Ire I4 e' t d THE JOURNAL OF THE HISTORICAL
S7 ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA
Charlton W. Tebeau, Ph.D.
Thelma Peters, Ph.D.
Arva Moore Parks
Timothy F. Schmand
Number L 1990
Pioneering in Suburbia 5
by Nixon Smiley
The Carter Village Controversy 39
by Teresa Lenox
Among the Farmers 53
Introduction by Howard Kleinberg
Contents of Tequesta 1941 1990 73
List of Members 83
COPYRIGHT 1990 BY THE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA
S eist s .t is published annually by the Historical Association of Southern Florida.
II Communications should be addressed to the Managing Editor of
Tequesta, 101 W. Flagler Street, Miami, Florida 33130. The Association does not assume
responsibility for statements of facts or opinions made by contributors.
We note with sadness the death of Dr. Lewis Leary, a charter member
of the Historical Association of Southern Florida and the first editor of
Tequesta. Dr. Leary had a distinguished career as a writer and a scholar
in American literature. We are grateful to his widow, Mary Warren
Hudson Leary for her recent gift to the Association in his memory.
Historical Association of Southern Florida, Inc.
FOUNDED 1940 INCORPORATED 1941
Hunting F. Deutsch
First Vice President
Howard Zwibel, M.D.
Second Vice President
Mary Stuart Mank
Raul L. Rodriguez
Arva Moore Parks
Charlton W. Tebeau, Ph.D.
Editor Emeritus Tequesta
Thelma Peters, Ph.D.
Editor Emeritus Tequesta
Editor South Florida History Magazine
Editor South Florida History Magazine
Randy F. Nimnicht
Wayman L. Adkins
Migucl A. Bretos, Ph.D
William 0. Cullom
Carlos de la Cruz, Jr.
Fernando T. Garcia-Chacon
Priscilla M. Greenfield
John C. Harrison, Jr.
E. Barlow Keener
Joseph S. Mensch, M.D.
John C. Nordt III, M.D.
Janice C. Pryor
R. Benjamine Reid
David W. Swetland
Alicia M. Tremols
This Page Blank in Original
Pioneering in Suburbia
By Nixon Smiley
Nixon Smiley, a well known newspaper reporter for the Miami
Herald, local historian, and environmentalist, died July 29, 1990.
Except for a hitch in the Marines during World War II, Smiley worked
for the Herald from 1940 until he retired in 1973. His Knights of the
Fourth Estate, one of nine books that he wrote, is the definitive history
of the Miami Herald and an excellent history of Miami as well.
Long the Herald's horticultural expert, Smiley was also acting
director at Fairchild Tropical Garden from 1956 63. His interest in
tropical plants was a particularly rewarding part of his life.
Reared by his paternal grandparents, Smiley's early childhood was
filled with fear and self doubts. He quickly learned to read faces and
anticipate actions of adults to avoid severe punishment. Thus, he
developed a keen sense of observation which was to help make him a
respected newspaper reporter and author. His writings are character-
ized by this ability to observe and record in a clear, precise manner those
events and details other people often failed to perceive.
Before his death, Smiley recorded the memories of his experiences
shared with his family and friends while living on Montgomery Drive
in southwest Dade County on property the family bought when the area
was still mostly undeveloped. The following observations cover the
period between 1951 -1976 when he developed and landscaped the
property at Southwest 120th Street and 60th Avenue. His love of the
land, his interest and knowledge of tropical planting, and his friendships
with a variety of interesting people make the memoir meaningful to all
Today, thousands of people live in the area Smiley describes. How
fortunate for Miami that a person as sensitive as Nixon Smiley was there
to record the transition from back country to suburban neighborhood.
We are grateful to his widow, Evelyn, and his son, Dr. Karl Smiley, for
allowing Tequesta to publish this special manuscript.
OUR INNOCENT YEARS
From our house, in a setting of native Florida pines, a green vista
bordered by rounded clumps of saw palmettos sloped gently through
brown tree trunks to a shallow pond at the bottom of a swale. As twilight
approached at martini time my wife and I liked to sit on our
breezeway and watch for the wood ducks that came every evening to
spend the night. Appearing suddenly, usually in pairs, sometimes in
fours or sixes silhouettes in the rose-pearl sky they would bank
and dive at exciting speed, tossing silvery spray from the placid surface
as they splashed in. We often counted thirty or more on the pond at one
time, swimming playfully and uttering their calls, a cross between a
squeal and a whistle. As darkness descended, the ducks went to roost
in willows whose toppled trunks extended over the pond.
