Front Matter
 Front Cover
 Historical Association of Southern...
 The east Florida coffee land expedition...
 Pioneer Cemetery
 Pioneering in suburbia
 List of members
 Back Cover

Title: Tequesta
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101446/00051
 Material Information
Title: Tequesta
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Historical Association of Southern Florida
Publisher: (multiple)
Publication Date: 1991
Copyright Date: 2010
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101446
Volume ID: VID00051
Source Institution: Historical Museum of Southern Florida
Holding Location: Florida International University: Florida History and Heritage
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 2096319
lccn - 42015131
issn - 0363-3705


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Table of Contents
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Historical Association of Southern Florida
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    The east Florida coffee land expedition of 1821: Plantations or a Bonapartist Kingdom of the Indies?
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Pioneer Cemetery
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Pioneering in suburbia
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    List of members
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Back Cover
        Page 93
        Page 94
Full Text

On the cover:

Survivors, Ralph Gillespie and Joe Johnson, pick up the pieces
after the 1935 hurricane that devastated the Florida Keys.
Historical Association of Southern Florida Miami News Collection.

This Page Blank in Original
Source Document

Editors Emeriti
Charlton W. Tebeau, Ph.D. Thelma Peters, Ph.D.
Arva Moore Parks
Managing Editor
Mary Ann Wilson
Typesetting/Layout design
Joanne L. Fernandez

Number LI 1991


Contributors 5

The East Florida Coffee Land Expedition of 1821:
Plantations or a Bonapartist Kingdom of the Indies? 7
By Canter Brown, Jr.

Pioneer Cemetery 29
By Josephine Johnson

Pioneering in Suburbia 49
By Nixon Smiley

List of Members 81


C L7 As*t is published annually by the Historical Association of Southern Florida.
Ir I Communication should be addressed to the Managing Editor of
Tequesta, 101 West Flagler Street, Miami, Florida 33130. The Association does not assume
responsibility for statements of facts or opinions made by contributors.

This Page Blank in Original
Source Document

Historical Association of Southern Florida, Inc.

Hunting F. Deutsch
George R. Harper
First Vice President
Ronni Bermont
Second Vice President
John C. Harrison Jr.
Robert Hunter
Raul Rodriguez
Past President
J. Andrew Brian
Museum Director

Arva Moore Parks
Editor Tequesta
Charlton W. Tebeau, Ph.D.
Editor Emeritus Tequesta
Thelma Peters, Ph.D.
Editor Emeritus Tequesta
Stuart Mclver
Editor South Florida History
Mary Ann Wilson
Editor South Florida History
Randy F. Nimnicht
Executive Director


Wayman Adkins
Robert Battle
Miguel A. Bretos, Ph.D.
Ignacio Carrera-Justiz
J. Allison De Foor II
Femando Garcia-Chacon
Steven R. Goldberg
Matthew B. Gorson
Priscilla M. Greenfield
Evelyn Guyton
Susan Johnson
Michael Lewis
Harry M. Lightsey III

Jack Lowell
Rev. J. Kenneth Major
Mary Stuart Mank
Joseph Mensch, M.D.
Susan P. Norton
Ana Price Ph.D.
Janice C. Pryor
R. Benjamin Reid
David P. Rowe
Michael B. Smith
Alicia M. Tremols
Sandy Younts
Howard Zwibel, M.D.

This Page Blank in Original
Source Document


CANTER BROWN, JR., a native of Polk County, Florida, is a doctoral
student in history at the University of Florida. He received his B.A. and
J.D. degrees from Florida State University and is the author of
numerous scholarly articles on Florida history. He is a recipient of the
Florida Historical Society's Governor LeRoy Collins Award and the
Southern Jewish Historical Society's B.H. Levy Prize. His book,
Florida's Peace River Frontier, is published by the University of
Central Florida Press. He currently is writing a biography of Ossian
Bingley Hart, Florida's loyalist Reconstruction governor.

JOSEPHINE JOHNS ON, Ph.D., is professor of speech communication
at the University of Miami and is a former chair of the Department of
Communication. Her published work includes a biography, Florence
Farr: Bernard Shaw's'NewWoman, chapters in G.B.S. Fabian Feminist
and Historical Perspectives of Performance in Literature. She is also
the author of Powerspeak and her 1919-1939 British Jazz History is to
be published by Bayou Press, England. The Yeats Annual and Praeger
press will also publish other work in 1992.

NIXON SMILEY, a well known newspaper reporter for the Miami
Herald, local historian, and environmentalist, died July 29, 1990.
Except for a hitch in the Marines during World War II, Smiley worked
for the Herald from 1940 until he retired in 1973. His Knights of the
Fourth Estate, one of nine books that he wrote, is the definitive history
of the Miami Herald and an excellent history of Miami as well.
Long the Herald's horticulture expert, Smiley was also acting direc-
tor at Fairchild Tropical Garden from 1956-63. His interest in tropical
plants was a particularly rewarding part of his life.

This Page Blank in Original
Source Document

The East Florida Coffee
Land Expedition of 1821:
Plantations or a Bonapartist Kingdom
of the Indies?

by Canter Brown, Jr.

In the United States of the Revolutionary and Federal eras, large
communities of Frenchmen provided a refuge for thousands of exiles
from Revolutionary, Bonapartist and Bourbon France, as well as from
the strife-torn colony of Saint-Domingue (Haiti). Located particularly
in the vicinities of Philadelphia and of Charleston, South Carolina, the
communities made significant contributions to "the fabric of American
society" during the first half-century of the nation's existence) Char-
acteristically, as governments in France or Saint-Domingue rose and
fell during the period, many residents of these communities returned
home, while a new wave of exiles-supporters of the newly deposed
regime-arrived in the United States. The immigrants might be
merchants, craftsmen, teachers, impoverished planters, or luminaries of
the magnitude of Joseph Bonaparte, the former king of Spain.2 Some
of the exiles intended to settle permanently near existent French
communities, while others dreamed of recouping lost fortunes through
"various land and commercial schemes" or else through international

Canter Brown, Jr., is the author of Florida's Peace River Frontier and
a doctoral student at the University of Florida.


In the late 1810s and early 1820s an opportunity was presented to
members of the Philadelphia-area French community to regain their
fortunes through the largess of the United States Congress. The
ultimate goal of the ensuing enterprise, the East Florida Coffee Land
Association, merely may have been the establishment of coffee planta-
tions in South Florida. Possibly, though, it may have involved far
greater potentialities, including the restoration of white rule in Saint-
Domingue and the eventual creation of a Bonapartist kingdom of the
The origins of the East Florida Coffee Land Association are
traceable to February 22, 1819, when representatives of the king of
Spain agreed at Washington to the cession of Spanish Florida to the
United States.4 However, the resulting Adams-Onfs Treaty, which for-
malized the transfer, was not ratified immediately, and, in the following
two years, the pact proved controversial. Virginia Congressman John
Randolph, reflecting the sentiments of many, argued in the House of
Representatives: "Florida, sir, is not worth buying. It is a land of
swamps, of quagmires, of frogs and alligators and mosquitoes! A man,
sir, would not immigrate into Florida-no, not from hell itself!"5
Contrary to Randolph's assertions, though, a number of entrepreneurs,
some of them French, were intent upon exploiting the opportunities
presented by the purchase of Florida, and Peter Stephen Chazotte,
among them, had made known his intentions to the Congress.
Chazotte was about 50 years old in 1821.6 In the 1790s he had
cultivated coffee and cocoa on family plantations in Saint-Domingue,
but the outbreak of a black revolution had compelled him to flee in 1798
to Charleston, South Carolina.7 Chazotte remained in the United States
for two years awaiting, as he later wrote, "a return of a tolerable state of
peace." That desirable circumstance was achieved in Chazotte's opin-
ion in 1800, and late in the year he returned to the 'colony. First,
however, he sought to protect himself from the animosities of former
slaves toward French masters by accepting U. S. citizenship.8
Indeed, Chazotte's precaution did save his life. First, while he was
serving as an officer in French counter-revolutionary forces, his plan-
tations were seized and much of his property destroyed. Then, at the
request of "a deputation from the colored and freed black men of my
district," he engaged in business as a merchant. Within a year, though,
"a general massacre of the white population of that Island" was
threatened. As a United States citizen, Chazotte narrowly was able to
make his escape. He arrived at Baltimore on June 10, 1804.1

The year 1804 was important to Chazotte for a number of reasons,
one of which directly led to his interest in Florida. "In the year 1804,"
he later recalled, "I was cast upon the southernmost point of East
Florida, and although it was in the month of February; I beheld that
country, covered with green trees and flowers; the image of an everlast-
ing Spring."1' The Spanish colony then offered few possibilities for the
French-American merchant, however. Shortly after safe arrival in
Baltimore four months later, he departed for southern France where, for
"upwards of ten years [he] engaged in the culture of vines, &c."" When
the Napoleonic Empire collapsed, though, he returned to the United
States and settled at Philadelphia. There, in the remaining years of the
decade, he worked as a French instructor and wrote pamphlets propos-
ing a system of banking, explaining the best method for teaching foreign
languages, and analyzing "the metaphysics & philosophy of lan-
Despite his diverse employment in the 1810s, Chazotte did not
forget his memories of the Florida coast. Presumably his interest was
rekindled when the Adams-Onfs Treaty was signed and heightened
when, on October 24, 1820, the king of Spain recorded his formal
assent." Although final approval by the United States Senate remained
pending, Chazotte already was planning for the soon-to-be American
peninsula's colonization.
Chazotte's idea was to ask the Congress for a grant of land in South
Florida upon which coffee and cocoa could be cultivated. To permit
such an agricultural enterprise to be undertaken, he also conceived the
idea of a "grand national nursery." As he explained: "It is not in the
power of every one, wishing to cultivate those rich plants, to procure
them at the moment they are wanted. .. [those individuals] must be
guided; they must be taught; they must have a place, where they will
apply for plants, and also acquire that information which no book can
give." He added, "The government, by means of its numerous consuls,
may procure the first qualities of plants and seeds." "4
Late in 1820, Chazotte published a 24-page pamphlet entitled,
Facts and Observations on the Culture of Vines, Olives, Capers,
Almonds, &c. in the Southern States, and of Coffee, Cocoa, and Cochi-
neal inEastFlorida. He offered analyses of the climatic and geographi-
cal features of coffee and cocoa production areas throughout the world,
compared them with those of southern Florida, and explored the crops'
economic impact. The author concluded, "The simple statements I have
given, and it being the only land adjoining the territory of the United


States where coffee and cocoa will grow, is sufficiently interesting to
excite a laudable desire of seeing it pass into our possession."'1
On January 15, 1821, Chazotte formally presented by letter his pro-
posal and pamphlet to the United States House of Representatives.
Speaker John W. Taylor laid the correspondence before the House and
referred the documents to the committee on agriculture. As Taylor
advised Chazotte, the committee's chairman was a presumably friendly
fellow Pennsylvanian, Thomas Forrest.'' Action on the referral was not
taken hastily, and, while the committee deliberated, the Florida cession
treaty finally was ratified. The Senate approved the document February
19, and three days later President James Monroe proclaimed it. Transfer
of actual possession of the territory was scheduled for the following
Chairman Forrest released his committee's decision on the Chazotte
proposal eight days after President Monroe's proclamation of the
Adams-Onfs treaty."' By and large, the committee's response was
positive, citing "the laudable and praiseworthy designs of the enterpris-
ing and patriotic Pr. Stephen Chazotte." Rather than recommend
immediate action on the proposal, though, the committee resolved that
the matter "be laid over to the next Congress." The panel's report
explained, "As the culture of the various plants . require different
southern climates and treatments; and as the greatest portion of these are
contemplated for the latitude and climate of East Florida, the cession of
which has been but recently announced, and its possession not yet
acquired; and as the session of this House is [s]o near its close .. the
expectation of being able to digest and mature a plan sufficiently
adapted to the magnitude of the object contemplated [is entirely
precluded]." '1 The House concurred in the committee's suggestion,
and consideration of the proposal was delayed. 20
Despite the committee's action delaying a final decision on his
proposal, Chazotte felt "encouraged." To further advance his cause the
Frenchman decided to develop a more-detailed plan before the meeting
of the next Congress. He initiated the organization of an exploratory
expedition to South Florida and began to seek the financial backing that
would permit him to pursue it.21 He found his backers in Philadelphia,
and many of them were his fellow French exiles.
Philadelphia's French community by 1821 had suffered a substan-
tial decline-in numbers and in importance-from its height in the
1790s.22 Nonetheless, certain of its members, such as merchant-
financier Stephen Girard, had achieved national influence, and the

community's members and institutions were rooted deeply in the city."
Its Socidtd Francaise de Bienfaisance de Philadelphie, for example,
united the area's French-speaking population in providing relief for
newly arrived exiles.24 Among those arriving immigrants in the mid-
1810s was Chazotte, as well as other refugees of the Napoleonic
Empire, including the Emperor's brother, Joseph.
While Joseph Bonaparte survived the loss of his Spanish kingdom
with a fortune great enough to allow him and his relatives to "cut a large
swathe in Philadelphia['s] social and intellectual life" in the 1820s, all
of his fellow exiles were not so fortunate." Many Frenchmen, whether
from Europe or Saint-Domingue, had been devastated financially in the
wars and revolutions of the past 30 years. Compounding the problem,
Philadelphia's economy had been undermined during the 1810s by a
combination of events, including the Embargo Act of 1807, the expira-
tion of the First Bank of the United States in 1811, a shift of trade to New
York, and the Panic of 1819.26 French businessmen no doubt suffered
from the effects of Philadelphia's depression and, thus, were eager for
an opportunity such as that presented by the Florida proposal.
During the spring of 1821, Chazotte assembled for his purposes a
group of "nearly one hundred respectable families, not of foreigners,
but of citizens of Pennsylvania, New-Jersey, &c." Approximately 40
percent of the families bore recognizable French surnames, and others
likely had French connections by blood or marriage. Formally organ-
ized in June as the East Florida Coffee Land Association, the associators
charged Chazotte to explore SouthFlorida with a party consisting of six
laboring men and five volunteers. Specifically, he was to identify the
"best tract of land, not previously occupied, at a convenient distance
from the sea or a navigable river; combining fertility of soil and
salubrity of climate, and of an extent sufficient to embrace the plans and
objects of the association."" The association also elected a committee
of superintendence headed by civic and political leader John Gilder.2"
Prior to the association's formal organization, Chazotte had ap-
proached Secretary of State John Quincy Adams and obtained that
official's blessing for his intended expedition. Noting that Chazotte
was "about to visit and explore the southern parts of East Florida" and
citing his "meritorious and laudable purposes," Adams issued the
Philadelphian a passport requesting "all persons in authority under the
United States to afford him such convenient aid as it may be in their
power to render, without expense to the government, towards facilitat-
ing the object of his journey." The document was dated April 26, 1821,


while Florida remained a Spanish possession.29
With the official approval of the secretary of state and necessary
financial backing secured, Chazotte completed arrangements for his
expedition. A sloop, the Hunter, and the services of its crew, led by
Captain Carter, were engaged. The party eventually also included: M.
Burrough, physician; Isaac Booth, surveyor; J. W. Gardere, Samuel
Davis, John Burrough, Mordecai Haines, volunteers; and John Boris,
Daniel McNelly, Andrew West, Ezekiel Stitt, and John Herbert, labor-
ers. Most volunteer members of the expedition also were members of
the association.30
The Hunter departed Philadelphia on July 4, 1821, and nine days
later arrived at St. Augustine.3I Ceremonies marking the formal transfer
of possession of Florida to the United States had occurred there only
three days before. As one historian reported, "Social conditions in town
were tumultuous as adventurers flocked in from the United States
hoping to enrich themselves in the new territory."32 Though conditions
were turbulent, St. Augustine's Florida Gazette particularly noted the
presence of the Chazotte party. "This expedition," remarked its editor,
"has created the most lively interest here, because, we are perfectly
sensible of our impotence, till agriculture furnishes us with those mines
of wealth and abundance, which are inexhaustible riches, and can alone
insure the prosperity and happiness of this very valuable section." The
editor also was heartened because the expedition proved "that our
brethren of the Eastern States cherish the welcome acquisition [of
Florida], and are alive to the greatest interest of our republic, in
promoting its agriculture.""
The members of the expedition remained at St. Augustine for two
weeks. Chazotte conferred there with Captain JohnR. Bell, commander
of U. S. forces at the town and provisional secretary of the territory of
East Florida. On July 19, Bell endorsed Chazotte's passport. In
addition, he required "all officers, civil and military, within the province
of East Florida, to observe the spirit and meaning of the letter as
expressed by the honorable John Quincy Adams. "34 Eight days later, the
Hunter sailed for the southern reaches of the peninsula.35
Cape Florida, Biscayne Bay, and the surrounding territory de-
lighted the Chazotte party. Upon landing near the site of modem Miami,
its members received "a friendly reception & hospitality" from the
bay's American resident, a former Virginia ship captain, William Lee.
For several weeks they explored the vicinity, and Chazotte later
described what they found.36 The cape, he wrote:

... [is] very fertile, resting on a hard limestone rock, whose strata
present a high angle from the horizon . The country has
considerable elevation, (say 300 [sic] feet above the sea); the
streams a strong current, and some falls, or rather rapids; the soil
a black mould of three or four feet deep-no sand in it: the coast
iron bound, or rocky and bold: at least 2,000,000 acres rich enough
for sugar culture. The timber on the rich land very heavy and thick.
All the tropical fruits and growth in great perfection; more so than
[I] ever saw in the West-Indies. The limes, plantains, sweet
oranges, saponellas, mahogany, logwood, &c. abundant. No frost,
and the thermometer in the hottest day last summer only 88
[degrees]. Sea breeze strong, and air elastic and healthful."

Despite his pleasure in the area, Chazotte's findings were disappoint-
ing to him. "We have been laying in the bay within the Cape of East
Florida," he informed Bell on August 18, "& have explored all the lands
& rivers adjacent to it, a great deal of Sugar Cane land we have found-
the coffee land, little,-this will not answer our views."38 Accordingly,
the expedition resumed its search, departing Biscayne Bay on August
The Hunter first coursed Key Largo, apparently from Florida Bay.
The island was examined and renamed Monroe's Presque Isle in honor
of the president. There the party discovered its coffee land. "This
Presque Isle ...," Chazotte noted, "[contains] by computation twenty-
three thousand acres." He added, "[It is] a situation suitable for the
location of the intended settlement, it containing about the quantity of
land originally proposed to be taken up, and it being, so far as [we can]
ascertain, free from any prior claims, and so bounded as to make its
limits easily described and defined." The island's one drawback was
that "there was not a proper site on the island for a town from which [our]
produce could be transported otherwise than in boats, there being no
The party continued on its way from Key Largo searching for good
land and a "proper" town site. The Hunter traced the keys, sailed to and
rounded Cape Sable, and soon arrived at Charlotte Harbor. Its keys and
coastline were surveyed and mapped.4L At Punta Rassa the members of
the expedition found the ruins of Spanish fishing "ranchos," which had
been destroyed two months earlier by a raiding party of Coweta Creeks
from Georgia.42 They then discovered the mouth of the Caloosahatchee


River, which they referred to as "the great River Mayaco, or Calhoun
River." They ascended that stream for a distance of some "45 miles,
until the current became so strong that they could not stem it, the river
then 75 yards wide and 21 feet deep." Chazotte learned from a small
party of Indians that a short distance further upstream lay "a very large
Lake 20 miles long and very deep." The name given for Lake
Okeechobee was Maycaibo. Of the Caloosahatchee valley Chazotte
remarked, "The land on this river is good, but too heavily timbered."43
From Charlotte Harbor, the expedition followed the Gulf Coast
northward. At Sarasota Bay its members found additional evidence of
the Coweta Creek raid in the charred remains of a "plantation" of freed
and runaway blacks, some survivors of which they had encountered at
Cape Florida.44 By the time the Hunter reached Tampa Bay, the calendar
had moved well into September. Still the party carefully surveyed the
bay, naming and renaming its features.45 Chazotte found there "four
considerable rivers" and noted "very high falls on the Manantee."46 He
also recorded finding "a body of good land south of Tampa Bay, near
the sea." 4
At Tampa Bay, the party halted its northern progress without
locating a proper town site or finding better coffee land than that at Key
Largo. The Hunter set a southerly course and soon had returned its
members to Biscayne Bay. There, in October 1821, Chazotte deter-
mined upon his town site. "The nearest place which could be found for
that purpose," he reported to the Congress a few months later, "was
within the bay of Cape Florida." Specifically, he selected a site at the
mouth of the Miami River, the location of present-day Miami. Four
sections of land south of the stream, which was renamed the Crawford
River, then were platted and divided into lots.4' The community-to-be
was named Jeffersonville.49
The expedition left Biscayne Bay for Philadelphia on October 24
or 25, but the return voyage was not without incident. 1 The Hunter was
confronted with severe weather off the Florida coast, and its captain was
forced to abandon plans to call at St. Augustine."' Battling the weather,
the ship remained at sea eight days before a safe arrival at Charleston.
Its passengers and crew brought with it to that harbor not only news of
their success, but also news of pirates."
The tale began upon the Hunter's return to Biscayne Bay. Captain
Carter debarked there to negotiate with William Lee for provisions and
noticed in the latter's house "an elegant Piano Forte... and many other
goods" which had not been present upon his earlier visit.'3Nonetheless,

the two men completed their business, and the Hunter sailed for St.
Augustine. Off the Florida coast the sloop encountered three men in an
open boat. The men admitted that they had belonged to a piratical
"gang" which "rendezvoused at Cape Florida" and had recently plun-
dered the brig, Cosmopolite, off Key West. Among the plunder were
"two Piano Fortes, and other articles." The pirates' own vessel was a
former fishing smack, the Hiram. In previous years it had been
captained out of Savannah by William Lee.14
Captain Carter handed his three refugee pirates over to the proper
authorities in Charleston." He also learned that the Hiram had called at
Savannah days before. Her captain and crew had been arrested on an
outstanding warrant charging piracy, "but the evidence given... was
contradictory and inconsistent." The men still were held in the Savan-
nah jail, but a conviction was far from a certainty.'6 As it happened,
Carter's prisoners had "brought in with them some pieces of the oil
cloth, &c of which her [the Cosmopolite's] cargo was composed." The
evidence and the prisoners quickly were shipped to Savannah "to prove
the piratical conduct of Captain Bob," and, after a brief sojourn in
Charleston, the Hunter departed for Philadelphia.7
The Chazotte party returned to its home port on November 8." The
finding it reported was the same as that sent to St. Augustine from
Charleston five days earlier: "We have succeeded in our enterprise."'"
One Philadelphian recorded, "I have just had a long talk with Chazotte
and his party[.] [T]hey give a very flattering acct of the Cape.... The
objection to this is that it is all United States' land and will be 5 years
perhaps coming into market."60 Whatever problems may have existed,
Chazotte communicated his positive findings to the members of the
association at a general meeting held on December 26 at the Citizen's
Hotel.1 Presumably also at that meeting details of the association's
proposal to the Congress were debated and approved.
The report to the Congress took the form of a memorial dated at
Philadelphia on January 14, 1822. It requested "a grant of Key Largo,
or Monroe's Presque Isle, together with the four United States sections
surveyed within the bay at Cape Florida, for a town, from whence to
transport their produce, subject to such restrictions and regulations
relative to its speedy settlement and cultivation as your honorable
bodies may think proper to impose." If such a grant were made, the
association promised "to proceed immediately to the formation of a
settlement at Key Largo, and on the main lands at the town plot, and to
commence the cultivation of coffee, cocoa, cochineal, vines, olives,


almonds, or such other productions as they may find the soil and climate
congenial to." The memorial also noted the encouragement previously
"manifested by Congress," the expense of the expedition, and "the
probable favorable influence of a large and respectable settlement on
that part of the coast of Florida, in repressing the contraband traffic
which existed under the late government."62
The grant request quickly ran into trouble. Rather than receiving a
referral to the friendly committee on agriculture, which had considered
it during the previous Congress, the memorial was committed to the
committee on the public lands. During a special hearing on the measure,
a question was raised as to whether such a grant was "of such a character
as to be incompatible with our republican form of government."
Perhaps caught off guard, the leaders of the association apparently
offered during the hearing to pay $30,000 for the property. Chazotte and
Gilder also soon prepared a lengthy statement in rebuttal and in it
offered the committee its choice of three different purchase options:

First. We offer the minimum price fixed by law, of one dollar
and twenty-five cents per acre, one half cash, the other half
payable at six years, without interest, for 23,000 acres of land
on Key Largo, and the four United States' sections selected for
a town, within the Bay of Cape Florida.
Second. We again offer thirty thousand dollars cash, for the
whole island of Key Largo, and the town plot within Cape
Third. Or forty thousand dollars, for the whole island and town
plat, payable in three installments, at 6,8, and 10 years, without
any interest.6"

