to Boca Chita Key for community
holiday celebrations, picnics and parties.50
Despite the comfortable lives the Sweetings and their neighbors
had carved out for themselves on the island, the weather was a constant
cause for concern. Life's steady tempo came to a halt when hurricanes
ravaged the island. Hurricane predictions were primitive at the time
since there were no methods of communication. Barometers were help-
ful for forecasting basic weather conditions, but they did not warn of
impending hurricanes. Whenever the air pressure reading on the ba-
rometers fell to a certain level, indicating potential stormy weather, the
men moved the schooners and other boats to the leeward or bay side of
the island and moored them securely to the mangrove trees. The shut-
ters on the homes were closed and the family retreated to the hurri-
cane house. The small house, sparsely furnished, was located on higher

The Sweeting Homestead on Elliott Key 37

ground in the middle of the island behind Abner and Cornelia's home.51
The idyllic life on Elliott Key came to an abrupt halt on Thursday,
October 1906, when a fierce tropical hurricane blasted the southeast
coast of Florida and hit Elliott Key broadside. A Miami Herald re-
porter visited Elliott Key in 1925 and related the following information
about the 1906 hurricane. "The storm broke in all its fury at 4:00 A.M.
October 19, though at 9P.M. the previous night all was as calm as on the
fairest day." During the night the winds increased. When the Sweetings
realized there was a threat, the ocean tide water had risen too high for
them to get their boats secured to the bay-side of the island. The Sweeting
family retreated to the hurricane house to wait out the storm.
With their boats damaged they were unable to sail to the mainland
for provisions, leaving the family marooned for three days without food
or water. During this time they ate only coconut meat and drank coco-
nut milk. The storm surge flooded the island, and all the houses were
damaged or destroyed. The hurricane lifted George and Mary Sweeting's
house off its foundation, and moved it intact fifteen feet away from its
original location.52 The extended kitchen received structural damage
and had to be removed from the main part of the house. The house
suffered extensive damage, and was later repaired.53
In addition to the destruction of their homes, the storm surge, which
was eight feet high in some places on the island, swept over the family's
100-acre pineapple plantation, wiping out their main livelihood.54 The
ocean water salted the ground, leaving the soil unsuitable for the pine-
apple plants.
Others in the South Florida area also were unaware of an ap-
proaching storm. The steamboat St. Lucie left the terminal dock in Miami
Wednesday, October 18, at 7:00 P.M., on her way to Key West, with 100
passengers on board.55 According to Captain Bravo, "The barometer
had been showing low, but not more so than it had for the last two
weeks, and was steady when we left." After the steamboat left the chan-
nel, the captain turned the boat over to his first mate, Robert Blair, and
directed him to call if necessary. The steamship was seen at 10:00 P.M.
near Ragged Key and was well on her way. At 3:00 A.M. Thursday
morning, when they reached Featherbed Banks, which is located in
Biscayne Bay between Black Point on the mainland and Boca Chita
Key, Blair called Captain Bravo, who came immediately on deck. He
found a strong gale blowing from the east, and without delay the cap-
tain headed the boat for Elliott Key and anchored off the key in seven


feet of water. The winds grew stronger and the waves grew higher.
He saw Elliott Key being washed with waves and it appeared that
everything on the key was being swept away. At 6:00 A.M., the sea
washed over the boat and the captain ordered the engineer to rev up
the steam so that they could make a run for it if necessary. At 7:00
A.M., the shutters of the gangways blew out. At 8:30 A.M. they were
fighting for their lives. Captain Bravo ordered all passengers to put on
life preservers with the help of the officers onboard. Even though the
passengers and crew were frightened, the captain reported that he had
never seen such brave people.
The lull in the eye of the storm came; the barometer read 28.80,
the lowest the captain had ever recorded. He knew that the lull was a
prelude to something worse. The other side of the hurricane arrived
soon, with the wind blowing from the west in gusts of 120 miles an
hour. The boat began to quiver and vibrate. Captain Bravo saw that the
St. Lucie would not hold together long and ordered out the lifeboats.
Passengers filled three life boats, which were lowered into the pound-
ing surf, following the directions of the captain to try to make a landing
on Elliott Key. They headed toward Elliott Key, which was under seven
feet of water. The frightened passengers found their way to a partly washed-
away building on the island and held on until they were rescued. Those
who remained on the steamer huddled on the hurricane deck blinded by
the rain. As the wind came out of the northwest, the St. Lucie broke into
pieces from the force of the
wind and waves. Some pas-
sengers tried to hold onto the
debris and ride it to shore. The
ship's hurricane deck flew off
and those remaining fell into
the mountainous waves of wa-
ter. Some who were battered
.by debris died in the treacher-
ous sea. Those who arrived at
the shore on Elliott Key held
S onto the mangrove branches
until the water subsided, and
were later rescued. Twenty-
The St Lucie, pictured here on the Miami six of the St. Lucie passen-
River. (HIASF x-93-1) gers died on Elliott Key.6

The Sweeting Homestead on Elliott Key 39

The Miami newspapers reported another hurricane calamity south
of Elliott Key. Construction of Henry M. Flagler's overseas railroad to
Key West was in full swing. The Miami Metropolis told of the tragedy
and bravery of the employees on the railroad extension. Hundreds of
men who worked on the project lived in quarterboats near their work
sites.57 Quarterboat No. 4 was moored near Long Key with 160 men
onboard. She broke her seven-inch moorings chain, drifted in the water,
hit some rocks and broke into many pieces. One hundred of the men
perished in the treacherous waters.58 Many others lost their lives on the
temporary structures of the railroad extension as the high seas washed
over the Keys. Only the permanent structures held through the storm.59
Despite this setback, Henry Flagler completed the overseas railroad to
Key West in 1912.
For several days after the 1906 hurricane, little had been heard
from the inhabitants of the Keys. The islands from Elliott Key to Lower
Matecumbe were inundated by the tidal wave which destroyed houses,
washed away trees and demolished crops. Every pineapple plantation
on Elliott Key was devastated.60
In the few hours that the hurricane blasted Elliott Key, the Sweeting
family's main livelihood disappeared, but they continued to live on the
island. They still possessed their land, their homes, their schooners,
their key lime groves, and abundant seafood in the surrounding waters.
The schooners continued to sail around the coast transporting key limes,
tomatoes, crawfish, merchandise, passengers and mail.
Key limes and tomatoes continued
to provide the island planters with abun-
dant crops to sell. By 1925 Elliott Key's
most important crop was key limes. Lime .
groves, ranging in size from one-and-
one-half acres to forty acres, covered a
total of 150 acres. The annual lime crop
for the island was approximately 7,500
barrels, selling wholesale for $25 a bar-
rel. The price fluctuated between $5.50
and $60 a barrel, depending on the de-
mand and size of the crop. No fertilizer
was used on the lime trees until 1920,
when dieback and decreased yields Captain Bravo
were noticed. (HASF 1974-40-5)


J. S. Rainey, County Agricultural Agent, was consulted. After
inspecting the lime groves, he advised using the same fertilizer formula
recommended for other citrus fruit trees. He also suggested that the
groves be mulched rather than weeded. This led to healthier trees and
increased production. Good quality tomatoes grew luxuriantly in the
constant sunshine, and derived moisture from rains and from crevices
in the rocky soil.6"
By the beginning of the 1930s, the effects of the Great Depression
were spreading throughout the country. Produce and seafood prices
plummeted, and those who remained on the island could no longer earn
a living. By 1932 all the Sweeting family had moved to the mainland.62
The elder Asa Sweeting died on Elliott Key in 1897 at the age of 79
and was buried on the island behind the Seaside schoolhouse.63 On No-
vember 23, 1920, George, age 74, died at the Edith Coville Hospital in
Miami. His body was sent by train to Key West and buried in a walled-in

George and Mary Sweeting in front of their home after the 1906
hurricane. The house, which was lifted and moved by a water surge, is
temporarily supported by planks until repositioned. Inset: Detail of the
Sweeting's home before the hurricane. (Both photographs courtesy of
Roxie Brooks Newcomber). Opposite: The Mt. Vernon, the 65-foot ship
used by George Sweeting to transport pineapples to the north, is similar
to this 60-foot schooner built in 1903. (HASF, Munroe Collection, 145D)

The Sweeting Homestead on Elliott Key 41

grave site in Key West's "old cemetery."64 In 1924 George and Mary's
son, Abner, and his family moved to Miami." In 1925 Mary Sweeting
was still living on the island with two of her children. In 1930, when the
last boat left Elliott Key and the children moved to Miami, she reluctantly
left Elliott Key and her beloved island home of fifty years.,6
The original homesteaders sold their property and the new owners
built vacation homes. In the 1960s developers planned to build a cause-
way and bridge to the mainland connecting the islands. Oil companies
anticipated building oil refineries in the area. However, environmental
factors were carefully considered and plans for development were aban-
doned.67 In 1968 the U.S. Congress established Biscayne National Monu-
ment to preserve the ecology of the area, including the living coral reefs
off shore and on the northern Florida Keys, among them Elliott Key. In
1980 the Monument became Biscayne National Park.
Walking on the island today, one sees the same subtropical wil-
derness of exquisite beauty with its jungle-like hardwood forest that
greeted the pioneers in the late nineteenth century. Approaching the
shore at low tide, the clear turquoise water still breaks on the white
sandy beach that the settlers saw when they sailed there looking for
land. On the spot where Mary Sweeting planted her garden over 100
years ago, the progeny of her pink and white periwinkles still bloom.
The only visible clue that pioneers once lived here is the first cistern
that was built for the "old house" on the Sweeting homestead. It stands
alone among the cluster of date and coconut palm trees that rustle softly
in the warm gentle breeze.

* N -

-, *> / r-~.~r -



1. E.D. Vosbury, "Pineapple Culture in Florida," Farmer's Bulle-
tin, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1926), 3.
2. Kirk Munroe, "Pineapples in the Florida Keys," Harper's
Weekly, 1896, 825.
3. Passenger List for Port of Key West, Quarter ending March 31,
1866, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
4. Homestead Testimony of Claimant, Asa Sweeting, November
12, 1887, Patent File No. 6512, June 29, 1889, Gainesville (Fla.) U.S.
Land Ofc., Record Group 49, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
5. Homestead Application for Asa Sweeting, May 10, 1882, Home-
stead Application No. 10289, Homestead Patent File 6512, June 29,
1889, Gainesville (Fla.) U.S. Land Ofc., Record Group 49, National
Archives, Washington, D.C.
6. Deed of Sale from John Lowe, Jr., and Mary E. Lowe to Asa
Sweeting and George Sweeting, July 9, 1896 (Recorded October 10,
1896), Dade County, Fla., Deed and Mortgage Index, Beginning to
1900, A-Z, Reel 1, Deed Book Q-Z, 284-285, Dade County Record
Center, Miami, Fla.
7. Homestead Testimony of Claimant, Asa Sweeting, Nov. 12,
8. Charles Theron Lowe, taped interview with author, May 24,
9. Charles Theron Lowe, telephone conversation with author, Sep-
tember 7, 1991.
10. Charles Theron Lowe, telephone conversation with author,
December 28, 1993.
11. Homestead Testimony of Claimant, Asa Sweeting, Nov. 12,
12. Oral History Narrative: A visit by former residents of Elliott
Key to Convoy Point Headquarters, (Homestead, Fla.: Biscayne Na-
tional Park, July 1, 1989), 3.
13. Munroe, "Pineapples in the Florida Keys."
14. Carlton Lowe, "I Remember," Heraldette (Miami, Fla.: Mi-
ami Herald Publishing Co., 1986), 8.
15. Abner W. Sweeting, Jr., "The History of the Sweeting Fam-
ily," from the file of Jane Nordt, n.d. (Copy in possession of author).
16. License of Sailing Vessel, Two Brothers, March 19, 1898,

The Sweeting Homestead on Elliott Key 43

Collector of Customs, Key West, Fla., Official File No. 1457622, Record
Group 41, Civil Division, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
17. Charles Theron Lowe, telephone conversation with author,
May 24, 1993.
18. License of Sailing Vessel, Mt. Vernon, April 6, 1901, Official
File No. 93114, Record Group 41, Civil Division, National Archives,
Washington, D.C.
19. John Viele, "Sailing Craft of the Florida Keys," Tequesta 52
(1992): 15.
20. License of Sailing Vessel, Mt. Pleasant, May 3, 1902, Offi-
cial File No. 93253, Record Group 41, Civil Division, National Ar-
chives, Washington, D.C.
21. License of Sailing Vessel, Centennial, Sept. 9, 1910, Official
File No. 125479, Record Group 41, Civil Division, National Archives,
Washington, D.C.
22. License of Vessel, Vole, August 9, 1918, Official File No.
161662, Record Group 41, Civil Division, National Archives, Wash-
ington, D.C.
23. Oral History Narrative, 8.
24. Charlton W. Tebeau, A History of Florida, (Coral Gables,
Fla.: University of Miami Press, 1971), 295.
25. Jane Nordt, "Elliott Key Park," (Miami, Fla.: Metro Dade
County Park and Recreation Dept., Public Information Office, n.d.), 8
(Copy in possession of author).
26. Obituary for Capt. Abner W. Sweeting, Miami Herald, Aug.
1, 1958, 14C.
27. Viele, 13.
28. C. T. Lowe, telephone conversation, May 24, 1993.
29. Cargo S.S. Alicia, U.S. Admiralty Court Records, May 1,
1905, Southern District of Florida, Key West, Fla., Microfilm 1360,
Roll 19, p. 95, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
30. 1870 U.S. Census, Monroe Co., Fla., Key West, p. 40, Dwell-
ing 253, Family 258, line 8, Microfilm 593, Roll 132, National Ar-
chives, Washington, D.C.; 1880 U.S. Census, Monroe Co., Fla., Key
West, p. 3, Dwelling 24, T9, Roll 131, National Archives, Washington,
D.C.; Bensel's Directory of the City and Island of Key West, 1887,
153, Stack 42, Local History & Genealogy Room, Library of Con-
gress, Washington, D.C.; 1910 U.S. Census, Monroe Co., Fla., Key
West, Sheet 2-A, Dwelling 29, Family 31, line 30, T 624, Roll 165,


National Archives, Washington, D.C.; Key West City Directory, 1914-
1915, Vol. 3, p. 239, (Columbus, Ohio: R.L. Polk & Co.), Library of
Congress, Local History & Genealogy Room, Stack 42, Washington,
31. Nordt, 7.
32. C.T. Lowe, telephone conversation, May 24, 1993.
33. 1896 Census of Youth of School Age, School District No. 4,
Elliott's Key, Dade Co., Fla., Series 298, Vol. 2, 7, line 5, Dept. of
State, Tallahassee, Fla.
34. Key West City Directory, 1906-07, Vol. 1, p. 267, (Colum-
bus, Ohio: R.L. Polk & Co.), Stack 42, Local History and Genealogy
Room, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
35. Elementary Pupil's Report, May 15, 1929, Elliott Lowe, Sea-
side School, Elliott Key, Board of Public Instruction, Miami, Fla. (Origi-
nal report card in file at Biscayne National Park, Convoy Point Head-
quarters, Homestead, Fla.)
36. Sir Lancelot Jones, interview with author, April 18, 1991.
37. Katherine Sweeting Roberts, taped interview with author, May
24, 1993.
38. C.T. Lowe, interview, May 24, 1993.
39. Oral History Narrative, 1.
40. Roxie Brooks Newcomber to author, July 13, 1991.
41. C. Clinton Past, "Elliott's Key Famed for Its Fine Limes and
Crawfish," The Miami Herald, April 5, 1925, Magazine Section, 1.
42. C.T. Lowe, interview, May 24, 1993.
43. Newcomber to author, July 13, 1991.
44. Roberts, interview, May 24, 1993.
45. C.T. Lowe, interview, May 24, 1993.
46. Roberts, interview, May 24, 1993.
47. C.T. Lowe, interview, May 24, 1993.
48. Nordt, 8.
49. C. Lowe, "I Remember," 8.
50. Oral History Narrative, 5.
51. C.T. Lowe, interview, May 24, 1993.
52. Past, "Elliott's Key Famed," 1.
53. Newcomber to author, July 13, 1991.
54. Oral History Narrative, 8.
55. "Steamer St. Lucie Went Down Near Mouth Caesar's Creek;
Twenty-five Were Drowned," The Miami Metropolis, Oct. 20, 1906.

The Sweeting Homestead on Elliott Key 45

56. "The Awful Tragedy," The Miami Evening Record, Oct. 22,
1906, 1.
57. The term "quarterboats" was taken directly from the 1906
Miami Metropolis report of the hurricane. A quarterboat was a boat on
which the men working on the overseas railroad lived their quarters.
The type of boat used is not specified.
58. Steamer St. Lucie Went Down," The Miami Metropolis, 1.
59. "The Awful Tragedy," The Miami Evening Record, 1.
60. "Keys Devastated," The Miami Evening Record, Oct. 22,1906, 1.
61. Past, "Elliott's Key Famed," 1.
62. C. T. Lowe, interview.
63. Petition by William Lowe regarding death of Asa Sweeting,
Probate Record, April 12, 1898, Case #60, Clerk, Circuit & County
Court, Probate Division, Dade County Courthouse, Miami, Fla.; Also
C.T. Lowe, interview with author, April 7, 1991.
64. Certificate of Death for George Sweeting, November 23, 1920,
File No. 11564, Registered No. 530, Florida State Board of Health,
Bureau of Vital Statistics, Jacksonville, Fla.
65. Katherine Sweeting Roberts, telephone interview with author,
April 24, 1992.
66. C. T. Lowe, telephone conversation.
67. Mark Derr, Some Kind of Paradise, A Chronical of Man and
the Land in Florida, (New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc.),


Map of the Florida East Coast Railway, taken from an FEC timetable,
ca. 1930. (Historical Association of Southern Florida)

Henry Flagler and the Model

Land Company

by William E. Brown, Jr. and Karen Hudson

Henry Flagler, founder and president of the Florida East Coast
Railway (FEC), created the Model Land Company in 1896 to manage
his expanding real estate holdings in Florida. Flagler first arrived in
Florida in 1885 and soon launched a railroad system that extended the
length of Florida's east coast, from St. Augustine to Key West. The
railroad spurred the economic development of Florida, and Flagler was
encouraged in this endeavor by the state's offer of free land to anyone
who would finance construction of a railroad line. The surviving records
of the Model Land Company, largely unexplored to date, provide an
underutilized avenue to explore the economic, political, social and cul-
tural history of southeast Florida.'
Flagler acquired several million acres of real estate between 1885,
the year he purchased two short-line St. Augustine railroads, and 1912,
which marked completion of the Key West railroad extension. To en-
courage Flagler's railroad plans, the state of Florida offered approxi-
mately 2,050,000 acres of public lands. Flagler received the customary
3,840 acres per mile allotted to railroads for his work in northern Florida.
The State legislature also passed a special land grant law to award
Flagler 8,000 acres per mile for the extension of his line south of

William E. Brown, Jr., serves as Associate Professor and Head of Archives and
Special Collections as the University of Miami's Otto G. Richter Library His re-
search interests include Florida history and literature; sports history and litera-
ture; and rare books and manuscripts.
Karen Hudson received a B.A. (1990) and M.A. (1994) degree in History from the
University of Miami. Her fields of interest include American cultural history, women's
history and Florida history.