The twilight watch for the wood ducks' splash-in was one of the many
delights of living on five acres of woodland, that while only ten miles
southwest of downtown Miami, remained a unique wildlife haven
although surrounded by suburban development. We (my wife Evelyn,
son Karl, and myself) built here in 1951 and on Bastille Day moved into
a raw ranch-style house that was only a shell of bare, unpainted concrete
walls and cypress cathedral ceiling. It was one of the best moves we ever
made. During the quarter century we lived here we celebrated Bastille
Day July 14 not only because it symbolized mankind's continuous
battle for personal freedom but reminded us of our good fortune and our
rich experiences. For a major part of my career as a newspaperman, this
place was a constant source of inspiring material for columns in The
Miami Herald about the wildlife, the plants, the subtle changes in
ecology, the geology of the land which was created under the sea, as
well as the colorful personalities who over the years visited us and
shared our delight in the kind of place that has virtually disappeared
under the pressure of multiplying population, non-stop housing expan-
sion and the destruction of the wilderness.
But in 1951 Miami was still in her innocent years. In many ways it
was still a small town with small-town ways. The great building boom
of the 1950's the prosperous Eisenhower years was not yet
underway. Most of Dade County's half-million residents lived north of
Flagler Street. Much of South Dade was rural pine woods, groves,
vegetable farms. Except for the small communities that had grown up
along U. S. Highway 1 and the Florida East Coast Railway, you drove
through pine woods much of the way between South Miami and
Pioneering in Suburbia 7
Homestead. Then, taking a zigzagging road from Florida City to the
newly dedicated Everglades National Park, you drove through a solid
forest of pines, palmettos and slender silver palms. The air was abuzz
with the rasping of cicadas, and in the spring thousands of zebra
butterflies drifted above the frequently burned-over forest understory.
So large was this unique forest you discounted any possibility that one
day it would be gone. Perhaps in 100 or200 years, you might have said.
Yet, within 20 years it was to disappear before the bulldozers of land
developers, and even where the pines were left on the lots of green belt
subdivision, the understory palmettos and other native plants were
cleared for replacement with grass and exotic ornamentals.
Creating the pond, 1951.
When we moved to Montgomery Drive it was a narrow, roughly
paved street on which you seldom saw a vehicle. Our friends had
trouble finding our house, partly concealed among the pines and
palmettos a hundred yards north of the street. A bulldozed road, little
wider than an automobile, wound through the woods from Montgomery
Drive to our house. Although a new development, Town and Ranch
Estates was going up on the south side of Montgomery Drive from us,
fewer than a dozen houses had been built. Many of the owners
wondered if they had made a bad decision in buying so far out in the
country, three miles from the nearest grocery, drugstore or gasoline
station. On weekends people drove out from the city to look at Town
and Ranch's newest houses on display houses designed by a coming
architect, Alfred Browning Parker. Despite the attractiveness of the
houses there was a reluctance to buy. The area was remote, and Parker
had not yet become famous. A short distance away was a five-acre piece
of pine woods for sale at $500 an acre. I passed the word to a fellow
reporter who was planning to build a house as soon as he and his wife
could decide on a site. After looking at the property he said to me:
"What are you trying to do, getus out in the sticks?" They built on a city
lot where financing was easier to get and where utilities were no
You needed a pioneering spirit to build on five acres in South Dade's
countryside in 1951. Rattlesnakes lurked in the palmettos; and, in the
fall, hunters shot quail and doves so close to our house that shotgun
pellets showered upon our white gravel roof. When we complained the
hunters laughed. The had no sympathy for anybody crazy enough to
build a house "in the sticks." Hunters are a very special breed. After the
hunting season they set fires in the woods to improve the hunting the
following year, as well as to keep down the growth of understory scrub,
and to "get rid of the rattlesnakes." Moreover, the fires were set in the
dry season when the palmettos and tall grasses burned like tinder. Few
things are more frightening than to see a wall of fire sweeping across the
woods in the direction of your house. Fortunately we had firebreaks,
and, with the help of neighbors and the county's "one-horse" fire
department, we managed to survive. Eventually developers came, put
in streets and built houses, leaving our five acres a wilderness oasis in
a countryside of acre-size lots and expensive homes. Although the
widespread clearing drove many of the wild animals and the quail from
our woods, a greater number of song birds found sanctuary there.