Initial committee reaction to the revised proposal was positive. On
February 12, committee chairman Christopher Rankin met with Chazotte
and Gilder, and they reached "a verbal understanding," subject to
"certain terms and conditions." Rankin asked the two men to reduce the
agreement to writing, and they did so two days later. The revised offer
was repeated in the letter of agreement with one substantive change.
"Two years and one day after the land shall have been surveyed,"
Chazotte and Gilder wrote, "and the patents delivered to the several land
holders, who shall not have actually planted, and in a state of cultivation,
coffee, cocoa, sugar, and other tropical fruits, together with olive,
almond, vine, &c. &c.... shall individually, and severally, forfeit their

land to the United States, and also the purchase money already paid into
the Treasury of the United States."64 The association thus guaranteed
the land would be used for the purposes stated in their proposals.
At some point during the next six days, for reasons not entirely
clear, the bargain fell through. On February 20, the committee decided
against the agreement reached by its chairman. "The domain is the
common property of the Union," its report asserted, "which the repre-
sentatives of the people are bound, by their duty to the whole commu-
nity, to dispose of to the best advantage for the common benefit."
Applying that principal to the case in question the committee added:
"No better system, it is presumed, can be adopted than that which has
been long practised in this government, of offering the public land in
small quantities, after suitable notice, at public auction. .. In this way
the land is certain to bring its value in the market, while the quantity
offered gives to the man in moderate circumstances a fair competition
with the capitalist. It shields the representative of the people from the
charge of granting exclusive privileges to some, or from being com-
pelled to make distribution of public land at less than its value."65
The unfavorable report of the committee on the public lands was.
received by the House of Representatives on the day of its adoption,
read, and tabled.66 One month later, presumably after intense efforts by
members of the association to resurrect their proposal, the House
reconsidered the report and voted to commit it to the committee of the
whole house.67 The action effectively killed the South Florida land
Thus terminates the official record of the proceedings of the Con-
gress on the proposal of the East Florida Coffee Land Association.
There are clues, however, which suggest that more may have lain
behind the public lands committee's action than is at first apparent.
Writing a year after the event, Florida merchant-planter Horatio Dexter
asserted that Chazotte's reports on South Florida were "calculated to
mislead & invite speculation in a quarter where they would inevitably
be disappointed." Dexter continued by stating, "The delusive accounts
he has given have also a tendency to divert the attention of the Planters
of Capital from those Staples that might prove profitable in these
regions, which are well adapted to the cultivation of Cotton Sugar."'6
Dexter's remarks have several important facets. First, he accused
Chazotte of an intent "to mislead." Then, he criticized Chazotte for
drawing attention to "quarters" of Florida other than those Dexter
would have attention drawn to, while also arguing that cultivation of


cotton, sugar, and citrus, rather than coffee, should be given priority by
investors in the state.
Assuming that self-interest underlay Dexter's remarks, the ques-
tion arises as to who else would have benefited by frustrating Chazotte's
plans, and why. One answer centers upon St. Augustine, where in 1821
and 1822 a number of men were involved in land speculation and real
estate promotion, specifically in the northern part of the peninsula
where cotton, sugar, and citrus lands accessible from St. Augustine
were to be found. Perhaps premier among these men were Dr. William
H. Simmons and his friend, Charles Vignoles.A9 Simmons, particularly,
was associated closely with prominent officials of the territorial gov-
ernment. From 1823 to 1824 he served on the territorial council.70 In
the year of Dexter's report, 1823, he was selected by Governor William
P. DuVal as one of two commissioners to determine the site of Florida's
Beginning early in 1822, Vignoles featured the findings of Sim-
mons's explorations around the peninsula of Florida in at least one
major northern newspaper, the Boston Patriot and Daily Merchantile
Advertiser.7 In a letter dated St. Augustine, February 2, 1822, he
included details of Chazotte's report because they "strongly corrobo-
rated" certain of Simmons's observations. Vignoles added, however:
"[Dr. Simmons] proposes to set out next week to explore the Cape fully,
and to cross it to Tampa Bay. I shall place implicit confidence in such
information, as he may communicate to me on his return. If his account
of the country should differ in any material point from that of Chazotte,
I will communicate it to you." He ended the letter with a stem and self-
serving warning to potential investors in Florida. "As the tide of
emigration has begun to flow into this territory," he wrote, "I think it
possible that some Bostonians may turn their faces hither ward, and I am
anxious that they may have their eyes open, and not be in any point
deceived. .. If I can be of use to any of the good people of the City of
Boston, or its vicinity, in transacting any business here, they may
command my services so far, as that I will take care that responsible
agents are employed in their affairs." The letter was published March
8, eighteen days before the House of Representatives reconsidered the
Chazotte proposal."73
Much of Simmons's correspondence of the time has not survived,
but comments made in his book, published in June 1822, may reflect his
communications earlier in the year. Of Chazotte's belief that coffee
could be grown at Key Largo, Simmons remarked, "It is difficult to

conceive where he could have found such situations and soils as he is
said to describe." Referring to occasional frosts at Cape Florida and in
the keys he added, "This circumstance totally precludes the cultivation
of coffee."74 Simmons thus denouncedChazotte and his conclusions to
the nation.
Whether Simmons contacted administration or Congressional lead-
ers about the Chazotte proposal is not known, but at least one man well
known to him did. On March 18, 1822, Acting Governor William G.
D. Worthington wrote John Quincy Adams from St. Augustine. "It is
said," the governor informed the secretary of state, "that Mr. Chazotte
has discovered near Cape Florida about 4,000,000 acres of good land-
I suspect that his account is exaggerated-I don't say intentionally-
But it is so."" As it happened, Governor Worthington's assertion about
4 million acres was the exaggeration; Chazotte had reported only half
that amount. But letters such as Worthington's easily could have raised
suspicions of Chazotte's intentions in the minds of government leaders.
That Simmons's observations were correct also must be consid-
ered; if they were, then the intentions of those individuals associated
with the East Florida Coffee Land Association may well have been
other than coffee growing in the Florida Keys. While Key Largo in the
twentieth century has prospered from the tourist trade, its agricultural
output always has been negligible. Perhaps Chazotte was concerned not
so much with finding agricultural land, though, as with finding a port
remote from the prying eyes of international officialdom. Such a
location could provide an ideal site as the base camp of a filibustering
expedition. Circumstantial evidence of such an intention poses intrigu-
ing questions.
As mentioned, a substantial segment of Philadelphia's French com-
munity was composed in 1821 of businessmen and planters from Saint-
Domingue and, after 1815, from the French Empire. Likely they would
have welcomed any opportunity to reclaim their lost businesses and
estates or to gain new ones. Many of them, including Chazotte, also had
military experience in Saint-Domingue or else in the Napoleonic
At the same time, Haitian affairs had reached a particularly turbu-
lent point. On August 15, 1820, Port au Prince had burned, resulting in
damages valued in the millions. The same month, Christophe was
stricken by paralysis and, while he was invalided, revolt broke out on
the island. By October 8, he was a suicide.77 The following year a Creole
uprising on the eastern side of Hispaniola overturned Spanish authority,


and soon thereafter the former colony succumbed to a Haitian inva-
sion.7 Also, the Bourbon king of France had offered in February 1821
to negotiate French acceptance of Haitian independence, but that
troubling question and the related issue of indemnities remained for the
time unsettled.79
A final factor, the designs of Joseph Bonaparte, must be added to the
equation. Soon after his arrival in the United States, the former king of
Spain had begun to entertain guests who proposed to make the exile
"king of the Indies," beginning with the overthrow of the viceroy of
Mexico. One of the plans was rumored to involve a Philadelphia-
organized "Society for the Cultivation of the Vine and Olive," which
had secured a Congressional grant of land on Alabama's Tombigbee
River. Bonaparte officially distanced himself from the proposals, but
British and Spanish ambassadors argued that a"Napoleonic Confedera-
tion" had been born. President Monroe and Secretary of State Adams
were concerned to the extent of having agents investigate the matter,
though the president eventually determined Joseph to be innocent in the
affair. However, Bonaparte's continued association with proponents of
schemes for his return to power suggests, at the least, an interest on his
part in the possibility of a new throne.80
Given these facts, an interesting scenario can be sketched. Perhaps
Bonaparte was more amenable to becoming "king of the Indies" than
Monroe and Adams had believed. Once the Mexican venture had
dissolved in fiasco, he and his backers may have turned to the possibility
of assuming power in Haiti. The island was in turmoil, and they may
have believed that a Bonapartist restoration would have been wel-
comed; Joseph, after all, had been king of the eastern end of the island
only a few years before. Coincidentally, the French exile community
in Philadelphia was enduring economic hardship and might welcome
the opportunity of relief through a Haitian coup. Finally, the purchase
of Florida by the United States offered possibilities for a strategically
located base camp for an expedition, and the experience of the Society
for the Cultivation of the Vine and Olives offered possibilities for how
the land might be obtained through an act of Congress. Once secure in
power on the island of Hispaniola, Bonaparte could have extended his
realm to other French and Spanish possessions in the Caribbean,
making Joseph a true "king of the Indies."
Mere suspicion of such a plan-raised by individuals such as
William H. Simmons whose interests lay in development of other areas
of the Florida peninsula--understandably could have resulted in a con-

gressional demand for some form of guarantee that the property at Key
Largo would be used-and used quickly-for coffee cultivation. The
committee on the public lands, in fact, made such a demand. Even when
the guarantee was made, doubts may have lingered and, in the end,
determined the fate of the East Florida Coffee Land Association.
From whatever cause, the plans of Peter Stephen Chazotte and the
East Florida Coffee Land Association died on March 26, 1822. In an
effort to recoup some of his losses, Chazotte attempted to publish on a
subscription basis his journal of the expedition, which was to be
accompanied by 11 maps of various areas of South Florida. "This
interesting Journal," he advertised, "is descriptive, and coveys correct
information of the various soils and natural productions of that country;
it points out the places, rivers, islands, and bays, where, or on the
boarder of which the land is rich, and communicates a knowledge of
those cultures and tropical staples and productions to which the soil is
best suited." The whole volume amounted to some 500 pages and was
offered to subscribers at the price of $8.00.81 Apparently the attempt
failed, and the journal was not published. No copy of the unique
historical document is known to exist.82
The experience of the East Florida Coffee Land Association shows
the presence in the United States during the Federal era of a substantial
community of French exiles and the involvement of members of that
community with matters having national implications. Further, it
suggests that, perhaps, some members of that community were willing
to undertake from United States soil actions that might have embroiled
the nation in international intrigue and controversy. Finally, it makes
clear that further research into these exile communities is merited and
that such research might well lead to a better understanding of important
forces at play in the early history of the United States.
While the goals of the association had implications for the nation,
they specifically impacted Florida. Assuming Peter Stephen Chazotte
intended to establish the coffee plantation he proposed, his plans for
South Florida and its keys were audacious. Improperly classified soils,
frosts, hurricanes, Indians, and pirates all could have doomed his
project Had such a large-scale investment been made in South Florida
in 1822 and succeeding years, however, Florida's pattern of develop-
ment could have been altered substantially. To a degree, investors' and
immigrants' attention would have been drawn-just as Horatio Dexter
feared-away from the northern reaches of the peninsula and to the
lower east coast. There, rather than along the upper east coast and the


St. Johns River valley, citrus and sugar cane production could have
thrived. Florida also would have had a mainland port-Jefferson-
ville-that opened directly onto the Caribbean and South America,
potentially drawing to the territory and state an affluence in commerce,
which was to be denied almost until the dawn of the twentieth century.
Even had coffee cultivation never commenced at Key Largo, Chazotte's
efforts still could have affected the economic growth of Florida through
publication of his journal. South Florida no longer would have been a
mystery, as for the most part it was presented in the works actually
published'. The door to development at least would have been cracked
open, but Chazotte was denied even that contribution. The loss was an
enduring one.


1. Catherine A. Herbert, "The French Element in Pennsylvania in
the 1790s: The Francophone Immigrants' Impact," Pennsylvania
Magazine of History and Biography 108 (October 1984), 451.
2. Ibid., 455; J. Thomas Scharf and Thompson Westcott, History
ofPhiladelphia, 1609-1884,3 vols. (Philadelphia: L. H. Everts & Co.,
1884), I, 470, II, 1467; Owen Connelly, The Gentle Bonaparte: A
Biography of Joseph Napoleon's Elder Brother (New York: Macmil-
lan Co., 1968), 246-76.
3. Herbert, "The FrenchElement in Pennsylvania," 455n; Connelly,
The Gentle Bonaparte, 255-59.
4. Charlton W. Tebeau, A History of Florida (Coral Gables: Uni-
versity of Miami Press, 1971), 114-15.
5. Quoted in George E. Buker, "The Americanization of St.
Augustine 1821-1865," in Jean Parker Waterbury, ed., The Oldest City:
St. Augustine, Saga of Survival (St. Augustine: St. Augustine Histori-
cal Society, 1983), 151.
6. Manuscript returns of the Fifth U. S. Census, 1830, Brooklyn,
New York, schedule I (population).
7. Peter Stephen Chazotte, Facts and Observations on the Culture
of Vines Olives, Capers, Almonds, &c. in the Southern States, and of
Coffee, Cocoa, andCochineal in EastFlorida (Philadelphia: J Maxwell,
1821), title page; Chazotte, Historical Sketches of the Revolutions, and
Foreign and Civil Wars in the Island of St. Domingo with a Narrative
of the Entire Massacre of the White Population of the Island (New York:
Wm. Applegate, 1840), 16; Thomas 0. Ott, The Haitian Revolution
1789-1804 (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1973), 100-06.
8. Chazotte, Historical Sketches, 16.
9. Ibid., 3, 27-36.
10. Chazotte, Facts and Observations, 13.
11. Ibid., title page.
12. John Adams Paxton, The Philadelphia Directory and Register
for 1818 (Philadelphia: E & R. Parker, 1818), n.p.; Edward Whitely,
The Philadelphia Directory and Register for 1820 (Philadelphia:
M'Carey & Davis, 1820), n.p.; Peter Stephen Chazotte, A New System
of Banking, Developed and Exemplified in a New Scheme to Establish
a Merchants Bank of General Deposits (Philadelphia: Peter Stephen


Chazotte, 1815); Chazotte, An Essay on the Best Method of Teaching
Foreign Languages as Applied With Extraordinary Success to the
French Language (Philadelphia: E. Earle, 1817); Chazotte, An Intro-
ductory Lecture on the Metaphysics & Philosophy of Languages; Being
the 1st Number of a Philosophical & Practical Grammar of the English
& French Languages (Philadelphia: Peter Stephen Chazotte, 1819).
13. Lester Harris, "The Cession of Florida and John Quincy
Adams, Secretary of State, U. S. A., "Florida Historical Quarterly 36
(January 1958), 235.
14. Chazotte, Facts and Observations, 21-22.
15. Ibid., 18-19.
16. "Report of the Committee on the Public Lands on the Petition
of Peter S. Chazotte and others, in behalf of the American Coffee Land
Association," House Report No. 47, 17th Cong., 1st sess., 31 [the
documents contained in this report also may be found in American State
Papers, Public Lands, 7 vols. (Washington: Gales and Seaton, 1832-
1860), III, 518-30]; Annals of the Congress of the United States, 16th
Cong., 2d sess., 901. When Chazotte presented his proposal to the
Congress, he sought the support of Thomas Jefferson. "On a subject of
such national importance, and which may raise the United States to the
highest degree of power, riches and commerce, the opinion of your
Excellency will be received with perfect deference and respect," he
wrote the former president. Jefferson avoided making any commit-
ment, noting through his secretary, "[A]t the age of 77, he must leave
the attention to these things to those who are young enough to aid &
witness their success." Chazotte to Jefferson, January 15, 1821, and
unsigned reply, dated January 28, 1821, microcopy roll 52, Thomas
Jefferson Papers, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
17. Harris, "The Cession of Florida," 235.
18. Annals of the Congress of the United States, 16th Cong., 2d
sess., 1270-71.
19. "Report of the Committee on the Public Lands," 31.
20. Annals of the Congress of the United States, 16th Cong., 2d
sess., 1271.
21. "Report of the Committee on the Public Lands," 1.
22. See Herbert, "The French Element in Pennsylvania in the
23. Connelly, The Gentle Bonaparte, 250.
24. Francis James Dallett, "The French Benevolent Society of

Philadelphia and the Bicentennial: An Address to the Assemblge
Gendrale of the Society held at the Union League of Philadelphia
November 15, 1976" (typescript, 1976), available at American Philo-
sophical Society, Philadelphia; Scarf and Westcott, History of Philadel-
phia, 1, 1467-68.
25. Nathaniel Burt, The Perennial Philadelphians: The Anatomy of
an American Aristocracy (Boston, 1963), 273.
26. Agnes Repplier, Philadelphia: The Place and The People (New
York, 1925), 317-47.
27. The charter and a listing of the subscribers of the association are
found in "Report of the Committee on the Public Lands," 32-35.
28. The members of the committee of superintendence, other than
Gilder, were Henry Manly, William Davis, Thomas T. Stiles, Thomas
Matlack, and Jacob Mayland. "Report of the Committee on the Public
Lands," 34-35; James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., Appletons'
Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York: D. Appleton and
Company, 1888), II, 648.
29. "Report of the Committee on the Public Lands," 31-32.
30. Ibid., 35; St. Augustine Florida Gazette, July 28, 1821.
31. Charleston Courier, November 2, 1821; St. Augustine Florida
Gazette, July 28, 1821.
32. Thomas Graham, The Awakening of St. Augustine: The Ander-
son Family and the Oldest City 1821-1924 (St. Augustine: St. Au-
gustine Historical Society, 1978), 11.
33. St. Augustine Florida Gazette, July 28, 1821.
34. "Report of the Committee on the Public Lands," 32.
35. St. Augustine Florida Gazette, July 28, 1821.
36. Chazotte to John R. Bell, August 18, 1821, Letters Received by
the Secretary of War, Registered Series, 1801-1860, record group 107,
microcopy M-221, roll 92 [B-95(15)], National Archives, Washington,
37. Chazotte's description of the Miami/Cape Florida vicinity and
of certain other aspects of the expedition quoted later in this essay is
taken from a letter written in March 1822 by a St. Augustine man to a
Boston newspaper. The letter draws a portion of its text from Chazotte's
report. The reference to 300-feet elevation was a mistake which later
served as a basis for criticism of Chazotte's findings. Boston Patriot
and Daily Merchantile Advertiser, March 8, 1822.
38. Chazotte to Bell, August 18, 1821.
39. Ibid.


40. "Report of the Committee on the Public Lands," 4.
41. Boston Patriot and Daily Merchantile Advertiser, March 8,
42. Ibid.; Charleston City Gazette and Commercial Advertiser
quoted in the Philadelphia National Gazette and Literary Register,
December 3, 1821. See also Canter Brown, Jr., "The 'Sarrazota, or
Runaway Negro Plantations': Tampa Bay's First Black Community,
1812-1821," Tampa Bay History 12 (Fall/Winter 1990), 5-19.
43. Boston Patriot and Daily Merchantile Advertiser, March 8,
44. Washington Gazette, April 27, 1822.
45. One entrance to Tampa Bay was named Boca Grande, and two
keys at its entrance were called Castor and Pollux. Washington Gazette,
March 7, 1822.
46. Ibid. Chazotte apparently confused the Manatee with the Little
Manatee River. There are no falls on the former, while there are on the
upper reaches of the latter. Dewey A. Dye, Jr., to the author, June 29,
1990, collection of the author.
47. Boston Patriot and Daily Merchantile Advertiser, March 8,
48. "Report of the Committee on the Public Lands," 4. Presum ably,
the Crawford River was named in honor of Secretary of the Treasury
William H. Crawford.
49. Washington Gazette, March 7, 1822.
50. Charleston Courier, November 2, 1821.
51. St. Augustine Florida Gazette, November 24, 1821.
52. Charleston Courier, November 2, 1821.
53. Ibid., November 3, 1821.
54. The three men collected from the open boat were John Romaro,
John Miguel, and Raymond Crespo. The Hiram's skipper was Captain
White, a man "well-known on the Southern coast as a notorious
character, under the title of Captain Bob." Charleston Courier, Novem-
ber 3, 1821; Philadelphia National Gazette and Literary Register,
November 10, 1821. References to James William Lee in 1819 may be
found in Harry A. Kersey, Jr., "The Seminole Negroes of Andros Island
Revisited: Some New Pieces to an Old Puzzle," Florida Anthropologist
34(December 1981), 169-76.
55. Charleston Courier, November 3, 1821.
56. Philadelphia National Gazette and Literary Register, Novem-
ber 10, 1821.

57. Charleston Courier, November 3, 1821; Philadelphia National
Gazette and Literary Register, November 19, 1821.
58. Philadelphia National Gazette and Literary Register, Novem-
ber 8, 1821.
59. St. Augustine Florida Gazette, November 24, 1821.
60. Nathaniel Ware to Dr. Samuel Brown, December 30, 1821,
Samuel Brown Family Papers, Filson Club Library, Louisville, KY.
61. Reif s Philadelphia Gazette, and Daily Advertiser, December
24, 1821.
62. "Report of the Committee on the Public Lands," 3-5.
63. Ibid., 5-9.
64. Ibid., 9.
65. Interestingly, the report of the Committee on the Public Lands
refers to the East Florida Coffee Land Association as the American
Coffee Land Association. Whether this change represented a public-
relations tactic on the part of the association or a mistake by the
committee is unknown to the author. Ibid., 1-3.
66. Annals of the Congress of the United States, 17th Congress, 1st
sess., 1104.
67. Ibid., 1370.
68. Mark F. Boyd, "Horatio S. Dexter and Events Leading to the
Treaty of Moultrie Creek With the Seminole Indians," Florida Anthro-
pologist 11 (September 1958), 94.
69. Buker, 'The Americanization of St. Augustine," 151; Boston
Patriot and Daily Merchantile Advertiser, March 8, 1822. The identi-
fication of the Boston Patriot's St. Augustine correspondent as Charles
Vignoles was made by Jean P. Waterbury and John Griffin. Compare,
for example, the language contained in the letter appearing August 20,
1822, with the similar language contained in Vignoles's Observations
Upon theFloridas (New York: E. Bliss & E. White, 1823), 135-36. Jean
P. Waterbury to author, November 2, 1986, collection of the author;
Boston Patriot and Daily Merchantile Advertiser, August 20, 1822.
Horatio Dexter at the time was associated with Moses Levy and others
in the development of the Arredondo Grant, which principally was
located in modem Alachua County. Caroline B. Watkins, The Story of
Historic Micanopy (Gainesville, 1976), 26-36.
70. Clarence Edwin Carter, ed., The Territorial Papers of the
United States, 28 vols. (Washington, D.C: Government Printing Office,
1934-1969), Florida Territory, XXII, 640, 913.
71. Tebeau, History of Florida, 135.


72. See, for example, Boston PatriotandDaily MerchantileAdver-
tiser, February 9, March 8, and August 20, 1822.
73. Ibid., March 8, 1822.
74. [William H. Simmons], Notices of East Florida,With an
Account of the Seminole Nation of Indians (Charleston: A. E. Biller,
1822), iii, 25.
75. William G. D. Worthington to John Quincy Adams in Carter,
Territorial Papers of the United States, Florida Territory, XXII, 381-
76. Chazotte, Historical Sketches, 27-34; Connelly, The Gentle
Bonaparte, 255-58.
77. J. Brown, The History and Present Condition of St. Domingo,
2 vols. (Philadelphia: William Marshall and Co., 1837; reprint ed.,
London: Frank Class & Co., 1971), II, 238-40.
78. Ibid., 248-49; Robert I. Rotberg, Haiti: The Politics of Squalor
(Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1971), 65-66.
79. Brown, History, 250-51.
80. Connelly, The Gentle Bonaparte, 255-59.
81. Washington Gazette, April 27, 1822.
82. Prior to 1830, Chazotte and his family moved from Philadel-
phia to Brooklyn, New York. Ten years later he published there an
account of his experiences in Saint-Domingue entitled, Historical
Sketches of the Revolutions and the Foreign and Civil Wars in the Island
of St. Domingo With a Narrative of the Entire Massacre of the White
Population of the Island. At the time, he was living across the Hudson
River in Jersey City, New Jersey. In 1850 his widow, Adelaide,
remained there. Manuscript returns of the Fifth U. S. Census, 1830,
Brooklyn, New York, schedule I (population), the Sixth U. S. Census,
1840, Hudson County, New Jersey, schedule I (population), and the
Seventh U. S. Census, 1850, Hudson County, New Jersey, schedule I
(population); Chazotte, Historical Sketches, title page.

The author expresses appreciation for assistance and encouragement to
Dr. Bertram Wyatt-Brown, Department of History, University of Flor-
ida, and to Roy E. Goodman, American Philosophical Society, Phila-

Pioneer Cemetery

by Josephine Johnson

What was known as Pinder Cemetery' in Islamorada, Florida, is se-
questered among Bahamian-style villas, now part of Cheeca Lodge
resort at mile marker 82, a run of exquisite coastline traditionally visited
by presidents. Cheeca Lodge's own small history is important to this
study because the land on which it is built once belonged to pioneer
Conch settlers. In fact, it was in December, 1880, that Richard Pinder
paid a balance of $3.27 required by law for his beachfront property.
Pinder had arrived first in Key West from Green Turtle Key in the
Bahamas in the 1850s. Before coming to Islamorada he stopped at
Indian Key and, with his two sons Adolphus and Cephas, helped to
construct Alligator Reef Lighthouse. By April 26, 1883, Richard Pin-
der had homesteaded 130 acres and by 1890, had planted the land with
limes, pineapples and tomatoes.
In 1883, when President Chester A. Arthur deeded him his land "To
Have and To Hold... unto the said Richard Pinder and to his heirs and
assigns forever," (because of a default in the payment of taxes by his
descendants in 1932) Pinder would have thought it improbable that the
land would someday belong to Florida developer Hugh M. Matheson.
The 1862 Homestead Act exempted homesteads from attachment for

Josephine Johnson, Ph.D. is professor of speech communications at the
University of Miami and was instrumental in saving the Pioneer


Cephas Pinder acquired another 148.46/100 acres for $3.72 in
January 1883, after filing on November 19, 1880. Through the first
decade of the next century, legal documents bear witness to family
disputes regarding title and division of land to heirs.
A Warranty Deed filed June 27, 1917, shows R.W. Carter, a single
man of Lawrence, Kansas, conveying Pinder heirs' family land to the
Biscayne Company, whose President was William J. Matheson. In
September, 1925, Matheson conveyed it to his son, Hugh M. Matheson.
Various Quit Claim Deeds from Pinder descendants occurred through-
out 1933. Most important is a Quit Claim Deed dated April 11, 1914,
and filed on April 23, between R.W. Carter and Preston B. Pinder,
Jerome B. Pinder, and William H. Parker, as Trustees of the Matecumbe
Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Carter conveyed part of Lot 2,
Section 32, T. 63, S.R. 37E. "Intrust, that all said premises shall be used,
kept, maintained, and disposed of as a place of divine worship for the
use of the ministry and membership of the Methodist Episcopal Church,
South. . Said lot having on it the present church building and burial
Vick's Chemical Company, owned by two Richardson families,
purchased the acres surrounding the graveyard and its church from
Hugh Matheson in 1937 and erected a two and one half-story building
there. On the advice of Bernard Russell, caretaker, Leslie M. Stratton
bought the land after World War II. In 1946, ClaraMay Downey, owner
of the fashionable Olney Inn in Olney, Maryland, became the owner of
the Richardson building and purchased an additional 14 acres from
Stratton to build the Olney Inn of Islamorada. Carl and Cynthia
Twitchell, heirs to the A and P grocery chain, bought it and named it
Cheeca. Following this tenure, Herb Fischbach of Simplicity Patterns
became the inn-keeper before selling to George F. Allen who was in
partnership with Carl Navarre, a Chicago Coca-Cola bottler.5 A letter
from Allen written on December 10, 1987, brought attention to the then
named Pinder cemetery.