The Swamp Land Grant Act of 1850 authorized the federal gov-
ernment to "patent" or "deed" selected swamp lands to the State of
Florida, provided that the state grant these lands to developers inter-
ested in drainage and reclamation. The revelation that the state legisla-
ture awarded valuable lands to railroads, however, led the federal gov-
ernment to terminate the land grant program. As a result, the state did
not provide a great deal of the land promised to Flagler.
A protracted legal battle with the Internal Improvement Fund (IIF)
- an entity that exercised jurisdiction over swamp and overflow lands
awarded the state of Florida by the federal government ended in
compromise as Flagler accepted 260,000 acres, nearly ten percent of
his original grant. The location of Flagler's property varied; portions
were located in Broward, Dade and Palm Beach counties, but the larg-
est portion, 210,000 acres, belonged to the swampy Cape Sable area.
Ultimately, Flagler obtained the bulk of his real estate through financial
relationships with other Florida corporations. Two corporations, the
Florida Coast Line Canal and Transportation Company and the Boston
and Florida Atlantic Coast Land Company, received abundant public
lands, yet faced financial difficulties in canal construction and business
ventures. The railroad baron subsidized the Canal Company for
$100,000. In return, Flagler received debenture bonds and a note for
the difference in the two amounts. He was also named head of the com-
pany, although he did not own any large block of stock. Flagler then
financed dredging projects and promised to transform these lands into
valuable real estate by building a railroad.3
By 1895, Albert P. Sawyer, head of the Boston and Florida Com-
pany, feared a takeover of the Canal and Transportation Company and
attempted to force Flagler out, Although Flagler would not relinquish
his power entirely, he agreed to exchange a subsidy note for land in
southern Dade County, at a rate of six dollars per acre. To entice Flagler
to build the railroad on their land, the Canal and Transportation Com-
pany and the Boston and Florida Company also "donated" lands to
Flagler. The Canal and Transportation Company promised 1,500 acres
per mile for the extension south of Lake Worth, and the Boston and
Florida Company agreed to provide 10,000 acres for the Miami exten-
sion. Other individuals and corporations made similar pledges.4
Rather than provide the FEC Railway an outright land grant, the
Boston and Florida Company donated land in the form of a one-half
interest in its planned immigrant communities. George Miles, a Com-

Henry Flagler and the Model Land Company 49

pany official, proposed this plan to pro-
tect the Boston and Florida Company
from "being discriminated against by...
the railroad company ... if they decided
to offer advantages to settlers which we
would not be in a position to parallel."
The Boston and Florida Company and
the FEC Railway began their joint ven-
ture in 1896, and organized the colonies
of Modello and Hallandale. Disputes
soon arose over the freight rates charged
by the FEC Railway. By 1902, Miles
suspected the FEC Railway of financially
suppressing the Boston and Florida Corn- Henry M. Flagler
pany to prevent construction of a canal (HASF 1981-116-2)
along the east coast. Although no evi-
dence exists to support this suspicion,
Miles urged against the appointment of joint land agents. However, the
Boston and Florida Company's lands continued to be sold through
Flagler's corporate enterprises until the 1920s?
As Flagler received land titles from the IIF, the Boston and Florida
Company, and other companies and individuals, he established a spe-
cial "Land Department." James E. Ingraham, former president of Henry
S. Sanford's South Florida Railroad Company, served as Land Com-
missioner. Ingraham, a Wisconsin railroad en-
gineer, came to Florida in 1874. In 1892 he
surveyed the Everglades for a possible railroad
route for Henry B. Plant's railroad system.
Ingraham caught Flagler's attention when he
reported that the east coast would serve as a
more practicable route. Flagler immediately
hired Ingraham and eventually placed him in
charge of all land holdings.6
Ingraham soon made Flagler's real es-
tate holdings as profitable an enterprise as the
railroad and his hotels, which included superb
hostelries in St. Augustine, Ormond Beach and
James E. Ingraham Palm Beach. The key to Ingraham's early suc-
(HASF 1976-85-1) cess proved to be advertising. Ingraham dis-


tribute booklets, pamphlets and a magazine, the Florida East Coast
Homeseeker, in which he described the attractions of Florida's east
coast as well as the lands for sale at most points along the railway. By
1896 the Land Department was incorporated as the Model Land Com-
pany (MLC), and Ingraham appointed its president.7
Henry Flagler established the Model Land Company as a sepa-
rate corporation for "business and bookkeeping purposes." In 1902
Flagler's auditor began the transfer of titles of FEC Railway lands to
the Company. In addition, financial transactions appeared as "the true
and proper sums received, paid and due by each of the said compa-
nies." This separation and transfer of titles also had the advantage of
improving the financial status of the railroad company for purposes of
borrowing on bond markets. In 1909 Flagler instructed his auditor to
place all lands "for farming or for other than railway purposes" in the
Model Land Company account. Accordingly, in 1911 the FEC Railway
transferred lands in Dade, Palm Beach, Brevard, Volusia, St. Lucie and
Monroe counties to this account.
Flagler also created three subsidiary land companies to sell lands
in specific areas, with a central office in St. Augustine to oversee ad-
ministration of the land companies. The Fort Dallas Land Company,
created on March 17, 1896, sold Miami-area lands; the Perrine Grant
Land Company, organized on May 6, 1899, sold Perrine lands; and the
Chuluota Land Company, established 1912, sold Chuluota (Central
Florida) lands.8 The four companies, together with the FEC Railway
and the Federal East Coast Hotel Company, constituted the Flagler
System. The land companies assumed control of the majority of Flagler's
real estate holdings, and the Hotel Company and the FEC Railway re-
tained property pertaining to their respective businesses.
The three subsidiary land companies differed in the types of prop-
erty sold, in dates of operation, and levels of success. The Fort Dallas
Land Company possessed the most valuable property. Flagler purchased
eighty per cent of the Company's stock for $8,000; he divided the re-
maining twenty per cent between two FEC Railway vice presidents,
Joseph R. Parrott and James Ingraham. Ingraham, as president of all
the land companies, controlled Fort Dallas sales. Fort Dallas sold lots
for $50 to $100, and constructed cottages which sold for $1,500. By
1899 business was booming, and in 1902 property sales totaled ap-
proximately $182,600. The Fort Dallas Land Company operated until
1908, when it was "amalgamated with the Model Land Company" to

Henry Flagler and the Model Land Company 51

"simplify the work and reduce the operating expenses." Fort Dallas
profits, totaling $248,000, and several Miami lots and buildings, were
transferred to the Model Land Company.9
The Perrine Grant Land Company managed valuable farmlands
located along Biscayne Bay, eighteen miles south of Miami and extend-
ing six miles west. Information compiled by George Robbins, an FEC
Railway attorney, who had extensive correspondence with the Perrine
heirs, as well as an abstract of title, allowed Miami attorneys Hudson
and Boggs to trace the title of the Perrine Grant for the Model Land
Company in 1914. Their research revealed the circumstances that en-
abled Flagler to acquire an interest in the Perrine property.
In 1838 the Legislative Council of the Territory of Florida granted
land to the Tropical Plant Company of Florida, directed by Dr. Henry
Perrine, J. A. Webb and Charles Howe. During that same year, the
Congress of the United States also granted a township of land to Dr.
Perrine, provided that every section in the tract have "an actual settler
engaged in the propagation or cultivation of useful tropical plants" by
1846, eight years after the passage of the act. If Perrine failed to meet
this condition, the land would be forfeited to the United States. After
Perrine was killed by Indians during a war with the Seminoles, Con-
gress renewed the conditions of the grant in 1841 for the benefit of
Perrine's widow and his children.'0
Mrs. Ann Perrine requested the aid of Charles Howe, a former
associate of Henry Perrine, and promised a twenty per cent interest in
the land. Howe surveyed the land and brought thirty-six Bahamian fami-
lies as settlers. Conflicts with the Seminole Indians, however, soon drove
these new settlers off the land."
In spite of the Perrines' failure to meet the conditions of the grant,
heirs attempted to secure a land patent in 1862. Their efforts bore no
success until 1896, when the FEC Railway intervened on behalf of the
Perrines, obtained the patent, and settled claims with independent home-
steaders already living on the land. The FEC Railway assisted the heirs
in a second lawsuit initiated by the American Contract and Finance
Company, a New York corporation assigned the interest of Charles Howe
and others. The Supreme Court of Florida decided in favor of the Perrine
heirs in 1899. According to Model Land Company records, "After se-
curing the patent, the [Perrine] heirs, ... undertook to convey an undi-
vided one-half interest in the grant ... to the Federal East Coast Rail-
road Company [sic]."'2 To FEC Railway representatives the deed was


"open to serious and fatal objections as to certain of the grantors." The
deed was ineffective to convey the claims of one heir "as her signature
and her husband's lack witness;" the sanity of another grantor at "the
time of conveyance" was "extremely doubtful" and a third did not sign
the document "at all."'3
Litigation concerning the title to the Perrine land continued. James
Thomas Walker, for example, sued the Model Land Company and the
FEC Railway in 1911 for his interest in the grant because the compa-
nies had negotiated the purchase with Walker while he was in the New
York State mental asylum. Ingraham was notified of a suit filed in the
United States Court in the State of Rhode Island and instructed his
Miami sales agent to "simply reserve the lands set aside in the suit with
Mr. Walker and not to make any explanation of it to anybody." There
are no records of the suit in the Company Records, although the Model
Land Company sold the Walker lands in 1913.14
In spite of early legal problems, the Perrine Grant Land Company
was profitable and survived into the 1960s, longer than the other sub-
sidiaries. The Chuluota Land Company, the third subsidiary company,
was unable to sell the 11,000 central Florida acres allotted it by the
Model Land Company, and was phased out of the Flagler system dur-
ing the 1930s.
The main office of the Model Land Company, located in St. Au-
gustine, managed all these lands, although numerous sales agents oper-
ated throughout the state. The practice of employing agents began dur-
ing Ingraham's administration of the Land Department. Occasionally,
railroad agents doubled as Model Land Company representatives and
provided information on soils, crops and farm production on lands. The
original Model Land Company sales agents included Frederick S. Morse,
Miami; F. J. Powers, Homestead; J. B. McDonald, West Palm Beach;
Austin and McNeil, Okeechobee; C. D. Brumley, Chuluota; Miller
Hallowes, Ft. Pierce; and others. The original Miami agent, Frederick
Morse, maintained extensive files, which help to clarify the role of the
local sales units within the larger corporation.
The relationship between the Miami agent, Frederick Morse, and
the Model Land Company began in 1907, with Morse acting as "special
agent for the Railway Company during the time it was building in and
out of Miami." Morse purchased much of the right-of-way and other
properties between Miami and Key West for the FEC Railway. The agency,
officially titled, Frederick K. Morse Real Estate and Fire Insurance, "was

Henry Flagler and the Model Land Company 53

planned and developed for the sale of MLC land jointly with the Boston
Company Land," which Mr. Ingraham formerly sold in his St. Augustine
office. Like other agents, Morse worked on a commission basis.5
Morse's successors, Frank J. Pepper and Burr S. Potter, began
working with the Morse agency in 1910. Pepper came to Miami in 1907
and worked for the Engineering Department of the FEC Railway and on
the construction of the Key West extension, until he became a partner
with Morse. After Morse's death in 1920, Pepper "took Mr. Burr S.
Potter in as a partner."16 "Pepper and Potter" became the official sales
agent for Model Land Company real estate in territory designated as:

That part of Palm Beach County South from South line of
Boynton Canal, Broward County, and Dade County to West
line of Range 37 East and to South line of Twp. 61 South
including Key Largo Lands, excepting and reserving there
from all lands and lots in the City of Miami."

Pepper and Potter devoted "practically all their time and attention
to the sale of company lands." They made sales, collected payments on
contracts, attempted to prevent the expansion of city limits to keep taxes

IF YOU Want Orange Groves, Pineapple
SU Plantations or Fruit and Vegetable
-7 -.. Lands see
Fred'k S. Morse

H .-. .. .+. m Agent For Lands of
J- Florida East Coast Railway Co.
I Florida Coast Line Canal and Transportation
Boston and Florida Atlantic Coast Land Co.
Model Land Company.

Advertisement in the Florida East Coast Homeseeker for Frederick S.
Morse, the Miami agent for the Model Land Company, July 1910.
(Historical Association of Southern Florida)


down, and kept local records and surveys.18
In 1927 the agents relocated to the Ingraham Building in down-
town Miami. The agency prospered during the real estate boom of the
1920s, and subsequently struggled through the Great Depression of the
1930s. According to Pepper,

Miami banks began to fail in 1928, with the Southern Bank
and Trust Company, and in 1930, with the Bank of Bay
Biscayne. Then is when our troubles began. Our bank ac-
counts became frozen and real estate stopped moving, and
of course, our income (commissions) likewise stopped.

During the 1930s the agency lost its northern clientele, while lo-
cal sales grew increasingly difficult. Local farmers began to suffer from
tariff laws and poor markets, and they could not afford to buy new land
or make payments on the farmlands. A lack of quality farmland com-
pounded the problem. By 1939, Pepper reported "all our best lands for
farming purposes in Palm Beach, Broward, and Dade Counties have
been picked over and sold out ...",,9
With the return of prosperity to the nation, conditions improved
by the 1940s. Another former associate of Morse, Milo Coffrin, as-
sumed Potter's place within the agency, and Pepper and Coffrin, Inc.
acted as the Model Land Company's local agency. The agency changed
its name in the late 1940s to Frank J. Pepper and Son, Inc., and again in
the 1960s to Frank J. Pepper, Inc. Over the years, the agency assumed
a number of extra duties and came to exercise influence in local poli-
tics. Pepper wrote that members of the agency could be found:

attending council meetings ... and also County Com-
missioner Meetings in Broward and Dade County in con-
nection with which we are positive thousands and thou-
sands of dollars have been saved the Flagler Compa-
nies because of our close attention to these matters and
our personal friendship and influence with these offi-
cials. We have made it a rule to go over our territory at
least once a week ... visiting the Court Houses, City
Halls, etc., along with our other business to keep up our
friendship, acquaintances, and political prestige with
these officials, so that when matters come up affecting

Henry Flagler and the Model Land Company 55

taxes, zoning, condemnation, or anything else in which
your companies are interested, we are informed and in
a position to get satisfactory results.20

The agency also participated in Drainage District meetings from
Lake Worth to Naranja, and assisted in foreclosure suits by collecting
affidavits, testifying, and gathering witnesses. Agents maintained records
of all these activities, in addition to records of surveys, taxes, sales and
other transactions and information on significant local events.
With its ability to influence local development, the Model Land
Company supported Flagler's intention, "... to work in sympathy with
the plans of the FEC Railway for building up along its line, thriving
settlements and increase the revenues ... from freight and passengers"
utilizing the line. Flagler once remarked, "Every new settler is worth
$300 a year to me. He has to bring in everything he uses and send out
everything he produces over my railroad." The power of the MLC also
helped the subsidiary land companies as they sought profits from land
sales. One MLC sales agent, writing in 1911, reported that "Mr.
Ingraham ... instructed me to sell the land at the best possible advan-
tage to the company on the basis that the company is now working for
profits in land rather than traffick."21
The activities of the Model Land Company grew to encompass sales
and the promotion of Florida throughout the country. The Company fo-
cused on advertising the agricultural and industrial potential of the land,
and employed agriculturalists, horticulturists and stockmen to attend to
the development of the East Coast. The Model Land Company influ-
enced the development of the South Florida region from a subtropical
frontier to a modem civilization, and the Company has maintained a last-
ing impact on the area. Through a myriad of activities as a corporate land
enterprise, the Model Land Company affected the economic, agricultural,
political and social growth of the area. The accomplishments and short-
comings of the Company, many of which are documented in these records,
offer a unique view of this region's history.
The Model Land Company Records include the administrative
and financial records of the Company's Miami-based land agent,
Frederick S. Morse, and successor agencies including: Pepper and Pot-
ter; Pepper and Coffrin, Inc.; Frank J. Pepper and Son, Inc.; and Frank
J. Pepper, Inc. The files date from around 1907 to 1967, and are housed
in 159 boxes and total sixty-six cubic feet of files. The files do not


represent the comprehensive records of the Model Land Company, as
the records of the central office in St. Augustine were destroyed by
office personnel between 1963 and 1967.
The files document three major areas: real estate transactions,
general company business and topical files. Files contain a variety of
documents including correspondence, memoranda, maps, blueprints,
clippings, publications, photographs and other materials. These docu-
ments also include documentation on tax matters, incorporation of towns,
alterations of city limits, surveys, company and agency policies and
sale prices of lands.
Tax issues were of great concern to Company officials, and the
files document negotiations with local officials to lower taxes. Tax agents
had success in arranging for the Company to pay regular taxes on smaller
properties and limit taxes on larger, more valuable properties. The Com-
pany used other means to reduce taxes, including efforts to prevent the
expansion of city limits. City lands bore greater tax rates, so the Com-
pany sought to prevent the incorporation of most towns. The agency
maintained files on efforts to determine the city limits of the following
communities: Deerfield, Pompano, Oakland Park, Fort Lauderdale, Hol-
lywood, Perrine, Hallandale, Miami, Homestead and Florida City. The
Company also kept records on the incorporation of the following towns:
Princeton (1915-16), Hallandale, (1921), Redland County (1925), Pom-
pano (1927-33), and Floranada.
With the exception of the 1930s, the Model Land Company abided
by a policy of selling never renting land. Sales contracts bound
farmers to their property, and prevented farmers from moving to new
lands. Typical files contain requests for land and correspondence be-
tween the buyer and the agency on price, location and description of
lands, followed by the negotiation of terms for sales contract. Exten-
sions were often granted to farmers during hard times. Occasionally,
the Company allowed farmers to forego interest payments if payment
of the principle was possible.
Mortgages replaced sales contracts during the 1920s and consti-
tute a large portion of the records. Occasionally, one contract holder
would agree to exchange land with another, requiring certain paper-
work. Deeds of easement allowed a company or individual to use land
owned by another for a specific purpose. Easements were granted for
the purpose of constructing canals, bridges and power lines. Options
were granted only in cases of large purchases.

Henry Flagler and the Model Land Company 57

Files contain requests for land, information on the availability of
land, and the price and quality of land. A contract holder sometimes
assigned responsibility for fulfilling the contract, as well as the land, to
another individual or company. Men serving in the Armed Forces in
World War I assigned their contracts to others, as did farmers unable to
complete the payments on their lands. Surveys created to map plats of
Model Land Company holdings, useful to settle disputes over bound-
aries, are scattered throughout the files. The failure to receive a con-
tract extension often resulted in the voiding of a contract and the return
of the land to the Model Land Company. Property was leased only in
rare cases, but hardly ever to homeowners. The Company granted leases
to certain groups, such as the Veterans of All Wars and the National
Soil Fertility League. Once a contract holder had completed payments,
a deed was issued and the property was recorded.
Topical files document important economic, political and social
aspects of South Florida's development. Topics represented in the files
include: Chicken Key, immigration/colonies, legal cases, land drain-
age, the Everglades, housing projects, the Miami Country Club, migra-
tory labor, parks, public relations and World War I.

Chicken Key

The acquisition of "Chicken Key" proved a complex process.
Charles Deering, a wealthy industrialist, expressed interest in Chicken
Key, an island in Biscayne Bay. Frederick Morse undertook the numer-
ous steps involved in securing the property. Morse applied for a "Spe-
cial Certificate of Location" to provide a legal claim on the land. He
placed a "Notice for Publication" from the U.S. Land Office in local
newspapers for five weeks. The notice described the location of the
land and instructed "any and all persons claiming adversely the lands
described, or desiring to object because of the mineral character of the
land or for any other reason, to the disposal to applicant," to file an
affidavit of protest in that office. Morse also posted this notice on the
island and obtained an affidavit stating so.22
Prior to approval of the application, the government was required
to survey the land, and Morse had to prove that the island existed prior to
the 1850 Swamp Land Grant. The island, if underwater at that time,
would be considered the property of the State of Florida. Morse gathered
affidavits asserting that the land was "not in 1850 swamp and overflowed
land." Experts were consulted in this matter, including John K. Small,


Head Curator of the New York Botanical Garden, and a close friend of
Charles Deering. Small, who had conducted "a special study of the plants
and the vegetation of Southern Peninsular of Florida and the Keys," sub-
mitted photographs of mangrove trees located on the island, estimated at
200 years old.23 These photographs, preserved in Company files, sub-
stantiated claims that the island existed for centuries.
After Morse succeeded in protecting his claim to the Key, he was
forced to contest a second adverse claim made by Mr. Thomas A. Walsh
of Brooklyn. Walsh had purchased the Key from William Fuzzard, an
early settler of Cutler, South Dade's first community, in 1904 for five-
hundred dollars, but neither man had a title to the property. Since Fuzzard
was a friend of Morse, the latter agreed to pay Walsh five-hundred
dollars for the land.
Afterwards, Morse took the final step and filed legal notice of the
plat of the Key for five consecutive weeks. This notice stated that a
detailed map had been filed by the land office of both Chicken and
Commodore Keys, making the land available for purchase. Morse pre-
sented the warranty deed for the property to Charles Deering in 1920,
concluding the transfer of the property. Although Walsh continued to
pay taxes on the island and to claim title to the property, the land was
securely in the hands of Charles Deering.


The FEC Railway planned "colonies" and encouraged immigration
to increase the population and settlement rate along the east coast. A
number of cities and towns began as "colonies," planned or supported by
the railroad. Flagler's "Land and Industrial Department" encouraged the
immigration of colonists from Norway, Sweden, Japan and other coun-
tries. On occasion, the FEC Railway Land Department played an active
role in facilitating their migration to southeast Florida. Flagler aided in
the development of a Danish colony, White City, after the death of its
founder in 1893. The Model Land Company and the Boston and Florida
Company cooperated in organizing Modello and Hallandale, colonies for
Swedes and Danes. The FEC Railway also participated in the establish-
ment of the Japanese colony at Yamato, near present-day Boca Raton.
Company files document attempts to arrange similar immigration projects
in the Lake Worth area during the 1920s.
Subjected to annual floods, the Lake Worth district proved ex-
tremely difficult to promote as a settlement. Yet, several farmers settled

Henry Flagler and the Model Land Company 59

on the Company's land anyway by 1920. Pepper's description of the
area included grim observations, such as a notation of a family survey-
ing their property from their porch, which was surrounded by water. To
improve the potential for agriculture, the Model Land Company orga-
nized a drainage district to drain the lands of excess water and improve
farming opportunities.
Initially, the Model Land Company considered a joint drainage
project with the Boston Company in order to remedy the situation and
to improve the value of the lands. The Company also explored the es-
tablishment of a Company Farm, to disprove the growing belief that the
land could not be farmed. Changing the farmers attitudes had become
imperative. In a letter to Ingraham in 1922, Pepper reported that "There
is one thing for certain and that is we are not going to get local farmers
interested in the district, at least until others have gone in there and
demonstrated a success."24
Many farmers expressed reluctance to "put any more labor and
fertilizer in the ground" until they saw results from even one successful
farm in the area. The farmers experienced many seasons of over drain-
age during the cropping season and flooding during the winter season.
They also complained of the burdensome drainage tax. Although the
Company Farm idea is discussed in correspondence, there is no indica-
tion of its creation.-5 Other alternatives that Pepper suggested to
Ingraham included colonization of the land and the sale of the property.
He wrote that the Company "should either colonize it ourselves by Japa-
nese or others whom we might find desirable," or put it on the market
together with the Boston Company's holdings. Pepper was already in
contact with Syrians and with Japanese in California26
Ingraham responded to Pepper's letters, stating:

As to the colonization by the Japanese ..., or Syrians I
have never seen in any of our relations with the Japanese
at Yamato, anything that was objectionable. They are
hardworking, intensive, and persevering. As far as I know,
the Japanese are more self-assertive as to their social rights
than any of the others that you discussed with me.27

No indication is given of whether this quality was a desirable one
in prospective colonists; however, Ingraham suggests the English as a
second, preferred possibility. He wrote:


I am inclined to think that if a properly sustained effort to
was made, that we could reach a class of young English-
men and Englishwomen, and perhaps good Irishmen and
Irishwomen, good educated people, who want to make a
new start, and these people make the very best colonists in
the world. They assimilate readily, they are socially ac-
ceptable, and they don't know what failure means.28

Subsequent correspondence between Ingraham and the Miami
agency called for a meeting between Pepper and Potter, as agents re-
sponsible for much of the Lake Worth lands, and Mr. J. B. McDonald,
an agent operating in Palm Beach County, and the British Consulate.
The purpose of the meeting was to "discuss the matter of encouraging
some British immigration of high class."29
Although the progress of this idea beyond this point is unknown,
another colonization plan materialized a year later when Alfred Minssos
of Norway approached the Model Land Company with his own immi-
gration plan. Minssos, "who had lived in the U.S. for ten years, and
who in 1916, was a member of a commission sent to this country to
study and investigate the cooperative features used by our manufactur-
ers," proposed to bring one hundred Norwegian families to the Lake
Worth area. Each would be required to possess $2,500 in cash in addi-
tion to the funds necessary to purchase their houses and five acre lots.
Minssos promised to construct a community center, streets, a store and
clubhouse, and to improve the area by planting shrubs and flowers.
The Company agreed to provide several acres after Minssos dem-
onstrated the viability of his colony by successfully settling the major-
ity of the families. The company was cautious, but expressed its hope
that "... this colonization improvement will prove to be only the begin-
ning of a permanent setting up of that back country by a substantial set
of farmers and good citizens, and to this end, it goes without saying,
that everybody is interested.""