We bought the property in 1948 from Colonel Robert H. Montgom-
ery and his wife Nell, who lived on an 80 acre estate at the corner of Old
Cutler Road and Red Road. Upon acquiring the property in the early
1930s, they had bought adjacent acreage to prevent undesirable devel-
opment. Montgomery, a tax lawyer and a founding partner in the
international auditing firm ofLybrand, Ross Bros. & Montgomery, now
Coopers & Lybrand, was founder of the Fairchild Tropical Garden. I
had become acquainted with him at the beginning of the Second World
War when I was assigned by The Herald's city editor to cover a talk
Pioneering in Suburbia 9
about taxes he made before a group of Miami lawyers and accountants.
Our friendship developed through my writings about horticulture, a
subject of special interest to him in his advancing years.
Colonel Montgomery was reserved even timid except among
friends and members of his professions of law and accounting. He
dropped out of grammar school to help put bread on the table after the
death of his father, and therefore, had to make his way in the world
without the social experiences, affluence and confidence a college
education is expected to provide graduates. Having no illusion about
the worth of his name, he induced David Fairchild to give his to the
Fairchild Tropical Garden. Yet Montgomery knew many persons in
high places and had considerable influence behind the scenes, espe-
cially in Washington.
Few living today know that except for his influence, the large Air
Force Base at Homestead would have been built at Chapman Field and
on adjacent properties, within 10 miles of downtown Miami. Chapman
Field had been a gunnery school during the First World War. After the
war it became the United States Plant Introduction Garden. At the
beginning of the Second World War, the military began building or
improving airfields throughout the country. The Air Force (in those
days it was the Army Air Corps) planned to build a major air base in
Dade County. Resurrection of Chapman Field was immediately con-
sidered. But whereas old Chapman Field had covered only a few
hundred acres, the new air base would require thousands of acres. This
meant that large parcels of adjoining property would have to be
purchased. Local landowners, real estate brokers, businessmen and
politicians saw an opportunity to make a killing. They backed the
project with all the influence they could muster.
Montgomery, aware the large base would destroy one of Dade
County's delightful residential areas, including his own place, and at the
same time endanger Matheson Hammock Park and the Fairchild Gar-
den, went to work behind the scenes. Going to Washington, he pointed
out to Air Force officials the disadvantages of building so large an air
base on the old Chapman Field site. First, there was a serious disparity
in elevations, resulting from an ancient shorcland escarpment running
diagonally through the property. Second, it was located near the
populous Miami area, which meant additional land would be expensive.
Why not go a few miles farther south, where there were large areas of
cheap, vacant, flat land? Air Force authorities took a second look.
Seeing that Montgomery was right, they selected a site near Homestead.
As a result, we have the Homestead Air Force Base rather than a
Chapman Field Air Force Base.
Drafted into the military service in 1943, I1 wound up with the Marine
Corps at Okinawa. From there I wrote to Colonel Montgomery and
asked him if he would sell my wife and me an acre of land after the war,
as he had sold an acre to an acquaintance who planned to plant a grove.
He replied immediately that he would but added that since the property
had not been subdivided, five acres was the smallest unit he and Nell
could sell us.
Upon returning to Miami after the war, we were unable to see our
way clear to buy and develop five acres of rural land in that area, so we
waited a couple of years to take up the Colonel's offer. Although land
prices had risen a bit in the meantime, he not only charged us the original
price he had fixed but selected for us a piece of property facing
Montgomery Drive that he considered the most attractive five acres he
owned outside his estate.
Although we owned a beautiful piece of property, we lacked funds
to begin building immediately. That, however, did not prevent us from
making plans. First, we had to choose a site for our house, then draw
a plan or find a plan that would fit aesthetically. We tried several sites
and drew a multitude of floor plans and elevations, getting our ideas
from magazines and books as well as from developers' models. While
many of these plans might have been suitable for a city lot, all were
inappropriate for five acres of woodland. Furthermore, there was the
problem of cost. We had to think about the type and size of house we
could afford. Most of our plans, as I recall, would have cost more to
build than we could have hoped to pay for out of my low salary.