When I purchased Cheeca Lodge it was closed and I had to
reopen it. I went to the family whose ancestors are buried in
the cemetery because my bank did not like the idea of having
a cemetery along the beach of a luxury resort. I met with the
gentleman who managed People's [Public] Gas adjacent to
Cheeca Lodge [Franklin (Dick) Parker], and he told me the
story of... the 1935 hurricane. The family had a two story
wood frame house in Islamorada, and when the wind became

very strong his mother and father tied all eight [10] children
to a brass [iron] bed on the second floor of the house. The
windhit the house and the second floor was blown loose
and into the gulf like a raft, and the children were saved.
Their mother and father were drowned and buried along the
beach [they are buried in the cemetery but did not die in the
hurricane]. I immediately forgot about plans to close the
cemetery ... it is an important part of local history and folk-

(Pioneer descendant Dick Parker had told his story to Allen with
slight hyperbole in order to make certain that the remains of his
ancestors, unlike the Indians, would not one day be removed to make
way for yet another building site.)7
Completing the record of what is now known as Cheeca Lodge
includes the fact that Carl Navarre became sole owner in 1977 before
selling latterly to the Chicago Coastal Hotel Group. Mrs. Navarre, after
her husband's death, is presently associated with this organization, that
has owned Cheeca since 1988.8
It is within this context that land rights had to be assessed9 and
relationships built. Resort owners, pioneer descendants and local
supporters would all need to agree that the old graveyard should be
saved and acknowledged as a historical site.
The Russell family, to which Bernard Russell belongs, pioneered
before the Pinders. Richard H. Russell arrived from the Bahamas in
1837 or 1838 to begin his new life in Key Vaca (Marathon) where he
lived until coming to Upper Matecumbe (Islamorada) in 1854.10 Russell
requested his land grant in 1882 but died before it was granted to his wife
Mary Ann on March 14,1883. Mary Ann Russell homesteaded her 163
acres with sons John Henry and James. Third in a triumverate of
original Conch families was William H. Parker (ancestor to Dick
Parker): who homesteaded about 1898.
All three pioneer families were Methodists:" all of the men served
as lay preachers. Their hard lives included clearing the land "inch by
inch," (an important reminder from Bernard Russell) farming, fishing
and building homes for their large progeny. Their descendants became
first post-master,12 first police chief, first filling-station owner, the first
to establish a marine dock, a restaurant, and a chicken farm. They, like
their parents and grandparents before them, fought the heat in a tropical
jungle plagued by mosquitoes in order to plant the land and to fish while
protecting the bounty of the ocean.


Work and play were intermingled in an exchange of labor with
whomever required assistance to build a homestead. There are stories
about "mud-throwing" being a good children's game and recollections
of someone playing a harmonica and beating a small drum.13 When ill
(a lack of medical attention often delivered victims to too young a
death), "you tended yourself... used kerosene for a bad nail and beat
your foot with a board."'4 Aloe, and later on, condensed milk were used
for dangerous bums. "Terrible" Dick Parker remembers that for a
prophylactic, the "black draught cleaned you out once a year.""'
What these sturdy pioneers wished for and lacked above all else in
the 1800s was a house of worship to express their faith and gratitude for
hard new lives, and the gifts of abundant nature and much goodness of
family (they were advised by elders to marry among their own settlers).
Richard Pinder organized a Sunday school around 1891 and in 1894
oversaw the building of a frame church north of what became Pinder
graveyard. The wood church was a convenient sail for the Russells who
lived at the "East End" of the key, and for the Pinders who occupied the
center of the island. Later on, it also served the Parkers who home-
steaded the "West End." In 1959, Joseph Pinder attempted to preserve
the oral history of these beginnings in a written document about the
church. His recollections are handed down from his father, Preston
Brooks Pinder, who was Richard Pinder's grandson.

Preston Pinder, my father, took over the responsibility of that
church in [1897] and he preached and kept this little church
going for about twenty years. He was Superintendent of the
Church School for fifty-five years. He worked under many
difficulties but never one time did he become discouraged.
He always tithed and when I was a boy if he earned six
hundred dollars per year he had a good year. He raised a
family of six children. ... But good years or bad years he put
ten cents of ever dollar he earned into the church fund.'"

(In the year this was written, Preston FPinder's six children lived to beget
himl2 grandchildren, 23 great-grandchildren and one great-great-
Removal of the church from its original site to where, until 1935, it
stood close to the graveyard, occurred around the turn of, or slightly
later into the new century. Pioneer descendants say that the church was
set upon two large rafts and brought up to the present Cheeca Lodge site
during a flood tide.17 As time progressed, members of the three pioneer

families served as Sunday school teachers and lay preachers. (Visiting
pastors to the church are partially listed in Appendix II.)

.* .. .. ..

Original frame church built in 1894 and brought from farther north up
the coast on a raft to its position next to PioneerCemetery. It was destroyed
in 1935 except for the church bell discovered 11 miles away on Rabbit Key.
Reprint courtesy of Dick Parker.

The legal document of April 11, 1914 (referred to on page 28),
shows that a tract of land was deeded to Preston B. Pinder, K. Jerome
B. Pinder and William H. Parker, as Trustees of the Matecumbe
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, for school purposes, adjoining
said church lot on the east." A wooden structure, however, once stood
in this position after 1900. After 1914, a coral-rock schoolhouse served
the key until its destruction with the church during the 1935 hurricane.
In 1925, documents record that the schoolhouse, the church site and the
graveyard were part of the property that suffered a default in taxes. It
was also the year that Hugh Matheson bequeathed the property back to
the church in perpetuity. The land size of the bequest changed consid-
erably, it must appear, when the church and the school house were
rebuilt after 1935 on land between the old U.S. 1. and the new Overseas
Highway (that replaced Henry Flagler's Florida East Coast Railway).


Burial for the pioneer families had been simple enough from the
time the church came to rest at its Cheeca site. Wooden coffins were
sometimes set in the sand without an identifying marker or headstone.
Often when a pipe was inserted to test the sand "right to a six-foot depth"
for a new grave, Bernard Russell remembers, it went through rotted
wood, once an enclosure for a now-unremembered corpse. Bernard
Russell, once a skipper for the Vick's schooner, grave-digger and
caretaker, and Dick Parker both admit there must be well over a third of
the cemetery's buried who no one will ever be able to recall. Early
records were not kept and church journals that might have noted dates
of birth and death (Elders were admittedly less than precise in their
journal keeping), were destroyed in the storm of '35. Family papers,
Bibles and prayer books that could have given evidence, were lost as
well. Pioneers sometimes went south to Key West to give birth, if the
wind was quick enough. But the fire that swept that city in the late 1800s
eliminated records too. Therefore at the onset of this inquiry, the names
of only 11 Conch burials in Pinder graveyard were known.
Tucked away as it is, Conch descendants seldom ventured into
Cheeca Lodge to visit (right-of-way to the resort on the west perimeter
of the property was agreed upon by Cheeca owners for church access to
the graveyard), or to bring flowers to their dead. Nor might a casual
tourist have noticed the few headstones or edges of unmarked concrete
crypts; nor ever know how that poetic place symbolizes the great faith
and determination of spirit of those buried there. It may be fitting that
Preston Pinder (1875-1963) was the last to be buried in the sand. After
1963, prompted by the ravages of hurricane "Donna" in 1960, church
Elders decided that further storm damage made burial impractical. (Or
that suasion from various resort owners had convinced the church that
further burials might cause pressure to relinquish the land.) The most
photographed gravesite is of the marble angel that adorns the grave of
Jerome (Brammy) Pinder's daughter, Etta Delores,8 on which is writ-

This lovely but so young so fair
Called hence to early doom
Just called to show how sweet a flower
In Paradise would bloom

Fifteen year-old Etta Delores Pinder died of acute appendicitis (or a
"brain tumor," says another) because there were no doctors or medical

Angel before 1935 hurricane. Photo courtesy of Etta Sweeting.
facilities on the key. Other remaining headstones bear witness to "Our
Daddy," Edney B. Parker 1887-1961, and "Our Mama," Edna M.
Parker 1893-1960 (parents of Dick Parker). Edna was Mrs. Bernard
Russell's (nde Pinder) father's sister and daughter of (Adolphus) Dol-
phus Pinder. Edney Parker is credited with assisting the government to


capture smugglers, in contrast to his own father's habits of being a
Mae McManus 1883-1960, lies in the graveyard too because, Ber-
nard Russell says, she was the "mother of a daughter who married an old
Conch." Jerome (Brammy) Pinder set three more concrete crypts in the
sand near his daughter Etta Delores. One is surely for his first wife Ella:
the second for his second wife Mamie, who was trapped for eight hours
during the hurricane of '35. She was found alive but buried by October
of that year. Family say that a third unmarked crypt was prepared by
Brammy for his third wife, but she was buried in Homestead. (A
complete list of known burials appears in Appendix 1.)
By June, 1933, there were 92 pioneer family members belonging to
the Matecumbe Methodist Church. When the Florida Methodist
Annual Conference met in June 1935, it noted an increase of member-
ship to 112. But in 1936, thenumber was only 49 because on Labor Day,
September 2, 1935, a hurricane hit the key with winds estimated
between 200 to 250 miles an hour destroying Matecumbe with an 18 ft.
tidal wave." Clocks stopped ticking at 8:23 p.m., the barometer
measured the lowest ever recorded in the western hemisphere (there
were readings of 26.36 or 27.35 inches) and "life was lived by the
barometer," Russell remembers. The Russell family house blew apart
in the falling pressure and Edna and Edney Parker's children did indeed
lie strapped to a mattress when it floated like a raft on water that covered
the entire key from bay to ocean. A cousin of Bernard Russell was
washed 40 miles away to the mainland where she miraculously crawled
onto the sand with her baby, only to later die from overexposure. In all,
the Russell family lost more than 50 of its clan.20
Marjorie Stoneman Douglas movingly described the terror of that
hurricane in a fictionalized story, "September-Remember."21

The racing waves caught them high above their waists. They
clung to one another, a small mass of human life, leaning,
groping, stumbling for a foothold on the uncertain earth. Water,
rain or sea, choked them, smashed at them, dragged them down,
battered at their breathless bodies.

But it was far worse than that. All personal and business properties were
totally destroyed with the massive loss of life. The pioneer church and
coral-rock schoolhouse were not spared either, although the church bell
was later discovered high and dry 11 miles away on Rabbit Key.

The minister and his wife who lived in the parsonage on Pinder Street22
were killed and the corporation executives who lived in extravagant,
oceanfront properties met the same fate." Florida East Coast railway
tracks, looked like "twisted pretzel," Russell remembers. The surviving
"Bonus March" veterans from the First World War who were among a
group of 68424 in WPA camps (one on Windley Key and two on Lower
Matecumbe) working on new bridges for the present highway. They
later said that they had seen nothing in Europe to compare with the sight
and smell of nature's carnage in Islamorada.
There was little refrigeration and no burial facilities (kerosene
lamps were used before electricity was generally available to the key in
the 1940s) so that decaying corpses, estimated upwards to 1000 deaths"2'
were identified, if possible, before mass cremations. Funeral pyres
could be seen belching black smoke all over Matecumbe and in the
surrounding lesser islands following that drear September 2nd. The
Veterans Storm Relief, under the auspicies of Lt. Commander William
H. Green, attempted to record the dead on a government map identify-
ing cremation or burial sites. On that map, only 164 civilians could be
recognized for identification, but over five decades later, remains are
still found under rubble or in the undergrowth. Whether pioneer
descendants or veterans, ashes are now placed in a communal burial
crypt, constructed in 1937, where an opening was left for adding
additional ashes. The crypt was built beneath an Art-Deco concrete
relief, possibly the work of an artist working for the Works Progress
Administration of the "New Deal,"'26 who has visually reconstructed the
storm-blown palms and churning waves. Dedicated on November 14,
1937,27 the commemoration reads "To The Memory of The Civilians
and War Veterans Whose Lives Were Lost In The Hurricane of
September Second, 1935.""2
The hurricane of 1935 ravaged the Pinder cemetery (as it did again
in 1960). The angel guarding Etta Delores Pinder was uprooted and
blown to the old highway; lesser headstones completely disappeared,
and lovingly cared-for landscaping was torn from the sand.
Over a period of 15 months, Bernard Russell, Franklin Parker, and
information from the government map, led me to the identification of
28 known burials in the old Pinder graveyard. Among the newly
identified are Kasper Sweeting (the Sweetings married Parkers), whose
father, Norman Sweeting, died in his automobile during the 1935
hurricane and was cremated and buried on Barnes Key. "Little Baby
Dennis" (now remembered by Bernard Russell, and so is "Little Baby


Delaisse"), whose mother gave birth to him during hurricane "Donna,"
lived only for a day. Frank H. Lowe, two-years-old, was cremated after
the storm of '35 and his ashes, according to the government map, were
placed in Pinder cemetery, probably alongside Mrs. Jerome B. Pinder
when she was buried in October. There are more Pinders and Parkers
identified and a Brycie Fine-an old fisherman from Key West without
family who received a charity burial, Bernard Russell says, before 1935.
Evelyn Faye T. Woods, wife of Conch Robert Woods, also shares the
Pinder family burial ground.2" Bemard Russell had to persuade Mr.
Woods to part with his wife's headstone, which he kept in his house, and
place it on her grave.
Fortunately for this research, Bernard Russell is blessed with good
memory; moreover, he was a living witness to modem burials, for he
had dug many a grave. His mind's eye reconstructed names and
approximate positions of burial in the sand. Then he prepared a rough
drawing before placing new wood markers in the cemetery. These were
photographed before vandals uprooted the new markers. After this, a
decision was made to place one large domestic granite headstone in the
sand that would list only names of burials otherwise unidentified.30

III> j "- 1
Wooden markers re-established burial sites. Notice angel with
broken wing. Photo courtesy of Chris Pearson, Cheeca Lodge.

Additionally, it seemed imperative to also add a historical plaque."
Thus, on June 26, 1990, descendants of pioneers, contributors to the
project, Reverend Ray Honaker, present pastor to the First Methodist
Church of Matecumbe, initiator of the project, Josephine Johnson, and
representatives from the Historical Association of Southern Florida,
gathered on the white sand at Cheeca Lodge to commemorate what the
Russells, the Pinders and the Parkers now agreed should be called
Pioneer Cemetery. The narration on the plaque reads:

This cemetery memorializes the determination and vision of
over 50 pioneer Anglo-Bahamian Conchs who labored to settle
and organize the first community on Matecumbe Key. Descen-
dants of three pioneer families, the Russells who homesteaded
in 1854, the Pinders in 1873, and the Parkers in 1898, are buried
on this land. Deeded to Richard Pinder on January 20, 1883, by
President Chester A. Arthur, the land now is the property of
theMatecumbe United Methodist Church. North and adjacent
to the cemetery lay the first church on the key, built in 1884, and
transported to this site by raft ca. 1890. Next to it the first two-
room frame schoolhouse was built ca. 1900, and later replaced
by a coral-rock building. A raging hurricane struck Islamorada
on Labor Day in 1935, killing 50 members of the Russell family
alone. The storm also destroyed the church, the schoolhouse
and the "Millionaires'Row" of beachfront homes adjacent to
this property. The survivors' descendants rebuilt their homes,
a new church and a school west of this site and east of Henry
Flagler's Overseas Railway, now U.S. 1.

The plaque is "sponsored by Cheeca Lodge in cooperation with the
Historical Association of Southern Florida." (Note years 1884 and
1890 differ to years in narration due to lack of reconciliation.)
A white fence now sequesters the cemetery on four sides. New palm
trees, silver button-woods, and other species that can root in the sand
and find their way down to the ocean water to survive, have been
planted.32 Content that restoration is accomplished, Bernard Russell
can be seen many evenings looking out across the ocean after he has
raked the sand in the cemetery. He had always hoped to be buried next
to his father, John A. Russell. Bernard Russell is the only Russell
escaping the 1935 hurricane who is not buried in the Russell cemetery.
"There could be no more perfect resting place," he says quietly,
standing in that idyllic geography.



Dr. Josephine Johnson, center, with Mr. and Mrs. Bernard Russell nee
Pinder at the cemetery dedication in June, 1990. Photo courtesy of Pam


And often standing sentry nearby is a great white egret Cheeca
Lodge has named "Sam."" Not unlike W. B. Yeat's bird in his play
Calvary, the bird stands

Motionless under the moon beam,
Up to his feathers in the stream;
Although fish leap, the white heron
Shivers in a dumbfounded dream34

Perhaps, in Sam's case, the dream is of turtles coming from the sea
to lay their eggs under the old wooden church's pilings, and of pelicans
turned into guardians on every piece of flotsam that floated by from
some old galleon. But now in the midst of the "Sports Fishing Capital
of the World," tourists walking by Pioneer Cemetery learn something
of the ways and mores of another time.


Appendix 1

Pioneer Cemetery Burials

1. Betty- Jo Delaisse: b. March 31, 1962, d. April 1, 1962. Born on
stretcher during hurricane "Donna." Mr. Bernard Russell was present during
2. Willard Preston Dennis, Jr Still-born.
3. Brice (Brycie) Fine: b. Key West, d. ca. 1933. No family: a com-
mercial fisherman: lived in boat house: m. Jimmy Wood's aunt.
4. Johnson: d. before 1935. Young daughter ofRufus Johnson. Rufus
m. Mrs. Bernard Russell's father's sister Sally in 1920s. Sally came from old
Key West family. Sally is Dick Parker's mother's oldest sister. Rufus is
mentioned in The Key West Citizen (September 7, 1935): 1.
5. Frank H. Lowe: 2 years old: cremated at Matecumbe #10 (data
taken from government map): ashes probably buried in Mamie Pinder's crypt
on October 10, 1935.
6. Mae McManus:1889-1963: cremated: mother of daughter who m.
"an old Conch."
7. Amy Parker b. May 20, 1916, d. March 28, 1958: wife of W. H.
Parker, Sr.
8. Edith Parker: sister to William Parker, Jr.: daughter of Milton
9. Edna M. Parker: 1893-1960: Dick Parker's mother: Mrs. Bernard
Russell's father's sister: nee Pinder: daughter of Dolphus (Adolphus) Pinder:
m. Edney Parker July 22, 1910.
10. Edney B. Parker: 1887-1961: Dick Parker's father: deputy sheriff:
assisted government in catching smugglers off the reefs.
11. William Henry Parker, Sr.: b. November 19, 1857: d. October 17,
1928: came from Eleutheria to Plantation Key in 1898: had eight children.
12. William Parker, Jr.: son of Milton Parker: d. before 1935.
13. William H. Parker: died in his teens: grandson to William Henry:
son of Milton Parker.
14. Alvin Pinder: b. Key West: native of Islamorada: son of Dolphus
Pinder and Elizabeth Russell: grandson of Richard Pinder: m. Lenora, first
wife: brother of Mrs. Bernard Russell's father.
15. Benjamin Lee Pinder: 1878-1940: Dick Parker's uncle: brother
of Mrs. Bernard Russell's father: brother of Jerome (Brammy) Pinder brother
of Dick Parker's mother Edna.

16. Catherine Russell Pinder: 1881-1938: Mrs. Bernard Russell's
mother (not an Islamorada Russell).
17. Ella Pinder: nde Cash: second wife of Alvin Pinder: buried with
Alvin Pinder.
18. Etta Delores Pinder: July 15, 1899-February 21, 1914: Jerome
(Brammy)Pinder's daughter: Etta Sweeting's mother's brother's child. (Etta
Sweeting is sister of Dick Parker).
19. Ella Pinder: first wife of Jerome (Brammy) Pinder.
20. Ida Pinder: d. 1932 or 1933: Mrs. Bernard Russell's brother's wife.
21. Mrs. Jerome Pinder (Mamie): buried October 10, 1935 (according
to government map): second wife of Brammy Pinder. lived for eight hours
trapped in hurricane debris. (Brammy Pinder prepared a third crypt for third
wife Lorina, an Albury. Lorina is buried in Homestead.)
22. Marion Yulee Pinder: 1881-1960: from Key West: nde Albury:
family to Booths in Homestead.
23. Preston Brooks Pinder: 1878-1963: b. Key West: son of Dolphus
(Adolphus) Pinder and Elizabeth Russell: grandson of Richard Pinder: Mrs.
Bernard Russell's father: Dick Parker's mother's brother: brother of Jerome
(Brammy) Pinder: m. Catherine (Jenny) Russell from Umbrella (Windley) Key
in 1895: last to be buried in Pinder graveyard.
24. Edward Roberts: d. January 18, 1931: "crippled:" brother of
Reggie Roberts. Family lives behind police station on Windley Key. Mrs.
Roberts lives with son Charles Roberts, a cook at the hospital, and son Jack, a
fishing guide.
25. John A. Russell: 1852-1919; son of John Henry Russell: grandson
of Richard H. Russell who arrived at Key Vaca(s) in 1838 and at Upper Mate-
cumbe in 1854: father of Bernard Russell.
26. Reggie Roberts.
27. Kasper Sweeting: son of Norman Sweeting who was buried at
Barnes Key in 1935. Family of Kasper moved to Coconut Grove and Kasper's
body was removed from Pinder graveyard at some later date.
28. Evelyn Faye T. Woods: wife of conch Robert Woods. Mrs. Woods
choked to death. Husband still survives in Islamorada. Mr. Woods kept
headstone in house until Bernard Russell persuaded him to place it on grave.

Asterisks are beside names identified during research. Not all dates and
histories are complete.


Appendix 2

Church Pastors

List of names provided by Joseph Bertram Pinder in 1959. He was unable to
recall Christian names or dates of visiting services. See Beare, 49 for pastors
between 1935-1961.

Rev. K. Hollester
Rev. E. L. Lee
Rev. D. Cook
Rev. W.E. Dennis
Rev. O.C. Howell
Rev. Jack Hagler
Rev. W. Swagert
Rev. Willard Parker
Rev. Morelock
Rev. Jones
Rev. Lane

Rev. John Watkins
Rev. Jack Weisinger
Rev. Bommemm
Rev. K. Martin
Rev. Robins
Rev. Poiser
Rev. Floid Bowery
Rev. Nancy
Rev. Nelson
Rev. Larry Winebrenner


1. This is the name of the cemetery recorded on a government map
prepared in 1935 to record the deaths, missing, and injured after the 1935
hurricane at Islamorada. Franklin (Dick) Parker, son of EdnaandEdney Parker,
whose grandfather homesteaded in 1898 on the key, kindly made an original
copy of the map available during this research. It is reproduced in the official
government Hearings Florida Hurricane Disaster (H.R. 9486, March 26,
2. Legal document No.1 dated December 15, 1880, filed October 6, 1882
in Deed Book K, 693 reads "Lots Nos. 1 and 2 of Section 32, Township 64 South
of Range 37 East, containing 130.76/100 acres." DocumentNo. 3 dated July 21,
1880, filed November 19, 1880 for the amount of $3.72 is issued on behalf of
Cephas Pinder. It reads "LotNo.3 of section 32, Township 63 South, Range 37
East, and Lot No. 1 of Section 5 in Townsip 64 South, of Range 37 East,
containing 148.46/100 acres." Dick Parkerremoved copies of legal documents
from the safety deposit box of the Matecumbe Methodist Church for my
3. Charlton W. Tebeau, A History of Florida (Coral Gables, Florida:
University of Miami Press, 1971), 266. Homestead Act of 1866 "ended all cash
sales in five public land states of the South and reserved land for homesteaders
until January 1, 1867." Land office opened in Florida, August 1866. In October
1876, law was repealed.
4. R.W. Carter appears to have no particular significance to the history of
the land. For legal purposes he may simply have acted as a convenient
5. Christopher Pearson (with Pearson McGuire Associates, Coral Gables),
public relations director for Cheeca Lodge, was extraordinarily supportive
throughout the project. He, Bernard Russell, and Jeanne Hunter contributed to
this information. Pearson also arranged for my presentation to Cheeca Lodge
management, which resulted in their generous financial support for the historic
marker and for a ceremony and luncheon on June 26, 1990 to honor Conch
6. Pearson discovered letter in Cheeca Lodge files. Allen writes from the
firm of Adorno, Allen, Yoss and Goodkind, P.A., #3225 Aviation Avenue,
Miami. Edna and Edney Parker were also on the bed with their 10 children
(another was safe in Tavernier). Also on the bed were Eddie S weeting and his
brother Alton Sweeting. Eddie married Dick Parker's sister Etta.