Legal Cases

The files also contain correspondence and records concerning U.S.
Government and Seaboard Airline Railway condemnation suits, fore-
closure suits and suits against squatters and trespassers. Three signifi-
cant cases occurred between 1911 and 1915 concerning the settlement

Henry Flagler and the Model Land Company 61

of homestead claims on lands owned by the Model Land Company.
Files on these cases detail the complications related to vague federal
provisions for granting public lands in Florida and illuminate the doubts
many people harbored about the legitimacy of land companies operat-
ing during this period.
Suits settling homestead claims were brought by homesteaders
who contested Model Land Company titles to certain lands. The home-
steaders or individuals who settled on the land argued that the property
was public land owned by the federal government and therefore open to
claims. The Company had to prove to the court that the federal govern-
ment transferred the lands in question to the state under the Swamp
Land Grant of 1850. If the state owned the land, the homesteaders could
have no claim upon it, and the Company titles would be protected.
Although only one of these cases determined a Company title to be
invalid, the homestead suits proved to be lengthy ordeals which dam-
aged the reputation of the Model Land Company.
In J. W. Blanding v. MLC (1912-15), the plaintiff contested the
Company's title to land in Homestead. According to the Company, the
state deeded this land to Sir Edward James Reed who deeded it to the
Land and Trust Company of Florida. The Trust Company conveyed
this parcel with other lands to the Model Land Company. Apparently,
the Company held reservations about the legality of the transfer and
distinguished the land from regular transactions by referring to it as
"Model-Reed land" in financial records. The investigation conducted
on the title of these lands revealed that the lands were never transferred
to the state. As J. E. Ingraham wrote, it looked "as if there might be a
good mix up in these unfortunate transactions."31 This situation resulted
in unfavorable publicity for the Model Land Company and caused some
Homestead residents to become "rather excited about this rumor."32
The Company's local agents gathered "swamp land affidavits,"
signed statements attesting to the fact "that at the date of the Swamp
Land Act September 26, A. D. 1850, the greater part of each said quar-
ter sections were wet and unfit for cultivation, and except for the artifi-
cial drains since made, the greater part of each of said quarter sections
would now be wet and unfit for cultivation ..."33
The Company recorded the names of witnesses, records of the
fees paid witnesses, and other relevant information. The case appeared
to be settled in 1913, when Chief Justice Lamar of the Supreme Court
of the United States issued a decision "against the homesteading of


lands conveyed by the state and to which the U.S. could be the only
legal claimant."" The judgement providing that homestead claims would
no longer be upheld if they involved lands claimed by a state should
have concluded the Blanding case. However, by 1914, the Company
land still had not been deeded to the state.
In 1915 the United States government finally patented, or offi-
cially deeded, the lands to the State, completing the Model Land Com-
pany title. On January 28, 1915, Mr. Dewhurst, the FEC Railway at-
torney, notified Ingraham that "the Secretary of the Interior has ren-
dered a decision in our favor for the whole SW 1/4 at Homestead."35
S. P. Lewis initiated a second case involving the Reed land in
1911. This case involved the land in section 12-56-39. As in the Blanding
case, the Model Land Company argued that the state conveyed the land
to Sir Edward Reed in 1883, and that the title came to the Company
through the Florida Land and Trust Company in 1903. However, the
Company attorney, Mr. Dewhurst, employed a different strategy to prove
that the land should have been transferred to the state. During the course
of the case, documentation in the files of the General Land Office in
Washington, DC, listed the land under the description of swamplandss
patented to the state." The land was, however, omitted from the list of
swamp lands in the Surveyor General's Office. Dewhurst argued that a
simple clerical error had caused the misunderstanding and that the prop-
erty had, in fact, been patented to the state.
The State's title was recognized in 1912, but S. P. Lewis filed a
"swamp contest affidavit" in a final effort to keep the land. He secured
affidavits and witnesses to testify that the land being contested was not
swampland and that it should have been retained by the federal govern-
ment. In order to demonstrate that the land was not "wet and unfit for
cultivation," neighbors argued that tomatoes could be successfully grown
on surrounding tracts of land, In spite of this testimony, Lewis won his
case and was allowed to keep his land."36
A third case involving a Homestead claim occurred in 1912. MLC
v. Jack Davis was settled, like the Blanding case, in favor of the Model
Land Company. Although homestead claims were few, they generated a
great deal of controversy and negative publicity. Flagler, with his keen
business sense, foresaw the negative consequences of these legal battles.
Shortly before his death in 1913, Flagler warned Pepper of the dangers
of settling homestead claims in court. Flagler argued that even if the
Company won all such suits, it could still lose a great deal of business:

Henry Flagler and the Model Land Company 63

I have a feeling that we ought not stay in the Courts and
have our titles under a cloud, if we can adjust them for a
reasonable amount of money or in any other way, I do not
know what Mr. Dewhurst has done beyond the fact of bring-
ing suit. There is a side of this that the lawyer should not
be concerned with and that is the business side of it; and it
looks to me that either you or some representative of yours
might be able to reach these parties in such a way as to
straighten up and clear out titles better than if this litiga-
tion is continued.37

An unfriendly relationship with the Miami Metropolis, the city's
first newspaper, contributed to Flagler's concern. A "general belief'
developed in Dade County that "the titles of the MLC are not good, due
to attacks upon it by the Miami Metropolis." An outraged Ingraham
instructed Pepper to convince the Metropolis that it would be harming
Miami far worse than the Company if stories on the "Homestead Af-
fair" continued to appear in print. The Model Land Company was strong
enough to withstand the attacks. "The MLC's holdings extend from
Jacksonville to Key West and will be enlarged rather than diminished,
and I think it is powerful enough to protect the deeds it issues.""38
Ingraham observed that the Miami real estate market could be more
vulnerable. Newspapers should be careful since "a very little thing will
sometimes stop a 'boom' and create a panic .."39

Land Drainage

A large portion of Florida land south of Orlando was originally
wet lands, and drainage in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centu-
ries proved essential to the development of the region. The Model Land
Company, and other large landowners, had an important stake in the
drainage process. The Company initiated drainage operations, financed
dredging projects, and attempted to influence the policies of state drain-
age district boards. In correspondence, Frederick S. Morse and Will-
iam J. Krome, the engineer who oversaw the construction of the FEC
Railway's overseas railroad to Key West, discussed a plan to drain the
prairie land of the Perrine Grant, located in today's South Dade, into
Biscayne Bay. Morse was responsible for obtaining the necessary in-
formation. Krome gave his opinion as construction engineer that the
fall was sufficient for drainage into the Bay.40


Other instances of drainage projects appear in the records. In one
case, Carlton Marshall of Pompano requested an option so that he could
ditch the land, install drainage pumps, and determine whether his drain-
age method could make the land suitable for farming. The Company
granted Marshall the option and agreed to sell the land at the price he
named because if Marshall succeeded, ... it would no doubt be of great
assistance in the sale of the balance."41
In addition to facilitating the drainage process, Flagler and his com-
panies exerted control over the drainage district boards created by Gov-
ernors Jennings and Broward. The first comprehensive drainage law es-
tablished a drainage board which levied taxes, planned canal routes and
ordered dredges. Flagler and the Boston Company united with other large
land owners to oppose the drainage tax. They won a lawsuit against the
state, and in 1906, the drainage commissioners drew new boundaries for
the drainage district, excluding most of the lands of these companies.
Various state-organized drainage districts continued to super-
vise drainage for a number of years. The local Model Land Company
office maintained files on these districts and participated in landown-
ers leagues, organizations of large land holders who joined forces to
fight unfavorable drainage board policies. Two drainage districts, the
Broward Drainage District and the Southern Drainage District, posed
problems for the Company. When Sidney Harrison, the secretary of
the Company, learned of their organization, he complained about the
"objectionable features" of the Broward organization's bill in a letter
to Frederick Morse. The bill authorized the Board "to levy an unlim-
ited amount of taxes for an unlimited amount of years." The Board
possessed similar broad powers in regard to its ability to issue bonds,
to change the boundaries of the district and to utilize funds. Further-
more, there was no appeal from the board.42
Harrison, however, reported that the Model Land Company suc-
ceeded in seeing all of these features altered by amendments after "con-
siderable controversy with the Representatives and Senators introduc-
ing this bill." Harrison also informed Morse that a similar effort con-
cerning the Southern Drainage District bill was underway and instructed
him to "see the Editor of the Miami Herald and give him our side..." in
case it became known that "our companies are opposing the Bill in its
original form."43

Henry Flagler and the Model Land Company 65

Everglades Development and Preservation

The Model Land Company exercised an enormous impact over
the recent history of the Everglades. Cape Sable, in the southwestern
sector of the Everglades, is documented in numerous files recording
land transactions and plans to develop roads, experimental farms and
other facilities. James Ingraham initiated the drainage and development
of the area. As an employee of Henry B. Plant's South Florida Rail-
road, Ingraham explored the Everglades for construction of a railroad
route to the Keys. He reported that the land was unsuitable for a rail-
road but had enormous potential for farming. Plant was uninterested,
but Flagler pursued this information, and eventually acquired and be-
gan the process of draining the land so it could be sold as farmland.
In addition to promoting the sale of the land and encouraging the
establishment of agricultural experiment centers by providing low rate
leases, the Model Land Company constructed roadways and advertised
hunting and fishing attractions. Records regarding the transformation
of the Cape Sable area into Everglades Park begin in 1928, with Ernest
Coe's enthusiastic announcement of the campaign for "preserving this
Cape Sable section of South Florida as a national park for all time."
Coe, a local landscape artist, became known as the "Father of the Ever-
glades." Early correspondence reveals local landowners and land com-
panies had no objection to the park except that they did not "consider...
all the agricultural lands in that area should be included in its bound-
aries or that their lands should be confiscated without proper reim-
bursement ..."44
The bill drafted in 1929 provided that the lands could be taken by
the government by condemnation, prompting the fear by land owners
that they would receive less than market value for their lands. During
the late 1920s and early 1930s, the Model Land Company continued to
follow the progress of the park. The Company gathered the addresses
of all landowners in November 1931, and arranged for a meeting of "all
the larger landowners in order that we may be all of one accord if and
when the land is purchased or taken by condemnation for park pur-
The files contain maps showing various proposed boundary lines,
newspaper clippings, pamphlets, memos, transcripts of radio broad-
casts and other materials documenting the controversy over the park.
Numerous letters to congressmen and records of landowners meetings



.'"" .:T.. .. --.- April 29, 1931

*. .. L'"" "Public opinion must
be enlightened."
..name P. co. mim George a shbington
L5r. Frank J. Pepper
^O S Ingrs ln -' Bldg.
iAyaA.a* Miami, FPla.

_v dear :;r. Pepper:

It's pictures of Flamingoes, Egrets, Sal3fish, Tarpon,
Alligators, ralms, Orchids, Seminoles, which tell their
own story so that everybody can quickly read and see vhy
the .verglades National Park will be different from all
M7imu, other E'ational iarks.
The -iami Daily Lews, at the request of this Association,
argree3 to get out a special rotogravure National Park
Sunday edition devoted exclusively to pictures of the
= IMU overglades national Park.
e faemvocW As this edition will carry no advertisements, it is only
.w &smewei reasonable that the actual cost should be borne by popular
** s subscriptions. The names of the subscribers will appear
under the caption: "This Everglades National. ?ark Lumber
Sponsored by ...."
A representative of the Kews will call and explain to
you more fully the scope and purpose of this issue.

ZFC; .' 7. oe, man

This association can use ten thousand co.ies of this
A-,v rotogravure Everglades Eational Park edition to advantage
sincr for general distribution. It is the belief of the writer r
that tV in rotogravure picture edition will be a most
effective help in carrying on the work this Association
atid .T is no.: doing. Eliminating all advertisementsin this
issue and inviting only individuals to subscribe will
at ive this edition a distinctive character. This will show
CMLBERTsVEa the public that representative local citizens are personal-
.1&r c2 54 1 : olsoring the -ark project.

Letter from Ernest Coe to Frank Pepper soliciting support for the
promotion of the Everglades National Park, dated April 29, 1931.
(Archives and Special Collections, University of Miami)

Henry Flagler and the Model Land Company 67

provide evidence of the Model Land Company's effort to work with
large landowners, oil companies, and land companies providing oil leases
in the Everglades area. These groups opposed the park and sought to
preserve oil and mineral rights for a set period of years.
In 1934 President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Enabling Act,
allowing the "creation of the Everglades National Park, in Monroe,
Dade, and Collier counties, ... within the boundaries to be determined
by the Secretary of the Interior." Ingraham sought out Coe, who at this
time served as Chairman of the Everglades National Park Association,
in order to determine the boundaries of the park and to plan future
action in response to the condemnation of Company land.
The Company also compiled a report on the 270,760 acres it
owned, placing their value at $5,036,800. The report describes drain-
age activities performed, crops raised and the industries that could be
developed on these lands. The report argues that if the lands are taken
for park purposes, industry and farming should not be curtailed. "If
these lands ... were set aside for a park or game preserve, attractive
activities could be carried on without interfering with the industrial
development of the land."*45
On April 2, 1947, the Secretary of the Interior finally selected the
lands for the park. The Model Land Company sold the property to the
government. When plans to extend the park boundaries arose in the
1950s, the Company and its local Miami agency took action. A letter
from Pepper to the main office revealed that "15 interested landowners
and oil men first had ... a 'policy' meeting, ... from which we adjourned
to the Court House for a meeting with the Board of County Commis-
sioners." The commissioners, according to Pepper, seemed interested
in the landowners views, but reluctant to "take a definite stand on their
behalf due to the presence of [John] Pennekamp, a Herald reporter who
supported the park."46

Housing Developments

Throughout the early twentieth century Blacks migrated to Florida
from southern states, as well as from the Bahamas and the Caribbean.
Henry Flagler encouraged this trend by employing many black workers
in his hotel and railroad construction projects. However, strict residen-
tial segregation affected the settlement of the Miami's growing black
population. An area on the northwest border of the downtown business


district Colored Town, later called Overtown was the one of the
first black residential areas. Smaller black communities had also emerged
in Coconut Grove and Homestead. Model Land Company files contain
mortgage documents for many black Homestead residents, several of
whom purchased large tracts and resold the property to other buyers.
By the late 1920s Colored Town came to be an overcrowded slum,
with the relocation of residents restricted due to policies by Miami's
officials to keep them confined to that quarter. When the city's business
leaders moved to enlarge the downtown business district in the 1930s,
they initiated the first steps to move blacks out of the downtown area.
"New Deal" public housing projects provided the opportunity for busi-
nessmen to implement expansion and resettlement plans. The Dade
County Planning Board also perceived the removal of blacks from the
downtown area as desirable, and discussed the creation of planned com-
munities elsewhere in the city.47
Company files record the business transactions involved in two of
these housing projects. The first, the Liberty Square Project of the 1930s,
was constructed on 62 acres of land bounded by NW 12th Street (East);
NW 67th Street (North); NW 15th Avenue (West); and NW 62nd Av-
enue (South). This project area and the area around it came to be called
Liberty City. Work on Liberty Square began in 1935, and by 1937 the
first families had moved to the project "from an extremely congested

Liberty Square Project, ca. 1937, one of two housing projects supported by
the Model Land Company. (HASF, Miami News Collection 1995-277-6975)

*--I^H^^EBBSE^^^ ^^^H
^SSSSSE-^^^ ^^^W
"1"- *jidB^HB

Henry Flagler and the Model Land Company 69

colored section of the City of Miami."48 All of the 234 houses were
soon occupied. Files contain a plat showing the project location, docu-
ments indicating the goals and operating methods of the associated con-
sumers' cooperative, and a list of the various government agencies in-
volved. Files also record the financial transactions between James E.
Scott, Liberty Square's manager, and the Model Land Company. Scott's
dedication to the establishment of Liberty Square is apparent. Although
the government eventually provided a loan, Scott borrowed funds from
personal acquaintances to meet initial payments. Correspondence pro-
vides descriptions of the improvements made on the property and the
overall success of the undertaking.
The second major housing development documented in the files is
Richmond Heights, located eight miles south of Miami and one-and-
one-half miles west of Dixie Highway. Files dating from 1946 to 1955
describe this project and provide mortgage records. According to aMi-
ami News article, former Pan American pilot Captain Frank C. Martin
"spotted and selected" the location for this community after "having
flown over Dade County for a score of years."49 Martin purchased 3,000
acres of pine land from the Model Land Company. The government
occupied 800 acres for Richmond Air Base. After consulting a member
of the Coral Gables Board of Realtors, Martin decided to use the re-
maining land to establish a planned "Negro development."
Martin's community included plans for schools, roads, parks,
churches and recreation centers, in addition to housing. Construction
began in 1950, and several residents moved into the area by May
1951. As in the case of Liberty City, "practically all" of Richmond
Height's home buyers "came from the Central Miami or Coconut Grove
Slum Districts."50
Tensions between black and white residents occasionally devel-
oped in spite of segregated housing policies. Files discuss the rezoning
of an area on Coral Reef Drive between Richmond Heights and white
neighborhoods. A resident requested Company support for a petition to
obtain business district zoning so that business facilities could be con-
structed between these communities, both for the convenience of the
"colored people" and for creation of a "neutral buffer." According to
the writer, "This is especially so when you consider that white owner-
ship of this business property is practically assured.""5 Another file
mentions an incidence of violence against a black man who moved into
a white neighborhood.


t R V I



Pages from a pamphlet promoting the Liberty Square Consumers'
Cooperative Association, ca. 1940. The Cooperative sold grocery and
household items at the competitive retail prices while the members of
the organization, with a membership fee of $1.00 and the opportunity
to by stock at $2.00 per share, periodically received a portion of the

T HIS is a public Association
for economy and service,
NOT an organization for pri-
vate profits. It is a true Coop-
erative enterprise designed to
conduct the retail distribution
of the items most important in
the average family budget. Its
stores will sell at current retail
prices BUT its profits will be re-
turned periodically to its members
in direct proportion to their pur-
chases at Cooperative stores.


Henry Flagler and the Model Land Company 71

'We TWaven't Any '$ig eYoney, Let's
Work Our Little eXoney Sogether

NOW is the TIME for ACTION
Join The
Liberty Square Consumers'
Cooperative Association

About what the "RACE" Needs
About what the "RACE" Has Done
About what the "RACE" Should Do
About what the "RACE" Should Have
Act Work Combine
Your energy, intellect and money with a sound, substantial
and profit earning enterprise

.,:, ;:.: '): :/ f--- o : : : -- "--.-----

association's profits. This effort encouraged members of the housing
community to take a personal interest in the development by offering
patronage to the Cooperative and helping prevent the same decline
that occurred in Overtown. (Archives and Special Collections,
University of Miami)


Miami Country Club

Files document the history of the Miami Country Club, which
contained one of the first golf courses constructed in the United States.
Flagler's magnificent Royal Palm Hotel, a hostelry in the FEC Hotel
Company chain, managed these facilities and hosted numerous tourna-
ments which generated publicity for Miami. When the Royal Palm closed
in 1928, the Country Club was "organized by three hundred prominent
Miami business men." The new club administrators leased the club
house and golf course from the FEC Hotel Company and kept these
facilities open on a year-round basis. In 1944 the Miami Country Club
concluded a purchase on an option with the Hotel Company for the
club house, golf course and all other assets on the premises. Even after
the Hotel Company sold this property, it maintained close ties with the
owners; Frank J. Pepper became a member of the club's board of direc-
tors so that the Flagler interests would be represented. The files contain
financial and administrative records dating from 1933 to 1944, as well
as information on golf tournaments and special events.

Migratory Labor

Files document two federal government efforts to locate migra-
tory labor camps in South Florida. In 1940 a representative of the Farm
Security Administration made inquiries on Company land in the Pom-
pano, Pahokee and Homestead areas. Since a local farmer donated two
eighty-acre tracts for the establishment of a black and a white labor
camp, the Model Land Company was unable to sell any land on this
occasion. Another camp to accommodate what one news article called
"Florida's own 'Oakies'" was established in 1941. The government
requested a tract of Company land in the Lake Okeechobee vicinity, but
this piece of property was under lease.