Frustrated after exhausting our ideas and our energy, we decided to
rest for awhile. We felt no hurry. Before we could build we had to pay
for the land. The Korean War began, followed by spiraling inflation.
You heard predictions that the value of homes would go up by one-third
within a year. Fearing we might have to wait for years to build if we
failed to do so soon, we went into a flurry of activity.
In the meantime I had drawn a rough map of the property, showing
the approximate differences in elevations and indicating the various
plant communities, particularly the larger pines and the major groups of
saw palmettos. In the southeast fifth of the property was an acre-sized
swale whose lowest part, according to the U. S. Geological Survey, was
four feet above sea level. Along the north, northwest and west borders
of the swale, elevations rose gradually to 10 and 13 feet, the highest area
Pioneering in Suburbia 11
being in the northwest area. The swale, which one time had been a glade
covered with sawgrass and willows around alligator holes, had been
farmed off and on since the beginning of the First World War. But it had
been abandoned after the Second World War, and was now covered
with a dense growth ofjumbee bean trees, a rapid-growing leguminous
tropical species ten feet in height. The jumbee bean is adaptable to both
dry and wet conditions and flourished in the swale although in the rainy
season the lowest area was at times underwater.
After studying the map I had drawn, Evelyn got an idea. Why not
build our house in the northwest area of the property, facing the jumbee
bean-covered swale in the southeast section? If a vista were opened
through the palmettos in the pine woods and the jumbee beans removed
from the swale, we would have the longest possible view, extending
some 500 feet, while with a suitable house design we would be in a
position to enjoy the prevailing southeast breeze during the summer in
that period before home air conditioning was affordable. Moreover, in
the lowest part of the swale, where the water table was no more than 18
inches below the ground surface during the driest time of year, we could
excavate a pond. We would need considerable soil to cover the rocky
surface of the pineland about the house before planting grass and
shrubbery. But what kind of house would be suitable for this location?
We again went into a flurry of activity but came up with nothing we
liked. Then I got an idea. Why not consult Alfred Browning Parker!
While we couldn't afford Parker's complete architectural services,
perhaps he might be willing to give us some helpful suggestions. I had
known Al since before the Second World War while he was attending
architectural school and courting the daughter of a one-time neighbor,
Dr. John C. Gifford. I got the courage to call him and see if I could meet
him one day while he was checking on construction in nearby Town and
Ranch Estates. Although it was embarrassing to call an architect and
ask his advice when you had no money, Parker couldn't have been more
cordial. We met at the property and walked over it.
"It's a beauty," he said as we waded through waist-high palmettos.
When I showed him the site Evelyn had suggested, he looked about
and said: "She couldn't have selected a better one. This is ideal."
"Yes," I replied, "but we have been unable to come up with a plan
suitable for this site at least a plan we can afford to build. We can't
go higher than ten thousand dollars."
With $10,000 you could build a house in 1950 that would cost eighty
thousand dollars in the 1980's. Ten years earlier, however, we had built
a five-room concrete block house, with garage and tile roof, on the edge
of Coconut Grove, for $3,500. We had paid $500 for the two 50 foot lots
on which the house set. After paying for the lots, we used them as a
down payment to the First Federal Savings and Loan Association to get
the house built.
Resting a foot on a charred stump, Parker made a quick sketch on a
note pad he held on his knee.
"If I were planning to build a house here costing $10,000 I would
think of something like this," he said. Then, tearing the sheet of paper
from the pad, he handed it to me.
Well-known Miami Architect Alfred Browning Parker, did not
charge Smiley a design fee for his work.
Studying the sketch of a ranch-style house Al had done in a jiffy, I
was wonder-struck. After that moment I was never again capable of
being surprised by the genius of this architect.
"Good, very good," I commented in a low-key way that by no means
reflected the emotion I felt. "I like this," I added, studying the drawing.
"I like it very much."
"Then if you like the plan, take it home and draw the floor plan and
the elevations," he said. "When you have finished, bring the drawings
to my studio so I can check them. In that way your plans won't cost you
anything. If I have to run them through my office I will have to charge,
and it could be expensive."
Pioneering in Suburbia 13
Evelyn was as enthused with Parker's sketch as I was. We agreed
it was an ideal plan for the location. Facing the southeast, its rooms
would be swept by the prevailing summer breeze. I began immediately
working on detailed plans, drawn to scale, until I came up with
something that satisfied us and at the same time fulfilled zoning
requirements for a minimum of 1,600 square feet of floor space.