7. Nikki Beare, Pirates, Pineapple & People (Miami: Hurricane House,
1961), 92.
8. Mrs. Priscilla (Dick) Parker clarified this last fact.
9. There are still questions concerning the whereabouts of a formal
document providing the church access.
10. Mrs. Bernard Russell (n6e Pinder) assisted me in sorting out geneal-
ogy. Key Vaca also referred to as Key Vacas in 1935.
11. Jean U. Guerry "The Matecumbe Methodist Church," Tequesta
(1970), 64-68.
12. -John Henry Russell set up the first post office June 1, 1908.
He was succeeded by son John A. Russell (d. 1954) and then by John Henry
Russell's brother Clifton in 1909. See Beare, 11, 55. Mrs. Bernard Russell adds
that John Henry Russell (d. November 22, 1919) married Rosalee Sawyer and
their children were Rosalee, John A., Richard H., Clifton J., H. Eugene, and
13. From a recorded interview with NormaJewett Adams Wilcott by Love
Dean on June 29, 1986. Jim Clipper, head librarian of Matecumbe Public
Library (once the schoolhouse after the 1935 hurricane destroyed thecoral-rock
building next to the old wooden church), discovered and transcribed the tapes.
14. Wilcott's great-great-great-grandfather traded meat with the Indians
for tobacco in 1800s. She alleges that when the old "Mr. Pinder got off the train
there was going to be a boat hit the reef." She refers to smugglers turning off
light at Alligator Lighthouse to encourage wrecks on the reefs.
15. The qualifier "terrible" is attributed to Parker for his humorous but
highly mischievous behavior in school-days.
16. There are two documents in Matecumber Methodist Church files. The
one not signed is obviously also the work of Joseph Bertram Pinder, Mrs.
Bernard Russell's brother. Richard Pinder died ca. 1896.
17. Also stated in Guerry who must have read the same documents.
18. Beare, 74; Wright Langley and Stan Windhorn, Yesterdays Florida
Keys(Miami Seamans, 1974), 59.
19. The New York Times (9 September 1935),10.
20. The exact number differs among newspaper reports as in "Only 11 of
79 in Florida Key Family Alive," New York Times (7 September 1935), 3.
Bernard Russell claims 50. The Congressional Hearings, 144, list 76 Russell
21. Kevin M. McCarthy, (ed.), Nine Florida Stories (Jacksonville, Fl.:
University of Florida Press, 1990), 161-180.
22. Irving Eister, local Islamorada historian, led me to the overgrown lot
on Pinder Street where there is still evidence of the old parsonage foundation.

In Special Warranty Deed#72754, official Record 156,p. 578, on June 1, 1959,
Clara May Downey "an unmarried woman" gave the Matecumbe Methodist
Church, Inc. for $1. "Lot One of Block or Square Four" to "be held, kept, and
maintained as a place of residence for the use and occupancy of the ministers
of the Methodist Church... "This is the site of the new parsonage.
23. "Millionaires Row" included the Matecumbe Club and millionaires
L.M. Stratton, J.P. Norfleet, Arm and Hammer Baking Soda owners,
Le Branch, Edward W. Scudder (Owner of New York Evening News), accord-
ing to Mrs. Bernard Russell.
24. Tebeau gives this number (404). There were, however, at least 696
men on the payroll as of August 31, 1935, cited in New York Times (14
September 1935), 13.
25. The Miami Herald,New York Times, Congressional Hearings, and the
government map offer different figures and are not conclusive.
26. The first New Deal agency in Florida was the Civilian Conservation
Corps in August 1933 (Tebeau, 402). In 1935 state legislature took first steps
for state welfare program awarding $1 m. for "skilled labor and material for
public works."
27. See photograph in Langley, 92. Ashes of 23 victims were interred
during ceremony, The Key West Citizen (17 November 1937), 1.
The memorial plaque, made by artists in the Works Projects Administra-
tion (WPA), was dedicated on November 11, 1937 with an invocation led by
First Matecumbe Methodist Church pastor, the Reverend J.Y. Yancy. He was
joined by representatives from the Protestant, Catholic and Jewish clergy.
Over three thousand visitors attended the memorial ceremony for victims
of the 1935 hurricane that devastated Islamorada. John A. Russell, Islamorada
post-master, whose family pioneered Matecumbe in 1854, laid a wreath in
memory of fifty of his family killed in the hurricane. Fay Marie Parker, a nine-
year old survivor and descendant of the third family to homestead in 1898,
unveiled the plaque. A WPA symphony orchestra played music for the
occasion. A message from President Franklin Delano Roosevelt read:

I join in the dedication of the monument to those who met death in the
awful visitations that swept the Florida Keys on Labor Day 1935. The
disaster which made desolate the hearts of many of our people brought
personal sorrow to me because some years ago Iknew many residents
of the Keys. I tender to all those whose hearts were torn by the loss of
loved ones an assurance of heartfelt sympathy.

Ashes of 23 victims, discovered after mass burials in funeral pyres in


September 1935, were interred in the monument crypt, where an opening
remains for victims still discovered.
Of the 699 World War I "Bonus Army" veterans working on local highway
bridges, 327 were reported dead, another 138 injured. Only 179 civilian dead
could be identified. Florida Governor David Sholz's office claimed "one
thousand" dead veterans and civilians.
28. A replica of the art work is reproduced in gold by Islamorada jeweler
Mark Meade. It may only be purchased and worn by conch descendants.
29. Mr. Woods is still living.
30. Names listed are: Willard Preston Dennis, Jr., IdaPinder, Edith Parker,
Kasper Sweeting, Brice Fine, Betty-Jo Delaisse, William Parker Jr., Alvin
Pinder, Johnson, Ella Pinder, William H. Parker, Ella Cash Pinder, Mamie
Pinder, Frank H. Lowe, Reggie Roberts. Mr. and Mrs. Dick Parker decided to
provide a separate headstone for William Henry Parker, Sr.: November 19,
1857-October 17, 1928. Appendix 1 lists fuller histories, a copy of which is to
be deposited with the Matecumbe Methodist Church. Donors' names listed on
the reverse of the memorial headstone are: Jeanne and Burt Hunter, First
National Bank, Citizens and Southern Bank, TIB Bank of the Keys, Priscilla
and Dick Parker, Pam and Dana Sheldon, Gateway Monument Company,
Stanley L. Harrison and Josephine Johnson. (Professor Harrison's enthusiasm
and support for the project is gratefully acknowledged )
31. Application to the state was not made for a marker because of their
essential requirements for the site to be made readily available to the public.
32. Bill Walsh, head groundsman at Cheeca Lodge was exceptionally
helpful. Note that in the Florida Key Keynotes 37, No. 38 (30 June 1990) date
of ceremony is in error. The date was June 26.
33. "Sam" is widely photographed. He posed recently for Upper Keys
Entertainment Guide (June, 1990), 7.
34. The Collected Plays of W.B. Yeats (New York: The MacMillan
Company: 1967), 288.

Pioneering in Suburbia

Part II
by Nixon Smiley

Our Pond the Living Thing

A pond is irresistible. In a garden it becomes a center of interest;
in a glade or swamp it is sure to draw your eyes. It is always a wildlife
center, where all kinds of living things congregate-things that swim or
slither, crawl or hop, walk or fly. Our pond on Montgomery Drive was
a haven for a variety of such creatures. Whenever we sat on the
breezeway of our house, at lunch time or in late afternoon, there usually
was something happening on or about the pond to draw our attention.
There was never a moment when the dark surface was completely quiet.
A pair of wood ducks might paddle about the pond at noon. At dusk the
wood ducks arrived in twos, fours or sixes, plunging out of the sky to
spend the night. During winter, a dozen or so lesser scaup ducks often
dropped in to raft on the quiet surface. Occasionally a flight of mallards
plopped in.
The pond was host to other kinds of birds besides ducks-
kingfishers, herons, egrets, even ospreys. A green heron considered the
pond its private domain, driving other green herons away. Grackles
came in flocks to feed along the grassy banks, searching for frogs,
snails, insects. Kingfishers came occasionally to feed, picking up
aquatic insects when they came up for air or catching minnows that
swam too close to the surface. A gray kingbird also fed on water insects,

This article is the second part of the late Nixon Smiley's memoirs.
Part I is in the 1990 edition of Tequesta.


watching from its perch among the willows for an opportunity to pick
up some hapless creature that surfaced at the wrong place and wrong
time. In the evening we often heard the raucous "kwawk" of a night
heron on its way to the pond where it fed until just before dawn. When
it left it "kwawked" its signal as it went to hide during the day with its
companions of the night, the owls and the chuck-will's-widows. Early
of a morning and late in the day the Carolina doves came in droves to
drink in the pond, particularly during the fall migratory season. From
time to time, a great blue heron, common egret or snowy egret dropped
in, staying for two or three days if the feeding proved good.
With a multitude of predators, you might think a small body of
water, 70 feet in diameter would soon be depleted of living things. But,
no. The water was kept in constant agitation by the multitude and
variety of life that inhabited the pond. Every season of the year the pond
was extraordinarily rich in animal life-aquatic insects, minnows,
small fish, snails, crawfish. Hoping to attract limpkins, I introduced the
large aquatic apple snail from the Everglades, but we were too remote
from the wilderness for limpkins, and so the snails became the food of
other things, particularly grackles and raccoons. The green heron may
have fed on the immature snails, for this ever-hungry creature seemed
non-selective in its food preferences, grabbing any living thing that it
could swallow.
If it were feeding as you approached the pond, it would take to the
air with raucous squawks, alighting on a branch of a tree where it
stretched its long neck to watch you warily. As you got within a few feet
of the bank, a leopard frog might take a long hop into the water, followed
by smaller spring frogs. Dragonflies and damselflies left their perches
atop shoreline weeds to dart about like miniature airplanes. A giant toad
(Bufo marinus) might plop awkwardly into the pond from its hiding
place and swim ungracefully underwater until it concealed itself be-
neath a patch of water weeds. Fish darted away, putting distance
between you and themselves, but the ever-hungry minnows schooled
about the surface near your feet, expecting that the activity might mean
food. The voracious gambusias were ready to consume anything that
fell prey to them, and nothing was too big for them to tackle.
Now, standing quietly and studying the pond, you began to see
another activity, that of the water-inhabiting insects. On the surface
were side-paddlers, palmetto bugs, ebony mellow bugs, swimming in
their endless circles, which gray water-striders propelled themselves
across the surface on pontoon-like feet. Dragonfly larvae made tiny

rings on the surface upon coming up to breathe. Countless surface rings
were created by insects too small to be seen by the human eye.
The dragonfly, is but one of many insects that spend the
immature part of their lives in the water. I constantly saw all kinds of
life in the pond that I did not recognize. Only a specialist, through
arduous collecting and study, could have identified everything that
lived there.
One afternoon, a pretty little girl with freckles came into our place
on a small bicycle, peddling with all the vigor and push that adults
sometimes put into the driving of Volkswagens. Stopping abruptly, she
dropped the bike on the lawn.
"Could I see the pond?" she asked a little breathlessly. "I'm in a
hurry," she added, apologetically. "I've got to get home."
Jena Lowry was no stranger. We frequently exchanged greetings
as she peddled to and from Pinecrest Elementary School. But our
acquaintance was like that which exists between many adults and
children-limited to knowing each other's faces and names. This wide-
eyed, confident child's spontaneous personality was irresistible, and
naturally I showed her the pond. Thus our friendship was immediately
established about a natural wonder, which is subject where adults and
children have a common fascination. Afterward we always had
something to talk about when we met, and I recall I would try to think
of something that had happened at the pond which would be of interest
to her. If Evelyn and I remember Jena Lowry more than we do any other
child who visited the pond, it is because she losther life in an automobile
accident in California that also took the life of younger sister, Denise.
When Karl and I began digging the pond in 1951, we had no idea
it would develop into a wildlife bonanza. Although we did stock the
pond with gambusia minnows to prevent the breeding of mosquitoes,
we made no studied effort to make it attractive to wildlife. The willows
were introduced accidentally when we collected some ferns and other
bog plants from Big Cypress Swamp to set along the pond's edge. When
willows grew from seeds brought in with the soil we did not remove
them, because it was our hope to make the pond look as if it had always
been a part of the natural landscape. For the same reason, we planted
cypress, red maple, laurel oak and cocoplums behind the far shore from
the house-to form a backdrop for the pond. We also planted royal
palms, as well as the native paurotis palm, a cluster-type palm found in
Big Cypress Swamp. We introduced several kinds of aquatic weeds,
particularly the native water lily. Meanwhile the willows grew tall,


making several slender trunks, then toppled into the pond. They did not
uproot; they simply fell gently, imperceptibly- until their tops dipped
into the water.
The addition of chara, an aquarium plant, quickly took over the
pond, growing so dense you wondered how the fish could swim through
it. Two dozen tilapias obtained from Herb Hiller, a writer, gradually
cleaned out the chara. The fish grew from the size of minnows to
fourteen inches eating the enormous amount of chara. Then one day I
saw a large bird half-submerged in the middle of the pond, struggling
and flapping its wings. At first I thought it was a pelican. But when the
bird lifted free of the water, carrying in its talons a tilapia more than a
foot in length, I could see it was an osprey. I was dismayed to see so
large a chara-consumer being carried away. After that we watched
closely for the fish hawk, clapping our hands to frighten it. The fish
sensed the danger and fled to cover beneath the willows.
While the tilapia were scared of the osprey, they were unafraid of
the wood ducks, which splashed in at a speed equal to that of the fish
hawk. How could the tilapia tell that much difference between these
birds, which they viewed from beneath? I do not know; but when it was
time for the osprey to arrive the tilapia could be found huddled beneath
the willows, safe from the eagle-like talons. Eventually the discouraged
osprey stopped coming.
With the pond now clear of chara, the wood ducks resumed their
spirited play when they arrived in the evening and when they left their
willow roosts early in the morning. They cavorted, chasing each other,
throwing silver spray as they cut across the surface at unbelievable
speed. The wood duck population was greatest in the fall, when the
migratory birds arrived. In summer we often had only one or two pairs
roosting among the willows.
One April our neighbor Dr. George Venis and his daughter arrived
with a surprise-a wood duck mother and her brood of nine chicks. The
ducks had walked into the screened patio of a friend of Venis. The friend
had shut them up, fearing the little ones would fall prey to cats. Venis
remembered our pond.
The baby ducks could have been no more than a few days old.
Where they had been hatched was a mystery, but they took to the pond
as thought was home. We fed them the kind of food recommended for
baby chicks, and they grew rapidly. A month later, the little ones were
nearly as large as their mother. Meanwhile a colorful drake took up with
the brood. The mother tolerated him interposing herself between the

drake and the food pan. On June 13, the young made their first attempt
at flight; and a week later, we were given a demonstration that we never
forgot. Late in the afternoon all the young ones were on shore with the
mother and three or four other visiting adults, searching for insects

Visiting mallards unashamedly accept a handout at suppertime.

among the grass. Suddenly one young duck took off and flew toward
the house. 'He made a circuit through the pines and returned to splash
into the pond. He was followed by another and another until several
young ducks had made the circuit. One duck had trouble hitting the
pond and flew on, circling wildly about the trees and palms behind the
pond before returning in a rather ungraceful splash. To see an adult
wood duck weaving through the pines at 30 miles an hour is a thrill; but
to see these immature ducks, without fully developed wing feathers,
threading through the pines, made us want to cheer. We felt almost like
proud parents. Surely we had had a part in their development by sup-
plying them with nutritious food. Soon the young ducks were going and
coming as they pleased. After another two or three weeks, we were
unable to distinguish them from adults.
In the early years while we were developing the pond, and before
Karl went off to college, we sought to introduce all the frogs native to
the Everglades. On several occasions we scooped up buckets of


Everglades pond water containing tadpoles and minnows and what else
we would never know and dumped them into the pond. We introduced
leopard frogs and spring frogs, while cricket frogs and "hammering
frogs" simply appeared. We were unable to catch bullfrogs.
"I don't think I could catch a bullfrog either," said Charlie
Brookfield, of the Audubon Society, "but I know somebody who can-
Glenn Simmons of Florida City."
One night a week later we lashed Brookfield's canoe atop a car,
picked up Simmons and drove to a drainage canal south of Florida City.
With a spotlight fitted on his head, Simmons sat in the bow as
Brookfield paddled from the stem. I sat in the middle, a burlap sack in
readiness. It wasn't long before a pair of glaring bullfrog eyes was
caught in the beam of Simmons' spotlight. Pointing the bow of the canoe
toward the frog, Brookfield paddled silently. The frog, floating with its
head just above the surface of the water, was blinded by the light. When
Simmons was within reaching distance he shot his right arm forward
and grasped the frog with his fingers. The frog uttered a surprised
"oink," but it was on its way into the sack. Within an hour Simmons had
caught more than a dozen bullfrogs. I took them home and released
them in the pond. Within two years we must have had a 100 bullfrogs.
Occasionally, as you approached the pond, one would hop from the
bank, uttering an "oink" before plopping into the water. Most of them
remained in the pond, only their green heads floating above the surface.
Sometimes when I awakened in the middle of the night, I could hear
their characteristic deep grunting, which has won them the name of "pig
frog" among professional wildlife people.
One night after an unusually heavy rain, I heard a new sound
welling up from the pond-a sound much like that of a fast-moving train
clicking its wheels along the junctures of steel rails. Next morning I
walked down to the pond and saw several tropical toads-Bufo mar-
inus--depositing their eggs. Although dismayed, there was nothing I
could do. The pond had a new inhabitant; we would have to accept it.
This huge South American toad is larger than a bullfrog and many
times the size of the common toad, weighing as much as three pounds.
A voracious insect consumer, it has been distributed around the world
to help control pests in sugarcane fields. Although the toad had been
introduced in South Florida several years earlier, we had not seen it at
Montgomery Drive. It had become notorious in some areas of Miami,
because of the poison sacs on its back that occasionally proved fatal to
dogs and cats that attacked the ugly creatures. There was talk of a
campaign to rid Florida of the toads.

Before Bufo marinus took up with us, I constantly battled cock-
roaches that lived among the palmettos and large slugs that ate the
ground covers. Scorpions too were numerous, and we had to watch
every time we picked up something outdoors. We even had to avoid
walking barefoot in the house at night. Gradually the roaches and slugs
disappeared. I couldn't believe the toads were eating them until one day
when I saw a toad gobble a huge cockroach. Quick as lightning the toad
lashed out its tongue and swept the roach into its mouth and down its
gullet, and without so much as a demonstrative gulp. Then, upon
finding a slug-a slimy "snail without a shell" nearly two inches long-
I placed it on the ground near a bufo and watched from a distance. Soon
the toad hopped out of hiding and gulped the slug with less effort than
most persons exert in swallowing a pill. I never saw one snap up a
scorpion, yet I'm sure they did, because after these toads became numer-
ous we never saw a scorpion again. Other night-crawling insects also
disappeared-sow-bugs, millipedes, even the skinks. A species of
Bahamian lizard that had multiplied about the place in great numbers
managed to hold its own. Although the lizards were not completely safe
from the toads, being daylight hunters they were in hiding at night while
the bufos were active.
While we were sorry to see the colorful skinks disappear we were
gratified for the disappearance of the cockroaches, scorpions and slugs.
We were more disturbed however about the dwindling population of the
bullfrogs. While no bufo could swallow a bullfrog, the two competed
in the pond for breeding space: and the toads appeared to be winning.
Eventually a strange thing happened: the bufo population began
to dwindle. Having cleaned up the night-crawling insects, the numer-
ous toads must have been forced to move farther afield in search of food.
They did return in considerable numbers after a heavy rain to mate in
the pond. On such occasions, all the neighborhood frogs and toads
assembled for a night of song and frog love. We never saw anything
attempt to gobble a Bufo marinus. The pond was a constant source of
enjoyment and education while we lived at Montgomery Drive.
High water brought all kinds of aquatic birds, including great blue
herons. On one occasion, four woodstorks stopped to feed for a time.
Changes occurred constantly, in dry seasons and in wet seasons, in
winter and in summer. Our enjoyment was never ending, our education
never complete.
But the pond had a tragic ending. After we left it was filled. All
the wild things that lived in it-fish, frogs and aquatic insects-were


snuffed out. The ducks, herons, egrets, kingfishers, grackles, kingbirds
and other winged creatures had to find another sanctuary.

Our Companions, The Wildlife

I remember vividly how impressed the three of us were-Evelyn,
Karl, and myself-the first time we walked through our property on
Montgomery Drive. But I also remember our disappointment over the
apparent absence of wildlife. We did see a brilliant cardinal for an
instant before it flitted into the palmettos and disappeared. We did not
see another living thing of the feathered, furry or slithering kind that
day. The woods were silent except for a few buzzing insects and the
rasping of one or two cicadas. Not until we began living there did we
realize the woods contained several kinds of birds, quail, screech owls,
woodpeckers, mockingbirds, and cardinals-as well as wildlife-
foxes, possums, skunks, rabbits, snakes, land turtles, and even a bobcat
that left prints of its broad pads in the soft earth of the swale as it passed
through on its nightly prowls. Knowing nothing of survey lines, they
came and went in the extensive wilderness of which our woods were
merely a part. But they were extremely shy.
The snakes seemed shyest of all. I don't recall that we saw a snake
during the many times we walked through the woods before building
our house. But seeing no snakes failed to relieve us of the fear that a
diamondback rattler might be lurking under the palmettos, so we
stepped carefully during our walks. I was even more fearful after a
South Miami policeman told me he had seen a six-foot rattler while
farming the swale during the Second World War. On a warm day in late
fall following a cool spell, he walked up on the rattlesnake stretched out
between two tomato rows, sunning itself.
"I went to my car to get my service revolver," said the policeman,
"but by the time I returned the snake had crawled into the palmettos."
Although I avoided repeating the story to Evelyn or Karl, I tried
to impress on them the danger lurking in the palmetto-covered woods.
Whenever I walked through the woods myself, I recalled the police-
man's story and goosepimples raised the shirt from my shoulders. We
encountered no rattler, however, until we had lived on the place for a

couple of years. Evelyn was alone one day, doing laundry. As she went
to the clotheslines she almost stepped on a four-foot diamondback. She
dropped the basket and ran to get a neighbor. The neighbor was not that
close and had trouble finding ammunition for his rifle. By the time they
returned, the snake had disappeared. A few days later, a rattler of the
same size was killed on a nearby street by an automobile. We did not
see another rattler until 1955, when Karl and I encountered one, slightly
less than five feet long, sunning on the edge of the swale near a large
clump of palmettos. We killed this one. A few years later, I saw the
broad, sinuous trail left by a large rattler that had crossed the swale; but
none of us ever saw another diamondback on the place or any signs of
one. The largest rattlesnake I saw was hit by an automobile on nearby
Red Road in the late 1950s. A motorist stopped, finished killing the
snake and took it with him for the skin. The snake measured 6 1/2 feet
We turned our place over to the wild things, which we encouraged
to remain wild. While welcoming the wood ducks, we never sought to
become friendly with them, thinking that, if we did, we might be doing
them a disservice by inducing them to be unwary of mankind, their
worst enemy. We did occasionally feed a gray fox that had a den in the
palmettos. For a time, we maintained a bird feeder, but we created an
unnatural situation. Scores of raucous bluejays and as many as three
dozen migratory Carolina doves waited at the feeder at handout time in
the fall. Desirable birds were discouraged by the aggressive jays and
doves. A month after we stopped putting out feed, the bird population
was back to normal. Through this experience, we discovered that we
preferred things closer to nature's own balance. Late in the day, as dusk
approached, cardinals came out of the scrub to feed in the lawn. A pair
of flickers often searched for insects about the bases of pines. Mock-
ingbirds spreaded their white-marked wings to scare insects from the
grass. And in the fall, these birds were joined by towhees and catbirds,
sometimes by thrushes.
Over the years the wildlife gave us much enjoyment. But there
were times when nature could be trying. One morning, we heard an
animal crying in distress. Evelyn hurried outside to discover that a large
coachwhip snake had caught a small rabbit. Afraid to enter the
palmettos from where the cries came, she had to watch in utter
helplessness while the snake wrapped itself about the rabbit in a
tightening, deadly embrace. This was nature's way, she told herself.