The City of Miami leased Royal Palm Park, a popular gathering
place in downtown Miami, for one year as a park, freeing the Company
from an annual tax on this property. The Model Land Company at-
tempted to persuade Homestead officials to provide a similar arrange-
ment, but the City of Homestead could not afford to lease the down-

Henry Flagler and the Model Land Company 73

town property known as the "triangular tract," sixty acres bordered by
Krome Avenue. The Company, however, sold other lots to Homestead
for parks, and pledged to help the city by clearing underbrush and
preparing the property for "beautification."52
Files also document the establishment of the Boca Raton Park
and Playground. The city's mayor, George A. Long, provided the land
for a baseball field and park but he requested that the Model Land
Company donate an adjoining piece of land. The Company supported
the Mayor's project and agreed to the donation.53

Public Relations

Flagler operated his railroad, hotel and land businesses during the
1890s with a policy calling for widescale national and local publicity.
Flagler purchased an interest in several Florida newspapers, and he and
his associates employed a variety of methods to increase demand for
lands. The Travellers Information Company promoted the Flagler Sys-
tem in thirteen northern cities. "Florida on Wheels," a special railroad
car constructed to tour the Midwest, was another innovative idea.
By 1900 a new attitude had replaced Flagler's initial interest in
publicity. At this point, he told Ingraham that "it seems to me that the
East Coast is so well known that we ought to stop all expensive adver-
tising." Ingraham apparently continued to advertise, but concentrated
on the northern market almost exclusively.
One exception to this policy is recorded in the files. When F. W.
DeCroix requested that the Company take out an advertisement in his
new publication, The Illustrated Review: A Florida Magazine for
Florida, Ingraham instructed Pepper to purchase space for an ad be-
cause of current circumstances. "We ordinarily do not advertise much
in local papers, for the reason that we spend our money in the North,
where we endeavor to draw our customers from, but I realize that the
'fake companies,' et cetera, are bringing about a suspicion with regard
to Florida enterprises, and it therefore may be very desirable for us to
put ourselves before the public in a straightforward and legitimate way."'4
The local office did not engage in the business of advertising it-
self, but it did distribute copies of "Lure of the South Land" to northern
agents when requested. It also gathered photographs of Miami to be
compiled into albums "used in soliciting homeseekers."55 Ingraham re-
quested pictures of "the different buildings and improvements in and


around the Miami area as contained in the ... Miami booklet issued by
your board of trade ... or... any other cuts showing the developments in
and around Miami."56 The Company collected photographs, including
Miami Herald prints of a successful tomato farm, Everglades Maga-
zine photos of a cattle farm, and other views of Biscayne Bay and the
Dixie Highway.
The only other evidence of agency advertising is information on a
sign advertising Key Largo lands. The Company had to submit extensive
paperwork to obtain a permit to maintain the sign, eventually destroyed
in a hurricane in the 1940s. The agency refused to replace the sign since
neither the local office nor the St. Augustine agency believed, by this
time, that advertising was profitable: "This office has never yet been able
to trace a sale ... directly as the result of such a sign, or similar advertise-
ment in Northern papers ... either Mr. Ingraham or Mr. Harrison informed
me that was the experience of the St. Augustine office.""7

World War I

Files document Model Land Company cooperation with the Food
Preparedness Commission to ensure an adequate wartime food supply.
Ingraham realized

the necessity for a large increase of acreage in corn, sweet
potatoes, and other products raised in the South, not only
for the sustenance of the South during the period of the
war, but in order to supply the entire country and assist to
the utmost of our ability in making up the shortage of crops
which is anticipated throughout the North and West, and
that as much as possible surplus ... may be shipped over to
the Allied Nations in Europe ...8

From 1917 to 1918, the Company maintained records of farm
crops, enabling the Food Commission to predict the various yields of
produce. The Company also took land applications, ordered seed and
distributed goods to farmers. The Model Land Company offered to fur-
nish free seed to all Broward County farmers who would grow a sum-
mer crop of corn. In spite of its desire to aid the war effort, the Com-
pany would not concede to the use of its land for growing extra crops.

Henry Flagler and the Model Land Company 75

Ingraham asserted that "we are doing our share in furnishing free seed
without furnishing free land."59


Whether the issue was agriculture or immigration, land sales or
migrant labor, drainage of swamp lands or race relations, taxes, tour-
ism, or housing, the Model Land Company played a major role in shap-
ing the economic, political and social issues that dominated the devel-
opment of southern Florida in the first half of the twentieth century.
Henry Flagler and his corporate enterprises literally shaped the land-
scape of the southern half of the state through the activities of the Florida
East Coast Railway and the Model Land Company. Preserved within
these corporate records are the many stories that continue to shape the
destiny of our region.


1. Model Land Company Records, Archives and Special Collec-
tions, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida. This collection, pro-
cessed with a grant from the Florida State Records Advisory Board,
contains administrative, financial, property, and client files for the Model
Land Company.
2. Chandler, David Leon. Henry Flagler: The Astonishing Life
and Times of the Visionary Robber Baron Who Founded Florida. (New
York: MacMillan and Company, New York, 1986), 130-32.
3. Akin, Edward N. Flagler, Rockefeller Partner and Florida
Baron. (Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1988), 177.
4. Ibid.
5. Ibid., 178.
6. Martin, Sidney Walter. Florida's Flagler. (Athens: Universit
of Georgia Press, 1949), 240-41.
7. Ibid., 130-131.
8. Martin, 240.


9. Akin, 164.
10. Model Land Company Records, Box 6, Folder 178, Spe-
cial File 207, Letter from Hudson and Boggs to Frederick S. Morse,
June 12, 1914.
11. Ibid.
12. Ibid.
13. Ibid.
14. Model Land Company Records, Box 14, Folder 14, Spe-
cial File 15, Letter from James E. Ingraham to Frederick S. Morse,
April 10, 1911.
15. Model Land Company Records, Box 90, Folder 1,640, Special
File 2,085, Letter from Frank J. Pepper to Carl Hawkins, June 21, 1939.
16. Model Land Company Records, Box 96, Folder 1703, Spe-
cial File 1,703, Letter from Frank J. Pepper to William Kenan, Jr. ,
January 21, 1944.
17. Ibid.
18. Ibid.
19. Ibid.
20. Ibid.
21. Model Land Company Records, Box 1, Folder 15, Special
File 16, Letter from Frederick S. Morse to James E. Ingraham.
22. Model Land Company Records. Box 11, Folder 323, Special
File Number 390, Miami Herald clipping, November 17, 1916, p. 4.
23. Model Land Company Records, Box 11, Folder 322, Special
File 390, Copy of Affidavit, 1917.
24. Model Land Company Records, Box 41, Folder 946, Spe-
cial File 1,321, Letter from Frank J. Pepper to James E. Ingraham,
August 28, 1922.
25. Ibid.
26. Ibid.
27. Model Land Company Records, Box 41, Folder 946, Spe-
cial File 1,321, Letter from James E. Ingraham to Frank J. Pepper,
September 5, 1922.
28. Ibid.
29. Ibid.
30. Model Land Company Records, Box 39, Folder 912, Spe-
cial File 1,257, Letter from Frank J. Pepper to James E. Ingraham,
April 4, 1923.
31. Model Land Company Records, Box 1, Folder 32, Special File

Henry Flagler and the Model Land Company 77

35, Letter From James E. Ingraham to Frederick S. Morse, July 3, 1911.
32. Model Land Company Records, Box 1, Folder 32, Special File
35, Letter from Frederick S. Morse to James E. Ingraham, June 27, 1911.
33. Model Land Company Records, Box 1, Folder 32, Special
File 35, Copy of Affidavit.
34. Model Land Company Records, Box 1, Folder 32, Special File
35, Letter from James E. Ingraham to Frederick S. Morse, July 10, 1913.
35. Model Land Company Records, Box 1, Folder 31, Special
File 35, Letter from William W. Dewhurst to James E. Ingraham,
January 28, 1915.
36. Model Land Company Records, Box 2, Folder 72, Special
File 79, Correspondence, 1912-17.
37. Model Land Company Records, Box 2, Folder 65, Special
File 72, Letter from Henry M. Flagler to James E. Ingraham, De-
cember 12, 1912.
38. Model Land Company Records, Box 2, Folder 63, Special
File 70, Letter from James E. Ingraham to Frederick S. Morse, Feb-
ruary 22, 1912.
39. Model Land Company Records, Box 2, Folder 63, Special
File 70, Letter from James E. Ingraham to Frederick S. Morse, Feb-
ruary 10, 1912.
40. Model Land Company Records, Box 4, Folder 120, Special
File 138, Correspondence between Frederick S. Morse and William J.
Krome, 1911-13.
41. Model Land Company Records, Box 13, Folder 353, Spe-
cial File 426, Letter from Frank J. Pepper to James E. Ingraham,
July 15, 1916.
42. Model Land Company Records, Box 21, Folder 535, Spe-
cial File 655, Letter from Sidney Harrison to Frederick S. Morse,
May 19, 1919.
43. Ibid.
44. Model Land Company Records, Box 75, Folder 1,439, Special
File 1,869, Memorandum, Office of Frank J. Pepper, April 30, 1929.
45. Model Land Company Records, Box 75, Folder 1,441, Spe-
cial File 1,869, "A Report on the Lands of the Model Land Company in
South Dade and Monroe Counties Florida," p. 8.
46. Model Land Company Records, Box 112, Folder 1,938, Spe-
cial File 2,596, Letter from Frank J. Pepper to Carl W. Hawkins,
February 4, 1954.


47. Paul S. George, "Policing Miami's Black Community, 1896-
1930," Florida Historical Quarterly 52 (April 1979): 438, 443-444;
Raymond A. Mohl, "Trouble in Paradise: Race and Housing in Miami
During the New Deal Era," Prologue: The Journal of the National
Archives 19 (spring 1987): 7-21; and Paul S. George and Thomas K.
Peterson, "Liberty Square: 1933-1987 The Origins and Evolution
of a Public Housing Project," Tequesta 48 (1988): 53-68.
48. Model Land Company Records, Box 104, Folder 1,803,
Special File 2,250, Document entitled "Liberty Square Consumer's
49. Model Land Company Records, Box 108, Folder 1, 868, Spe-
cial File 2,326, Miami News clipping, May 20, 1951.
50. Model Land Company Records, Box 108, Folder 1,868, Spe-
cial File 2,326, Miami Herald clipping, May 20, 1951.
51. Model Land Company Records, Box 108, Folder 1,868, Spe-
cial File 2,326, Letter from John A. Tackaberry to Mr. Frank J. Pepper,
November 13, 1952.
52. Model Land Company Records, Box 19, Folder 493, Special
File 597, Correspondence, 1928-39.
53. Model Land Company Records, Box 41, Folder 951, Special
File 1,428, Correspondence, 1924.
54. Model Land Company Records, Box 2, Folder 68, Spe-
cial File 75, Letter from James E. Ingraham to Frederick S. Morse,
December 29, 1911.
55. Model Land Company Records, Box 11, Folder 330, Special
File 397, Letter from Louis Larson to Frederick S. Morse, April 25,
56. Model Land Company Records, Box 11, Folder 330, Special
File 397, Letter from Frederick S. Morse to James February 24, 1916.
57. Model Land Company Records, Box 110, Folder 1,899, Spe-
cial File 2,370, Letter from Frank J. Pepper to James E. Ingraham,
March 10, 1948.
58. Model Land Company Records, Box 15, File 413, Special
File 498, Letter from James E. Ingraham to Frederick S. Morse,
April 20, 1917.
59. Model Land Company Records, Box 15, Folder 413, Spe-
cial File 498, Letter from James E. Ingraham to Frederick S. Morse,
March 1, 1917.

List of Members 79

Historical Association of Southern Florida
Membership List

Members of the Historical Association of Southern Florida enjoy a
wide variety of benefits. These include free admission to the mu-
seum; subscriptions to three museum periodicals: Tequesta, South
Florida History Magazine and Currents; invitations to special events;
use of the Research Center; discounts on purchases at the museum
store; and discounts on educational and recreational programs.
Each membership category offers the benefits as outlined above,
plus additional gifts and privileges for the higher levels of support.
Membership revenues primarily cover the cost of the benefits
provided, educational programs, special exhibitions and daily opera-
tions of the museum. The membership listing is made up of these
persons and organizations that have paid dues since November 1995;
those who joined after November 1, 1996, will be published in the
1997 Tequesta.

Life Members
andMs.Mit*chelan din
Mr. and M. JauC. Menill
Mrs. SylviaSowads

Honorary Life Members
Mrs.WayneE Width

Fellow Humanitarians
Mr.PelerLBen ont
Mr. andMrs.MalcolmB.Wiseheatt
Mr.Mitiell Wolfsa


Bacardi Gifts & Promotions
Biscayne Greyhound Track
Brown-Forman Worldwide
Chrysler Corporation
Coopers & Lybrand

American Airlines
Barnett Bank of South Florida
Beber Silverstein & Partners
Capital Bank
Curbside Florist & Gifts, Inc.
Daniel Electrical Contractors
De Lara Travel Consultants
Deloitte & Touche
Eagle Brands, Inc.
Eastman Kodak Company

2K Insulation Inc
A & A Energy Systems Corp
A & V Refrigeration Corp.
A Customer First A/C
A-1 Sun Protection, Inc.
Al Fargo Van & Storage
AAA Able Appliance Service Co.
ABC Distributing
Adco Patch, Inc.
Advanced Services, Inc.
AIB Financial Group, Inc.
Allied Specialty Co.
Associated Printing, Inc.
Berkowitz, Dick & Pollack
Bierman, Shohat, Loewy, Perry
Biltmore Hotel
Carriage House Imports Ltd.
Chase Federal Bank
Christy's Restaurant
City National Bank
Coconut Grove Bank
Community Air Conditioning
Cordis Corporation
Corporate Advisors, Inc.
Cypress Consulting
Deering Bay Associates
Diamonette Party Rentals
Diaz Nursery, Inc.
Dolphin Insulation Co.
Ductmasters, Inc.

Corporate Benefactors
Fireman's Fund Insurance Co.
First Nationwide Bank
First Union National Bank
Haff-Daugherty Graphics
Honeywell, Inc.
Keen, Battle, Mead & Co.

Corporate Patrons
Federal Express Corp.
Fidelity Investments
First Security Trust Co.
Florida Power & Light Company
Greenberg, Trauriget al
Groove Jet
Johnathans Catering
Le Basque the Caterer
Mercedes Electric Supply, Inc.
Miami Dolphins Ltd.
Mile Marker Productions, Inc.

Corporate Members
Embers of South Beach, Inc.
Energy Cost Savers, Inc.
Esslinger Wooten Maxwell
Farrey's Wholesale Hardware Co.
Fence Masters
Flamingo Formalwear
Florida Yacht Charters & Sales
Giancarlo Jewelry Designs
Golden Press
Greater Miami Convention & Visitors
Harrison Construction
Hayhurst & Associates, Inc.
Helios Ceiling Insulation
Honshy Electric Co., Inc.
Hopkins-Carter Company
Hotel Place St. Michel
Hurricane Reef Beers
Indian Creek Hotel
International Finance Bank
Jack Nicklaustolden Bear Inlenational
Jacobs & Carney
JAE's Fine Jewelers
John Alden Life Insurance Co.
Kendall Appliances, Inc.
Kenny, Nachwalter & Seymour

Southern Wine & Spirits
SunTrust Miami, N.A.
Turner Construction Company
WLRN Public Radio& Television

Morrison Brown Argiz & Company
Naples-Fort Myers Greyhound
Norwegian Cruise Line Ltd.
Savings of America
Shutts & Bowen
Star Clippers Ltd.
Steel, Hector & Davis
The Raleigh Hotel
Thermal Management, Inc.
Therrel Baisden & Meyer Weiss

La Palma Ristorante & Bar
LaTradicion Cubana
Legal Impressions, Inc.
Lowell Dunn Company
McClain and Company
Miami Herald
Mike's Cigars Distributors, Inc.
Moe's Cantina
Montenay Power Corp.
Mount Sinai Medical Center
New Era Business Group
New Times
Omnifax, A Danka Company
Pan American Hospital
Park Central Hotel
R. Palacios & Company
RJ. Heisenbottle Architects
Ramar Cigars
Rechtien International Trucks
Republic National Bank
Reyes & Son's Painting Co.
Ruben's Air Conditioning, Inc.
Rubin Barney & Birger, Inc
Sears Roebuck and Company
Sheraton Key Largo Resort
South Florida A/C and Refrigeration
South Pointe Seafood House
Spillis Candela & Partners, Inc.

Swanson Printing, Inc.
Tacos By The Road
Temptrol Air Conditioning, Inc.
Tobacco Road
Transatlantic Bank
Turnberry Isle Resort & Club

7 Star Limousines, Inc.
ABC Costume Shop
Aircraft Electric Motors, Inc.
Bank of North America, N.A.
Bernard Hodes Advertising, Inc.
Blockbuster Entertainment
Blue Door
Carroll's Jewelers
Casa Grande Hotel
Citibank Private Bank
Club Limousine Service
Coastal Refining & Marketing
Collector's Emporium
Cosmyl Spa
Crown Sterling Suites
David's Cafe II
DeMoss Air Conditioning
Desjardins Federal Savings
Don Shula's Hotel & Golf Club
Eaton Lodge
Enterprise Rent-a-Car
Essex House Hotel
Fisher Island Club

Alma Jennings Foundation, Inc.
BankAtantic Foundation

Dr. and Mrs. William Way Anderson
Mrs. James Batten
Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin B. Battle
Mr. and Mrs. Alvah H. Chapman, Jr.
Miss Lamar Louise Curry
Mr. James L. Davis
Mrs. Douglas Erickson
Dr. and Mrs. Joseph H. Fitzgerald
Mr. and Mrs. Arnold S. Friedman
Mr. and Mrs. Bertram Goldsmith
Mr. and Mrs. William A. Graham
Mr. and Mrs. James E. Gray
Mrs. John C. Harrison

Tuscany Catering
Tutti's Headquaters
United Airlines
United Distillers
Van Dee Distributions Service
Vitas Healthcare

Corporate Contributors
Fleming A Taste of Denmark
Gary Player Golf Equipment
Granny Feelgood's at Metrofare
Hard Rock Cafe
Harvey Levine Interiors, Inc.
Hirni's Wayside Garden Florist
HNTB Corporation
Holiday Inn Calder
Hotel Sofitel
Hydrologic Associates USA, Inc.
International Recovery Group
John Martin's Restaurant
Kenny Rogers Roasters
Kunde Sprecher & Associates
Lario's on the Beach
Lyons Salons
Miami Airport Marriott
Miami Dadeland Marriott
National Distributing Co., Inc.
Omni Colonnade Hotel
Pacific Time Restaurant
Palace Bar & Grill
Pan Coast Restaurant
Planet Hollywood

Florida East Coast Foundation
Geiger Charity Foundation, Inc.
Goldsmith Family Foundation
Knight Foundation

Fellow Benefactors
Mr. and Mrs. Donald Kahn
Mr. and Mrs. R. LaytonMank
Mrs. C. T McCrimmon
Mrs. James W. McLamore
Dr. and Mrs. Joseph S. Mensch
Mr. and Mrs. David Mesnekoff
Dr. and Mrs. Glenn Morrison
Dr. and Mrs. John C. Nordt
Mr. and Mrs. Ted J. Pappas
Mrs. Connie Prunty
Dr. and Mrs. T. Hunter Pryor
Mr. and Mrs. Louis J. Risi
Mr. Edward J. Robinson

List of Members 81

Weekley Asphalt Paving, Inc.
Wire Masters
Witty Air
Wolfberg, Alvarez & Partners
Xerographic Copy Centers, Inc.
Xerox Business Systems

Precision Art Printing
Mr. Aris Quiroga, Guitarist
Radisson Mart
RandazzoEleclric, Inc.
Renaissance Historical Society
Richey & Diaz, P.A.
Riviera Country Club
Scotty's Grocery
Signature Limousines
Sir Galloway Dry Cleaners
Snow's Jewelers
T-Square Miami Blue Print Co.
Tap Tap
Tessi Garcia & Associates
The Breakers
Tobacco Road
Tribal Punk Productions
United National Bank
Van Dyke Cafe
Vichon Napa Valley
VIP Limo
Westview Country Club
Withers/Suddath Relocation Systems

Leigh Foundation, Inc.
Peacock Foundation
Ryder System Charitable Foundation

Dr. Louis C. Skinner
Mr. and Mrs. William D. Soman
Dr. Charlton W. Tebean
Mr. and Mrs. Gerald E. Toms
Mr. and Mrs. Robert H. Traurig
Mr. and Mrs. Edward E. Walton
Mrs. M. Leffler Warren
Ms. Judy M. Wolfe
Mrs. Robert J. Woodruff
Mr. and Mrs. David Younts
Dr. and Mrs. Howard L. Zwibel


Dr. and Mrs. Jeffrey Block
Mr. and Mrs. Allen G. Caldwell
Mr. and Mrs. Charles E. Cobb
Mr. and Mrs. Carlton W. Cole
Mrs. Plato A. Cox
Mr. and Mrs. William G. Earle
Mr. Walter R. Ferguson
Mr. and Mrs. Frank Fierro
Mrs. Avis K. Goodlove

Mrs. Sherry F. Allen
Mr. Timothy G. Anagnost
Mr. and Mrs. Robert B. Battle
Mr. and Mrs. Charles H. Baumberger
Mr. Steve Becker
Mr. and Mrs. Francisco E. Blanco
Mr. Lamarr Cooler
Mr. Rick Covert
Mr. and Mrs. Bill P. Crawford
Mr. and Mrs. Tony del Campo
Mr. and Mrs. Peter Dolara
Dr. and Mrs. Albert J. Ehlert
Mr. and Mrs. Richard Fain
Ms. Sandra B. Gonzalez-Levy

Mr. and Mrs. Geoff W. Anderson
Mr. and Mrs. Stuart Block
Mr. Warren Daniels
Mr. George H. DeCarion
Dr. and Mrs. Lawrence M. Fishman
Mr, and Mrs. Doug Gallagher

Mr. and Mrs. Leonard L. Abess
Mr. and Mrs. Allan T Abess, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Allen
Mr. Lany Apple and Ms. Esther Perez
Mr. and Mrs. Alvin Atlass
Mr. and Mrs. Leslie J. August
Mr. Joseph Averill
Mr. and Mrs. Leonard A. Baker
Mr. and Mrs. Ivan E. Ball
Mr. and Mrs. Michael Bander
Mr. and Mrs. Charles G. Barker
Dr. and Mrs. James W. Barrow
Dr. and Mrs. Robert T. Bass
Mrs. David Batcheller
Ms. Jacquelyn Biggane