Although a small house for the location, with two bedrooms and one
bath, it seemed large to us, perhaps because of its length- 80 feet. The
bedroom section formed the cross of an off-center capital T, while the
shaft, containing the living room and kitchen, was separated from the
bedrooms by a 16-by-16 foot breezeway. At the kitchen end, the roof
was extended to one side to form a carport. We also included a fireplace.
After a couple of trips to see Parker and get the benefit of his advice,
including the suggestion that we use redwood jalousies on the screened
breezeway, I took the plans to a contractor I knew.
Although the contractor took six months to complete the house, we
were more than repaid for waiting. In figuring the bid, the contractor
had made an error that gave us 192 extra square feet of house that cost
us nothing. He had figured the living room as being 16-by-24 feet,
whereas it actually was 16-by-36 feet on the floor plan and that's
what the carpenter in charge built. But it was not until after the house
was completed that the error was discovered. It was too late to do
anything. Our $10,000 had been spent to the last dime, so the contractor
had to take his loss with whatever tears contractors shed over such
We would long remember how barny the raw, unpainted living room
looked when we first moved in. What colors should we use, first
outside, then inside? Situated deep in the woods, we had to consider our
surroundings; we couldn't use colors that clashed with the pines and the
palmettos. Why not use a palmetto green on the outside walls and a
brown trim like the color of the pine trunks on the eaves and on
the window frames? The inside we would think about later. I went to
a paint store, found a "palmetto green," bought a gallon, took it home,
and applied it to a section of an outside wall. The raw paint, the color
of poisoned water, was atrocious. Frustrated, I sought advice from a
friend, Gordon Bachelor, who operated an art supply store and framing
business, the "Bachelor of Arts Shop," in Coconut Grove. He laughed
when I recounted my experience.
"The fellow who mixed that palmetto green probably never saw a
palmetto," said Bachelor, "and if he saw a palmetto he probably
wouldn't know what he was looking at. No, you can't buy a true palmetto
green in a paint store. Decide on the brand of paint you're going to use
and bring me a gallon white. We'll start from there."
The completed pond became a wildlife center.
The completed pond became a wildlife center.
I bought fifty gallons of white paint, in five-gallon cans, and one
five-gallon can of rich brown paint. I took a can of white to Bachelor,
along with a palmetto frond. From a shelf of paint colors he found
chrome yellow medium, ultramarine blue, and burnt umber. First he
tinted a gallon of white paint, working in the yellow and blue that he had
dissolved in a little turpentine. The result was a raw bright green. Then
he added burnt umber, winding up with a gray-green tone that matched
the color of the palmetto leaf I had brought. Satisfied, Bachelor tinted
the remaining four gallons. I took the paint home and painted over the
store-bought palmetto green. The new color went with our woods
perfectly. We couldn't have been more pleased.
Since I had my job to go to five days a week, Evelyn wound up doing
most of the painting, especially the exterior walls, as well as the eaves
and trim. Karl cleaned up about the premises, and on my days off he and
Pioneering in Suburbia 15
I hauled soil in a trailer from the swale to grade about the house. As the
work was completed, Karl sprigged centipede grass. Despite the
quantity of work, we found time to clear an area ofjumbee trees in the
swale that fall and plant a garden, growing more tomatoes, pole beans,
sweetcom and other vegetables that we could eat or give away. Looking
back, it seems like a lot of work, especially with my job as a reporter on
The Herald and getting out a Sunday gardening section, but we were
young, healthy and enthusiastic.
Furnishing our new house was a major problem. We previously had
lived in a much smaller place on Biscayne Drive. Our furniture hardly
made a show when we moved into the larger house. Moreover we
discovered that just any furniture wouldn't do. Danish style furniture fit
well, but we couldn't afford it. We were several years furnishing the
house in a way that pleased us. Much of the furniture we had specially
made, at half the price of Danish. A few pieces we bought at the Ramble,
an annual benefit sponsored by the Fairchild Tropical Garden Associa-
tion. Well-to-do persons often used the Ramble to get rid of furniture
they had tired of, or which was no longer stylish, so we picked up some
good pieces at prices we could afford.