Who was she to interfere? We saw the snake several times afterward,
slithering across the lawn as it held its head six inches above the grass.
With a long, slender, brown body, black neck and head, the coachwhip
was a formidable-looking reptile, harmless to humans if not to rabbits.
Like many of the other snakes, it lived mainly on the fecund woods rat.
Eventually the proud coachwhip disappeared.
When we first moved to Montgomery Drive we seldom saw a gray
squirrel. We might see one or two in the late summer, fattening
themselves on pine mast, the winged seed that showered from opening
pine cones. In time, a pair of squirrels took up residence with us, and
eventually several lived on the place. They ate the fruit before it
ripened-the lychees, mangos, avocados and macadamia nuts. They
chewed up the green pine cones in search of maturing mast. They ate
mushrooms from the lawn and from dead trees. They even ate the
flowers. I began to wonder if there was anything in the vegetable king-
dom a squirrel wouldn't eat if he could get his teeth into it.
During our early years at Montgomery Drive, the pine woods was
a quiet and protected place for foxes to live. The hunting of foxes in the
neighborhood, once popular, had ceased. A fox could live in peace,
without molestation by dogs or humans.
For several years a gray fox lived on the place. We caught
glimpses of him from time to time, especially early in the evening as he
loped across the lawn on his way to his nightly prowls. On rare
occasions we saw him with a female, a smaller, sleek vixen; and on one
occasion we caught a fleeting glimpse of their frisky young as they
scampered through the shadows.
Then came the rapid settlement of the neighborhood. New people
moved in with their dogs. The animals ran loose, contrary to county law,
and county authorities made no effort to enforce the law. The nightly
chase of the fox brought up a question in my mind: What rights does a
wild animal have? In time the fox began to show the effects of the
nightly chase. He became poor and bedraggled. One day a neighbor
called to report that the fox was down in his yard and apparently couldn't
get up. We took food and water and set them as close as we dared. Next
morning the fox was dead.
I have said that when we moved to Montgomery Drive we saw few
birds in the pinewoods. One can only surmise that food was scarce.
Even in the fall when the pine mast began spinning earthward from the
opening pine cones, we had few additional birds. The winged seed fell
among the palmettos or among the thick layer of pine saw on the ground,

and the birds had trouble recovering it. Over the years, however, the
bird population increased greatly due no doubt to the changes we
imposed on the five acres. We opened vistas through the palmettos,
planted trees and shrubbery about the perimeter, raked the pine straw
from the lawn. Meanwhile countless kinds of weeds invaded the
centipede grass, including creeping beggarweed. We did nothing to
control them except mow; and these little weeds not only produced seed
but were hosts to insects attractive to birds. Eventually we had all the
ordinary birds of suburbia. During the migratory periods of fall and
spring, our place was host to flocks of hungry birds. Among the first of
the migratory birds were the doves that came in late summer and early
fall to feed upon the pine mast. At times a hundred or two hundred
Carolina doves could be seen on the lawn. After the pine mast was gone
the doves departed, many of them heading on south toward the Florida
A great many of the migratory birds, after gorging themselves in
South Florida, fly on south to spend the winter in Cuba, the West Indies
or as far as Venezuela and Brazil. But the Carolina doves go no farther
than the lower Florida Keys, where they turn around and head back
Robins came, too, but mainly during unusually cool winters. They
traveled in large flocks and fed on the red fruit of the Brazilian pepper
tree and any other small fruit they could swallow. A flock of several
hundred robins can clean a place of small fruit in a single afternoon,
ignoring the distressing complaints of local birds as they fly from tree
to tree, bush to bush, bending the branches under the weight of their
numbers. I've seen as many as 500 robins gathered in the swale about
the pond, taking turns to drink their fill, rest awhile and drink again. I've
heard reports of robins getting giddy from eating the fermented fruit of
the Brazilian pepper tree, and I wouldn't challenge this observation, al-
though I personally have never seen a tipsy robin. When traveling in
winter flocks, however, the robin is a much different creature from the
fairly tame bird northerners see searching for insects in lawns. In the
South the robin may seem a little giddy, but no more so after eating
pepper tree fruit than in Crowder where, as a boy, I watched great flocks
of the red-breasted birds descend upon our fields in the fall. We were
not averse to eating robin; and, as I recall, the dark meat wasn't bad.
So large were the flocks that a single shotgun shell loaded with number
seven shot would bring down a dozen or more birds. From all reports,
the enormous flocks I remember as a boy no longer come south in the


fall. The robin, mainly an insect feeder in its summer habitat, is highly
susceptible to insecticides applied to lawns. As a newspaper reporter,
I was once called out to see more than 100 dead robins on and about a
lawn that the day before had been sprayed with a powerful insecticide.
DDT was particularly fatal to the robin because the insecticide was
stored in the bird's flesh.
While we had screech owls when we moved into the pine woods,
they increased in number over the years, probably because of the
increase in the food supply. We would see them late in the day, after the
other birds had gone to roost, feeding on night insects. We had both the
yellow-bellied sapsucker and the red-bellied woodpecker, and occa-
sionally the larger pileated woodpecker. Several flickers lived on the
property. One of our most colorful birds was the spotted-breasted
oriole, which we called Guatemala oriole. Much larger than the
Baltimore oriole, this yellow and black bird was at first believed to be
an annual visitor from Central America. It established itself in Coconut
Grove and eventually spread through the county.
Before the pine woods about us were developed we often saw
covies of quail feeding through the lawn. But by the late 1960s the quail
had virtually disappeared. Sometimes in the fall, seeing so many game
birds about, I would get a little hungry for the white breast of quail and
the dark breast of dove. How easy it would have been to trap these birds,
as I once did in Crowder. I could not have brought myself to catch, kill
and eat these birds even had the practice been legal. But what if one of
them should kill itself accidentally, by flying into the plate glass of the
breezeway as some other birds had done? Would I eat the hapless bird?
Early one morning a quail did fly into the plate glass with an enormous
thud. I hastened to the breezeway to see the bird fluttering on the
concrete stoop. What an unexpected breakfast, I thought as I went
outside to pick up the brown feathery form, now limp and lifeless. But
the bird, a male, was poor with little meat on its breast. The quail may
have been chased into the glass by another male, because the fatal thud
occurred during the mating season. These birds, having traveled in
friendly conveys through fall and winter, begin pairing off in the spring.
Where there are more males than females, fights are sure to occur,
sometimes to the death of one or more birds. Because it was the mating
season probably explained why the quail that flew into the glass was so
poor. More interested in fighting and love-making than in eating, he had
been reduced to skin, bone and feathers. And I did not want to eat any
fought-out, loved-out quail. I fed the poor quail's remains to the fox.

It was different when a large dove flew into the glass. The time
was September and the dove was fat from gorging itself on pine mast.
I was sitting before my typewriter on the breezeway when the bird hit
the glass, making a sound like that of a football thrown by Bob Griese.
I went outside, picked up the dead dove and turned it over in my hands.
What a fat bird, I thought. To waste a wonderful gamebird like this, I
thought, would be a shame, as well as being highly disrespectful to a
species that provided so much pleasure during my boyhood. So, not five
minutes after the dove thumped into the glass, I had it skinned and the
thick, meaty breast laid open, ready for the frying pan.
Evelyn prepared the dove for my supper; she would eat none
herself. How delicious! Many times afterward I found myself drooling
while watching the plump doves as they picked up pine mast. Were I
still a farm boy back in Crowder I certainly would have feasted on breast
of dove from time to time. But, alas, I had become citified. My instincts
had been tempered by civilization, my hunting nature sublimated. The
doves knew this. They had no fear of me.

The Weather

Poets have written countless lines extolling the trilling of song-
birds, though so far as I know the mewings of the catbird have failed to
inspire a single lilting phase. But at Montgomery Drive there was no
music sweeter than the mewings of the first catbird in the fall. We
needed no calendar to tell us that the long, hot months of summer were
behind us, while before us were the prospects for several months of
mild, pleasant weather.
For practical purposes, I like to divide South Florida's seasons
into two-summer and winter-rather than into four. Summer I think
of as beginning May 1 and lasting until October 31, and winter from
November 1 to April 30. South Florida's wet season coincides with its
long humid summer. This area receives about 50 inches of rain a year,
most of it during these months. November, the first of the cool months,
usually brings dry weather following the year's wettest two months,
September and October. These months, when South Florida usually
receives two-fifths of its annual rainfall-some 20 inches-are of


utmost importance. The water table is raised to its highest level of the
year and the underground fresh water reservoir, upon which South
Florida is dependent during the long dry season ahead, is recharged.
There are, however, exceptional years when rainfall may be below or
above average. When September and October rainfall is below normal,
the area's fresh water supply may become dangerously low before the
beginning of the next rainy season, resulting in curtailing water use for
lawn sprinkling and other presumed essential but non-critical demands.
On the other hand, excessively heavy rainfall may occur during nor-
mally dry months. We have years when spring rainfall raises the water
so high in the Everglades and in Big Cypress Swamp that alligator nests
are drowned. Aquatic life is so greatly diluted that wading birds are
unable to gather enough food for their young, resulting in one of
nature's bitter tragedies when entire rookeries are abandoned and
thousands of helpless fledglings are left to die.
Since we made our garden in October toward the end of the rainy
season, plants had a good chance to become well established in the
moist soil before the beginning of the cool dry season. It was a nearly
perfect situation. With the beginning of cool weather, it was a pleasant
time of the year to make a garden, being a little like spring in the North.
During our early years at Montgomery Drive, we were without air-
conditioning. In summer we depended on fans for cooling when the
southeast breeze failed us. Mosquitos began coming in late May or
early June; and at times their numbers were so great that the hum outside
our windows was enough to disturb our sleep. Whenever you opened
a door, day or night, there was always a swarm waiting to attack you.
Once outside, you faced the problem of getting back into the house
without the aggressive biters accompanying you inside. During the
mosquito plagues working outside was virtually impossible. I am
certain that the development of South Dade was delayed by the preva-
lence of so many mosquitoes. Living became more comfortable after
enough people moved into South Dade to have the political clout to
bring the spray planes over and spread inland when the mosquitoes
swarmed out of the coastal marshes.
The sandflies abounded in such fantastic numbers in the 1950s
that it was virtually impossible to work outdoors either early morning
or late in the day. These tiny pests got into our hair, eyes, ears. Many
were small enough to penetrate the screens during those years before we
could save enough money to install air-conditioning. We sprayed the
screens with oil-based insecticides, but a few pests still managed to find

their way through. We were troubled less after the screen mesh became
partially filled with dust and lint. After a time, Evelyn could tolerate
the dirty screens no longer, and she would remove the screen and wash
them. For the next few weeks, the sandflies would be almost intoler-
able. To sleep, we covered ourselves with sheets and kept a fan blowing
over us. But the sandflies were not the only insects that penetrated the
screens. A variety of tiny insects attracted by the night lights found their
way in, making a nuisance of themselves whenever we sat near a light
to read or to work. Looking back, I am inclined to think that air-
conditioning gave us almost as much comfort in keeping the insects out
as it did in cooling us.
With the installation of air-conditioning, we replaced the wire
screening and aluminum shutters of the breezeway with plate glass
doors and sliding screen panels. Although the glass ended the original
function of the breezeway, we retained the name because many times
of year we opened the glass doors to let the southeast breeze flow
through. While we missed the outdoor sounds when the glass doors
were closed-birds, frogs, insects, sometimes the bark of a fox-we
were compensated by hearing the automobile traffic less. Part of the
year, though, when the weather was cool enough, to cut off the air-
conditioning, we opened the glass doors.
Before we could enjoy the cool season-the best time of the year
in South Florida-we had to survive the hurricane season. This begins
in June and lasts until November.
Three storms of hurricane force hit us while we lived at Montgom-
ery Drive-Donna in 1960, Cleo in 1964 and Betsy in 1965. These
storms did minor damage. The swale flooded, and the place was a mess
of littered pine branches. A few trees were wrecked; but in most
instances, they were reclaimed by pruning.
Nature takes a remarkable turn after a hurricane. Trees and shrubs
that have been denuded of foliage and branches quickly burst out in
bright new growth like springtime. Veterans of the 1926 hurricane
remembered the spectacular recovery of the trees. Some credited the
display to the hand of a beneficent providence. Everyone talked about
the phenomenon-how Miami had spring in October and November.
That quick recovery of the trees boosted the spirits of those who had lost
heavily in the storm. It may have induced many to stay in Miami who
otherwise might have departed. We went through such post-hurricane
"springs" at Montgomery Drive. After Betsy hit in 1965, I1 wrote in The
Miami Herald:


"Everything is coming back, including a denuded carambola tree
that was heavily laden with yellow fruit when the storm hit. Every fruit
was blown to the ground; but now I notice bright purple flowers
appearing, hidden among the new foliage. So we'll have star-shaped
carambola fruit for Christmas, something we never had before."
Only the rich enjoyed central air-conditioning in their homes
when we built in 1951. The equipment was not only expensive but
bulky, and generally restricted to commercial buildings. Nor were
houses insulated as was the practice after the environmental revolution
of the 1960s and the staggering rise in the cost of heating and cooling
in the 1970s. Under the guidance of Al Parker, we had used all the tricks
available to cool our house. We faced the house southeast to get the
prevailing breeze, installed numerous windows to insure a free passage
of air and covered the roof with white gravel to reflect the sun's rays.
We had wide eaves to protect the windows from the sun during the
middle of the day. Still we suffered from the heat throughout the long
summers, especially during the evenings when the air was still and the
heat of the day, captured by the cathedral ceiling, pressed upon us.
Paddle fans, having gone out of style, were unavailable and would have
merely stirred up the hot air. Moreover the white gravel on our roof soon
became covered with mold and lost its reflective quality. The result was
a very hot roof that not only admitted the heat but radiated it upon our
heads. By the middle of the 1950s, the room air-conditioner was
becoming popular. We installed a cooling unit in our bedroom in 1956.
Although large and cumbersome compared with later units, it gave us
unbelievable comfort.
By 1959 the cost of air-conditioning equipment had come down
enough for us to think about having a unit installed to cool our living
room and breezeway. The salesman who came out immediately dis-
couraged us. "An air-conditioner isn't going to work unless you insulate
your roof," he said after walking through the living room as the heat
from the cathedral ceiling radiated upon his head. "And if you want to
air-condition the breezeway you not only must insulate the roof but have
the aluminum jalousies replaced with sliding glass doors--and I recom-
mend tinted glass. Tinted glass will keep out about forty percent of the
"How would we insulate the roof?" I asked, dubiously.
"Tear off the present roof, lay down three inches of insulation, and
put on a new roof over that," he replied.
"That would cost more than the air-conditioning," I said.

"Yes, I know," he remarked, nonchalantly.
Although he was in our house no longer than an hour, he figured
out exactly what we would have to do to prepare for the air-conditioning
installation. He gave us a firm price for the equipment, ducting and
work for which he would be responsible, down to dollars and cents. The
air-conditioner, a Westinghouse unit, would be installed on an outside
wall, with cool air or warm air fed through a duct that ran through a soffit
on the wall between the breezeway and the living room. The covering
of this duct would be my responsibility. Returning air would enter a
vent that would be covered by a screen he assured us would not be
objectionable. Ducts would open into the living room and into the
breezeway. I couldn't believe that a duct shooting air from one end of
a thirty-six-foot living room would carry all the way to the other end.
"It will, I promise you," he replied, "and, if you keep your kitchen
door open, some of the coolness-or heat if its winter-will get into the
We had saved a little money. We had sold some property near
Homestead, had paid off the loan on our house and had some funds left.
I had unexpectedly made a little money off a book, Florida Gardening
Month by Month, that the University of Miami Press had published in
1957. So I called a contractor whom I knew, Carl Stevens. He came out
and I repeated what the air-conditioning salesman had told me. I was
relieved when Stevens agreed with everything the salesman said. Yes,
he would do all the work, except the roofing, and that he would sub-
contract. He would see that everything was done properly. When he
gave us a price, it was so surprisingly low that I asked how much it
would cost to build a 12X20 storage house. We went ahead with
everything. They were certainly right about the roof: insulating it made
a world of difference.
Living through the summer during the years before air-condition-
ing, with the humid heat, mosquitoes and threats of hurricanes, made
sweeter the coming of the cool, dry season. The sun is far to the south
in November and shadows point northwest in the morning and northeast
in the afternoon. November usually is a delightful month, with cool
nights and pleasant days full of sunshine. The vegetable garden, which
we began planting in the swale in October, grew rapidly and generated
comforting thoughts of harvest days ahead. And there were always a
few rows of annual flowers-marigolds, zinnias, calendulas-that
promised to brighten the interior of our house. It was pleasant to work
in a cool and dry atmosphere. We felt glad to be alive, watching the


tomatoes, beans, peppers, sweetcom and cabbage grow and to think we
were making a contribution to the life thriving in the orderly rows of the
With the advent of cool weather and short days, the lawn grass and
the tropical plants slowed down their growth and required less attention.
The centipede grass needed little or no mowing all winter, and if I
started the mower, it was to cut weeds that thrived during the cool
season. Although there may have been little rain during the winter
months, the ground-especially the lower swale-remained moist for
some time after the October rains. It was not until February and March
when the desiccating wind began blowing day and night that the lawn
and tropical plants suffered severely from lack of moisture. Plant mites
and scale insects took advantage of the dry weather to multiply, and
their voracious feeding helped to weaken ornamentals and fruit trees.
Some tropical fruits, particularly the mango, require a period of
dry weather to bloom and bear fruit. In tropical countries where the
rainfall is heavy every month, the mango may make a large tree but
produce no fruit. Citrus also requires a dry season and cool weather to
produce high-quality sweet fruit with characteristic acid flavor. Too
much rainfall and high temperature may cause oranges and grapefruit
to be low in sugar and acid and consequently have a flat, unsatisfactory
flavor. The banana, on the other hand, thrives where it has an abundance
of moisture and high temperature all year. -
Promoters of Florida have referred to Dade County as frost-free.
Yet one winter while we lived on Biscayne Drive, near Homestead, we
had seven frosts. We spent so much time covering plants to protect them
that we became discouraged. Then one day a bone-chilling wind began
blowing out of the northwest, the harbinger of a predicted hard freeze.
We harvested all the vegetables we possibly could and cut armfuls of
flowers. As sunset approached, Karl and I covered over 200 small
mango and avocado trees with bean hampers. Next morning the garden
was white with frost, and an inch-deep pan of water outside was frozen
solid. The sun rose warmly in a clear blue sky, but the damage had been
done. Our garden wilted then turned black. For several days the interior
of our cottage was colorful, with vases, pots and fruit jars filled with
marigolds, zinnias and calendulas. They were such painful reminders
of what we had lost that it was difficult to enjoy them.
Although we seldom had frost at Montgomery Drive, and one
freeze while we lived there, the thermometer did drop occasionally to
the low 50s and even mid-40s. Plants that require strictly tropical

conditions may suffer from these temperatures, mainly from the dry
atmosphere accompanying the cold. Even we were cold. We always
kept a plentiful supply of firewood on hand-wood that cost us nothing
except for the labor of cutting it.
Over the years that I wrote a column for The Herald, I talked
several times about our fireplace. These columns never failed to bring
letters of appreciation from persons who had grown up in homes with
fireplaces. Many older readers found the columns nostalgic, reviving
bitter-sweet memories of evenings long past-sitting before a fireplace
with other members of their families who since had become scattered
about the world or were no longer living. The responses to those
columns gave me great satisfaction because I knew the letters were
written in sincere appreciation for remembered pleasure. As I grew
older I could better understand such nostalgia, because when Evelyn
and I sat before a fire in the evenings I sometimes found myself recalling
when our son was home, particularly during those years; when he
returned from college or medical school to spend Christmas with us.
I have wondered if a fireplace has some mysterious attraction
barely explained by the physical qualities of the blaze. The attraction
must go deep into the unconscious, into the dark, fathomless regions of
the mind. Both Evelyn and I grew up in homes that depended on
fireplaces for heat in the winter, and both of us remember the comfort
or "roasting" before a fire after coming in from the cold outdoors.
Poets claim man must return to his primeval surroundings from
time to time in order to remain sane; that he must return to the deep
woods and streams to regain his balance so he can cope with concrete-
bound civilization. I'm not sure but I do know it helps to sit before a
fireplace and ponder the depth of the flames, the red embers, the
flickering shadows, the curling smoke. You can never return to
anything more primitive whether a campfire or a fireplace. When I sat
before our fireplace at Montgomery Drive, warm, drowsy and comfort-
able on a cool evening, I was aware that generations of individuals were
growing up who never sat before a hearth and never would in all their


Art and Artists in Our Lives

Time magazine called him a "Renaissance virtuoso"-artist,
landscape architect, jewelry designer, sculptor, ceramics and tile glazer,
decorator, plant collector, traveler, intellectual, man of the world. We
knew Roberto Burle Marx, a Brazilian, who frequently stopped in
Miami on his way between Rio deJaneiro and some point in the United
States at the beginning or end of one of his lecture tours. Marx's slide-
lectures highlighted the colorful gardens he had made famous in Europe
and America. Plant collecting was to Marx a hobby as well as a
business. He and Bob Wilson could talk all evening about rare tropical
plants without tiring or exhausting their enormous fund of knowledge.
It was a coincidence that both had philodendrons named in their
honor-Philodendron wilsoni and Philodendron burle-marx.
After the Wilsons sold their nursery and moved to Costa Rica,
Marx, who loathed the loneliness of hotels, often stayed with us during
his Miami stop-overs. He was comfortable at Montgomery Drive. The
atmosphere pleased him; he liked the food Evelyn served; we usually
had a recording or two that were new to him, and, furthermore, one of
us would drive him to the airport. On one visit we had just acquired an
album by the great Brazilian pianist, Guiomar Novaes. Upon seeing a
photograph of her on the cover, Marx was touched.
"She was a close friend of my mother's," he said. "How many
times was she a guest in our house. After dinner she would sit at our
piano and play. Hearing her was one of the unforgettable experiences
of my early life."
I remember vividly Roberto's first visit to Montgomery Drive. I
was then director of the Fairchild Garden and had taken him on a tour
of the botanical garden before bringing him home for lunch. Our
driveway, upon leaving Montgomery Drive, threaded through a jungle
of jumbee trees, then opened upon an expanse of lawn where the eyes
were carried to the pond on the right. After skirting the pond, the
driveway turned abruptly left, rising gently on higher ground. It wound
through large, rounded clumps of saw palmettos as it approached the
house. When we entered the palmettos, Marx exploded:
"Ola! Stop the car!"
I braked to a quick stop. By that time Marx had opened the door

and was out, heading for the palmettos.
"How interesting!" he exclaimed as he looked about. It took me
a moment to realize what Marx was raving about. Never before had I
seen anyone get excited over saw palmettos, the first plant most people
remove when preparing a site for building a home. After lunch we
collected seeds that Marx took with him, and he later reported they had
germinated. Presumably Florida's native saw palmettos are now
growing in Brazil.
Over the years, I did a number of articles and columns about
Roberto Burle Marx, mainly as a landscape designer. He began his
professional life as an artist, under the influence of the Impressionists
and Abstractionists before developing his own way of looking at the
world. It may have been his interest in plants that sent Marx to nature
in search of design. Certainly nothing is more varied or challenging to
understand and appreciate than many of the designs in nature-the
multiple trunks of the banyan, the curving roots of the red mangrove,
large leaves of the aroids such as the monstera, the sinuous lines of the
Brazilian jungle or the buttressed trunks of the giant ceibas. The artist
in Marx was sensitive to every opportunity, as his drawings and
paintings reveal. Marx studied natural lines as he flew overmarshes and
deltas where streams made their own designs as they wound tortuously
to the sea. He sensed that the lines created by nature were immensely
different and a great deal more interesting than anything he had seen in
abstract and stylized paintings by artists under whose influence he had
worked. Thus was Marx led to the use of nature's "free-flowing" line,
which was to become a characteristic of his landscape design, as well
as his paintings.
"Satisfactory free-flowing lines are hard to contrive," he said in an
interview in 1957 while staying with us. "Unless you have studied them
in nature, such lines may look extremely artificial when you contrive
them altogether out of your imagination."
Marx also was influenced by the patterns of towns and farms over
which he flew, and these patterns found their way into his art as
abstractions. A painting of his that we own shows the result of such
influence. After studying it for a year, I concluded that its rectangular
patterns represented a village surrounded by farms, while Evelyn
decided it was the center of a large community, probably a small city.
Did Marx have something else in mind? You can see in the painting
whatever you have an inclination to see.


That Marx influenced our lives there can be no doubt. He
extended our vision and gave us new insights. It was a treat to walk over
the grounds at Montgomery Drive with him, sometimes in silence,
again listening to his comment-about the plants, about nature, perhaps
about the desirability of preserving as much of the wilderness as
possible. He was concerned about what he called the wanton destruc-
tion of Brazil's forests without any effort to preserve endangered
species, He looked upon the Fairchild Tropical Garden as an outstand-
ing example of landscape art, the plantings, vistas and open spaces held
together by superior design. He liked the way the families, genera and
species of plants were segregated botanically, yet without the loss of
garden design. This was the effort of William Lyman Phillips, the
landscape architect. Just before leaving the Garden as director, I
managed to get Marx and Phillips together for a stroll through the
botanical garden. It was a disappointing experience. If these two men
could have had time to get better acquainted, they would have had a
great deal to talk about. To throw them together as I did was a mistake.
Phillips, in his late seventies, had but a superficial acquaintance with
Burle Marx, while the artist was at a loss to know how to convey his
feelings to the older man who he greatly respected.
In June 1973, two months before my retirement, I wrote my last
piece about Marx. As had happened so many times in the past, he had
popped in without notice. Although he was to be in Miami only one day,
leaving the next morning for Brazil, he wanted to visit the Fairchild
Garden, Montgomery Foundation, plant nurseries, private gardens and
a clothing store downtown "to buy some things formy people in Brazil."
"Marx," I wrote after his departure, "is one of those individuals
who affect the people about them with a rare vitality. It matters not
whether he is talking about something that pleases or displeases him,
you are caught up in the subject matter and made keenly aware of the
world as his artistic rock.
"I have known Marx since the 1950s, when his hair was jet black.
Today he is a white-haired, distinguished sixty-three, riding the crest of
a brilliant career and worldwide adoration that might incline many to
assume the aura of a god. But not Marx. If he has changed I can't see
it. Nor has age robbed him of any energy."
After a day long tour of gardens and nurseries, including Dr. Alex
Alexander's rare foliage plant collection on South Miami Avenue, he
still had energy to walk again through our grounds. We stopped at a
large shrub, an ardisia.