Fellow Patrons
Mr. and Mrs. Jerrold F. Goodman
Mr. and Mrs. Jay 1. Kislak
Mr. and Mrs. C. Frasuer Knight
Mr. Samuel D. LaRoue
Mr. and Mrs. Jack Lowell
Mr. and Mrs. Alan H Lubitz
Mr. and Mrs. Finlay L. Matheson
Mr. and Mrs. D. R. Mead
Mr. James C. Merrill
Mr. and Mrs. William T. Muir

Fellow Members
Mr. and Mrs. Frank W. Guilford
Mr. and Mrs. George R. Harper
Mr. and Mrs. John C. Harrison, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Fred Havenick
Mr. and Mrs. Louis J. Hester
Mr. and Mrs. William Ho
Mr. and Mrs. Tom Huston
Mr. and Mrs. Richard G. Jackson
Mr. and Mrs. Ned Johns
Mr. Gerald Katcher
Mr. and Mrs. Peter Kory
Mr. and Mrs. Jay W. Lotspeich
Dr. and Mrs. Thomas Mark
Mr. William Myers

Mr. and Mrs. Louis J. Hector
Mr. and Mrs. Larry Jacobson
Mr. and Mrs. Howard Kleinberg
Ms. Ruth D. Myers
Mr. and Mrs. Donald Rowell
Mr. Kenneth Sellati

Mr. and Mrs. HugoL. Black
Mr. and Mrs. Bernard G. Blanck
Mr. Benjamin Bohlmann and Ms. Ellen
Mr. and Mrs.LuisJ. Botifoll
Mr. and Mrs. G. Brian Brodeur
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Brown
Mr. and Mrs. Mark Buchbinder
Dr. and Mrs. Robert J. Carbonell
Dr. and Mrs. Wayne H. Case
Mr. and Mrs. AlvinCassel
Mr. and Mrs. Don Caster
Mr. and Mrs. Pedro Castillo
Mr. and Mrs. Gregory M. Cesarano
Mr. and Mrs. Charles L. Clements

Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Norton
Dr. and Mrs. Robert M. Oliver
Mr. and Mrs. Albert A. Rayle
Mr. and Mrs. David W. Swetland
Mr. John W. Thatcher
Mr. and Mrs. Parker D. Thomson
Dr. Jeffrey Tobias
Dr. and Mrs. Joseph A. Traina
Mr. and Mrs. J. Calvin Winter

Mr. and Mrs. Paul Neidharl
Mr. and Mrs. Henry Norton
Mr. and Mrs. Bob Oddo
Mr. Harold E. Patricoff
Mr. and Mrs, Philip Pike
Dr. Anna Price
Mr. Daniel T. Robbie
Mr. and Mrs. William Rocker
Ms. Jolyn H. Sellers
Mr. and Mrs. George R. Shelley
Mr and Mrs. Robert Viciedo
Mr. and Mrs. Richard A. Wood
Mrs. Robert Zeppa

Ms. Phyllis A. Shapiro
Mr. and Mrs. Robert J Shelley
Mr. and Mrs. Alan W. Steinberg
Dr, and Mrs. William M. Straight
Ms. Sandra Villa
Mrs. Warren C. Wood

Mr. and Mrs. William H. Collins
Mr. and Mrs. Marc Cooper
Mrs. Patricia Crow
Mr. and Mrs. George P. Dane
Mr. Roger B. Davis
Mr. Gary Dellapa
Ms. Betty Ruth Dewitt
Mr. and Mrs. J. Leonard Diamond
Mr. Julio P. Dominguez
Ms. Diane M. Dorick
Dr. and Mrs. Leonidas W. Dowlen
Mr. and Mrs. George VYR. Dunan
Mr. Atwood Dunwody
Ms. Debra Durant-Schoendorf
The Hon. Joe 0. Eaten and Mrs.

Patricia Eaton
Mrs. James C. Ellenburg
Ms. Nancy Entenmann
Mr. and Mrs. James D. Evans
Mrs. Charles Finkelstein
Ray and Sue Fisher
Miss Bertha Fontaine and Miss Cecilia
Mr. Arthur Forgette
Mr. and Mrs. William Freeman
Mr. and Mrs. Philip Freidin
Mr. and Mrs. VincentFunigiello
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Gallagher
Mrs. Dick B. Gardner
Mr. and Mrs, Donald F Gardner
Mr. Jeffry Gillman
Mr. and Mrs. Franklyn B. Glinn
Ms. Sue Searcy Goldman
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Gomes
Mr. Orlando A. Gomez
Mr. and Mrs. Martin B. Goodman
Mr. and Mrs. Reed Gordon
Mr. and Mrs. Richard Gossett
Mrs. Carol-Jane Gottfried
Mr. and Mrs, Stanton Greene
Ms. Helen R. Grier
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Grand
Mr. and Mrs. Phil Guerra
Mr. and Mrs. Robert D. Guthrie
Mr. and Mrs. Edward P. Guttenmacher
Mr. and Mrs. George K. Haas
Dr. Henry C. Hardin
Mr. and Mrs. Robert C. Hector
Mr. and Mrs. Brent L. Helms
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Hemmings
Mr. Arthur H. Hertz
Ms. Jeanne D. Higgins
Mr.and Mrs.L.F. Hinds
Mr. Michael Hiscano
Mr. and Mrs. James C. Hobbs
Mr. and Mrs. Edward J. Hudak
Dr. and Mrs. Francisco Izaguirre
Mrs. Mary D. Jenkins
Mr. Juan Jimenez
Mr. and Mrs. Lester R. Johnson
Mr. and Mrs. James R. Jorgenson
Dr. and Mrs. J.R. Jude
Mr. and Mrs. Francis T Kain
Ms. Susanne Kayyali
Mrs. George H. Keen
Mr. and Mrs. Ted Klinghoffer
Dr. John M. Knapp
Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth F. Kniskern

Ms. Camilla B. Komorowski
Mr. and Mrs. Irvin Korach
Mr. and Mrs. Irving Kreisberg
Mr. and Mrs. Ralph E. Lambrecht
Mr. and Mrs. Michael Lamphear
Mr. and Mrs. Martin Leake
Dr. and Mrs. Roswell E. Lee
Dr. and Mrs. William A. Little
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas S. Loane
Mr. and Mrs. I. Edward London
Ms. Joyce T Long
Ms. Sandra C. Lopez
Mr. and Mrs. Norman L. Madan
Mr. and Mrs. Richard M. Mahoney
Mr. Finlay B. Matheson
Mr. Arnold C. Matteson
Mr. and Mrs. Frederick J. Maxted
Mr. John Fred McMath
Mr. John H. McMinn
Mr. and Mrs. Jack McQuale
Mr. and Mrs. David Melin
Dr. and Mrs. Ramon Mendoza
Mr. S. Randall Merritt
Mr. and Mrs. Howard A. Mesh
Mr. and Mrs. Jack L. Meyer
Mrs. Claire W. Mooers
Mr. Stephen J. Moorman
Mr. and Mrs. George L. Morat
Mr. and Mrs. David M. Morris
Mr. and Mrs. Michael Moses
Mrs. Wirth M. Munroe
Mr. and Mrs. Jay Mussman
Dr. Thomas A. Natiello
Dr. Mervin H. Needell and Dr. Elaine
E Needell
Mr. Theodore R. Nelson
Mrs. Mary Jo Nimnicht
Mr. Bryan Norcross
Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Oroshnik
Mrs. Tatiana Ortiz
Ms. Betty Osborn
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Pallot
Ms. Barbara J. Parker
Mr. and Mrs. John C. Pistorino
Mr. Bernard Plotkin
Mr. and Mrs. Don Poole
Mr. and Mrs. E.T. Powell
Ms. Judith Price
Mr. J. David Puga
Mr. and Mrs. Fred Radelman
Mr. Edward K, Rawls, Jr.
Mr. Charles G. Rebozo
Mr. Keith Reilly and Ms, Ann Podrasky

List of Members 83

Dr. and Mrs. Thomas Righetti
Mr. and Mrs. Raul L. Rodriguez
Mr. and Mrs, Laurence Rohan
Ms. Darlene Russell
Ms. Sonia Y Santana
Dr. and Mrs. Theodore Sarafoglu
Mr. and Mrs. Michael Scheck
Mr. and Mrs. Robert H. Schwabe
Ms. Martha M. Scott
Ms. Abbie H. Shouse
Mr. and Mrs. Larry E. Silvester
Mr. and Mrs. Edwin 0. Simon
Mr. and Mrs. Murray Sisselman
Mr. and Mrs. Donald Slesnick
Mrs. Lillian N. Smith
Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Smith
Mr. and Mrs. Brian Snyder
Mr. and Mrs. Neal R. Sonnett
Mr. and Mrs. Theodore Spak
Mr. Joseph B. Spence
Mr. Arthur Stein
Ms. Edeane W. Stirrup
Mr. and Mrs. William Sutton
Mr. and Mrs. Armando Tabemilla
Ms. Jean M. Thorpe
Ms. Ruth Tinsman and Ms. Leann
Mr. Geoffrey Tomb
Mr. and Mrs. Antonio M. Tremols
Dr. and Mrs. Michael B. Troner
Mrs. Roberta H. Turner
Mr. and Mrs. Christopher G. Tyson
Dr. and Mrs. Alfred H. Underwood
Mr. Jack Vallega
Mrs. Jane Van Denend
Mr. and Mrs. Roger Van Hoff
Mr. Pedro L. Velar
Mr. and Mrs. Carl D. Ward
Mr. and Mrs. Bernard Weksler
Mr. and Mrs. David Weston
Mr, and Mrs. Michael J. Whalin
Mr. and Mrs, GeorgeM. Wilson
Mrs. Peyton L. Wilson
Mr. Paul C. Wimbish
Ms. Pauline Winick
Ms, Edna Wolkowsky
Mr. Simon Wood
Mr. and Mrs. Otis 0. Wragg
Mr. and Mrs. James A. Wright
Dr. Ronald K. Wright and Ms. Judith
A. Hunt
Mrs. Eunice P. Yates


Ms. Helen W. Adelman
Mr. Paul D. Barns
Dr. Anthony Barthelemy
Mr. and Mrs. Harry D. Bavly
Mr. and Mrs. Jack N. Brown
Dr. Barry Burak
Mr. Richard P. Cole
Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Conte
Mr. and Mrs. Venion Corbin
Mr. and Mrs. Phillip E. Daum
Mr. Dennis Doucette
Dr. and Mrs. Maurice Downs
Dr. and Mrs. Robert Felntman
Ms. Pamela Garrison

Mr. Leonard Abess
Mrs. Leatrice Aberman
Mr. and Mrs. Roberto Abrahante
Mr. and Mrs. John Admire
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph A. Aguilera
Mr. and Mrs. Armnando Aiguesvives
Mr. and Mrs. Herbert E. Allenson
Mr. J. Harvey Alligood and Ms. Judith
M. Miller
Mr. and Mrs. David Alter
Mr. Lino Alvarez
Dr. and Mrs. Fernando Alvarez-Perez
Mr. and Mrs. Neal Amdur
Mr. and Mrs. John S. Ammaretl
Mr. and Mrs. Cromwell A. Anderson
Mr. and Mrs. Duane Anderson
Mr. and Mrs. John Anderson
Mr. and Mrs. Fred Anderson
Mr. and Mrs. Jay Angel
Mr. Henry Angelo
Mr. and Mrs. Ross E. Apgar
Mr. and Mrs. James W. Apthorp
Mr. and Mrs. Ted Arch
Mr. and Mrs. Rene Arencibia
Mr. and Mrs. Craig Arnold
Mr. and Mrs. Mike Arnold
Mr. and Mrs. Juan C. Aspura
The Hon. and Mrs. C. Clyde Atkins
Mr. and Mrs. William B.W. Arrington
Mr. Daniel Baden and Ms. Alina
Mr. Walter Baggesen
Mr. Johnathan Baham and Ms. Sharon
Mr. and Mrs. David R. Baker
Mr and Mrs. John W. Baker

Mr. and Mrs. William Goodson
Mrs. Edward G. Grafton
Mr. and Mrs. Terry Guilbeau
Ms. Rosemary E. Helsabeck
Ms. Margery A. Hilliard
Mrs. Marilyn Jacobs
Mr. and Mrs. Ralph A. Juncosa
Mrs. Betsy H. Kaplan
Mr. and Mrs. Dave Machleid
Mr. and Mrs. Stuart B. Mclver
Mr. Lawrence Meyer
Mr. and Mrs. William Mitchell
Mr. and Mrs. MarkModugno
Mr. and Mrs. David Owen

Mr. andMrs. Clive Baldwin
Mr. and Mrs. Rod C. Ball
Ms. Portia Barberic
Mr. and Mrs. Charles W. Bare
Mr. and Mrs. James W. Barfield
Mr. and Mrs. John Barkett
Mr. and Mrs. Paul J. Barko
Ms. Beverly Barnett Allen
Ms. Christine M, Barney and Mr. Bob
Mr. Jorge Baro
Mr. and Mrs. Michael Barrentt
Dr. and Mrs. Terrence J. Barry
Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin Barth
Mr. and Mrs. Vernon Bass
Mr. and Mrs. Michael W. Battle
Mr. and Mrs. Timothy A. Battle
Mr. and Mrs. Gary L. Baumgartner
Ms. Barbara Beatty
Mr. and Mrs. Eugene Bechamps
Mr. and Mrs. Allen M. Beck
Mr. and Mrs. Juan M. Bel
Mr. and Mrs. William G. Bell
Mr. Charles F. Belmont
Dr. and Mrs. James Benenati
Mr. and Mrs. Robert W. Bennett
Mr. and Mrs. Steve Benson
Mr. and Mrs. Randall C. Berg
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Berger
Mr. and Mrs. David M. Berkowitz
Mr. and Mrs. Richard B. Bermont
Mr, and Mrs. Hugo Bernal
Ms. Cyane H. Berning
Mr. and Mrs. Bruce Bernstein
Mr. Ron Bernstein
Mr. and Mrs. Ronald Bernstein

Mr. and Mrs. John Perez
Mr. Douglas J. Pracher
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Reilly
Mr. and Mrs. Norman C. Ridgely
Ms. Carmen Sanchez
Ms. Rona Sawyer
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Schloss
Ms, PhyllisL. Segor
Mr. and Mrs. Saul H. Silverman
Mr. and Mr. William G. Story
Mrs. Patricia Sullivan
Mr. and Mrs. James B. Tilghman
Mr. and Mrs. William L. Wood

Mr. and Mrs. Ray Berrin
Mr. and Mrs. Ralph H. Bertelson
Mr. Steve Berwick
Mr. and Mrs. Amaury Betancourt
Mr. and Mrs. Patrick Bey
Mr. and Mrs. Donald I. Bierman
Mr. and Mrs. Antonio Bischoff
Dr. and Mrs. Alan Bisno
Mr. William Bjorkman
Mr. and Mrs. David M. Blackard
Mr. and Mrs. AceJ. Blackburn
Mr. and Mrs. Jose Blanco
Mr. and Mrs. Jose M. Blanco
Mr and Mrs. Ted R. Blue
Mr. and Mrs. William Bodenhamer
Mr. Steve Boone and Ms. Susan
Mr. and Mrs. William H. Bourne
Dr. and Mrs. Russell Boyd
Mr. and Mrs. Robert F Brack
Mr. and Mrs. Daniel T. Brady
Ms. Jodi Brady
Mr, and Mrs. Thomas B. Brady
Ms. Donna J. Bragassa
Mr. and Mrs. Robert M. Brake
Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth E Brandenburg
Mr. and Mrs. Brian Brauer
Mr. and Mrs. Charles E. Breit
Mrs. Geraldine Brian
Mr. and Mrs. J. Andrew Brian
Mr. and Mrs. Harry Brion
Mr. and Mrs. Roger Britton
Mr. and Mrs. Douglas C. Broeker
Mr. and Mrs. Lester I. Brookner
Mr. and Mrs. Bradford E. Brown
Mr. and Mrs. Harvey Brown

Mr. and Mrs. James K. Brown
Mr. Sheldon S. Brown and Ms. Frieda
Mr. andMrs. E.R. Brownell
Dr. and Mrs. Thomas Bruce
Mr. and Mrs. John M. Brumbaugh
Mrs. Evelyn J. Budde
Mr. and Mrs. JeanE. Buhler
Dr. and Mrs. Brinsley Burbidge
Mr. and Mrs. Neil Burell
Mr. and Mrs. James Burke
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Burke
Ms. Sandy Burnett
Mr. and Mrs. Donald B. Butler
Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence W. Cahill
Mr. and Mrs. Steve Calderon
Mr. and Mrs. Hilario Candela
Mr. and Mrs. Ronald Carpel
Mr. and Mrs. Albert Marvin Carr
Dr. and Mrs. Laurence T Carroll
Mr. and Mrs. Marcelo Carugo
Mr. and Mrs. Carlos Casal
Mr. and Mrs. Robert B. Cast
Dr. RosaCastro-Feinberg
Dr. and Mrs. J.R. Chandler
Dr. and Mrs. Arthur E. Chapman
Mr. and Mrs. J.F Chapman
Ms. Jackie Chapman
Mr. and Mrs. Frank Chase
Mr. and Mrs. Edwin H. Cheatham
Mr. and Mrs. Frank Childers
Mr. and Mrs. John S. Chowning
Mr. and Mrs. David Church
Mr. and Mrs. James K. Clark
Ms. Madeline M. Clay
Ms. Carol Clothier and Ms. Lorraine
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Clough
Dr. Arnnando F. Cobelo
Mr. and Mrs. Louis Coburn
Mr. and Mrs. Kendall Coffey
Mr. and Mrs. George Cohen
Mr. and Mrs. Ronald E Cold
Mr. and Mrs. Philip Cole
Mr. Robert B. Cole
Mr. and Mrs. Tom Collins
Ms. Catherine J. Conduitte
Mr. Willie Cone andMs. Sheila Quinlin
Ms. Diane M. Congdon
Dr. and Mrs. James W. Conley
Mr. W.L. Cook
Mr. and Mrs. Alberto Coppo de Sangy
Ms. Kay Coppock

Mr. Hal Corson and Mrs. Gerri
Campbell Corson
Mr. and Mrs. John W. Cowling
Karl and April Cox
Dr. and Mrs. Donald R. Crampton
Mrs. John E. Culmer
Mr. Charles D. Cunningham
Mr. and Mrs. DeVere H. Curtis
Mr. and Mrs. Guillermo Cutie
Mr. and Mrs. John Dacy
Mr. and Mrs, Dan Danforth
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Daniel
Mr. Abraham Daniels
Mr. and Mrs. Nicholas M. Daniels
Mr. and Mrs. John W. Davis
Mr. and Mrs. Richard Davis
Mr. and Mrs. Joel B. Day
Ms. Susan L. Dayhoff and Ms.
Catherine Dixon
Mr. Enrique de Alba
Mr. and Mrs. Richard A. De Aguero
Mr. and Mrs. Enrique de la Aguilera
Ms. Mary Ann De Weese
Mr. and Mrs, Jose Dearing
Mr. and Mrs. Robert W. Decker
Mr. and Mrs. Cesar Delgado
Mr. and Mrs. Floy B. Denton
Ms. Donna Dial and Mr. Art Buckelew
Ms. Marlene Diaz
Mr. and Mrs. Odilio Diaz
Mr. and Mrs. Ronald F. Diehl
Mr. and Mrs, Ray Dieppa
Ms. Yvonne M. Dietrich
Mr. Roger Doucha
Mr. Robert R. Drake
Mr. and Mrs. Stan Drillick
Mr. and Mrs. Daniel S. Dubbin
Mr. Ernest M. Dumas
Dr. and Mrs. Charles A. Dunn
Ms. Loretta S. Dunn
Mr. and Mrs, David J,. Dutcher
Dr. and Mrs. William H. Eaglstein
Mr. and Mrs. Vernon C. Eason
Mr. Jorge Echenique
Mr. and Mrs. James M. Eckhart
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Egan
Dr. Ralph Engle and Dr. Mary Allen
Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Esteves
Mr. and Mrs. Philip B. Everingham
Mr. Errol Falcon
Mr. and Mrs. Charles E. Fancher

List of Members 85

Mr. and Mrs. Dante B. Fascell
Mr. Orlando Farinas
The Hon. Harold Featherstone and
Mrs. Ruth Featherstone
Mr. Alan H. Fein and Ms. Susan
Dr. and Mrs. Alfred Feingold
Mr. and Mrs. Larry Feldman
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas A. Fennell
Dr. and Mrs. Elio A. Fernandez
Mr. Jose Fernandez
Mr. Juan Fernandez
Mr. Lee Fowler
Ms. Harriet Feuerman and Ms.
Carolee Ludwig
Mr. and Mrs. C.S.B Field
Mr. and Mrs. Ronald Fields
Mr. and Mrs. James N. Finlay
Mr. and Mrs. Willard L. Fitzgerald
Dr. J.M Fitzgibbon
Mr. and Mrs. Bob Fitzsimmons
Mr. and Mrs. Michael Flattery
Mr. Jurgen Fleisehmann
Mr. and Mrs. Harry D. Fleming
Mr. and Mrs. Marcel Franck
Mr. and Mrs. Paul Fraynd
Mr. and Mrs. Dwight E. Frazier
Mrs. Lois Fredrick
Mr. and Mrs. Stephen Freeman
Miss Arlene Freier
Mr. and Mrs. Richard E. Friberg
Mr. David From
Ms. Olive Frye
Ms. Beth J. Fuller and Mr. Williams
Mr. and Mrs. Donald C. Gaby
Mr. and Mrs. Jorge Gallo
Mr. and Mrs. Tomas F. Gamba
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph H. Ganguzza
Mrs. Martha Gannon
Dr. and Mrs. Victor Garcia
Ms. Evelyn and Arlyn Garcia
Mr. and Mrs. Donald Gardner
Dr. and Mrs. Stanley G. Garner
Dr. and Mrs. Bruce Garrison
Mr. and Mrs. Peter B. Garvett
Mr. and Mrs. Tom Galya
Ms. Melanie Garman
Mr. and Mrs, Gerald Geffen
Mr. Harold Gelber and Ms. Pat
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Gelberg
Dr. and Mrs. Paul S. George