One of our best breaks was in the acquiring of art. We already had
bought several paintings by Jean Jacques Pfister, a Swiss artist, whose
unsold works were liquidated by court order after his death in order to
settle his estate. Piled unframed on tables in a dusty room in a Coconut
Grove building, the paintings proved difficult to sell, and finally the
prices were reduced to five dollars and less. It was the steal of a lifetime
and very uncomplimentary to an able artist. The experience in buying
these pictures I recount in On the Beat and Offbeat, as I do how we
acquired a favorite painting by Beanie Backus. The Backus picture, of
an old house in picturesque decay, hung unsold for several years in the
artist's studio because it didn't "look" like a Backus. We acquired the
painting in 1951. It occupied a prominent place in our living room
during the twenty-six years we lived at Montgomery Drive.
The development of the grounds was a never-ending job. Our basic
landscape design was accomplished through the removal of unwanted
palmettos and the preservation of palmetto islands. Much care had to
be exercised, for once palmettos were removed they could not be
replanted. Karl and I, sometimes with the help of John Wesley, a black
man raised in the Georgia cotton belt, did most of the work with the aid
of a grubbing hoe. Only once did we employ a small bulldozer, but the
careless operator did so much damage to the pines that we were fearful
to bring in another machine, Wesley taught us the art of removing
palmettos. The saw palmetto has a reclining trunk that runs along the
top of the earth, anchoring itself every inch or so with fibrous roots, each
one as strong as a manila rope of the same size.
"You cut off the roots like you would cut off the legs of a centipede,"
said John. And he would chop along one side of a palmetto trunk with
his grubbing hoe, then turn around and chop along the other side. When
he got through he would lift the rootless trunk from the earth. "See?"
he added, demonstrating how easy it was.
Most of our planting of broadleaved trees, palms and shrubs was
restricted to the property borders when we sought to create a screen
between us, the streets and the rapid growing housing developments. In
time our acreage began to take on a park-like atmosphere. And then is
when the problems began. As new people moved into the neighbor-
hood, our woods proved to be a charm that attracted both children and
grownups to play, to picnic, to ride horses, to search for firewood, to
plunk at songbirds with BB guns or .22-caliber rifles, and even to cut the
small pines for Christmas trees. Whenever we said anything, the reply
was nearly always the same: "I didn't know anybody owned this
property." I really think they failed to notice that the property, although
partly wild, was also cultivated, with a screen of plants growing along
the borders and lawn grass in the vistas between the clumps of palmet-
Up From the Sea
Viewing the pine woods from our house, no one could have sus-
pected that almost solid limestone lay just beneath the surface of the
grass-covered vistas. It was a distinct formation oolite which
geologists have given the local name of Miami Limestone. Only the
swale, where the mixture of marly soil and sand was two to three feet
deep, could you turn the soil to make a garden or dig a hole with a shovel.
On the slopes rising gently from the swale, where the pines and
palmettos grew, the surface was covered by a thin layer of sand and
brittle weathered limerock. This layer could be removed with the aid
of a grubbing hoe, but whenever we tried to dig a hole in the white
limestone beneath, deep enough to set out even a small plant, it yielded
only to a railroad pick and a back tempered by hard work. When we first
moved to Montgomery Drive, I used dynamite to blow planting holes,
usually half a stick to make a hole large enough for a small plant. In the
Pioneering in Suburbia 17
1950s you could buy dynamite, fuse and caps merely by signing your
name. Having learned explosives in the Marine Corps, I used dynamite
without fear of disastrous consequences. Although a great labor-saving
device, I eventually had to give up its use after the area became
populated and neighbors expressed concern about the detonations.
Plants are unable to develop a taproot in limestone, as they may do
in deep soil but must spread their roots in the thin mantle of loose, sandy
material. Where this mantle is only an inch or two deep, thickening
roots of trees may push to the surface, where they develop, snake-like,
on top of the ground, becoming hazardous to a mower or to unsuspect-
ing toes. The soil was so shallow about the pines in several places that
I had to add topsoil every year or two, building up the ground about the
exposed roots in order to mow the grass. With their roots firmly
grasping the uneven surface of the limestone, however, pines are
seldom toppled by hurricanes. They are more likely to have their trunks
snapped. When a pine is blown down, its root system comes out of the
ground as flat as the bottom of a pancake, revealing the white limestone
Early settlers in Dade County referred to the limestone as "coral,"
which it is not. Coral is created under the sea by minute animals that
separate calcium from the water to build their own skeletons. When
these animals die, their skeletons remain in place, and new generations
of reef-building animals grow upon them. This arrangement between
the dead and the living results in the unusual patterns that form the
beautiful coral reefs. The underwater John Pennekamp Coral Reef State
Park is a living coral reef. Several of the upper Florida Keys are remains
of ancient coral reefs, formed when the sea was higher than it is today.