"I don't have this one," he said, finding a cluster of ripe fruit.
"What ardisia is this?"
It was Ardisia revoluta, the seeds of which I had collected several
years before in Honduras.
"Do you mind if I take some seeds?" he asked.
Well, of course not.
"It was getting late when we finished the day long' plant watching'
tour," I wrote. "By now he had boxes of plants and suitcases stuffed
with seeds and orchids. Two cars were needed to get him and his
luggage to the airport."
Although an Egyptian folding table stand we own can hardly be
classified as a work of art, it is a worthy piece of craft. The stand was
given to Evelyn by Marian Fairchild one day while she was visiting the
Kampong. Mrs. Fairchild was getting together some things she in-
tended to give to the Ramble, and the folding stand, which had come
unglued, was among them. But Marian was having second thoughts
about parting with the stand.
"I don't know what to do with it," she told Evelyn. "My mother
bought it in Egypt while on her honeymoon. But it's falling apart and
wouldn't bring a dollar at the Ramble. I could give it to one of my
children, but I doubt any of them would want to fix it. Evelyn, why don't
you take it home and see if you can glue it back together? There was a
copper tray that came with it, but that disappeared long ago. I'm sure
you can find another tray that fits just as well."
Evelyn took the stand home, and, after gluing it back together,
removed what was left of the flaking black paint, then repainted and
polished until it must have been very much like the original. In the
meantime she found in a gift shop a heavy round tray of beaten copper
made by an Egyptian craftsman. The tray stand occupied a conspicuous
place in our living room at Montgomery Drive.
Irma Bachelor was a retired physical education instructor from
New Jersey, and, when we met her, was the wife of Gordon Bachelor.
Some years before she had taken up art as a hobby, and although she
never ranked herself among the professionals, she was superior to
many, her oil and watercolor paintings as well as her woodcarving. She
also taught painting and won a reputation as an excellent teacher.
Irma got Evelyn interested in testing her own talents in art, first in
painting and then in woodcarving. It proved to be a turning point in
Evelyn's life. Painting seemed to interest her little at the time, but she
took to carving "like a duck takes to water." The first thing she ever


attempted, a frog, was worth keeping, and so far as I know she never
turned out anything she had to throw away because of alack of quality.
Unfortunately, arthritis in her hands cut short her career as a wood-
carver. It was useless to tell her that she should be content to do a little
work each day, for once she got started on anything that interested her
she became so engrossed she would work for hours without stopping.
With Karl away in medical school and with me working long hours on
two jobs, she had many days by herself. She often would chip away all
day with mallet and chisel. Finally an orthopedic surgeon ordered her
to put away her carving tools and touch them no more.
What do you do when your mallet and chisel are taken away from
you? Evelyn turned to sculpturing in plaster of Paris. One of her
teachers was Bill Stetzer who encouraged his students to be original.
Original? That can head you off in any direction. Evelyn turned out
some things that weren't bad. One was a fat duck that, to Evelyn's
surprise, got lots of admirers. Burglars took it, which, I suppose, one
should consider a compliment, especially when more valuable things
were passed up. There were problems with arthritis in sculpturing, too,
so Evelyn turned to ceramics. Within a couple of years she had her prize
winning works displayed about the house. By this time the person who
had started it all, Irma Bachelor, was no longer living. A heart attack
had taken her out. Unfortunately, we have only a couple of Irma's
paintings, and they are small, little more than sketches. We are sorry we
failed to collect more, especially when we see excellent paintings of
hers hanging in friend's houses.
Lee Adams was a student at Rollins College when discovered by
Dr. George H. Opdyke of Winter Park. Struck by Adam's ability in
painting fruits and flowers, and certain he had found a genius, Opdyke
introduced the artist to David Fairchild. The enthused plantsman,
always on the lookout for an "Audubon of the plant world," invited
Adams to spend a few weeks at the Kampong to paint the tropical fruits.
Several days after Adams had settled in at the Kampong, Fairchild
called me at The Herald.
"I want you to come out and write up a promising young artist,"
he said in his customary commanding way. "He's a rare discovery.
He's going to be a painter of plants as Audubon was a painter of birds."
"A botanical artist?" I ventured.
"No! stormed Fairchild. "I said nothing about a botanical artist who
draws dead plants. This a painter of living plants-and his paintings are
alive. Come out and you'll see. I've never seen another artist as good
as he is."

I drove out to the Kampong where Fairchild took me to a cottage
that had been transformed into a studio, and here was the artist at work
on an elephant-sized watercolor of a green branch of a tropical Diospy-
ros species from which hung several apple sized fruits covered with a
rust-colored, velvet like fuzz. Looking at the fruit, at the painting, and
then at the artist who was ii his early twenties, I wondered how anyone
so young could possibly be good enough to reproduce in watercolor-
opaque watercolor that is unforgiving of error-this fantastically diffi-
cult fruit that Fairchild had brought back from one of his plant exploring
trips to the Far East Skillfully brushing lighter hues over darker colors,
the artist had produced an effect that gave the fruits as well as leaves and
stems a kind of transparency, so that you had the impression of being
able to see beneath the surface. And so weightily did the fruit appear
to hang from the branch that you might have reached out and picked one.
In recording the branch and the fruit on paper, which was mounted
tautly on stretchers of the type used for mounting canvas, the artist had
not copied; he had used the living specimen only as a guide to create his
own composition as well as his own interpretation of the surfaces of
stems, leaves, and fruit. Although the branch depicted could not have
been misidentified as a Diospyros, a relative of the persimmon, it
possessed a quality that was lacking in nature's product. It was an
unforgettable moment as I gazed upon the artist's work for the first time.
Such was my introduction to Lee Adams, whose career I was to be
privileged to follow for the rest of his short life.
In an interview, I learned that Lee had been such a sickly child that
he was unable to attend public school or to mix with other children in
rough-and-tumble games. Much of his early education he got with the
help of a tutor. In order to occupy his spare time in those days before
television, he took up drawing and painting. His subjects were the
things around him-fruits, flowers, animals, birds. As he grew older his
health improved enough that he could attend the University of North
Carolina and later Rollins College. Although he studied biology and
botany, his major interest was art. Knowing he would have to make a
living, he was unsure as yet whether he would be able to continue his
art after leaving college. Invited to the Kampong, Adams found himself
in an altogether new kind of world-a world of strange, interesting, and
spectacular plants that Fairchild had collected from round the world. By
the time he was ready to leave Adams was sure that no other career than
art would ever interest him.
As a result of Fairchild's encouragement, Lee Adams set out to


paint a large collection of tropical fruit pictures, which the aging
plantsman hoped to see published in a large volume similar to
Audubon's Birds of America. To hasten the project-for Fairchild
hoped to write the picture captions-he collected and sent to Adams
boxes of tropical fruits, along with the branches from which the fruits
hung. But this proved unsatisfactory. A perfectionist, Adams wanted
to see the fruit where it grew. Moreover, he wanted fresh specimens.
But it was a long distance from Jacksonville, his home, to Miami, and
in the meantime the artist had to make a living. And making a living was
even more of a concern after Adams married Mimi Stockton, also of
Jacksonville. Then, in 1954, Fairchild died, and for Lee Adams a major
inspiration was gone. Forced to paint what would sell, Adams had to
abandon his preoccupation with tropical fruits, and so Fairchild's dream
of an elephant-sized book in the style of Audubon vanished.
Adam's "meat and potato art," as he called it, was a decorative
combination of beautiful birds and flowers that he did in a stylized way
that made a big hit with upper middle class housewives who thought
these pictures added new grace to their elegant homes. Meanwhile the
three Adams girls came along, first Marian (named for MarianFairchild),
then Camille, and Ann. They had to be raised and educated, further
tying Lee to his studio doing the pictures that put meat and potatoes on
the table. The result was a hiatus in his relations with South Florida.
Traveling down to Miami to paint tropical fruits was a luxury he no
longer could afford. Moreover, his clients wanted things they could
identify; they were unacquainted with the tropical fruits. At that time
Adams had not become widely known in South Florida.
Having remained close to Adams, I was well aware of his desire
to get away from strictly decorative art. After becoming director of the
Fairchild Tropical Garden in 1956, I wrote to Adams and asked if he
would be interested in "painting the palms," as he onetime had painted
the tropical fruits-provided we could find an angel to support the
project. He replied with enthusiasm. The palms are a fascinating and
colorful family of plants, and Adams was well acquainted with them, as
a botanist as well as an artist. We had some correspondence. My idea
was for him to do a painting of a palm in each of the fifteen or more
groups in this large family of plants. Hopefully we would see them
published in an elegant edition, with Dr. Harold E. Moore, Jr., palm
authority of the Bailey Hortorium at Comell University, writing the
material to go with the plants.
Meanwhile I discussed the proposed project with Dr. Arthur

Montgomery, son of the Fairchild Garden's founder, and with Moore.
Both were enthusiastic. Arthur agreed to pay for the paintings while Hal
agreed to work with Lee in the selection of the palms to be included and
in the method of presentation. The result was a fine collection of palm
portraits that today hangs at the Fairchild Garden. Nell Jennings paid
for the framing, which was done in New York under the supervision of
Harriet Hansen, interior decorator. Our ultimate ambition, ofhaving the
collection published, was never realized. Although it's not too late to
have that hope fulfilled, someone besides Hal must write the descrip-
tions, for the botanist, like the artist, no longer lives.
As a result of his palm paintings, Adams began receiving numer-
ous orders from Miami and Palm Beach. Adams found himself in a
dilemma. He had charged $350 a piece for the palm paintings, his going
rate in Jacksonville. How much should he charge for the new orders he
was receiving?
"Double your price," I suggested.
Lee Adams did double his price. He soon had more orders than he
could have dreamed of getting. Moreoverhe was doing more of the kind
of work he liked.
Some months after the last of the Fairchild Garden palm paintings
was delivered, Lee and Mimi came to Miami to deliver several pictures
to customers. Lee brought Evelyn and me an elephant-sized painting of
a colorful Ptychosperma palm. I recognized it as the first painting in the
palm series Adams had rejected because it did not come up to Hal
Moore's botanical specifications. It was a beautiful and memorable
gift; and as long as we lived at Montgomery Drive, it occupied a
prominent place in our home.
By the late 1960s Lee Adams was approaching the pinnacle of
success. He maintained a comfortable home on Avondale Avenue in
Jacksonville and bought a house on St. Johns Avenue where he had his
studio. Eventually he and Mimi decided to abandon Jacksonville and
move to the old Adams home on the St. Johns River at Mandarin, where
Lee was born. Building himself a fine studio, Lee found new energy and
inspiration to work. The children were happy, too, for here they were
free of the smog that in those days before the Environmental Protection
Agency, often settled over Jacksonville, making the breathing of the
sulfurous, stinking air an unpleasant experience.
On November 16, 1971, Lee and Mimi were returning to Man-
darin from a party in Jacksonville when he suffered a heart attack.
Slumping under the steering wheel, the weight of his body forced his


right foot heavily on the accelerator. The vehicle shot forward at giddy
speed. Although Mimi-according to witnesses-sought to gain
control of the wildly speeding, careening car, herefforts were futile, and
the vehicle, leaving the pavement and bounding down the highway
shoulder, crashed into a utility pole.
Mimi died instantly. Lee probably was already dead.
I met James F. Hutchinson through Beanie Backus in Fort Pierce.
Jim was engaged in the study and the painting of Seminole Indians, and
he and his wife Joan had spent several months living among the Cow
Creeks at the Brighton Seminole Indian Reservation. The Hutchinsons
at that time owned a unique cottage, of original design and workman-
ship, in a pine and palmetto setting at Port Salerno. Evelyn and I were
captivated by the Hutchinsons; our liking for them was immediate and
complete. One reason, perhaps, was because Jim was a brother of
Beanie Backus' wife, Patty, whom we thought so much of. I did an
account of the Hutchinsons' experiences with the Seminoles and of
Jim's aims in recording artistically the character and life styles of a
people who were rapidly changing under the onslaught of the white
man's cultivation. The Hutchinsons not only became our friends; we
bought land adjacent to theirs where we hoped eventually to build a
weekend cottage. But human plans are subject to change. Jim did so
well from the sale of his paintings that he and Joan could build a
waterfront home on Indian River at Sewall's Point. Consequently they
sold their cottage in the pines. We later sold our property for a good
A.E. "Beanie" and Patty Backus also visited our Montgomery
Drive place before she died in 1955. I had written several Miami Herald
articles about Beanie's art, recognizing early his outstanding ability to
paint Florida landscapes.
We have three paintings by Hutchinson and there is a story behind
each. In the early 1950s, while in Gainesville, I called upon the
anthropologist, Dr. John Goggin, University of Florida professor. I
recently had been in the Bahamas where I had done several stories,
which Goggin had read in The Miami Herald. He told me about a group
of "Seminole-Negroes," most of them former slaves, who fled Florida
after Spain ceded the peninsula to the United States in 1821 and settled
at Red Bay, Andros Island.
"Their descendents live in Red Bay," said Goggin. "When you're
in Andros you should interview them. The leader of the original
group was Scipio Bowlegs, a legendary personality. He must have been
quite a person."

Evelyn Smiley with A.E. "Beanie" Backus at his Ft. Pierce studio.
Goggin gave me what he had gleaned in a study of these people in
1946 and published in a journal of anthropology. But when I journeyed
to Andros I learned that Red Bay, located on the island's west coast,
could be reached only by water, and that it was quite a distance from
Mastic Point, the nearest place that a boat could be rented. Lacking
funds for the venture, I turned away from the story. But I did not forget,
and some 20 years later when I was in Andros I discovered that a new
road had just been built to Red Bay. Renting a car, I drove to the village,
talked with the residents, and, with notes given me by Goggin-who
since had died-I wrote my story.


To illustrate the story, I contacted Jim Hutchinson and asked him
if he would do a portrait of Scipio Bowlegs, which would have to be
drawn from his imagination, of course. Jim came up with a striking
portrait of a black man in Seminole shirt, with a red kerchief bound
about his head, and a single silver gorget hanging from his neck. This
painting appeared as full page color illustration with my story in The
Herald's magazine Tropic, and it was my good fortune to acquire the
Admiring Jim Hutchinson's portraits, I wanted him to do one of
Evelyn. After we agreed on a fee, the problem came up about whether
we should drive up to Port Salerno for Evelyn to sit, or whether Jim
should drive down to Miami. Neither way was possible at that time, so
Jim made a suggestion. We would send him several photographs of
Evelyn. From them he would paint a likeness of her. Then he would
drive down to Montgomery Drive where she could sit for the finishing
touches. Some weeks later the Hutchinsons drove down with the
unfinished picture. Jim brought the painting into the house and set it on
an easel. With him was his box of oil paints. When I saw the painting
I said:
"Don't open the paint box. I don't want the picture touched. I want
it just as it is."
In painting a likeness of Evelyn from the photographs, Jim had
recorded a characteristic facial expression of my wife that no photo-
graph had ever caught. How had the artist captured this expression-
a particular look out of the eyes? Evidently he had done so from
memory, although he was totally unaware of having done anything
special to the picture. Had I let him, Jim Hutchinson would have
improved the painting, from the standpoint of art, but I feared that the
expression so important to me might be lost, and so I preferred to keep
the painting as it was.
Virtually the same thing happened when Jim did a portrait of Billy
Bowlegs III, the great Seminole, of no relation to Scipio Bowlegs. Billy
Bowlegs died in 1965 a few days before his 103rd birthday. A week
before his death, I made an exceptional photograph of the Indian hunter
and leader. When I photographed Bowlegs he was coming down with
the illness that was to kill him. Although he was jovial and cracked
jokes, he obviously was feeling poorly, and his tired eyes showed it in
the photograph.
Jim had known Bowlegs well, having made sketches of him at the
Brighton reservation. He turned out a magnificent portrait. When I saw


Jim Hutchinson-a well known Florida painter of Seminoles.
the painting only the head had been finished; a part of the background
had been brushed in, while the chest had been indicated with a few hasty
strokes, leaving areas of white canvas showing.
"What kind of background do you want?" asked Jim. "And how
do you want him dressed?"
"Don't touch it!" I said. And so I had the picture framed by Gordon
Bachelor and hung it in our living room at Montgomery Drive. Nearly
everybody who saw the painting was struck by the way Hutchinson had
caught the venerable old Indian. He not only caught the eyes, he had
gone deeper-evidently from memory-and caught something no
camera can depict: in the painting the eyes have a way of looking at you


hauntingly. And if you look long enough you may see in those eyes the
tragic history of the Seminole Indian.

To Be Continued



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Mr. and Mrs. Murray Lipinaky
Dr.and Mrs. William A. Little
Mr, and Mr. Thomsa S. Loane
Mr. and Mrs. L Edward Landan
Ms. Joyce T. Laig
Mr. and Mrs. Jay W. Loap&ich
Mr. Janus R. Lowry. Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Edwin C. Lunsfrd, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Howard W. Margoluis
Mr. and Mrs. FmPily B. Mathesn
Mr. Hardy Matheson
Mr.andMrs. FndcrickiJ.Maxted,Jr.
Dr. Robert H. McCabe
Mr. and Mrs. David Malin
Mr. and Mrs. Jack L Meyer
Mr. and Mrs. Robert C. Miller
Mr. Roger 0. MisIeh
Mr. and Mrs. Ermst Moritz
Mr. and Mrs. Michael Moses
Mrs. Wirth M. Munro
Mr, Rath D, Myers
Mr. Joeph C. Nemti
Mr. and Mrs. Charles W. Newcomb
Dr. Edward W. Norton
Mr. md Mrs. David Owen
Ms. Katherine F. Pamoast
Mr. George W. Peck, Jr.
Mr. and Mr. Chuck Platt
Mr. and Ms. Bernard Plotlkin
Mr. and Ms, Richard B. Phumer
Mr. and Mrs. Stanley B. Price
Mr. mnd M. Fred Radelrnanm
Mr. and Mrs. Edward K. Rawts, Jr.

Dr. and Mrs, Bruce Ga-Irr
Dr. and Mrs. Uoyd S. Goldman
Dr. and Mrs. Robert H. Goldwyn
Mr. and Mrs. William Goodson, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs, Reed Gordon
Mrs. Carol Jane Gotfrled
Mr. and Mrs. Stanton GrCene
Mr. E. Stewart Guyton
Ms. Nancy K. Harrington
Ms. Marjory Hilliard
Mr. and Mi. Larry Jacobsen
Mr. and Mrs. David W. Johnlson
Mr. Cyrus M. Jollivotie
Mr. and Mrs. James R, Jorgenson
Dr. and Mrs. J. R. Jude
Mr. and Mrs. Ralph A. Juncossa
Mr. and Mrs. John E. Junkin, III
Mr. and Mrs. Donald J. Kmern
Mr. Marvin J. Kristal
Mr. and Mrs. Michae Lamphcar
Ms. Eleanor F. Levy
Mr. and Mrs. Alan Lubitz

Mr. Charles G. Rcbozo
Dr. sod Mrs. Walter B. Reid
Mr. and Mrs. Louis H. Richards
Dr. and Mrs. Thormas Righctti
Mr. and Mrs. Raul L. Rodriguez
Mr. and Mrs. Read S. Ruggles. Jr.
Dr. and Mrs. Theodore Sarafoglu
Ms. Martha M. Scott
Mr. Michael Paul Shienvold
Ms. Abbie H. Shoise
Mr. and Mrs. Murray Sislman
Mrs. Lillian N. Smith
Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Smith
Mr. and Mrs. Samuel L. Smith
Mr. and Mrs.Ndal R. Sonnet
Mr. and Mrs. Theodore Spak
Mr. and Mrs. David W. Steele
Mr. Arthur Stein
Mr. Alan W. Stinberg
Ms. Edean W. Stirrup
Mrs. Patricia Sulliva
Mrs.J. Sures
Mrs. Edward C. Sweaney
Mr. and Mrs. Salomon Trrner
Mr. and Mrs. Richard J. Thoenon
Ms. Jean M. Thorpe
Mr. and Mrs. Jamcs E. Tribble
Dr. and Mrs. Michael B. Trrer
Mrs. Roberts H. Turrnr
Mr. and Mrs. Christopher 0. Tyson
Dr. and Mrs. Alfred H. Underwood
Mr. and Mrs. Edwin Underwood
Mr. Jack Vallcga
Mr. and Mrs. Herbert Van Denend
Mr. and Mrs. Clark Vcmon
Ms. Sandra Villa
Mrs. Jean Waldberg
Mr. and Mrs. Carl D. Ward
Mr. and Mrs. Leonard Wien
Mr. and Mrs. William M. Williams
Mr. and Mrs. Geore M. Wilson
Mrs. PeytonL. Wilson
Mr. md Mrs. Bernard Wolfson
Mrs. Waren C. Wood, Sr.
Mr. and Mrs. Otis 0. Wragg. III
Mr. and Mrs. Start S. Wyllic
Mr. Robert A. Znlten, M.D.

Mr. James P. Mathews, III
Mr. Jahn M. McMinn
Mr. and Mrs. W.C. Mcrritt
Mr. and Mrs. Howard A. Mesh
Mr. and Mrs. Frank C. Meyers
Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Milott
Mr. Alfred B. Mohr
Dr. Thomas A. Natiollo
Dr. and Mrs. Mervin H. Necddl
Mr. Brian Nocross
Mr. Paul Olingy
Mr. and Ms. W. James Orovit
Mr. and Mrs. John Pcsz
Mr. alind Mrs. John C. Pistorino
Mr. Douglas J. Prachcr
Ms. Judith Price and Mr. Charles Cohn
Dr. and Mrs. Philip J. Reckf-rd
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas C. Reed, Sr.
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Reily
Mr. and Mrs. Norman C. Ridgely
Dr. and Mrs. E.G. Robertson
Mr. and Mrs. James B. Rose

Mr. and Mrs. Ronald Rosengarton
Mr. and Mrs. Nathaniel P. Ruter, III
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Schmagel
Mr. and Mrs. John C. Scipp, Jr.
Mr. and Ms. Glen Simmons

Mr. and Mrs. Dave Adarma
Mr. and Mrs. Jack G. Admire
Mrs Harold Aibl
Mr. Manuel Albalate
Mr. and Mrs. Herbrt E. AllDcon
Mr. and Mrs. George Alonso
Mr. and Mr. David Alter
Mr. and Mrs. John S.Ammnarll, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Duam Anderson
Mr. and Mrs. John Andersnc
Mr. Larry Apple and Ms. Esther
Mr, and Mrs. Ted Arch
Mrs. Bster M. Armbriastr
Mr. and Mrs. Mike Arnold
Dr. Carlos R. Arredndo
Mr. and Mrs. Pcler Athan
Hon. and Mrs. C. Clyde Atkins
Mr. and Mrs. Alvin Atlass
Mr. and Mra. Joan L. Avant
Mr. and Mrs. Louis S. Bacher
Mr. ad Mrs. Ken Bcr
Mr. and Mr. David R. Baker
Mr. and Mrs. John W. Baker
Mr. and Mr. Rod C. Ball
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Ballard
Mr. and Mrs. Michael Bander
Mr. and Mrs. A. Jeffrey Barash
Mr. and Mrs. Charles W. Bate
Mr. and Mrs. James W. Barfield
Mr. and Mr. John Barkctt
Mr. and Mrs. Paul J. Barko
Mr. and Mrs. Lester R. Bamrhill
Dr. and Mrs. Janes W. Barrow
Dr. and Mrs. Terrnce J. Barry
Dr. and Mrs. Robert T. Bass
Ms. Maria C. Batista
Mr. and Mrs. Robet B. Battle
Mr. and Mrs. Gary L. Baumgartrnr
Mr. E. N. Bechamps
Mr. and Mrs. Alien M. Beck
Mr. and Mr. Fred B cker
Mr. and Ms. Albert J. Beer
Dr. and Mrs. Grant H. Beglarian
Mr. and Mrs. William G. Bell
Mr. and Mrs. Oded Ben-Arie
Mr. and Mrs. Fred A. Bendicr
Mr. and Mrs. Robert W. Benn-en
Ms. Sharon Bemertt
Mr. H. Allen Bonowitz
Mr. and Mrs. Steve Benson
Mr. C.P. Bentley
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Berger
Mr. and Mrs. Michael Berke
Mr. and Mrs. Roger Bernstein
Mr. and Mrs. Ronald Bernstein
Mr. and Mrs. Ray Berrin
Mr. and Mrs, Ralph H. Bertelsosm
Ms. Mildred L. Betamee
Mr. and Mrs. Richard J. Bischoff
Mr. and Mrs. Marvin Loa River
Mr. William Bjorkman amd
Ms. Pam Winter
Mr. and Mrs. David M. Blackard
Mr. and Mrs. Ace J. Blackburn, Sr.