Dr. Paul U. Gerber
Mr. and Mrs. W. Tucker Gibbs
Mr. and Mrs. John Gillan
Mr. and Mrs. Norman M. Giller
Mr. Jess Gift
Mr. and Mrs. John Gladstone
Dr. and Mrs. Marshall Glasser
Mr. and Mrs. Saul Glottmann
Mr. and Mrs. Sig M. Glukstad
Mr. and Mrs. Peter Glynn
Mr. Mario A. Godinez
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Goeser
Mr. and Mrs. Harold Goldberg
Mr. and Ms. Rick Goldsmith
Mr. and Mrs. Seymour Goldweber
Mr. and Mrs. Andy Gomez
Mr. and Mrs. Jose A. Gonzalez
Mr. Rene J. Gonzalez-LLorens
Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin F. Gooden
Mr. and Mrs. C. Ray E. Goodwin
Dr. and Mrs. Richard Gottlieb
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Grad
Mr. and Mrs. Henry A. Grady
Ms. Dorothy W. Graham
Mr. and Mrs. Michael Gray
Mr. and Mrs. Robert W. Green
Mr. and Mrs, Barry N. Greenberg
Mr. and Mrs. Burton D. Greenfield
Mr. and Mrs. Nathan Greenhouse
Rev. and Mrs. Robb Grimm
Dr. Jay Grossman and Dr. Alana
Mr. and Mrs. Carl Grozan
Mr. and Mrs. George Grunwell
Mr. and Mrs. Dan Guernsey
Mr. and Mrs. Richard M. Guttman
Dr. and Mrs. Thomas B. Guyton
Mr. Stephen F. Hackley
Mr. and Mrs. Earl V Hagood
Mr. and Mrs. Jack D. Hahn
Mr. Gary L. Hale
Mr. and Mrs. Virgil L. Hale
Mr. and Mrs. John Hall
Mr. Lewis Hall
Mr. Thomas L. Hambright
Mr. and Mrs. Rex Hamilton
Mr. and Mrs. William F. Hamilton
Mr. and Mrs. William W. Hamilton
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Hammond
Dr. and Mrs. Gregory Han
Ms. Lucy H. Hanafourde and Mr.
Bradley K. Hanafourde
Ms. Susan Hangge and Mr. David

Mr. Frederick H. Harrington
Ms. Gail Harris
Mr. and Mrs. Charles M. Hartz
Mr. and Mrs, Joseph J. Hatton
Ms. Klara Hauri
Mr. and Mrs. Maurice Hawa
Mr. and Mrs. John Hayes
Mr. and Mrs. W. Hamilton Hayes
Mrs. Florence Hecht
Mr. and Mrs. Charles R. Helweick
Mr. and Mrs. William Henry
Mr. and Mrs. Jorge Hemandez
Mr. and Mrs. Bernard P. Herskowitz
Mr. and Mrs. Herman Herst
Mr. and Mrs. W. Warfield Hester
Mr. and Mrs. Robert A. Hicks
Mrs. T.F. Hipps
Mr. and Mrs. Sol Hirsch
Dr. and Mrs. Andy Hirschl
Mr. and Mrs. Robert A. Hittel
Mr. and Mrs. Jack Hodus
Dr. and Mrs. William Hoffman
Ms. Lucinda A. Hofmann and Mr.
William T. McCauley
Mr. and Mrs. Harry Hokanson
Mr. and Mrs. Roy Hollenbeck
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Horwitz
Dr. Laurie R. Householder
Mr. and Mrs. Hadleigh Howd
Mr. and Mrs. Al Hower
Mr. and Mrs. Jim Hubbard
Mr. and Mrs. Robert H. Hubsch
Dr. and Mrs. Stuart M. Huff
Mr. Russell V. Hughes
Mr. Ray N. Hunt
Mr. and Mrs. Michael Hutchinsson
Dr. and Mrs. James J. Hutson
Mr. Tom Hutton
Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth Hynes
Dr. and Mrs. George L. Irvin
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Iselin
Mr. and Mrs. Jay Issod
Mr. and Mrs. Robert M. Jackson
Mr. and Mrs. Richard Jacobs
Mr. and Mrs. TM. Jacobsen
Dr. and Mrs. George Jacobson
Mr. and Mrs. James R. James
Mr. and Mrs. John Jensen
Mr. and Mrs. Peter Jensen
Mr. and Mrs. Carlos Jimenez
Ms. Laura Johnson
Mr. and Mrs. Lyle Johnson

Ms.JeanJohnson and Ms. Betty Priscak
Dr. and Mrs. Stanley Jonas
Mrs. Frank E. Jones
Mr. and Mrs. Daniel C. Jones
Mr, and Mrs. John E. Junkin
Dr. and Mrs. Federico Justiniani
Mr. and Mrs. Joel Kaiser
Mr. and Mrs. Mark Karris
Mr.and Mrs. Sid Kaskey
The Rev. J.C. Katon and Mr. Robert
Mrs. Barbara P. Keller and Mrs.
Fannie Reid
Ms. Pat Kelly
Mr. Harold E. Kendall
Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin S. Kennedy
Mr. and Mrs. Charles L. Kennon
Mr. and Mrs. Edward C. Kenny
Mrs. Gertrude Kent
Dr. and Mrs. Norman M. Kenyon
Mr. and Mrs. C.M. Keppie
Dr. and Mrs. Wayne J. Kerness
Dr. and Mrs. Kenneth Keusch
Mr. Neal S. Keys
Mr. and Mrs. James L. King
Mr. and Mrs. Randy King
Mayor Mitchell Kinzer and Ms. Regan
Mr. Neil P. Kjeldsen and Ms. Ana L.
Ms. Judy Kliger-Rosenbaum
Dr. and Mrs. Joe Knetsch
Mr. and Mrs. Tom Knotts
Ms. Don Koggan
Mr. and Mrs. Dick Koll
Mr. andMrs. John Kostelak
Mr. and Mrs. John Kozyak
Mr. and Mrs. Donald J. Kremer
Mr, and Mrs. Franklin D. Kreutzer
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Krulik
Mr. and Mrs. Norman Kublin
Mr. and Mrs. Elmer Kucks
Mr. Bob Kulpa
Mr. Alexander Labora and Mrs.
Deborah White-Labora
Mr. and Mrs. David E. Lair
Mr. and Mrs. Mark Lamb
Ms. Donna A. Lancaster
Mr. and Mrs. Calvin J. Landau
Mr. and Mrs. Wright Langley
Ms. Linda Lasch
Mr. and Mrs. Larry J. Laseter
Mr. and Mrs. Guillermo Lazo

Mr. Herbert N. Le Boyer
Mr. Karl Le Boyer
Ms. Sharon K. Le Boyer
Mr. Dick Lederer
Mr. and Mrs. Terry R. Lee
Mr. and Mrs. Dennis Lefebure
Mr. Douglas K. Lehman
Mr. and Mrs. Paul A. Lester
Mr. and Mrs. Sidney Levin
Dr. Harold Levine
Dr. and Mrs. Richard Levitt
Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Lewis
Mr, and Mrs. Wallace L. Lewis
Ms. WandaLietz-Trouba
Mr. and Mrs. Bernard R. Limegrover
Mr. and Mrs. Ron Lindhart
Mr. and Mrs. Norman H. Lipoff
Mr. and Mrs. Leigh Livesay
Mr. Don R. Livingstone
Mr. and Mrs. Ira N. Loewy
Mr. and Mrs. Joe Longo
Mr. and Mrs. Carlos J. Lopez
Mr. and Mrs. Cesar Lopez
Mr. and Mrs. Ray Lopez
Mr. and Mrs. ManuelLopez deQuinana
Mrs. Pury Lopez-Santiago
Mr. Douglas S. Loria
Mr. and Mrs. Rafael T. Lorie
Mrs. Nereida Lowery
Mr. Howard Lubel and Ms. Rose Flynn
Mr. and Mrs. Philip F. Ludovici
The Lunnon/Fleeger Family
Mr. Jack Luft
Mrs. Stephen C. Lutton
Ms. Lisa Lynch and Mr. Julian Paul
Mr. and Mrs. Lee MacCallum
Mr. and Mrs. Robert MacDonald
Mr. and Mrs. Frederic Macera
Dr. and Mrs. Bruce Mahaffey
Mr. and Mrs. Anthony P. Maingot
Mr. and Mrs. Richard H. Maloy
Mr. Chris Mancini
Mr. and Mrs. Philip J. Mank, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Dimitrios Maratos
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Mark
Dr. and Mrs. Clifford Marks
Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Markus
Dr. and Mrs. Michael E. Marmesh
Mr. and Mrs. Dominique Martin
Mr. and Mrs. Frank C. Martin
Major and Mrs. 1. William Martin
Mr. and Mrs. Alberto Martinez-Rarmos
Mr. and Mrs. William H. Marvel

Mr. and Mrs. Frank Mascari
Mr. and Mrs. Parks Masterson
Ms. Margaret A. Mastrotaro
Mr. James F. Matheson
Mr. and Mrs. Michael Matheson
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas J. Mattkov
Mr. and Mrs. Lorenzo Matte
Mr. Thomas C. Maxwell
Ms. Janet R. McAliley
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas F. McAuliffe
Mr. and Mrs. Lloyd McAvoy
Mrs. C. Deering McCormick
Dr. and Mrs. Donald McCorquodale
Mr. John E. McCulloch
Mr. and Mrs. Scott McDaniel
Mr. and Mrs. J. Gordon McDonald
Mr. and Mrs. Richard M. McGarry
Mr. Patrick McGee
Mr. and Mrs. Michael F. McGlannan
Mr. Brian McGuinness and Mrs. Linda
Mr. and Mrs. Charles F. McKay
Ms. Beverly McKeon
Mr. and Mrs, Ollen McLane
Mr. Tajyjohn W. McManus
Mr. and Mrs. Richard McMichael
Dr, and Mrs. Robert A. McNaughton
Mr. and Mrs. R.H. McTague
Mr. and Mrs. Don M. Meginley
Mr. and Mrs. Carlos Meleadez
Ms. Maria Melendez
Dr. George Metcalfand Dr. Elizabeth
Mr. and Mrs. Addison J. Meyers
Mr. and Mrs. Roger Miel
Dr. and Mrs. Max Millard
Mr. and Mrs. Aristides J. Millas
Mr. and Mrs. David Miller
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Miller
Mr. and Mrs, H. Dale Miller
Ms. Kim Miller
Mr. and Mrs. William J. Miller
Ms. Denise Mincey-Mills
Mr. Sanford B. Miot
Mr. Brian Mitchell and Ms. Sonia Smith
Ms. Nanci B. Mitchell and Mr. Simon
Mr. and Mrs. Larry Mizrach
Mr. and Mrs, Lloyd L. Moeller
Mr. and Mrs. Fawdrey A. Molt
The Hon. and Mrs. Joseph Monsanto
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Monson
Mr. and Mrs. Robert M. Montgomery

List of Members 87

Mr. and Mrs. George Monticino
Mr. and Mrs. Christopher Mooers
Mr. and Mrs. Donald R. Moore
Mr. William Moore
Mr. and Mrs. Santiago D. Morales
Mr. Felix Moran
Mr. and Mrs. Theodore Morrison
Mr. and Mrs. Jbhn H. Moynahan
Mr. and Mrs. Bryan L. Mulcahy
Mr. Kenneth Muller and Mrs. Judith
Mr. and Mrs. Charles P. Munroe
Mr. and Mrs. John Murphy
Miss Margaret Mustard and Miss Alice
Mr. and Mrs. Craig J. Nagel
Ms. BarbaraNeil Young and Mr.
Robert Huff
Mr. Burnham S. Neill and Mrs.
Mildred C. Neill
Mr. Thomas Neilson and Ms. Elizabeth
Mr. and Mrs. Denis Nerney
Mr. and Mrs. Erik Neugaard
Mr. and Mrs. Robert S. Neumann
Mr. and Mrs. Charles W. Newcomb
Mr. and Mrs. Richard F. Newman
Mr. and Mrs. Frank 0. Nichols
Mr. and Mrs. Gaillard Nolan
Mr. and Mrs, Nils Nordh
Mr. and Mrs. Rolando Noriega
Mr. and Mrs. J. Colgan Norman
Mr. and Mrs. Sam Normandia
Mr. and Mrs. Henry Norton
Mrs. Luz Norwood
Mr. and Mrs. Ronald Nuehring
Mr. and Mrs. John Nyitray
Ms. Sharon O'Brien
Ms. Jeanette O'Connor
Mr. and Mrs. Cesar Odio
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Ogle
Mr. and Mrs. Diedrich Oglesbee
Mr. and Mrs. Bob Oliver
Dr. and Mrs. George Onoprienko
Ms. Mary Kay On"
Mr. and Mrs. Rod E. Overholt
Mr. and Mrs. Robert A. Pampe
Dr. and Mrs. Emanuel M. Papper
Mr. and Mrs. Robin Parker
Dr. and Mrs. Edmund 1. Parnes
Mr. and Mrs. William Parry
Mrs. Clifton Pawley
Ms. Marcia Pawley and Ms. Anita


Ms. Cynthia Pawley-Martin
Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence A. Peacock
Mr. and Mrs. William Peacon
Mr. and Mrs. Raymond Pearlson
The Hon. Ray Pearson
Mr. Paul Pergais and Ms. Deborah S.
Mr. and Mrs. Marvin S. Pehr
Mr. and Mrs. William A. Pena
Mr. and Mrs. John D. Pennekamp
Mr. and Mrs. Jorge F. Perez
Mr. Andres Perez
Mr. Ricardo Perez and Mrs, Elizabeth
Mrs. Jean Perwin and Mr. Joe Perwin
Mr. and Mrs. Eric Pesce
Mr. and Mrs. Roderick N. Petrey
Mr. and Mrs. Michael Pfefer
Mr. John Pfeiffer and Ms. Rebecca
Mrs. Audrey Pilafian
Mr. and Mrs. R.D. Pitkin
Ms. Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk and Mr.
Andres Duany
Mr. and Mrs. Paul Plotkin
Mr. Morton C. Pollack
Mrs. Suzette S. Pope and Mr. Norelle
Mr. and Mrs. Budd Post
Mr. Alfred H. Powell
Mr. and Mrs. Larry Powell
Mr. V.M. Press and Mr. T.L. Rivers
Mr. Henry Prior
Dr. and Mrs. Eugene F Provenzo
Mr, Peter T Pruitt
Ms. Lucy S. Puello-Capone
Mr. and Mrs. L. Scott Quackenbush
Mr. and Mrs. Herbert S. Quartin
Ms, Barbara Quesada
Mr. and Mrs. William F. Quesenberry
Mr. and Mrs. Henry Raatnama
Mr. and Mrs. Sam Rabin
Mr. and Mrs. Constantine Railey
Dr. Jerome Raim and Ms. Nina Jacks
Dr. and Mrs. Salvador M. Ramirez
Mr. and Mrs. John J. Randall
Mr. and Mrs. William G. Randall
Mr. and Mrs. William W. Randolph
Mr. and Mrs. Stuart M. Rapee
Mr. Douglas T. Ray
Mr. and Mrs. A. James Reagan
Mr. and Mrs. John A. Reams

Dr. and Mrs. Philip J. Reckford
Mr. and Mrs. Richard C. Rechtien
Mr. and Mrs. Barrie T Reed
Mr. and Mrs. Randolph Reich
Mr. and Mrs. Paul L. Reiner
Dr. Kenneth Relyea and Dr. Tamela
The Hon. Janet Reno
Mr. Steve Reoch
Mr. and Mrs. Lewis M. Ress
Mr. and Mrs. Art Reyes
Mr. and Mrs. Patrick Reyna
Dr. and Mrs. Milton Rhodes
Dr. and Mrs. Maurice Rich
Mrs. D.E. Richards
Mr. and Mrs. Bruce Ricke
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Rieder
Mrs. William D. Rieder
Mr. and Mrs. Karsten A. Rist
Mr. and Mrs. Robert E. Roache
Mr. and Mrs. Ross C. Roadman
Mr. and Mrs. Rafael L. Robayna
Dr. and Mrs. James A. Robb
Mr. and Mrs. William R, Robbins
Mr. and Mrs. Jeff T. Roberts
Ms. Florence Roberts-Reimer
Dr. and Mrs. E.G. Robertson
Mr. and Mrs. Neil P Robertson
Mr. and Mrs. Alan Robinson
The Hon. Steven D. Robinson
Mr. and Mrs. Pedro L. Roca
Mr. and Mrs. Jose L. Rodriguez
Mr. and Mrs. Manuel G. Rodriguez
Mr. and Mrs. Victor Rodriguez
Mrs. Dorothy Rodwell
Mr. Hector Romagosa
Mr. and Mrs. Keith Root
Mr.andMrs. B.H. Ropeik
Mr. and Mrs. Mack Roper
Ms. Donna Rosa
Ms. Ellen Rose
Mr. and Mrs. Leo Rose
Mr. Paul Rosen
Dr. and Mrs. Michael Rosenberg
Mr. andMrs. Stanley Rosenblatt
Mr. and Mrs. Louis Rosenthal
Mr. and Mrs. Jeffrey Rosinek
Mr. William Rothman and Ms. Kitty
Ms. Pily Rouco
Mr. Peter Roulhac
Mr. and Mrs. Ricardo Ruano
Mr. and Mrs. Herman P. Rubin

Dr. and Mrs. Howard A. Rubinson
Mr. and Mrs. Sam Ruadell
Mr. and Mrs. William Ryder
Mr. and Mrs. Charles P. Sacher
Ms. Jacqueline Sack and Mr. Harry C.
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph A. Sackett
Mr, Herbert Saffir
Mr. and Mrs. Bert Sager
Mr. and Mrs. Louis Sager
Mr. and Mrs. A.A. Sakhnovsky
Mr. Carlos M. Salomon
Ms. Nury Saltos
Mr. and Mrs. Ron Samter
Mr. Alan Sanchez
Mr. and Mrs. Gustavo Sanin
Mr. and Mrs. Ed Santos
Mr. and Mrs. Stephen Sapp
Mr. and Mrs. Barth Satuloff
Mr. and Mrs. Paul M. Schaefer
Mr. and Mrs. Leo Scherker
Dr. and Mrs. William M. Schiff
Mr. and Mrs. Roy E. Schoen
Mr. and Mrs. Sol Schreiber
Mr. and Mrs. Allan Schwartz
Mr. and Mrs. Warren S. Schwartz
Mr. and Mrs. James H. Scott
Ms. Kathy A. Scott and Mr. Bill Swank
Dr. and Mrs. Daniel Seckinger
Dr. and Mrs. Paul Seigel
Ms. Patricia Seitz and Mr. Alan Greer
Mr. and Mrs. Don Senflen
Ms. Jan Serig
Ms. Sandy Sharp and Mr. Stuart
Mrs. Genie Shayne
Ms. Tamara Sheffman
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Shevin
Mr. and Mrs, Vergil A. Shipley
Dr. and Mrs. Robert W. Shippee
Mr. and Mrs. David Shoaf
Mr. and Mrs, Don Shoemaker
Mr. and Mrs. Edward R. Shohat
Ms. Marilyn Shrater
Mr. Blair Sibley
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Siegel
Mr. and Mrs. Mark A. Siegel
Dr. J. Siegmeister
Mr. and Mrs. Louis Sigala
Mr. and Mrs. Jerry E. Silhan
Mr. and Mrs. Gerald Silverman
Mr. and Mrs. Glen Simmons
Mr. Jose Simonet and Ms. Rema

Mr. and Mrs. Howard W. Sims
Dr. and Mrs. Joseph A. Singer
Mr. and Mrs. William G. Slater
Mr. and Mrs. Michael C. Slotnick
Dr. and Mrs. Karl Smiley
Dr. Donald Smith
Mr. and Mrs. McGregor Smith
Mr. and Mrs. William H. Smith
Mr. Kenneth Smith and Ms. Norma
Jean Barker
Ms. Vicki Smith and Mr. Harvey Bilt
Mr, andMrs. David Smolarchik
Mr. and Mrs. James M. Snedigar
Mr. and Mrs. Tom Snook
Dr. and Mrs. Selig D. Snow
Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert Snyder
Mr. and Mrs. Larry R. Snyder
Mr. and Mrs. Howard Socol
Mr. Manuel Sola
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph M. Solomon
Mr. and Mrs. Robert P. Soper
Mr. and Mrs. Cesar Sotelo
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Soto
Mr. and Mrs. Jose Sotolongo
Mr. and Mrs. James Sottile
Mr. and Mrs. Carl A. Spatz
Mr. and Mrs. Martin Spector
Mr. and Mrs. Maurice Spiegel
Mr. and Mrs. James P. Spillis
Mr. and Mrs. Peter Spillis
Mr. and Mrs. George R. Splane
Dr. and Mrs. L.M. Stanfill
Mrs. Mary Stanley and Mr. Donald
Mr. and Mrs. Fred R. Stanton
Mr. and Mrs. John Steinbauer
Mr. and Mrs. Adolph Steinhaner
Mr. and Mrs. Richard Stewart
Mr. and Mrs. Ronald Y. Stillman
Mr. and Mr. FredStockhausen
Dr. and Mrs, G.J. Stocks
Mr. and Mrs. John L. Stokesberry
Ms. Larue "Sunny" Storm
Mr. and Mrs. Saul Strachman
Mr. and Mrs. Jose Strauss
Dr. and Mrs. Thomas B. Strozier
Dr. and Mrs. Theodore Struhl
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph L. Strup
Mr. and Mrs. Morton D. Stubins
Dr. and Mrs. James N. Sussex
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Swain
Mr. and Mrs. Stephen Swaney