Miami Limestone owes its origin not to the activities of reef-building
animals but to chemical and mechanical forces at play in sea water
subjected to special conditions. When a boulder of Miami limestone is
cross-sectioned, it has none of the beautiful patterns seen in sectioned
coral, but is composed of limestone "sand" welded together. Examined
closely, the individual grains resemble fish eggs in shape. Thus the
name "oolite," a Greek word meaning egg-like. Miami limestone, or
oolite, was formed a 100,000 years ago when the sea was 30 or 40 feet
higher than today. Once a loose unstable oolite bar some 10 miles wide,
it extended in a northeast-southwest direction for 50 miles from just
below present-day Fort Lauderdale to the interior of Everglades Na-
tional Park. Upon being exposed by the receding sea, the bar became
a consolidated ridge. The highest partof the ridge today is 25 feetabove
sea level. It extends 10 feet below sea level, where it rests on an older
The great bar that was the forerunner of the Miami limestone ridge
was created in the turbulence generated by tides moving between the
cool Gulf Stream and the shallow, warmer and highly saline area that
is now the Everglades. In order to create a bar of such size- 500 square
miles the sea must have stood over the lower tip of Florida for
thousands of years. Then, with a change in global weather conditions,
ice began accumulating in the polar regions. The sea level gradually
dropped, and tidal channels were cut through the loose bar. Meanwhile,
as the sea retreated from the higher parts of the bar, percolating rain
leached salt from the loose oolite and dissolved enough calcium from
the individual grains to weld them together to form limestone. In time
the sea dropped to its present level, leaving behind a ridge where today
nearly two million people live.
The contours of our five acres the swale and sloping pineland on
three sides owe their origin to the action of a tidal channel that swept
through the area while it was still a loose bar emerging from the sea.
This channel extended south from ourproperty, across present Montgom-
ery Drive and to the seashore, then less than a mile distant. Countless
quantities of loose oolite were carried from either side of the channel
by swift tidal currents and by eroding rains, actions that were accentu-
ated as the sea level dropped. Then the mouth of the channel was closed
off, perhaps by a great hurricane that washed up and left behind a ridge
of oolite higher than the rest of the adjacent bar. As the sea level
continued to drop, rainfall leached the sea water from the exposed ridge
and dissolved enough lime to cement the individual grains of oolite to-
gether, leaving the swale closed off forever by a broad limestone dam.
Beneath the Miami limestone ridge, as well as under all of southern
Florida, are successively older formations of limestone, extending to a
depth of more than fifteen thousand feet. The oldest formation exceeds
one hundred and fifty million years in age, having been created at a time
when giant reptiles battled for control of the earth's feeding grounds. Oil
has been found near the twelve thousand foot level in Collier and
Hendry counties, but wells sunk in Dade have been unproductive. Of
much greater value thanoil to growing southeast Florida is the enormous
supply of fresh water stored in the more shallow, permeable limestone
formations beneath the Everglades and beneath the Miami limestone
ridge. This great reservoir depends on rainfall for replenishment. When
the rainfall is below forty inches a year, the level of the reservoir may
Pioneering in Suburbia 19
become dangerously low. South Florida's fresh water supply was at one
time thought to be inexhaustible, but drainage, land development and
population growth have dispelled that illusion.
At Montgomery Drive we drew both household water and irrigation
water from wells sunk to 20 feet. Although the water was hard,
containing considerable calcium, we drank it as it came from the well.
We have never sampled better tasting water.
I suspect that before drainage of the Everglades, with the consequent
lowering of the water table, the swale was under water most of the rainy
season. An old hunter remembered that the swale was covered by
sawgrass before the First World War, when he shot marsh hens here.
Remnants of alligator holes and wallows could be seen, he added; but
even then the former occupants had disappeared. During the fall of
1917, the hunter recalled, the sawgrass was burned off, the willows
about alligator holes removed, and the dark soil turned for the planting
of tomatoes. This, of course, proved fatal to the pristine ecology.