Mr. and Mrs. Edwin 0. Simon
Mr. and Mrs. William Sutton
Mr. ArrandoTabornllae
Mr.andMrsJamea B.Tilgharnr, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs.H. Mark Vieth


Mr. and Mrs. Jose Blanco
Dr. and Mrs. Harvey Blank
Mr. and Mrs. Jeffrey Block
Mr. and Mrs. Leonard Bloom
Mr. and Mrs. Philip F. Blumberg
Mr. and Mrs. Steven Bobes
Mr. Benjamin Bohlmann and
Ms. Ellen Kanner
Mr. and Mrs. WilliamlH. Boumn
Mrs. R. Bowen
Dr. and Mrs. Russell Boyd
Mr. Leonard Boymer and Mr. Frankic
Ma. Clara Broa and Mr. Phillip Carver
Mr. and Mra. Robert F. Brack
Mr. and Mrs. Daniel T. Brady
Mr. and Ms. Robert M. Brake
Mr. and Mr. G. Brian Brodcur
Mr. and Mrs. Jan Brody
Mr. and Mrs. Lester L Brookncr
Mr. and Mir. Jack Broudo
Mr. and Mrs. Bert S. Brown
Mr. and Mrs. Bradford B. Brown
Mr. and Mrs. Harvey Brown
Mr. and Mrs. Jack N, Brown
Mr. and Mra. James K. Brownt
Mr. and Mrs. Jory A. Brown
Mr. and Mrs. E.R. Browae4ll
Mr. and Mo. JohnM. Brumbangh
Mr. and Mrs. Mark Buchbinder
Mr. and Mrs. Fred Buchsbaum
Mr. and Mrs. Jean a Buhlorr
Mr. and Mrs. Gordon Burke
Mr. and Mrs. LeaLnd Burton, Jr.
Col. and Mrs. Robert A. Brton, Jr,*
Mr. and Mrs. George Busby
Mr. and Mrs. Jcb Bush
Mr. and Mm. Donald H. Butler
Mr. and Mrs. Lamence W. Cahill
Mr. and Mrs. John W. Campbell
Mr. and Mrs. Philip Capmran
Mr. and Mrs. Art Carlson
Ms. Barbara J. Car
Dr. and Mrs. Larnsce T. Carroll
Mr. ad Mrs. Robert B. Cas
Milton P. Caster, M.D.
Mrs, Graciala C. Catasu
Mr. and Mrs. Mark Caulder
Ms, Patricia Chaonrrsa
Dr. and Mrs. Jose A. Chamorro
Dr. and Mrs. JR. Chandler
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur E. Chapman
Mr. and Mm. David Charles
Mr. ID. Charlesworth and
Ms. S. M. Hemeleff
Mr. and Mrs. John S. Chl ng
Mr, and Mrs. David Church
Mr. andMrs. James K. Clark
Mr. and Mrs. William P. Claypool
Mr. and Mrs. C.G. Canton
Mr. and Mrs. William Coats
Mr. Annanm o Codie
Dr. and Mrs. Alvin Cohen
Mr. and Mo. George Cohon
Mr. and Mz. William Cohen

Dr. and Mrs. Brian Weiss
Mr. and Mrs. Michael J. Whalin
Mr. and Mrs. Prank T. Williaur
Dr. R.K. Wrighl and Mrs. J.A. Hunt
Mr. and Mrs. Jack B. Ytffa
Mrs. Eunice P. Yates

Dr. Leon F. Cohn
Mr. and Mrs. Ronald F. Cold
Mr. and Mrs. Pbilip Cole
Dr. and Mrs. James Conley
Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Come
Mr. Cark Cook
Mr. and Mrs. Robert F. Cook
Mr. and Mrs. Thnomas G. Cooney
Mr. and Mr. Marc Cooper
Rep. John Cosgrove
Mr. Alberto Cosio
Mr. and Mrs. Hyman Coverman
Mr. and Mrs. John W. Cowling
Mr. and Mrs. HarIod Crews
Mr. id Mrs. Andrew T. Cullison
Mrs. JohnE. Culmer
Mr. Charges C'uran and Dr. Tina
Mr. and Mr. DeVere H. Cadis
Mr. and Mr. Guillermo Cuti
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Dabney
Mr. and Mra. John Dacy
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Daniel
Mr. and Mr. Dale Davis
Mr. and Mrs. Ted Davis
Mr, and Mrs. Myron Dawkins
Mr. and Mrs. Joel B. Day
Mr. and Mrs. Richard A.
Mr. Jorge L. de Cardenas
Mr. and Mrs. Jose Dearing
Mr. and Mrs. Robert W. Decker
Mr. and Mrs. Don Deresz
Mr. and Mrs. Bruno M. Diun
Mr. and Mrs. Ronald F. Diehl
Ms. Adriaene A. Diprima
Mr. and Mrs. Alan H.
Mr. and Mrs. Dennis Doncnll
Mr. Roger Doucha
Mr. Robert R. Draik
Mr. and Mrs. Stau Drillick
Mrs. Paye Dugas
Mr. Ernest M. Dumas
Mr. and Mrs. Charles A. Dunn
Ms. Delba Durant-Schoendorf
Mr. and Mrs. David J. Dutcher
Dr. and Mrs. William H. Eaglsterm
Mr. Alexander Earnest
Mr. and Mrs. Vernon C. Eason
Mr. and Mrs. Joel D. Eaton
Mr. and Mrs. BricR. Eckblomn
Mr. and Mrs. James M. Eckhart
Mr. and Mrs. Lcster Edlman
Mr. and Mrs. Norman Einspruch
Dr. and Mrs. Richard P. Emerson
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Enstrorn
Mr. and Mrs. Henry B. Erikson
Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Bteves
Mr. and Mrs. Cecil H. Evans
Mr. and Mrs. David G. Evans
Mr. and Mrs. James D. Evans
Mr. Dan Eydt
Mr. and Mrs. Charles E. Fancher, Jr.
Rep. and Mrs. Dante B. Fasdll


Mr. Fin and Ml. WesfUll
Dr. and Mrs. Alfred FPoaluld
Dr. and Mrs. Jeffrey Peingdd
Mr. and Mrs. Eric B. Fldman
Mr. and M Larry Peldman
Ms. Gail Fels snd Mr. Adam Fels
Mr. and Mrs. FPrd FPclser
Mr. and Mrs. Paul Ferry
Dr. Ellen Fine and Mr.Ray PFtland
Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Fl nkalsin
Mr. and Mm. Jams N. Finlay
Mr. and Mm. WJ. Fitgerald
Mr. and Mr. Micuhal Platry, Jr.
Mr. and Mr. Harry D. Flaming
Mr. and Mr. Damn Flip
Ms. Mary Ryim and Mr. Patrick

Dr. Lais H. Pnmeca
Mr. and Mrs. Ken Farman
Mr. snd Mr. Hugh J. Forthran
Mr. and Mrs. Pual F. Poster
Mr. d Mrs.DwightFrazier
Mr. and Mrs. Stpln Freman
Mr. and Mrs. Philip Freidin
Mr. andMrs. Lawmnce Freshman
Mr. and M Richard B. Priberz
Dr. and Mr. Evin Friedman
Ms. Muriel Friedman
Mr. Raymnd MFrost
Mr. and Mrs. Dvid Frum
Ma. Laurie Gach and Mr. Tary

Mr. emd Mrs. Jorp Gallo
Mr. and Mrs. Tome F. Gambha
Mr. mnd M Joseph H. OGang=Ea
Mr. and Mrs. Donald GarnTer, Jr.
Mr. and Mr. Robert W. Gardnar
Mr. and Ml. Glenn B. Garvott
Mr. end Mrs. Pme B. GarveUs
Mr. and Mrs. Gerald Gefnim
Mr. Harold Gelber and Ms. Pat
Mr. Robert Gclrg
Mr. and Mrs. Miud George
Dr. and Mrs. Paul S. George
Mr. and M John Gillan
Mr. andMn. Jdm OGilma r
Mr. and Mr. Robert A. Ginsburg
Mr. and Mrs. John Gladsto
Mr. and Mrs. Hugh Gladwin
Dr. and Mrs. Jeffrey Glasser
Dr. and Mr. Marall Glasacr
Mr. and Mrs. Fi nidyn B. Glin
Mr. and Mn. Sig M. Glultaed
Mr. and Mr. Robert Gorecr
Mr. nd Mrs. Bmcc Golmnan
Mr. Leroy Goldstein and
Ms. Lauren Gould
Mr. and Mrs. Seymour Goldweber
Mr. and Mo. Ivan Gaonzalez
Mr. andMnr. JIs A. Gnzalez
Ms. Nan-y Gonzalez
Mr. nd Mrs. B F. Goodn, Jr.
Ms. Regina Godfrind
Mr. and Mrs. Elliot Gordon
Mr, ndMrs.Edward Grad
Mr. and Mr. Henry A. Grady
Ms. Dorothy W. Graham
Mr. and Mr. Leslie L. Grat
Mr. and Mr. Bruce I, Graysm
Mr. and Mrs. Donald M. Green
Mr. and Mrs. Marvin R. Green
Mr. and Mrs. Brry N Greenberg
Mr. and Mrs. Enru Gtrceblatn

Mr. and Mrs. Michael S. Groene
Mr. and Mrs. Burta D. Greenfield
Mr. and Mrs. Nathan G menhouse
Rev. and Mrs. Robb Grim
Mr. nd Mrs. Jdm W. Grimaley
Mr. End Mm. Martin GO man
Mr. End Mn. Richard Grnuimdzak
Mr. and Mrs. Gearge Grnmwell
Mr. md Mnrs. ThnD, uilfoyle
Mr. and Mr. Richard M. Outtmnn
Dr. and MMs. Th0mMas B. GnytOn
Mr. and Mrs. Jolm Hacktand
Mr. nd Mr. Jack D.lHalm
Mr. and Mrs. J HalesM
Mr. and Mr. John Hall
Mr. and Mrs. Monroe S. Hall
Mr. and Mn. Richard Hallstrand
Mr. Thoana L. Hamnhight
Dr. and Mrs. C Hamrftu
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Hammond
Dr. and Mrs. Gregory Han
Ms. Lucy H. Hmfearadem
Mr. and Mrs. ChriKMn HansMon
Mr. end Mrs. Larry Hantmn
Mr. John W. Harulle, r.
Mr. and Mrs. Jy T. Hurisu
Mr. MR. HaTism. Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Ray L. Ht
Mrs. Robin W.HartmX
Mr. and Ms. Milton. Hatld
Mr. and Mr. Fred Havenick
Mr. and Mr. Maurice B. Hawa
Mr. and Mr. W. Hamlton Hayes
Mr. and Mm. Dale A. Hackealing
Dr. and Mrs. MelvIl HDllnlar
Mr. ad Mrs. Charles R. Helweck
Mr. andMrs. Edward I. Heisncif
Dr. and Mrs. Jeffrey Hankin
Mr. end Mrs. JohWn Hrmresey
Mr. and Mrs. wullismonray
Mr. and Mrs.Ben1rd PfHerkowitz
Mr. and Mn. Herman Hu t, Jr.
Mr. ad MMr. Gerald Hcir r
Mr. and Mrs. Lmis Hieser
Mr. and Mrs. W. Warfield H eser
Dr. and Mr. Frank J. Hildnr
Mr. and Mrs. Gregg R. Hinckley
Mr. and Mo. LF. Hinds. Jr.
Mrs. T.P. Hipps
Mr. and Mrs. Sol Hirsch
Dr. ad Mr. Aldy Hinrc
Mr. and Mo. Robert A. Hitld
Mr. d Mm. Jams C. Hobbw, II
Mr. and Mr. Jack Hadus
Mrs Kenneth M. Hocffel
Dr. and Mr. William HoRman
Mr. and Mrs. Lyle D. Hlcmb, ir.
Mr. J.M. Hlaeenbeck
Mr. lifford Hope
Mr. and M Junes L Horan
Mr. andMr. Neal Hansiein
Mr. ad Mrs. Joseph B. Haoritan
Mr. ad Mra JM Edward Hontnn
Mr. and M Charles L. Hunt
Mr. and Mrs. Robert J. Hutchino
Dr. and Mr. James J. Huras
Ms. Christive Hyrs
Mr. ad Ms. Kenneth Hyncse
Mr. and Mrs. David Issarberg
Mr. nd Mrs. Robet M. Jckon
Mr. and Mrs. Richard Jacobs
Mr. and Mn. T.M. Jecobim
Dr. ad Mrs. Jed Jacobson
Mr. and Mr. Arthur Jacrmei

Mr. and Mr. Harold Jffr
Mr. zad Ms Mark Jwawhir
Mr. and Mr. James L. Jeffes
Mr. Frank Jenkins
Mn. Mary D. Jenkins
Mr. and Mrs. Johba Jensen
Ms. Jen Johnmon and Ms. Betty
Mr. nd Mrs. Lyle Johlma
Mr. ad Mr. Walln A. Jobmon
Dr. and Mr Stanley Joas
Mr. andMm. Bardy Jones
Mr. and Mrs. Daniel C. Joes
Mr. and Mr. Ermnt P. Jones
Mr. and Mr. Richard A. Joes
Dr. and Mrs. Walter C. Joews, III
Dr. and Mrs. Federico Justinani
Dr. and Mr. Gerard A. Kaiser
Ms. Kano and Mr. Kumark
Mr. Komensrtne Karrs
Mr. and Mrs. Nelson Ksdin
Mr. and Mr. John B. Kalo, III
Mr. and Mn. Hy Kats
Mr. andMrs.Jc KKlz
Mr. and Mnr. William Katret
Mr. and Mn. Howard Kt-mn
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Kufma
Dr. ad Mrs Paul HL Keefe
M1. Barbara Kellor and Ms. Funy
Mr. and Mrs. Patrick Kelly
Mr. Harold Kendall
Mr. and Mrs.Chrles L Kaenmn, Jr.
Mr. nd Mrs. Norman M. Kenyon
Mr. and Mrs. CM. Keppie
Dr. ad Mrs. Wayne J. Kcneass
Dr. and Mrs Kameth Kenuch
Mayor and Mr. Mitchel Kinzer
Mr. and Mr.N. Riley Kirby
Mr. and Mrs. Morris Kischner
Mr. ad Mrs. Jalhan I. Kislak
Ms. Jndy Rlier
Mr. and Mrs. Tom Kno
Mr. Craig E. Kolthoff
Mr. and Mrs. Jameurs Korth
Mr. aid Mrm. Sid Ko lovaky
Mr. mand Mrs. Abe Koss
Mr. mud Mrs. Jodm Karyak
.Mr. and Mrs. Fraildin D. Kretzer
Mr. mnd Mrs. Warren Krug
Mr. Geni Kubicki
Mr. Robert Leay
Mr. ad Mn.DIvid B. Lir
Mr. and Mrs.Ptr Laird
Mr.Jodm lahI
Ms. Doan A. Lncastr
Mr. Stephen Laos
Mr. and Mrs. Allen L. Lanpr
Mr. ad Mrs. Wright Langley
Mr. ed Mrs. Martin J. Lann
Mr. ad Mrs. Lawence LaRuse
Ms. Linda Lach and
Mr. L. Whildin
Dr. nd Mrs. L Jay Later
Mr. and Mr, Murray L. Lazarus
Mr. and Mn. David Loblang
Mr. and Mr. Richard Lee
Mr. and Mr. Terry R. Lee
Mr. and Mr. Robert Lef wich
Mr. Douglas K. LetAan
Mr.Richard L. Lehmna
Mr. and Mr. Robert B. Lovin
Mr. and Mrs. Statsn G. LAvin
Dr. Harold Lakvin

Mr. C. Levimky
Dr. mand Mrs. Riclhard Levitt
Mr. andMrs. Marvin Lewis
Dr. and Mr. Sylvan R. Lewis
Mr. and Mr. Wallace L.
Lewis, Jr.
Mrs Margaret Lia i
Mr. Robert Libernmn
Dr. md Mrs. Jdmn B. Licblcr
Dr. and Mrs. Norman C. Liebman
Mr. and Mrs. Noman HL Lipoff
Mr. mndMrs. Leigh Livewmy
Mr. Don R. Livingstone
Mr. and Mr. Carlos J. Lopez
Mr. and Ms. Jose Lopez
Dr, and Mrs. Edward Loe:s
Mr. and Ms. Rafael T Laris
Mr. and Mrs. Mark Losada
Mr. ad Mrs.Jdm Loak
Mr. andMrs. Stan Loth
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Loviruky
Mr. rad Mrs. Robert Lowell
Mrs Neweida Lowery
Mr. and Mrs. Philip F. Ludovici
Dr. and Mrs. William Ludwig
Mr. id Mrs. Rafael L. Lastig
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph M. Lynch
Mr. and MMr. Richard W. Lyons
Mr. and Mrs. Robert MacDoaald
Mr. mnd Mr. James L Mack
Mr. Peter M. MacNamam
Mr. and Ms. Kevin A.
Mr. ad Mrs. David L. Magidson
Ms. Magolnick and Mr. Hustead
Mr. and Mr. Ricaurd M. Mahancy
Mr. and Mrs. Roy Mahmly
Dr. and Mrs. Anthany P. Maingot
Mr. ms Mrs. Allan Main l
Mr. and Mrs. Richard H. Maloy
Dr. and Mrs. Eugene Man
Mr. mdMrs. Philip J. Mank, Jr.
Mr. and M Dimitrir Mantosa
Mr. and Mrs. Bruce Marchelte
Mr. analMn. RohertMrk
Mr. and Mrs. Thom asMark
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Markowitz
Dr. and Mrs. Cliftford Marks
Ma. Mary Am Marshall
Mr. and Mrs. Frank C. Marti
Mr. and Mrs. Alberto
Mr. and Mrs. Lany Marvae
Mr. and Mn. Park Masernon
Mr. md Mrs. John A. Matchiette
Mr. and Mrs. Thola J. Matkov
Mr. and Mr. Edward Maxwell
Mr. and Ms. Michael Maxwdll
Mr. Thnmes C. Maiwell
Mr. and Mrs. Cadrl Maynard
Mr. and Mi. John A. Mayo
Mr. Thaorm F. McAuliffe, Ill
Mr. and Mrs. C. De=ring
Dr. and Mrs. Donald
McCorqnodale, Jr.
Dr. J es W. McCredy
Mr. and Mrs. Scott McDaniol
Mr. and Mrs. Richard M. McGOary
Mr. and Mrs. Harry E. McGovern
Mr. and Mrs. Brian McOuinness
Mr. and Mr. Vincent J. McHugh
Mr. mand Mrs. Suart B. Melver
Mr. BrigMcKenna

Mr. Afrd McKnight
Dr. and Mrs. Robert A. McNasaghrm
Mr. and Mrs. Jack McQuale
Mr. and Mrs. RDl McTaguo
Dr. G. Metcalf antd Dr. B. Metcalf
Mr. and Mn. Addisn i. Myers
Dr. Os Mr. Ma Millard
Mr. amd Mrs. Aritides Millas
Mr. md Mr. David Miller
Dr. and Mrs Douglas Miller
Mr. and Mn. Edward MillrM
Ms. Elearnr Miller aid
Mr. Alan Smith
Mr. and Mr.H. Dale Miller, Jr.
Mr. md Mrs. WillimJ. Miller
Mr. Charles W. Milum, I
Mr. amdMrs. Sanford B. Mioa
Mr. md Mrs. Karleson Mitchell
M. Nanci B. Mitchell
Mr. and Mrs. William Mitchell
Mr. and M. Lloyd L. Maeller
Mr. andMrs. Pawd y A.MMdo
Ms. Lans MachLsk
Judge ad Mrs. Josepha Moiusanto
Mr. andMrs. Chmrles B. Monon
Mr. aid Mrs. Fausto MonMan
Mr. and Mnrs. Mario B. Mansagudo
Mr. and Mr. Donald I. Mor-e
Mr. and Mrs. Santiago D. Mrale
Mr. mad Mnr. Oorgo L Macrt
Mr. mdMrs. Sergi Moreno
Mr. ad Mrs. A. Melvin Morris
Mr. and Mr. David M Morris
Mr. md Mrs. Theodoe Morrison
Mr. and Ms. Alhur L. Moms
Mr. nese D. Mucaehy
Mr. Muller and Mrs. Siakind-Mullor
Mr. ad Mra. Roger J. Murphy
Mr. and Mr. O.C. Murray
Misses Margaet & Alice Mustartl
Mr. and Mrs. Stanley C. Myers
Mr. andMr. R.M. Nagy
Mr. andMnrs. DeniaNnEy
Ma. Nancy Newton
Ms. Brandi Ncwtam-Mantil
Mr. and Mr. Frank 0. Nichob
Mr. Manmel Na nersa
Mr. and Mrs. Colgan anran, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Henry Na-M
Mr. ad Mn. Louis Nosrn
Mr. and Mrs. B.P. Nckis, Jr.
Mr. and Mr. Raald Numhring
Mr. ad Mrs. Eugenio P. Nune
Mr. ad Mrs. Edward T. 'Domell
Mr. and Mrs. William O'Toole
Mr. and M COsarOdio
Mr. John Ogden and
Ma. Maryanne Bigger
Mr. and Mrs. Dennis J. Ollk
Prof. and Mrs. George Omprienko
Mr. mnd Mrs. Robert L. Oppeohimner
Mr. and Mr. Samuel Orontilk
Mr. and Mrs. Amado J. Ordiz
Mr. and Mrs. Michael Osbtns
Mr. ard Mr. Jim B. Osteen
Mr. and Mrs. Abe Ostrovaky
Mr. mand Mrs. Francis J. Owens
Mr. and Mrs. Jdm W. Owen
Mr. and Mrs. Arnold Pakula
Mr. and Mrs. WiliamnP. Pal ow
Mr. and Mrs. Robert A. Pampe
Mr. and Mrs. Lmamt C. Pancoast
Mr. and Mrs. Lelie V. Pnti, Jr.
Dr. and Mrs. Emanel M. Pepper

Mr. Austin S. Parker
Mr. md Mrs. GarthR. Parker
Mr. and Mr. Robin Parker
Dr. and Mrs. BEd nd I. Parties
Mr.Patti ad M. Gordon
Mr. Juk Phlk
Ms. Anita Pawley and Ms. Marcia
Dr. mnd Mrs. .B.Paxmn, Jr.
Mr. andMrs.Lary eacock
Dr. md Mrs. Dorald Poriman
Mr. and Mrs. Gram L. Pddle
Mr. and Mr.Marvi S. Pear
Mr. and Mr.Jcrg J. Pars
Mr. and Mrs. Paul Pgakia
Mr. and Mrs. Jay Pakns
Mr. and Mrs. David Penman
Mr. and M .rs. A Par
Mrs. Jean Perwin
Mr. md Mrs. Roderick N. Ptl-y
Mr. nd Mrs. David B. P tigrow
Mr. mnd Mo. PaulPlo&in
Mr. and Mrs. David S, Plum r
Susmat and No dlle Pope
Mr. a Mrs. Budd Po
Mr. and Mrs. James Post
Ms. Miriam Prado and
M. Miriam Olzaba
Mr. and Mr. Ardnr Primak
Dr. nd Mr. Eugene P. Provenzo
Mr, Orville 1 Provev
Mr. PtarT. PIuitt
Mr. and Mrs. Hrbert S. Quartin
Mr. and M Francisco 1. Quin
Mr. and Mrs. A.E. Quinlon, Jr.
Mo. June C. Rtbbi
Ma. Shara Rabin
Mr. and Mr. Willam J. Rabim
Mr. and Mrs. Coinsatine Raily
Mr. Rm and Ms. Bo
Dr. and Mrs. Salvador M. Ramisez
Mr. and Mr. John J. Randall
Mr. and Mrs. William W. Randolph
Mr. nd Mrs. Stuart M. Rape
Mr. R fnd Mr. (lfod
Mr. Mark Ravencraft
Mr. and Mrs. Barrie T. Reed
Mr. and Mn. Sidney Reichian
Mr. Stime Reininger and
Ms. LynDarmmbisser
Mr. and Mr. Lewis M. Rees
Dr. LJ. Rey
Mr. and Mr. Patrick Reyna
Dr. and Mrs. Milton Rhnode
Dr. nd Mr. Maurice Rich
Mr. and Ms. Michel Richard
Mr. and Mrs. Charles B, Richr
Mr. and Mrs. Juto Rico
Mrs. William D. Riedr
Mr. and Mrs. Richard Riegler
Mr. and Mr. Karsm A. Rimt
Mr. and Mr. Manuel S. Rivero
Mr. amd Ms. Robert E. Roanci
Dr and Mrs. James A. Robb
Mr. and Mn. Neil P. Robertso
Dr. and Mrs. Richrd C. Robins
Honorable Seven D. Robinson
Mr. and Mr. Pedro L. Rom
Mr. and Mrs. Jose L. Rodriguez
Mrs. Dorothy Rodwell
Mr. and Mrs. Neil J. Rohban
Mr. and Mrs, Keith Rout
Mr. Luis L Roms-Guyn


Dr. and Mrs. Michael Rceiberg
Mr. and Mr. Andrew Roenbhlatt
Ms. Rosnbluth md Mr. Rigl
Mr. anmd Ms. JeffIy Roimk
Ms. Alta Razem Rosa
Mr. and Mrs. Donald Roth
Dr. and Mrs. RichardRubin
Mr. and Mrs. Edwin F. Russell
Mr. and Mr. Kenneth C. Russell
Mr. and Mrs. Rubens Rausowsky
Mr. Juams W. Ryan
Mr. and Mnrs. William RydrS
Mr. and Mrs. Orles P. Sacher
Mr. and Ms. Joseph A. Sackent
Mr. and Mrs. Herbert Stile
Mr. and Mr. Bert Saar
Mr. and Mr. Louis Sager
Ms. Dosha Sain and Ms. Allyce Orr
Mr. and Mr. A.A. S .akhovaky
Mr. and Mr. Arturo M. Sallow
Mr. nmd Ms. Mike Samberg
Mr. and Mrs. Smphen Sipp
Dr. Sylvan Sarsaohn
Mr. Barth Smnloff nd Ma. Gail Jafe
Mr. and Mn. StLacy H. Saildon
Mr. and Mrs. Bill Sawyer
Mr. and Mn. John W. Schachlcitcr
Ms. Norah K. Schaefer
Ms. Schlchrsian mi Mr. Sill
Mr. and Mrs. Lao Schlrir
Dr. and Mrs. William M. Schiff
Mr. and Mrs. Melvin D. Schiller
Mr. and Mrs. Irvin Schisdler
Mr. and Mnrs. 'nmalhy F. Schmanad
Mr. and Mr. Roy B. Schoen
Mr. and Mn. Sol Schlwier
Mr. and Mrs. David Schalson
Mr. Thanas J. Schulte
Mr. and Mrs. Edward A. Schirtz
Mr. and Mrs. Mark E. Schault
Mv. Liz Schwebodisson and Mr. Michael
Mr.mand Mrs. Allan Schwartz
Mrs. Jay IL Schwarz
Mr. and Mrs. Warren S. Schwartz
Mr. and Mrs. Robert M. Sclrerdel
Mr. and Mnrs. Gary C. Schweitzer
Mr. and Ms. James IL Scott
Me. Linda N. Scvrwyn
Mr. and Mrs. Robert W. Shaw., Jr.
Mrs. Geni Shaym and Mi Cindy
Mr. and Mrs. Murray Shear
Ms. Taimra Sleffman
Mr. andMnrs. Roben J. Shelley, Ift
Mr. and Mn. LeoShey
Mr. and M David Shipley
Mr. and Mr. Vergil A. Shipley
Dr. and Mrs. Robert W. Shippcc
Mr. and Mn. David Shoaf
Ms. Christia G. Shoiffer
Mr. and Mrs. Blair Sibley
Mr. and Mrs. Mark A. Siegel
Dr. J. Sicgminsciarnr
Mr. L. Frances 51kid
Mr. and Mnrs. Roger Silver
Mr. and Mrs, Ili Silveman
Mr. and Mm. Gerald Silverman
Mr. and Mnrs. Sull H. Silvermian
Mr. andMrrs. LA.ry Simona
Judge Jose Simoanet ad Ms. Remain