Mr. and Mrs. Mark D. Swanson
Mr, and Mrs. Phil Talbott
Mr. Thomas L. Tatham
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas T. Taylor
Mr. and Mrs. Ronald E. Temkin
Mr. and Mrs. Mark R. Thaw
Ms. Pam Thomas
Mr. and Mrs. Cyrus Thompson
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas V. Thompson
Mr. and Mrs. John Thornton
Dr. and Mrs. Richard J. Thurer
Mr. and Mrs. Tom Thurlow
Ms. Kim Tiger
Mr. and Mrs. Bill Timmeny
Mr. and Mrs. Robert C. Tipton
Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Tirella
Mr. and Mrs. Anthony Touchton
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Touchton
Mr. and Mrs. Sydney S. Traum
Mr. Coleman Travelstead and Ms.
Brookes McIntyre
Mr. and Mrs. Alan Troop
Mr. Stephen C. Turner and Ms.
Elizabeth A. Debs
The Hon. and Mrs. William C. Turnoff
Dr. and Mrs. Stephen Unger
Mr. and Mrs. William G. Urban
Ms. Glendys Valls and Ms. Fernandina
Mr. and Mrs. James G. Van Derwalker
Mr. Charles M. van der Laan
Mr. and Mrs. William P. VanderWyden
Mr. and Daniel J. Vayda
Mr. Greg Vayda
Ms. Joan E. Vayda
Mr. Carlos Vazquez
Mr. and Mrs. Tom H. Veenstra
Mr. and Mrs. Dana Vihlen
Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Vladimir
Mr. and Mrs. Earl D. Waldin
Mr. John S. Waldo
Mr. and Mrs. Bernard B. Wall
Ms. Dianne Wall
Mr. and Mrs. Robert G. Wallace
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Ward
Mr. and Mrs. Luke Ward
Mr. and Mrs. Bill Watkins
Mr. and Mrs. James Watt
Mr. and Mrs. Preston C. Watters
Mr. and Mrs. William A. Webb
Mr. and Mrs. Maxwell L. Weisberg
Mr. and Mrs. A. Rodney Wellens
Mr. and Mrs. Scott Wellman

List of Members 89

Mr. and Mrs. James H. Wenck
Mr. and Mrs. Stuart A. Werner
Mr. and Mrs. Everett G. West
Mr. and Mrs. Michael P Whalen
Mr. and Mrs. Dean Wheeler
Ms. Maria B. White
Mr. and Mrs. Richard M. White
Mr. Theodore E. White and Mrs.
Christine H. Kurtz-White
Mr. and Mrs. Eric Whiteside
Mr. and Mrs. RichardM. Whiting
Mrs. Vivianne C. Wicker
Mr.Joe Wilkins
Mr. and Ms. Harvey Willensky
Lt. Col. and Mrs. Freeman J. Williams
Mr. and Mrs. Richard H. Williams
Mr. and Mrs. William M. Williams
Mr. and Mrs. Norman Willis
Ms. Barbara W. Wilson
Mr. Ed Wilson
Mr. and Mrs. Millar Wilson
Mr. and Mrs. Howard L. Wimmers
Mr. Edward Wincek
Ms. June Wincek
Dr. Oliver P. Winslow
Mr. and Mrs. Craig Witty
Mr. and Mrs. John C. Witty, Jr.
Mr. and Mr. John C. Witty, Sr.
Dr. and Mrs. Benjamin Wolf
Mr. and Mrs. William Fred Wolff
Mr. and Mrs. Bernard Wolfson
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas D. Wood
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas C. Woods
Mr. James S. Wooten
Mr and Mrs. Don Worth
Mr, and Mrs. James G. Worth
Dr. and Mrs. Lloyd L. Wrble
Mr. and Mrs. Jerry A. Wutzler
Ms. Marilyn M. Yaeger
Mr. and Mrs. L. Douglas Yoder
Mr. and Mrs. JeffYoumans
Mr. and Mrs. John F Young
Mr. and Mrs. Stefan H. Zachar, Jr.
Ms. Michele Lynn Zakis and Ms. Mary
Mr. and Mrs. Jon W Zeder
Mr. and Mrs. Myron S. Zeientz
Dr. and Mrs. Peter Zies
Dr. Sanford Ziff and Mrs. Dolores
Maria Barwell-Ziff
Mr. and Mrs. Craig A. Zimrnmet
Mr. Joe Zipper


Mrs. Betty R. Adams
Mr. Jim Adams
Mrs, Marlene E. Adams
Ms. Molly S,. Adams
Mrs. Lamar M. Adams-Jackson
Mr. Oscar M. Alabarces
Mr. Manuel Albalate
Mrs. Eugenia D. Allen
Mr. Al Alschuler
Mrs. Gloria Alvarez
Mr, Carl D. Amsterdam
Mrs. John Ancona
Mrs. Betty M. Anderson
Ms. Nancy Anderson
Dr. Raymond T. Anderson
Mr. Theodore Andros
Ms. Hope A. Apollony
Ms. Colleen Arey
Mr. James Armour
Mr. Don Arnold
Mr. Jorge Arocha
Mrs. Fay Aronson
Mrs. June Atherton
Mr. Anthony D. Atwood
Mrs. Blanche T. August
Ms. Araida Avila
Mrs. John L. Bagg
Ms. Elizabeth S. Baker
Ms. Joanne Baldwin
Mr. C. Jackson Baldwin
Mrs. E. Hutchins Balfe
Mr. Charles L. Balii
Ms. Nerida Barciela
Mrs. Bettie B. Barkdull
Ms. Yvonne Barkman
Ms. Ava R. Barnes
Ms. Maria Elena Barreto
Mr. J.T. Barrett
Ms. Janis Barrett
Mr. John Barry
Mr. Richard Basten
Ms. MariaC. Batista
Mrs. Ruth Kaune Baucom
Ms. Alice Baz
Ms. Jacqueline Beatty
Ms. Mary G. Beazel
Mr. John M. Beck
Ms. Mary Glenda F. Beeler
Mr. Robert Beels
Mr. Michael W. Beeman
Ms. Barbara K. Bennett
Ms. Louise F Bennett
Ms. Sarah L. Bennett

Mr. Edwin Benson
Mr. Barry Berg
Mr. Donald Berg
Ms. Georgiana Bethel
Mr. Lilliam V. Bez
Ms. Diane E. Bill
Mrs. John T. Bills
Mrs. John Birch
Mrs. Thomas H. Birchmire
Mr. Charles Bishop
Mr. Warren R. Bittner
Ms. Jody Blakeway
Ms. Brabara L. Blatt
Mrs. Sylvia S. Blount
Mrs. Margaret S. Blue
Mr. G. Boehm
Mr. Samuel J. Boldrick
Mr. Joe Bond, Jr.
Mr. John W. Borsa
Mr. Thomas Boswell
Mr. Leonard Boymer
Ms. Jean Bradfisch
Mrs. Martha Lou Bradley
Ms. Rosemary A. Brady
Mr. Scott Brady
Mrs. K.W. Breeze
Dr. Miguel A. Bretos
Ms. Eleanor Bristol
Ms. Karen Q. Broder
Mr. A.L. Brown
Ms. Natalie Brown
Mr. William B, Brown
Mrs. T.C. Buhler
Ms. Anita Bullough
Ms. Consuelo M. Burranca
Dr. E. Carter Burrus
Mrs. Robert A. Burton
Mr. Gregory W. Bush
Ms. Ann Bussel
Mr. Ernesto Bustillo
Mr. Andrew A. Butler
Mr. Theo Byrd
Ms. Kathleen Bymes
Mr. Tony Callaghan
Ms. Mairi Callam
Mrs. Mary Calley Brown
Ms. Virginia Campbell
Ms. Patricia Campuzano
Ms. Maryellen Canfora
Ms. Robin Caple
Ms. Beverly Cardona
Ms. Susie Cardozo

Mr. Michael Carlebach
Ms. Gail Carter
Mr. Carlos Caso
Mrs. George B. Caster
Ms. Linda Chapin
Mr. David Charles
Mrs. Dixie H. Chastain
Ms. JosephineC. Chesley
Mrs. Ann Chesney
Ms. Grace Cheung
Mrs. AnitaChrist
Ms. Fran Christopher
Mrs, Walter J. Chwalik
Ms. Kathy Cibula
Ms. Lydia S. Clark
Ms, Margie Clark
Ms. Dana L. Clay
Ms. Malinda Cleary
Ms. Suellen Clopton Blanton
Ms. Anna M. Collins
Mr. C. Patrick Collins
Ms. Martha Anne Collins
Ms. Theresa Collins
Dr. Irene Colsky
Ms. Patricia Combine
Mr. Burt Compton
Ms. Maria Teresa F. Concheso
Ms. Mabel Conde
Ms. Lillian Conesa
Mr. Steven R. Cook
Mrs. Winifred S. Cook
Mr. Daniel Cotter
Ms. Carol Coverdale
Mr. and Mrs. William Cox
Ms. Norma J. Craig
Mrs. Alma L. Crawford
Mr. Jan Cronn
Ms. Margaret Cullen
Mr. Andrew T. Cullison
Mrs. K. M. Culpepper
Mr. George Cummings
Ms. Holly Cunha
Mr. Donald W. Curl
Mrs. Charlotte Curry Christensen
Ms. Dawn Dalziel
Mrs. Martha Dasher Howl
Dr. Dewitt C. Daughtry
Ms. Ursula M. Davidson
Ms. Emily Davis
Mr. Jim F. Davis
Mrs. Marinell Davis
Ms. Marion P. Davis
The Hon. Mattie B. Davis

List of Members 91

Mrs. Walter R. Davison
Ms. Jane S. Day
Ms. Sandy Dayhoff
Mr. J. Allison De Foor
Mrs. Florence H. Dence
Ms. Lucille Di Crescenzo
Ms. Jane E,. Dickerson
Mr. Marion E. Dinsmore
Mrs. John W. Dix
Dr. Stephen Dobrow
Mrs. Rosemary Doemer
Mr. J.F. Donnelly
Mrs. Leslie Dorn
Mr. Richard P. Douthit
Mrs. H.E. Drew
Mrs. Faye Dugas
Mr. Hampton Dunn
Ms. Margaret Dunn
Ms. Grace Y. Durbin
Ms. Audree K. DuVal
Mrs. John E. Duvall
Ms. Sarah Eaton
Ms. Norma Ederer
Mr. Jim Edward
Ms. Carol Elder
Ms. Gloria Elliott
Mr. John D, Ellis
Ms. Ruth B. Elsasser
Mrs. Richard P. Emerson
Ms. Heather Enderby
Mr. Grant N. Epstein
Ms. Patricia G. Ernst
Ms. Jacquelyn Esco
Ms. Lynn Esco
Mrs. Beatrice Esplin
Mr. Hall Estrada
Brother Eugene
Ms. Christine Eva
Mr. Don Evans
Mr. Dan Eydt
Mr. Irving R. Eyster
Mrs. Mary Ann Faber
Ms. Jane Faysash
Mr. J. W. Fell
Mr. James D. Fenstermacher
Ms. Susan Ferenczi
Ms. Gwen Fernandez
Ms. Lourdes A. Fernandez
Ms. Mariann Fineberg
Mrs. Nell Finenco
Ms. Cynthia A. Finney
Mr. Joseph Fishwick
Mr. Frank S. Fitzgerald-Bush
Mr. LeopoldoFlorez

Dr. Rita M. Fojaco
Mrs. Edward T. Foote
Miss Elizabeth Foote
Mr. Richard E. Ford
Ms. Chiriey C. Forthman
Mr. Scott Forthman
Mrs. Leona Foster
Mr. Daniel Francis
Ms. Peggy L, Frankel Test
Miss Renee Z. Fritsch
Ms. Anita Ray Fryer
Ms. Marjorie L. Galatis
Mr. Tom Gallaher
Mr. Lauren Gallo
Ms. Janet P. Gardiner
Mr. Robert W. Gardner
Ms. Gretchen Garren
Ms. Carol Garvin
Mr. Enrique Gaston
Ms. Marcia Gauger
Ms. Tondria BE. Gelan
Mr. Alexander S. George
Mrs. Terence Gerace
Mr. Miguel Germain
Mr. David C. Gibson
Ms. Vera Gilford
Comm. Paul J. Gilson
Mr. Robert N. Ginsburg
Mr. Darwin Glaese
Mr. William H. Gleason
Mrs. AnnaC. Goldenberg
Mr. Charles Goldstein
Ms. MariaI. Gonzalez
Mr. R.L. Gonzalez
Mr. William Gonzalez
Mr. Eduardo Gonzalez-Machado
Ms. Betty Ann Good
Ms. Maryon Goodell
Ms. Beth Gopman
Ms. Lanna Gordich
Mr. Harold H. Gordon
Ms. Betsye B. Gorman
Ms. Kiki Grau
Mrs. Cami Green
Mr. David Green
Dr. Edward N. Green
Dr. Henry Green
Ms. Lloma G. Green
Mr. Mitchell S. Green
Mr. Gordon Gregory
Ms. Lynn Grentner
Dr. Zade B. Gross
Ms. Marlene Grover
Mrs. Margaret R. Grutzbach

Mr. Harry Guenther
Mrs. Sara Guerrero
Ms. Nancy F. Haddock
Ms. Cindy Hahamovitch
Ms. Kay K. Hale
Mr. Frank D. Hall
Ms. Michelle Z. Hall
Ms. Judi Hamelburg
Ms. Juliet Hananian
Mrs. Ruby S. Hancock
Ms. Ingrid Hansen
Mr. John Harborn
Ms. Nancy K. Harrington
Ms. Anne Harris
Mr. Robert S. Harris
Mr. Maurice R. Harrison
Dr. Robert J. Harrison
Miss Wanda Harwell
Mrs. Muriel Hathorn
Mr. Leland M. Hawes
Ms. Patricia Hayes
Ms. Anne Heath
Mrs. Isadore Hecht
Mrs, Ruth Heckerling
Ms. Carole Heinlein
Ms. Agneta C. Held
Ms. Anne E. Helliwell
Mr, Vann Helms
Mrs. Gayle Henderson
Mr. John E. Hennessy
Ms. Eva Herran
Mrs. Virginia Herring
Ms. Linda C. Hertz
Ms. Marilyn P. Hett
Mrs. Florence Hill C. McClure
Mr. John W. Hill
Mr. Herbert L. Hiller
Ms. Nedra A. Hodge
Mrs. Doris S. Hodges
Ms. Susan Hofstein
Ms. Ritta K. Hogan
Mr. Charles W. Holland
Ms. Patricia Hooper
Ms. Teresa Horta
Mrs. Eddie Hoskins
Mr. Joseph B. Hourihan
Mr. Roland M. Howell
Mrs. Anna L. Huber
Mrs. Helen B. Hudnall
Mr. Kenneth Hughs
Mrs. Jopie Huijing
Ms. Millie Huneycutt
Mr. Joseph Huakey
Ms. Frances G. Hunter


Mr. William A. Hunter
Mrs. Fran Hutchings Thorpe
Dr. Barry Hyman
Ms. Coleen Hyre
Mr. William A. Ingraham, Jr.
Mrs. Ruth Jacobs
Ms. Eileen Jacobson
Mrs. Adah S. Jaffer
Mr. H.L. James
Ms. Mary C. James
Mr. Paul James
Mr. Richmond A. James
Ms. Gracie Janson
Dr. Eric Jarvis
Ms, Ann E. Jekel
Ms. Theodora Jensen
Dr. William T. Jerome
Ms. Dorothy B. Johnson
Mrs. Wallen A. Johnson
Mrs. Henrietta Jones
Mr. Bill Juliano
Mr. Dennis G. Kainen
Ms. Roberta Kaiser
Ms. Barbara M. Kanzer
Ms. Ann R. Kashmer
Mrs. Ruth B. Kassewitz
Mr. Guy Kathe
Mrs. Barbara Katzen
Ms. Susan Kawalerski
Ms. Elizabeth Kaynor
Ms. Liz Keeler
Ms. Gloria L. V. Keigans
Mr. Scott G. Keith
Dr. Robert L. Kelley
Ms. Kimberly Kennedy
Ms. Sally M. Kennedy
Ms. Carolyn M. Kern
Ms. Judith Kernoff
Ms. Loraine Kessler
Mr. A.A. Key
Mr. Bill Kilpatrick
Ms. Anita Kimbler
Mr. Arthur King
Mr. Jim King
Mr. William P. King
Mr. Bill Kirklen
Mr. George Kirklen
Mrs. Rose Kirschner
Mr. Shelby Kinel
Mr. John Klein
Mr. Eliot Kleinberg
Ms. Marie L. Knepper
Mr. Jeffrey D. Knight
Mrs. Homer W. Knowles

Ms. Frances G. Koestline
Mrs. PatriciaM, Koiski
Mr. Theodore E. Koper
Ms. Elaine Kradjan
Mrs. James A. Kridel
Mr. Robert V. Kiebs
Mr. David A. Kroner
Mr. Donald M. Khn
Mr. Dexter La Belle
Ms. Leah La Plante
Ms. Caroline LaBauve
Mr. Richard David Lancaster
Mr. Martin J. Lann
Mr. Paul W. Larsen
Dr. Abraham D. Lavender
Dr. Karen Lawrence
Dr. HL. Lawson
Mr. Dan D. Laxson
Mr. John Le Gette
Mrs. Lewis Leary
Mr. Robert A, Leathers
Ms. Christine Lee
Ms. Linda Lee
Mr. Robert W. Lee
Mr. Roswell E. Lee
Ms. Jo Lee
Miss Sara Leesha
Mrs. David M. Lehman
Mr. Richard L. Lehman
Mr. Salvador Leon
Mr. Joseph S. Leonard
Ms. Nancy L. Leslie
Mr. Joseph Levin
Mr. Robert L. Levis
Ms. Sara B. Leviten
Mr. Scott Lewis
Ms. Theresa L. Lianzi
Mr. Mark Lighterman
Mrs. Harriet S. Liles
Ms. Kristin Elise Lindley
Ms. Janet A. Lineback
Mrs. John Linehan
Mr. W. Kemp Lippert
Mr. Grant Livingston
Mr. James S. Lord
Mr. Bradshaw Lotspeich
Ms. Mildred A. Love
Mr. Charles T. Lowe
Mr. David Lowry
Mr. Frank Luca
Ms. Gale Lucy
Mr. Michael A. Lugo
Mrs. Jaywood Lukens
Ms. Joyce M. Lund

Ms. Hillelene S. Lustig
Mr. Joseph M. Lynch
Ms. Kathryn R. Lynn
Mr. James K. MacAvoy
Mr. Don MacCullough
Ms. Milbrey W. Maclde
Ms. Valerie MacLaren
Ms. Jeanne Mahar
The Rev. Richard D. Maholm
Mrs. Dorothy Malinin
Mrs. Katharine Malone
Ms. Pat Manfredi
Dr. Celia C. Mangels
Ms. Darlene M. Mann
Ms. Patricia Manosalvas
Ms. Linda W. Mansperger
Ms. Susan Markert
Mrs. Edna P. Martin
Mr. Ted Thomas Martin
Ms. Lillian Martin
Ms. Lourdes Martinez
Ms. Jane Mason
Mrs. Jeanmarie M. Massa
Mrs. Nancy S. Masterson
Mr. Robert D. Masterson
Mr. Bruce C. Matheson
Ms. Marguerite Mathews
Ms. June Maura
Ms. Judi Maxwell
Mr. Jim McAllister
Mrs. Arva Moore Parks McCabe
Mr. Chuck McCartney
Mrs. Florence C. McClure
Mr. Bill McDonald
Ms. Carmen McGarry
Mr. George Percy McGown
Ms. Judy McGraw
Mrs. Alice M. McKenna
Mr. John F. McLean
Mr. William Edward McMichael
Mrs. Karen McMillan
Mrs. Virginia D. McNaughton
Dr. Donald McNeill
Ms. Kathryn McPhee
Mr. Oscar Mederos
Mrs. Charlotte M. MeggsBiedron
Ms. Toni Meltzer
Mr. Jesus Mendez
Mrs, Isabel A. Merritt
Mr. Frank C. Meyers
Dr. Joan Mickelson
Mr. Samuel Mickler
Mr. William R. Middelthon
Mr. Timothy R. Mielke

List of Members 93

Ms. Mary A. Millard
Ms. Evalyn H. Milledge
Ms. Arlene Miller
Ms. Gertrude R. Miller
Mr. Charles W. Milner
Ms. Sharon Misnervini
Mr. Roger G. Misleh
Mr. Karlsson Mitchell
Ms. Katherine Mitchell
Mr. Keith Mitchell
Mr. Thomas A. Mitchell
Mr. Carlos J. Miyares
Mr. Raymond A. Mohl, Jr.
Ms. Diana R. Molinari
Ms. Inn Moller
Mr.J. Floyd Monk
Ms. Doren Moore
Mr. Gerald W. Moore
Ms. Jean Moore
Mr. Patrick F. Moore
Mr. Roland Moore
Ms. Marisol Mora
Ms. Michele Morales
Mrs. Bianca Moreiras
Ms. Cynthia Morgan
Ms. Colleen Morgan-Hobbs
Ms. Allison Morris
Mrs. Florence Morris
Mrs. Edwin S. Morris
Ms. Leslie Morton
Ms. Laura Moseley
Mrs. Yvonne Moyer
Ms. Jo Moyes
Mrs. E.B. Moylan
Mrs. Helen Muir
Ms. Syble Mullinax
Mr. Manuel I. Muniz
Mr. Jeffrey J. Murphy
Mrs, Elizabeth Murray
Mr. O,.C. Murray
Ms. Lillian G. Myers
Mrs. Shirley L Nagy
Ms. Suzanne Nasca
Mr. Donald A. Nash
Ms. Carmen Navarro
Ms. Gay M Nemeti
Ms. Peg G. Niemiec
Mr. James P Niles
Mr. Randy F. Nimnicht
Ms. Anita Nodarse
Mr B.P. Nuckols
Mrs. Maria O'Higgins
Dr. Jules Oaklander
Ms. Leslie Olle

Mr. Fred R. Olsson
Ms. Malta L. Oppenheimer
Mr. Frank Orifici
Ms. Roberta C. Orlen
Mr. W. James Orovitz
Ms. Marie Oscar
Mr. Peter Osman
Ms. Dana Otterson
Ms, Estelle C. Overstreet
Ms. Patricia Owen
Mrs, John W. Owens
Ms. Betty O. Paclder
Mr. Lois Palmer
Mrs. Denise Paparella
Ms. Matilde Paredes-Manzanero
Mr. Robert Parente
Mr. Dabney G. Park
Mr, Austin S. Parker
Mr. Crawford H. Parker
Ms. Jeanne M. Parks
Mrs. Merle F. Parks
Ms. Mary B. Parsons
Ms. Denise Pasternak
Mr. Edward L. Peabody
Ms. Madeline S. Pearson
Mr. Douglas T. Peck
Ms. Patricia Peck
Capt. Dario Pedrajo
Mr. Vernon Peeples
Dr. Margaret M. Pelton
Mrs. Rita Perlman
Mrs. Henry J. Perner
Ms. Joette Perrone
Ms. Julia G. Perry
Mrs. Carmen Petsoules
Mr. Allan Phillips
Mrs. Margie K. Pierce
Mrs. Julius E. Pierce
Mrs. Virginia R. Pietro
Mr. Gordon Pimm
Mr. Nicholas L Pisaris
Mr. David M. Plane
Mr. Jeffrey Platt
Ms. Sylvia Porro
Ms. Ana Celia Portela
Ms. Beatriz Portela
Ms. Nina Postlethwaile
Ms. Eva-Lynn M. Powell
Mr. John Price
Mr. Thomas A. Price
Mr. Jason Psaltides, Esq.
Mrs. Hugh F. Purvis
Mrs. Helen Quinton
Ms. Patti Ragan

Mrs. Virginia S. Rahm
Mr. Michael E. Raiden
Ms. Pauline E. Ramos
Dr. Edward Rappaport
Dr. Alan S. Rapperport
Mrs. Ray S. Rasmussen
Ms. Elizabeth R. Read
Ms. Susan P. Redding
Ms. Martha L. Reiner
Mrs. Brenda G. Reisman
Ms. Mollie C. Reubert
Sister Eileen F. Rice
Mr. R.H. Rice
Mrs. Ralph E. Rice
Ms. R. Richheimer
Ms. Juana Rippes
Ms. Carol Ann Riser
Mr. Larry Rivers
Ms. Theresa Rizzo
Ms. Joanne H. Roberts
Ms. Ruth Roberts
Ms. Yvonne Roberts
Ms. Carmen Robinson
Ms. Ellyn Robinson
Mr. John A. Rodgers
Mr. Domingo Rodriguez
Mr. Neil J. Rohan
Mrs. Rachel P. Roller
Ms. Tracy Romero
Mr. Luis I. Rosas-Guyon
Mr. Robert Rosenberg
Mr. Benard Rosenblatt
Mr. and Mrs. H.J. Ross
Mr. David L. Roumm
Ms. Kristie Rowell
Dr. Robert L. Roy
Ms. Anne Ruben
Mrs. Eliza P. Ruden
Mr. Brian Ruderman
Ms. Carol-Ann Rudy
Mrs. Agnes Rush Bowles
Mr. Denis A. Russ
Mrs. Shirley Russell-Hinnant
Ms. Evelyn Salerno
Mrs. Sadie S. Salley
Mr. Alvin M. Samet
Ms. Virginia Sanchez
Ms. Sandra K. Sanders
Mrs. Ellen M. Sanford
Mr. Arnold Santos
Dr. Sylvan Sarasohn
Ms. Anne Sargent Perry
Mr. Helen M. Saulson


Ms. Connie A. Sax
Mrs. Chaffee Scarborough
Ms. Helen L. Scarr
Mr. Michael Sehiff
Ms. Eleanor Schockett
Ms, Mary L. Scholtz
Mr. Niles Schuh
Mrs. Geraldine Schwartz
Mr. Matthew Schwartz
Mr. Kurt Schweizer
Ms, Linda Seaward
Mrs. Natalie J. Segal
Mr. L.W. Seignious
Dr. Herman Selinsky
Ms. Margaret Sellers Kern
Mr. Robert L. Semes
Mr. Manuel Serkin
Mr, Stuart Serkin
Ms. Ellen G. Sessions
Ms. Kathryn E. Shafer
Mr. Cyrus J. Sharer
Dr. Martha Luelle Shaw
Ms. Elaine Sheehan
Mrs. Charlotte Sheffield
Mr. Ronald Shimko
Ms. Christina G. Shoffner
Mrs. Doris S. Silver
Ms. Suzann Silver
Mrs. Sam I. Silver
Mr. J. Paul Simons
Mrs. CharlesM. Simpson
Mrs. Eleanor Simpson
Ms. Holly Simpson
Dr. Murry Sims
Ms. Audrey E. Singleton
Miss Benedicte Sisto
Dr. Arthur Sitrin
Ms. Marjorie L. Skipp
Mrs. Evelyn Smiley
Mr. Emanuel J. Smith
Mr. Harrison H. Smith
Mrs. Jean Z. Smith
Ms. June C. Smith
Ms. Leslie Smith
Ms. Nancy C. Smith
Ms. Rebecca A. Smith
Mr. Robert 0. Smith
Ms. Evelyn Soberon
Ms. Gail Solarana
Ms. Graciela Solares
Mrs. Lillian B. Soldinger
Mr. Brent Spector
Mr. Thomas A. Spencer
Mr. George L. Stacey

Miss JudiStark
Ms. Laura Starr
Ms. Laura P Stearns
Mrs. William C. Steel
Dr. Elizabeth Stevens
Mrs. Harris B. Stewart
Ms. Rosemary D. Stieglitz
Mr. Wade Stiles
Ms. Joan A. Stoddard
Ms, J. Louise Stone
Mrs. Muriel E. Stone
Ms. Cheryl Stopnick
Mrs. Patricia Strait
Ms. Patricia A. Suiter
Mrs. Joseph Sures
Ms, Carmen Sutton
Ms. Donna C. Swartz
Ms. Katherine Swede
Mr. George H. Sweet
Ms. Blanche Szita
Ms. Jane Tallman
Ms. Mary Ann Talmadge
Mrs. Baibara W. Tansey
Ms. Jane 1. Taylor
Mrs. Jean C. Taylor
Mr, John J. Taylor
Ms. Mary Anne Taylor
Mr. David Teems
Ms. Laura Thayer
Ms. Margaret J. Thayer
Mrs. Elizabeth D. Theobald
Mr. Phillip A. Thomas
Mr. Jay Thompson
Mr. Larry Thompson
Mr. Michael A. Thompson
Ms, Polly Thompson
Mr. Dale A. Thorn
Mr. Richard J. Thornton
Mr. Craig E. Tigerman
Ms. Russica P. Tighe
Mrs. Helen C. Towle
Mr. Michael A. Tranchida
Ms. Maria A. Trejo
Mr. Tony I. Tremols
Mr. John G. Troasi
Mr. Howard D. Truax
Ms. Ann Sofi Truby
Mr. Joe Trudeau
Mr. David Turner
Ms. Molly Turner
Mrs. William Turtle
Dr. Thomas Tweed
Mrs. Jean B. Underwood
Ms. Rosemary Usher Jones

Mrs. Eileen Valla
Ms. Eleanor Van Eaton
Mrs. Clifford D. Van Orsdel
Mr. Manuel 0. Vazquez
Mr. Robert E. Venditti
Mrs. Jody Verrengia
Ms. Kay Vestal
Mr. John W. Viele
Mr. Juan M. Villamil
Ms. Jo Von Funk
Ms. Carita S. Vonk
Mrs. Nancy Voss
Ms. Sue Vrana-Brogan
Mr. Gerard E Wade
Ms. JaneWalaitis
Mr. Michael D. Wallace
Ms. Holly Walsh
Mr. David Walters
Ms. Madge Warren
Mrs. Nancy Washburn
Mr. Joseph A. Wasilewski
Ms. Harriet Wasserbeck
Miss Elva J. Waters
Mrs. Elizabeth Watson
Ms. Hattie E. Watson
Ms. Beverly Watts
Mr. Bob Weeks
Mr. Daniel A. Weiss
Ms. Meryle Weiss
Ms. Susan Weiss
Ms. Muriel Welsh
Ms. Barbara F. Wenzel
Mrs. Marcella U. Werblow
Ms. Bette Westfall
Ms, Dita White
Ms. Anna White
Ms. Brenda L. Whitney
Dr. Richard A. Whittinglon
Ms. Kathy Widger
Mr. Don Wiener
Mr. Larry Wiggins
Mr. William Wilbanks
Mr. Lucius L. Wilcox
Ms. Jo Wilder
Mr. Fred Williams
Mr. G.L. Williams
Mrs, George Williams
Ms. Geraldine H. Williams
Mr. David L. Willing
Mrs. Hillard W. Willis
Mr. Daniel F. Wilson
Mrs. Gaines R. Wilson
Mrs. Louise D. Wilson
Dr. Peggy Wilson

Ms. Bessie Wilson DuBois
Ms. Marcilene K. Witnter
Mrs. Richard F Wolfson
Ms. Ellen F. Wooten
Mr. Horace Wunderle
Mrs. Sharon L. Wynne

Mr. and Mrs. Steve Avdakov
Ms. Susan Marie Ball
Dr. Jose Francisco Barros and Ms.
Helen Torres
Mr. and Mrs, Patrick Battle
Mr. Harlan D. Beck
Ms. Kathryn Bohlmann
Mr. and Mrs. John Bolton
Mrs. Martha Borges-Gutierrez and
Mr. Rene Gutierrez
Mr. and Mrs. Edward J. Brigham
Mr. and Mrs. Roger L. Carrillo
Mr. and Dr. Robert A. Chilty
Mr. and Mrs. Dwayne D. Clein
Mr. and Mrs. Carl Colbert
Mr. Al A. Dicalvo and Ms. Cristina M.
Mr. Charles Duncan
Mr. and Mrs. Philip R. Engelmann
Mr. Michael Finuccio and Ms. Patricia
Dr. and Mrs. Luis H. Fonseca
Mr. and Mrs. Breit Gonshak
Mr. andMrs. Mark S. Goodman
Ms. Martina S. Hahn and Mr. Stuart
W. Baur

Mr. Robert C. Alexander
Mr. Frank Ali
Ms. Liz Andrew
Ms. Valeria Arias
Dr. Danette Arthur
Ms. Mariele Bacon Jones
Mr. Bill Bailey
Mr. Scott Bamene
Mr. David Batcheller, Jr.
Mr. Cesar Becerra
Mr. Charles L. Berg
Ms. Anna Blackman
Mr. Jorge A. Blanco
Mr. Keith Blumr
Mr. K.C. Borden
Ms. Paula Brandan
Mr. Charles W. Braznell

Ms. Patricia Yanes
Mr. Robert Yates
Mr. William Yates
Ms. Jean T. Yehle
Mr. Montgomery L. Young
Mr. Harold J. Zabsky

Tropee Families
Mr. and Mrs. Kent D. Hamill
Dr. and Mrs. Ivan Jonas
Mr. Ronald Kauffman
Ms. Lauren Lancaster
Ms. Keith Landon and Mr. Robbie
Mr. and Mrs. Jeremy P. Leathe
Mr. Raul Lopez
Mr. and Mrs. William Luebke
Mr. and Mrs. Alexander C. Maclntyre
Mr. William Mahoney and Ms. Maria
Cynthia Lopez
Mr. and Mrs. D. W. Matson
Mr. and Mrs. David McDonald
Ms. Janeau C. McKee-Vega and Mr.
Javier Vega
Mr. and Mrs. Robert McNaughton
Mr. and Mrs. Michael Messer
Mr. Ralph Miles and Mrs. Helen
O'Quinn Miles
Mr. Greg Mulvihill and Ms. Kathleen
Mr, Manny Nogueira and Ms. Cuqui
Mr. and Mrs. Ian Norris
Ms. Janet Parkerand Mr. David Mycko

Tropee Individuals
Mr. Gary Bremen
Ms. Pilar Alexia Bretos-Laurant
Ms. Julia C. Brown
Ms. Jennifer Channing
Ms. Susan E. Chwalik
Ms. Sarah Clasby
Ms. Karon M. Coleman
Ms. AnneMarie Collins
Ms. Vicki Cornelius
Ms. Patrice C. Coty
Ms. Julie Courtnght
Mr. Elvis W. Cruz
Ms. Laurin Dayton
Mr. Joseph M. De La Viesca
Mr. Frank G. del Toro
Ms. Laura Delgado
Ms. Stephanie Demos

List of Members 95

Ms. Christina Zawisza
Mrs. Elena A. Zayas
Ms. Carol L. Zeiner
Mrs. Marcia Kerstein Zerivitz
Ms. Frances R. Zierer
Mr. Vladimir Zzzyd

Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Parks
Mr. and Mrs. Nelo Patton
Mr. John David Portal
Dr. Michael Robinson and Mrs.
Jennifer Shelley-Robinson
Ms. Angela Rodrigues and Mr. Dan
Mr. and Mrs. Abelardo E. Rodriguez
Dr. and Mrs. Eugenio M. Rothe
Dr. and Mrs. Gerard Sais
Mr. and Mrs. Javier F. Salman
Mr. Will Sekoff and Ms. LauraPincus
Mrs. Oriana Serrano-Nicolas and
Mr. Charles Nicolas
Mr. and Mrs. James W. Shindell
Dr. and Mrs. Donald Spivey
Mr. and Mrs. Donald Ungurait
Mr. and Mrs. Juan Werner
Mr. Benjamin E. Wesley and Ms.
Donna Ballman
Mr. and Mrs. Todd Williams
Mr. Roger L. Yost
Mr. and Mrs. Stefan H. Zachar, Ill

Ms. Lorraine DeWitt
Mr, AI Diaz
Mr. Andrew Dickman
Ms. Christine Dowlen
Ms. Karen Dowling
Ms. Nancy Dowson
Ms. Marilyn Ducato
Ms. Michelle Dunaj
Mr. Seth Edge
Ms. Raquel Egusquiza
Mr. Marvin Ellis
Mr. Carmen Espinosa
Ms. Maria R. Estorino
Ms. Christian Falco
Mr. Emerson Fales
Mr. Alberto Femandez-Sabater
Ms. Marci Fields


Ms. Marianne Finizio
Ms. Agnes R. Fortin
Mr. Patrick J. Foy
Mr. Joseph A. Fraga
Ms. Sheila Frazier
Mr. Frank Fuentes
Mr. Gregg Fuerst
Ms. Joyce Geiger
Mr. Noel Gil
Mr. Douglas Goldman
Mr. John P. Gomes
Mr. Adrian Gonzalez
Mr. Alex Gonzalez
Mr. Alfredo J. Gonzalez
Ms. Ana I. Gonzalez
Mr. Arthur Gomez
Ms. Gloria Gonzalez
Mr. Israel Gonzalez
Mr. William EB. Gregory
Ms. Christine Griffard
Ms. Alison M. Gunn
Ms. Sylvia flurinsky
Mr. Geoffrey Harris
Mr. Douglas A. Harrison
Ms. Christiane Hayden
Ms. Rebecca Henderson
Mr. Jose L. Hemandez
Ms. Cindy B. Hill
Mr. Bill Holly
Mr. Jack Holly
Mr. Lawton Jackson
Ms. Francine Johnson
Mr. Michael Kaminer
Mr. Brian J. Kiedrowski
Mr. Christopher E. Knight
Ms. Vic Knight
Mr. Robert F. Kohlman
Mr. Craig Kolhoff
Mr. David A. Koretzky
Ms. Andrea Krensky
Mr. Scott Lake

Alachua County Library District
Allen County Public Library
American Antiquarian Society
Audubon House-Key West
Barry University Library Serials
Big Cypress National Preserve
Boston College
Brandeis University Library
Broward County Historical

Mr. Brian E. Lee
Ms. Muffy Lewis
Mr. Leigh M. Livesay
Mr. Kevin Love
Mrs. Nicole Lozano
Ms. Lisa G. Lubach
Mrs. Patty Lubian
Ms. Kelly A. Luther
Ms. Suzanne Lynch
Mr. Robert MacDonell
Ms. Deborah Magid
Dr. Mike Mahaffey
Mr. Brian Mahoney
Ms. Legia Maranon
Mr. Mykael Marinelli
Ms. Yery Marrero
Mr. Carlos J. Martinez
Miss Hilda C. Masip
Ms. Cynthia McDaniel
Mr. Peter McElwain
Ms. Jenifer McKee
Mr. Alex Miller
Ms. Marcia Monserrat
Ms. Rhonda Montoya
Mr, Thomas R. Mooney
Mr. Edwin Moure
Ms. Raquel Muniz
Mr. Alejandro Munoz
Ms. Mary Munroe
Ms. Catherine Murray
Ms. Diana Neringbogel
Ms. Phillis Deters
Ms. Genevieve Off
Mr. Carlos Orta
Ms. Anna Pacheco
Mr. Michael J. Palenscar
Ms. Morgan E. Park
Ms. Kristin Pearce
Mr. J. Michael Pennekamp
Ms. Sandra Piligian
Ms. Aned Pita

Institutional Members
Broward County Main Library
Broward County North Regional
Broward County South Regional
Browrd County WestRegionalibrary
Bureau of Florida Folklife
Charlotte Harbor Area Historical
City of Lake Worth
City of Miami

Ms. Michelle Pivar
Mr. Scott A. Poulin
Mr. Gary Reeves
Ms. Mary Grace Richardson
Mr. Eric Rodriguez
Ms. Raquel Rodriguez
Mr. Robert Rosenberg
Mr. Felipe Sablon
Ms. Adalyn Saladrigas
Mr. Rafael J. Sanchez-Aballi
Ms Jeanette Schatz
Mr. Robert I. Shelley, IV
Ms. Julia Shepherd-Adams
Mr. Paul Skoric
Mr. Robert G. Slater
Mr. Michael Slawson
Ms. Sharyn Spalten
Mr. Bradley Stark
Ms. Alice M. Stone
Mr. Michael A. Strahm
Ms. Laura Stuzin
Ms. Mercedes Tallo-Mampel
Mr. Brian L. Tannebaum
Ms. Julie G. Tatol
Ms. Barbara J. Throne
Mr Bret Tobey
Ms. Crisele Torres
Mr. Michael Trebilcock
Ms. Elisabeth Tmrby
Mr. Matt Tutton
Mr. Chris Utkus
Dr. Alberto E. Vadillo
Mr. Kurt A. Von Gonten
Mr. Tim D. Warmath
Ms. Caren Warrenbrand
Ms. Beverley L. West
Mr. Craig Wheeling
Mr. Robert Wolfarth
Ms. Heidi Woodhead
Mr. Mr. Raymond Yueller
Mr. Jorge Zamanillo

Clewiston Museum, Inc.
Collier County Public Library
Cornell University Library Serials
Dade Heritage Trust
De Soto National Memorial
Duke University Perkins Library
ECC-USF Learning Resources
El Portal Womans Club
Florida Atlantic University Library
Florida International University-
North Campus

Florida International University-
University Park
Florida Southern College
Florida State Library Serials
Florida State University
Ft. Myers Historical Museum
Ft, Lauderdale Historical Society
Harvard College Library
Henry M. Flagler Museum
Historical Preservation Society of
the Upper Keys
Historical Resources Dept.- City of
Historical Society of Martin County
Huntington Library
Indian River County Library
Janus Research
Key West Maritime Historical
Society for the Florida Keys
Martin County Public Library
Mashantucket Pequot
McGrath Property Services

Miami Dade Community College-
Kendall Campus Library
Miami Public Library-Coral Gables
Miami Public Library-Downtown
Miami Public Library-Miami Beach
Miami Public Library-North Dade
Miami Public Library-South Dade
Miami Public Library-West Dade
Miami Public Library-West Kendall
Miami Springs Historical Preservation
Monroe County Library
Newberry Library
Olin Library
Orange County HistoricalMuseum
Palm Springs Public Library
Pembroke Pines City Historian
Robert M. Levy & Assoc.
Sebring Historical Society
SIRS, Inc. Discoverer
Society of the Four Arts
St. Thomas University Library

List of Members 97

St. Lucie County Library System
Stanford University Green Library
State Historical Soctiety of Wisconsin
State Library of Florida
Stetson University Dupont Ball Library
Tampa Public Library
Tarpon Springs Area Historical
Society, Inc.
Tennessee State Library Archives
The Villagers
U.S. I Productions, Inc.
University of Central Florida Library
University of Florida Library
University of Georgia
University of Iowa
University of Michigan
University of Pennsylvania
University of South Florida Library
University of Washington Libraries
West Palm Beach Public Library
Wilton Manors Library

Please notify the Histori-
cal Association's Mem-
bership Coordinator,
Hilda Masip, of any
changes to the member-
ship listing. Telephone:
(305) 375-1492.

Fellow ...................................................... $500 (and up)
Corporation/Foundation ....................................... 500
Benefactor ................................. ...................... $250
Sponsor .... ..................... .............................. $100
Donor ..................................................................... $75
Family .................................................................... $45
Individual/Institutional ............... $35
Tropee Individual ................................................. $35
Tropee Family .......................... $50

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Source Document

Tequesta Advisory Board

Miguel Bretos, Ph.D.
Bill Brown
Cantor Brown, Jr., Ph.D.
Gregory Bush, Ph.D.
Robert S. Carr
Juan Clark, Ph.D.
Donald Curl, Ph.D.
Rodney Dillon
Dorothy Fields
Howard Kleinberg
Eugene Lyon, Ph.D.
Raymond A. Mohl, Ph.D.
Gary Mormino, Ph.D.
Larry Rivers, Ph.D.
Frank Sicius, Ph.D.
Donald Spivey, Ph.D.

Complete Your Library with
Back Issues of Tequesta

Issues of Tequesta going back to 1941 are available for most years
for just $5 each. Call Hilda Masip to complete your collection:
(305) 375-1492.

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