Mr. Howard W. Simn
Dr. ad Mrs. JosephA. Singer
Dr. and Mrs. Glen 0. Skagg
Mr. Nathan Skolnick
Mr. and Mrs. Wiliam Sitler
Mr. and Mrs. Donald Slcnick, II
Mr. and Mr. Michael C. Slonmick
Mr. and Mr. Arthur V. Smith
Mr. and Mrs. CheaiRrfield Smith, Jr.
Mr. and Mn. McGuegor Smith, Jr.
Mr. and Mn. Steven Smith
Mr. and Mrs. WilliamH. Smith, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Janes M. Snedigar
Dr. and Mrs. Selig D. Snow
Mr. and Mr. Alfred Solomon
Mr. and Mrsn. JephM. Solomon
Mr. and Mr. Robert P. Soper
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Soto
Mr. and Mr. Jaes Sotile
Mr. and Mrs. Cad A. Spatz
Mr. and M Louis Specter
Mr. and Mr. Martin Spector
Ma. Susie Spencer
Mr. and Mrs. George R. Spln, Jr.
Mr. and Mn. Philip Spool
Mr. mndMr. Ken S Jamus
Dr. a d Mrs. L.M. Siafill
Mr. sand Mm. Donald Stanley
Mrs. Barbers Steiner
Mr. andMn. Adolph SteBinhauer
Mr. and Ms, Harry Stem
Mr. mad Mrs. Harris B. Stewart
Mr. nd Mrs. Richard H. Stewart
Mr. and Mr. Ronald Y. Stilm' n
Dr. and Mrs. GJ. Stock, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. John L Stokeashny
Ms. Lynda Stoar and Mr. Ned Bernmdt
Mr. and Mrs. Saul Siranhlan
Thmanas B. Strioier, M.D.
Dr. and Mrs. Thedrase StlirI
Mr. and Mrs. Moron D. Stubins
Mr. and Mr. Cliffod L. Such.mm
Mr. and Mn. Yancey Summer
Dr. and Mrs. James N. Sulan
Mr. H. Bruce Sumon
Mr. and Mrs. MarkD. Swanson
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas A. Swartz
Mr. and Mrs. WillismnJ. Swink
Mr. and Mnrs. TIhodore L. Tab;
Mr. and Mn. Thanas T. Taylor
Mr. and Mn. Ronald B. Temkin
Mr. and Mrs. Howred J. Tendrich
Mr. and Mn. Lawrence Terry
Mr. Loarn L. Thompson
Mr. and Mr. Thomas V. Thompson
Dr. and Mrs. Richard J. Thmer
Mr. and Mrs. Craig H. Tipnmian
Mr. Nelson Todd and Mrs. Gai Warren
Mr. and Mrs. Thoamn Tochaon
Mr. and Mn. Sydney S. Tanmn
Ms. Mari A. Trejo
Mr. and Mn. Bill Troha
Mr. ad Mrs. Alan Troop
Mrs. Susan Tryson
Mr. and Mrs. William B. TachUmy, Jr.
Judge and Mnrs. William C. Turnoff
Dr. aod Mrs. Stephen Unger
Mr. and Mrs. Narciso Urquiola
Dr. and Mrs. Alberto E. Vadilo
Mr. and Mn. Clifford D. Van Ordl

Mr. William P. VaondrWydcn
Mr. and Mn. Richard T. Vasquez
Mr. Carlous Vazqu
Mr. and Mr. Torn H. Veenstra
Ms. M. Theese Vento
Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Vladimir
Mr. ad M. Maxwel Was
Mr. and Mrs. David Wadle
Mr. and Mn. David Waksman
Mr. and Mnrs. Earl D. Waldin, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas B. Walker, Jr.
Mr. and Mr. Bernard B. Wall
Mr. and Mn. Robert G. Wallace
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Ward
Mr. and Mrs. J. Donald Wasil
Mr. and Mr. Martin W. Wasserman
Mr. and Ms. William A. Webb
Dr. and Mrs. Daniel N. Weingrad
Mr. and Mrs. James Weir
Mr. and Mn. Maxwell L. Weisberg
Mr. andMrs. R. Earl Welbamn
Mr. and Mr. Malcom Weldon
Mr. mad Me. A. Rodney Wellens
Mrs. Barbara. Wells
Mr. and Mr. James H. Wenck
Mr. and Ms. Stuart A. Werner
Mr. and Mrs. Everett G. West
Mr. and MA.Davld Waest
Mr. andMn. Theodore H. White
Mr. and Mn. Eric Whiteaide
Mr. Joe Wilkins
Mr. and Ms. Harvey Willensky
Lr. (C, and Ms. Prmrea J. Williams
Dr. and Mrs. George William Jr.
Mr. and Mms. Richard IH Willitms
Mr. and Mrs. Noran Willis
Mr. and Mrs. Thonas Wills
Mi. Barbara W. Wils n
Mr. and Mrs. David L Wiamn
Mr. and Mn. rFd Wilson
Mr. and M ,. Paul C. Wimbi
Mr. and Mr. Howard L. Wimmers
Mr. amd Mn. Bill Windrm
Dr. Oliver P. Window, Jr.
Dr. ad Mrs. Philip M. Window
Mr. and Mrs. Leonard V. Wirkts
Mr. and Mr. D. Wisham
Mr. and Mrs. Knatie Withers
Mr. and Mrn. Firdrick Wimtemin
Mr. dMsMn. John C. Witty, Jr.
Dr. and Mrs. Benjamin Wolf
Mr. and Mn. Richard F. Wdolon
Mr. and Mrs. Thoma C. Woods
Mr. and Mr. JanI s S. Woolen
Mr. and Mr. James G. Waor
Mr. and Mn. James A. Wright, III
Mr. and Mrs. Robert D. Wright
Ma. Marilyn M. Yaeger
Ms. Jan T. Yehle
Mr. and Mnr. L. Donald Yoder
Ms. Barbara Young and Mr. R. Huff
Mr. andMn. John F. Young
Mr. and Ms. Stfn H. Zachar. III
Mr. Andrew Zakis
Dr. and Mrs. Sh-ldm Zaie
Mr. sod Mis. Jon W. Zedr
Mrs. Joyceo L. Ziersn
Dr. and Mrs. Fcr Zki
Mr. and Mr. Sanford Ziff
Mr. andMnrs. Craig A. Zimmett
Mr. ad Mrn. Marvin Zuckrmann


Mrs. Am VP. Abemathy
Ms. Judy AbrUll
Mrs. Betty R. Adams
Mrs. B.C. Adams
Mrs. Lamar M. Adamsa
Ml. Helen W. Adehman
Ma. Sharry Adler
Mr. Robert C. Alexander, U
Mrs. Eugenia Allen
Ms. Ruth B. Altman
Mrs. Gloria Alvarez
Mr. Lino Alvarez
Ms. Arlene Amarant
Mr. Carl D. Amsterdam
Mrs. Jolm Anonat
Ms. Amy L. Anderson
Mrs. Betty M. Anderson
Ms Rba L. Anderson
Ms. Betty Anholt
Mr. Bill Aullo
Mr. Michael R. Apfel
Ms. Hope A. Apollony
Ms. AnaMariaM. Arias
Ms. Ann Armbruster
Ms. Ingrid Amadcrff
Mrs. Fayt Aranson
Mr. Anthony D. Atwood
Mrs. Blanche T. August
Mr. Frederic M. Ayres
Mrs. Dorothy S. Babsona
Mrs. John L. Bagg, Jr.
Ms. Karen Baickr
Ms. Lois M. Bainbridge
Mr. C. Jackson Baldwin
Mr. Alex M. Balfe
Ms. Roberta Balfe
Mr. Charles L. Balli
Mrn. Bettle B. Barkdull
Ms. Ava R. Barnes
Ms. Betty Barnette
Mr. JT. Barnett
Mr. Carlos A. Balile
Mr. Patrick Batle
Mr. W.L. Baumes
Ms. Jacqueline Beatty
Ms, Kay D. Beck
Ms. Hilda R. Becker
Mr. Robert Beels
Ms. Joyce Belanger
Mr. Nathan Benn
Ms. Barbara K. Bennett
Ms. Hazel M. Bennett
Ms. Sarah L. Bcnnett
Mr. Larry P. Benovito
Mr. Edwin Bensrac
Ms. Cyane H. Bombing
Ms. Annie Betancourt
Mrs. Charlotte M. Biedron
Ms. Jacquelyn Biggane
Ms. Diam E. Bill
Mrs. John T. Bills
Mrs. Thomas H. Birchmnier
Mr. Warren R. Bitter
Mr. Roy Black
Mr. Stephen G. Blackwell
Miss Zola Man Blakeslee
Mrs. Sylvia S. Bloant
Ms. Mary S. Blyth.
Mr. Ed Been
Mr. Sanmel J. Boldrick
Mr. John W. Bors, Jr.
Ms. Jean Bradfillch
Mrs. William B. Bradley
Ms. MargaretR. Brady

Mr. Raymond G. Brady
Mrs. K.W. Br eez
Ms. Charlotte Brewer
Ms. Linda Brickman
Mr.J.R. Brooks
Ms. Nancy Browder
Mr. Willism E. Brown, Jr.
Mrs. A. H. Bryant
Mr. Thomas M. Bryant
Mr. Emil Buhlor, II
Mrs. Pal H. Buhler
Mr. Phillip A. Buhler
Mrs. T.C. Buhlor
Mr. Douglas RI Burkam
Mr. Randy Burman
Ms. Sandy Burnett
Dr. E. Carter Burrus, Jr.
Mr. Blake Bush
Ms. Ann Bussel
Ms. Barbara 0. Byrd
Mr. Antonio Carbajo
Ms. Juliet Cardillo
Mr. Don Carlson
Ms. Linda H. Carver
Mr. Robert M. Caon
Ms. Janet C. Cassady
Mrs, George B. Caster
Ms. Mia Cavaco
Mr. Angel Chacon
Mrs. Dixis H. Chastain
Mr. Donald E. Chauncey
Ms. Josephine C. Cheslcy
Mr. Robert A, Chcastr
Ms. Cynthia Chiefs
Mrs. Anita Christ
Ms. Margot Chrystic
Ms. Kathy Cibula
Ms. Lydia S. Cark
Mrs. Mac K. Clrk
Ms. Dana L. Cay
Ms. Madeline M. Clay
Mr. Timothy Cleary
Mr. Louis Coburn
Mrs, Nancy Cohena
Mr. Robert B. Cole
Ms. LaurenC. Coll
Ms. Mary E. Collins
Ms. Theresa Collins
Dr. Iene Colsky
Ms. Maria Tercsa Ccmches
Ms. Mabel Conde
Ms. Catherino J. Conduitiv
Mr. Larry B. Conc
Ms. Lillian Cosesa
Mr. Lyndon C, Conlonc
Ms. Barbara E. Connellan
Mrs. Daphne W. Conner
Mr. StevenR. Cook
Ms. Caren Dale Cooper
Mr. Paal B. Cooper
Mr. Atmando H. Corbelle
Mr. Hal Coraon
Mr. James Costello
MrJohnA. CourtrighltCLU
Mrs. Ptcey Cox
Ms. Norma J. Craig
Dr. Douald R. Cra mpton
Mr. David S. Cross
Mr. Elvis W. Cruz
Ms. Judith Cuevas
Ms. K. M. Culpepper
Mr. George Cumsintgs, Ill
Mr. Cderis Cauingham
Mr. Donald W. Carl

Ms. Joyce Curtis
Dr. Edward L. Culer
Mrs. Kathleen Daniels
Mr. Dewitt C. Daughtry
Mr. Phillip Daum
Mr. Jim F. Davis
Ms. Marion P. Davis
Judge Manti B. Davis
Mr. Carleton J. Davison
Ms. Lisa Ann Davison
Ms. Anush Dawidjan
Ms. Phyllis M.G. Dawson
Ms. Jane S. Day
Ms. Sandy Dayhoff
Mr. J. Allison Do Foor, II
Ms. Adele De Los Santas
Mr. Douglas W. Deans
Ms. Rose Dequine
Ms. Linda A. Derleth
Ms. E. Josephine Deville
Ms. Betty Ruth Dewitt
Ms. Angela Diaz
Mrs. Robert Dickey
Mrs. Margie DiDomenicos
Ms. Emily P. Dieterich
Mr, Marian E. Dirsiar
Dr. Stephen Dobrow
Mrs. Rosemary Docmor
Mr. JuanmV, Domnnguez
Mr. rF. Daonnly
Mrs. Leslie Domr
Mrs. Mary C. Dorscy
Mrs. Dorothy M. Downs
Mrs. HE. Drew
Mrs. Mamic L. Drulard
Mr. Daniel S. Dubbin
Ms. Grace Y. Durbin
Mr. William A. Dury.s
Mrs. John E. Duvall
Mr. William J.Eakins
Ms. Sarah Eaton
Ms. Norma Edeer
Mr. Jim Edward
Mr. P.H. Edwards
Ms. Agnes Egglestoe
Mr. Albert J. Eliert
Mr. John D. Ellis
Ms. Ruth B. Elsasser
Ms. Patricia G. Ernst
Mr. David Errickson
Msa Jacquteyn Esco
Mr. Russell Eding
Mr. Walter Brling
Brother Eugemn
Ms. Joan B. Bwald
Mr. Irving R. Eyster
Mrs. Mary A. Faber
Ms. Carol Fakes
Mr. Todd S. Farha
Ms. Elainm FPinberg
Mr. J. W. Fell
Ms. Roberta A. Fellaborn
Ms. Irma M. Fernmandez
Mr. Jose Fcrnandez
Ms. Lourdes A. Pemande
Ms. Mary L. Fiurtado
Ms. Margaria Fichtner
Mrs. Nell Finencma
Mr. Ray Fisher
Mrs. Bibi Fishman
Mr, JoscphFishwick
Mr. Frank S. Fitzgerald-

Dr. J.M. Pitzgibbon
Mr. Thomas F. Fleischmann
Mr. Leopoldo Fl er
Ms. Dorothy Flowers
Mr. Robert L. Floyd
Mrs. Edward T. Foote
Miss Elizabeth Poote
Mr. Richard E. Ford
Ms. Agnes R. Fortin
Ms. Sheila Foster
Mr. Paul Fraynd
Mr. John Fredrick
Miss Arlene Fcier
Miss Reace Z Pritsch
Ms. Jo V. Punk
Ms. Marjorie L. Galatis
Ms. Janice Gale
Mr. Craig T. Galls
Mrs. Joyce V. Garcia
Ms. Janet P. Gardiner
Ms. Camar Gargano
Mrs. Millicent Garis
Ms. Pamela Garrisoa
Ms. Carol Garvin
Ms. Marcia Gauger
Ms. Nan B. Gault
Mrs. Lorrainc Gawley
Mrs. Terence Gerace
Dr. Paul U. Gerber, Jr.
Ms. Patricia L. Gillies
Mrs. Rita Ginsburg
Mr. Robert N. Ginsburg
Mr. Abraham J. Giuelson
Ms. Barbara Glaee
Mr. William H. Gleason
Mrs. Anna C. Goldenberg
Judge Harvey L. Goldstein
Ms. Marisa B. Gomez
Mr. William Gonzalez
Mr. Ed Goodman
Ms. Beth Gopmn
Mr. Harold H. Gordon
Dr. Mark W. Gordon
Dr. Thomas S. Gowin
Mrs. Edward G. Grafton
Ms. Pricilla M. Gray
Ms. Llama G. Green
Dr. David Greenfield
Ms. Lynn Grenioer
Mr. Glenu Griffith
Ms. Barbara Groolsby
Ms. Sherry L. Gross
Ms. Nancy Grout
Ms. MarldeC Grover
Mrs. Margaret R. Gmtzbach
Ms. Maria B. Gutierrcz
Mr. Stephen F. Hackley
Ms. Kay K. Hale
Mrs. Maxin R. Halprin
Ms. Elizabeth A. Hampton
Ms. Juliet Hananian
Mrs. Ruby Hancock
Ms. Barbara Hanley
Ms. Margie Harring
Mrs. Henritte Harris
Dr. Robert J. Harrison
Mr. James H. Haitwell
Mrs. Manton E. Harwood
Mrs. Muriel Hathomt
Mr. Leland M. Hawes, Jr.
Mrs. Dorothy B. Hawkms
Mrs. Isadore Hocht
Mrs. RuthHeckerliag


Ms. Agets C. Heid
Ms. Reaslos Hoifnd
Ms. AIom B. Holliwll
MuiRaemMy E. Hlambeck.
Mrs. Gayle Hederse
Mr. Thes D.Herin
Ms. JuliaHiemandsz
Mrs, Virginia Herring
Ms. Linda C. HUrtz
Ms. Marilyn P. HIen
Ms. NedraA. Hodge
Mr. Charles G. Hodges
Mrs. Dis S. Hodges
Ml. SuWHoftsein
Mrs. RonldHo&tetter
Mr. Claric W. Hollhd Jr.
Ms. Mildred Home
Mr. Andrew B. Holmes
M. Patricia Hooper
Mr.Waler D. Hopperikower
Mr. M. Harnsby
Ms. Toxss Honst
Mrs Eddie HoIkins
Mrs Naomi C. Housne
Mrs .Hlen D. Howe
Mr. Roland M. Howell
Mrs. Anoa L Huber
Mrs. Helen B. Hudmall
Mr. Russell V. Hughes
Mr. Karnal Hughs
Mr. JoE L HumIty
Mr. William A. Hunter
Mr. Ton Humton
Mr. William A. Ingraham, Jr.
Mrs.Georg L.l rvin, I
Ms. Caudia Jacks
Mn. Ruth Jacobs
Dr. George Jacobon
Dr. Hlea Jacobewki
Mr. Ken Jacoby
M.. Leih S. Jai
Ms. May C.James
Dr. O-.B Jaems
Mr. Rtmko Jiansmine
Dr. William T. Jerism, Il
David J. Jofi, Eq.
Mr. PFderick L .Jolm.
Mr. Robert F.Jylloy
Ms. Anm F. Jon
Mr. Clyde Jones
Mrs HeIrinm Joes
Ms. Sally Jones
Ms. Sham Joams-Mamell
Mr. Jan Jordan
Mr. Louai Jurik
Ms. Roberta Kainr
Mr. Lotsr M. Kallwait
Ms. Barbara M. KEaner
Ms. Barbara Kaplan
Mrs. Bety Koplmo
Ms. Amn R. Kashmr
Mrs. Ruth B. Kasiwitz
Mr. Elie Kasos
Mr. Guy Kath
Mrs. Pala Keamey
Mr. Scot 0. Keish
Dr. Robert L Kcslcy
Ms. Pat Kely
Mrs. Gertrud Kent
Ms. Judlith Keornoff
Mrs. AJ. Kilbrg
Mr. Arther King. Sr.
Mr. Dennis G. King
Ms. Ken King

Mr. Eliot Klinrbers
Mr. Churles Klingenminth
Mrs. Meris Knpp, Jr.
Mr. Jeffrey D. Knight
Ms. Prt Knight
M. Prances G. Koeine
Ms. Micihel Kogm
Mrs. Palrici M. Ko*ki
Ms. Camilla B.Kmaorowski
Mr. Theodore E. Koper. Jr.
Ms. Anhtoihn M. Koski
Mr. Mayer Kolde
Mr. Jolhnm A. Kovat
M. SandrtaG. KInanMe
Mrs. Pauline Bacl Kra
Mr. Robert V. Kricbs,
Mr. Stanley L. Krieger
Mr. Donald M. Kahn
Mr. Bob Kulp
Mr. Dexter La Bele
Ms. Carolin LaBfave
Mrs. Ralph E& Lambsocht
Mr.Pail W. LArac
Ms. Lynne M. LatRusa
Mr. Dan D. Laxson. Sr.
Mr. Danny D. Lassen, Jr.
Ms Mary Warren Leary
Ms. LibndaL
Mr. Roswell E. Lee
Miss Sara TLosbe
Mrs. Dvid M. Lehman
Mr. Robert B. Loiter
Mr. Salvador Lm, Jr.
Mr. Joseph S. LIonlrd
Ms. Namy L Leslie
Mr. Paul Lester
Mr. Marc Lvin
Dr. Robert M. LNvin
Mr. Robert L. LevIs
Mr. Kik Lewis
Ms. Sharon Libert
Ms. Janet A. ILnback
Mrs John Lknean
Mrs. EA. Link
Mr. Komp Lippenr
Ms. Card Lippincott
Mrs. Elilzbeth Lipscomb
Mr. Gran Living"eM
Mr. Robert E. Livingeon
Ms. Daom Genm
Ms. Mildred A. Lvew
M,. Chnrisd Loaso
Mr. Howard Luabe
Ms. Elizabeth Ludwig
Ms. Joan M. Lukachs
Mrs. JIywood Lukans
Mrs. Betty Luamon
Mrs. B. C. Lunsford
Ms KathIyn R. Lyin
Mr. James K. MacAvoy
Mr. Don MacCullough
Ms. Milbey W. Mackse
Ms. Valeric MarcLeen
Rev. Richard D. Mahldm
Ms. Abbe Ma d
Mrs. Cair A. Malone
Ms. P Manfiedi
Dr. Cia C.Mmngls
Dr. F.L. Manio
Ms. Gram Manly
Mrs. Gail W. Manning
Mrs Bei Marcus
Mr. Wayne Mark

Ms. Kimberly A. Martin
Ms. Odalys Martion
Mrs. Joe J. Mau
Mrs. Jam ria M.Muaa
Mrs. Nancy S. Masutaor
Mr. Robert D. Masterson
Mrs. Alice H. Maisles
Mr. James F. Marioni
Ms. June Masr
Ms. ant R. McAliey
Mr. Jim McAllier
Mr. Chuck McCartny
Mr. Scott McClenidon
M. JudyMcGraw
Ms. eanmEmm C. Mcntosh
Ms. jaeman C McKoo
Ms Alicm M.cKanna
Mr. BobMcKimney
Mr. John F. Mclan
MS.Leam IMcLea
M Willim J.MdoLod
Mrs. Virginia D. McNaughta
Mr. G. W. McSiggan
Ms. Betty S. McSweeuny
Mr. Oscar Mdems
Mr. Robert K. Medina
M. Tani Meltzer
Mr. Jesus Medte
Mr. Pysrcilco J. Menezxis
Mr. Guillerno Merio
Mrs. sabel Maerit
Mr. J. Wlter Menz, Jr.
Ms Bert Meyers
Mr. Rn Misutidowki
Mr. Willim R.Middelthon, Jr.
Mr. Timthy R. Midok
Ms. EvalynMilledge
Ms. Dir Miller
Ms. Goarti R. Miller
Me. Mary Am Miramin
Ms. Katherine Mitchell
Mr. Thoma A. Mitchell
Mr.Larry Mizrach
Mr. Raymond A. Mobl. Jr.
Ms. Disan R. Malinari
Ms. LaisMomnds
Mr. J. Floyd Monk
Mrs. Wmiam Moa(
Mrs. laire W. Mooer
Mr. Patrick F. Moose
Mr. William Moore
Ms. Michle Moraes
Ma. Robert Morgan
Mrs. Edwin S. Monri
Ms. Thonmsin Monrris
Mr JeanL. Morriso
Mr. James H. Mosws
Ms.Pam a Mass
Mrs. Almale C Momc
Mrs. BE. Moylem. Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. John H.

Mrs. Heln Muir
Mr. Iohn D. Muney
Mr. Manuel L Maniz
Mrs Patricia M. Murphy
Mrs. Eliabeh G. MMrray
Miss Mary l. Murray
Ms. L aG. Myers
Ms. Betty B. Nasgl
Ms. Szusntm Nascs
Mr. Jreuhn Nelso
Mr. Theodore R. Nelson
Ms. Gay M. N edti

Mr. Robert S. Ncuman
Mr. Stuart G. Newman
Ms. Vicoria Nicholls
Mr. James P. Niles
Mrs. Helen Nimnicht
Mrs. Mary Jo Nimnicht
Mrs. Ernest Nihheb
Dr. Nancy L. Noble
Ms. Anita Noderm
Mr. Eugm Nottap
Mrs. Heranla O'Brien
Ms, Jlie 0O'DOl
Mr. Fred R. Olssm
Ms. Robert C. Ordc
Ms. Mario Oscar
Mr. Petur Oanm
Mr. Howard F. Ostrout, Jr.
Ms. Dam Otrson
M. Estall C. Oeratreet
Mr. luams D. Overstreet, Jr.
Ma. Am Padchco
Mrs. Denis Puairalla
Mr. Pal W. Parcell
Mr. Robert Pareto
Mr. Dabney G. Park, Jr.
Ms. Barb r J. Parkar
Mr. Crawford H. Parker
Mt. JK Patker
Ms. Jean M. Purk
Mrs. Mri P. Parks
Mrs Edward G. Prsonsm
Mrs. Phyllis Parses
Mr. GeraldL. Paigh
Ms. Jean L Paul
Mr. Edward L. Peabody
Ms. ModMlie S. fPtaso
Ms. ElizabethPedler
Mr. Veron PAples
Ms. Glors IPll
Dr. Mar pct M. Plton
Ms. Palge Pea ekanp
Mr. Ton Pbermksapw Jr.
Mr. Steven Pbetz
Mrs. Hery J. Pier
Dr. T11elm Pieur*
Ms. Amy Phillips
Mrs. Lym Phillqxps
Mr. Wellborn C. Phillips. Jr.
Mrs. Margin K. Pierce
Mrs. VirgniaR. Pitro
Mr. Gordon Pim
Mr.David M.Plans
Mr. Jeffrey Platt
Mr. MartinJ. Ponor
Ms. Nins Postlehwaite
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