Karl and I moved uncounted trailer loads of soil from the lowest part
of the swale to fill in the rougher areas of the rocky slopes before grass
could be planted. After it became obvious that we could hardly live long
enough to complete the job with shovels and a trailer, we paid a
contractor to bring in excavating equipment and dig a round pond some
70 feet in diameter and four or five feet deep. The spoil was hauled by
truck to the areas where Karl and I distributed it. The water level of the
pond was the same as the ground water table, which varied from a foot
above sea level at the driest time of the year to three feet above sea level
during wet periods. So much rain fell during Hurricane Donna in 1960
that the water table rose to 6.67 feet above sea level, as measured by the
U.S. Geological Survey. Not only was the swale and lower adjacent
slopes of the pine woods flooded, but water rose two feet overMontgom-
ery Drive, halting automobile traffic. Because of the permeable
limestone, however, the high water quickly flowed underground to the
sea and within a couple of days traffic was again using Montgomery
So permeable is the underground limestone that in normal times the
pond level was affected by the ocean tide, although we were a mile from
Biscayne Bay. A strong west or northwest wind, which lowered the
level of Biscayne Bay along its western shore, likewise lowered the
level of the pond, sometimes two to three inches, while a persistent fresh
east wind raised the pond level the same amount.
Living and developing a place in so unique a location among the
Dade County pines was a fascinating experience, and I tried to share
what I observed, learned, and thought with Miami Herald readers. It is
through the preservation of those columns as well as from notes I kept
that I am able to write this. The following is taken from a column:
"Strolling through the woods in a leisurely way, I like to make myself
aware of the physical and chemical elements at work and the roles they
have played in the creation of this place, which only a few years ago was
a small part of a wilderness covering much of the country. Each
contributing element is a science in itself. First, there is the geology -
the structure of the land, its elevation and history. There is the soil -
the thin mantle over the limestone rock, created by the interplay of
weathering, the decay of dead plants, and the physical and chemical
activities of plant roots. There is the botany the pines and the
understory plants, including the underfoot things that grow and bloom
without being seen unless you are particularly observant. There is the
zoology the microorganisms, insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds,
and four-footed animals that live here. There is the weather, changing
with the seasons, bringing sultry mornings and afternoon thundershow-
ers in summer, sometimes tropical storms in August, September or
October, then the usually dry, pleasantly cool days of late fall, winter,
and early spring.
"While my acquaintance with any of these sciences is superficial
when compared with the knowledge of an expert, I have learned enough
about them to appreciate their contribution to the landscape. And I also
know enough about the ecology of the pine woods the interrelation-
ship of all the living things and nature's forces to realize how easily
the balance of nature is upset by mankind's best intentions as well as by
his worst. But because of their subtlety and complexity, it is virtually
impossible to observe the various forces actually playing their roles,
even as you view the landscape every day with discerning eyes. At any
moment of experience the human is too insensitive to see more than the
flight of a bird, to hear the rasping of a cicada, or be aware of a falling
leaf wrenched from a twig by a passing breeze. Perhaps it is enough for
the non-scientist to know that the interplay of nature's forces is taking
place, and has been taking place for thousands of years in order to create
a pine forest, together with the adaptation of the countless living things,
both plants and animals, associated with it."
On another occasion I wrote that "sometimes as I walk through the
pine woods, or while sitting idly on the breezeway late in the day,
Pioneering in Suburbia 21
martini in hand, I like to imagine how this place looked at the time it
began emerging as a glistening white bar from the sea thousands of
years ago. The sea birds, perhaps gulls, skimmers, sandpipers, and
pelicans, must have been the first to set foot on the exposed oolite. In
time, sea-borne seeds of strand plants were washed ashore to germinate,
and, fertilized by bird droppings, established themselves. As the sea
retreated, exposing more of the bar, rainfall leached out the salt, and
highland plants tolerant to calcareous soil replaced the salt-tolerant
strand plants, which, in turn, followed the edge of the retreating sea.
Acids from decaying plant materials not only created a soil condition
more desirable for plant growth in the limestone, but further dissolved
calcium and hastened consolidation of the exposed bar. Life for those
first plants must have been tenuous indeed. A few of the adapted species
survived while the unadapted ones failed altogether. Through thou-
sands of years this process of plant selection continued. Meanwhile the
Florida slash pine and the saw palmetto moved southward down the
peninsula, claiming land left by the retreating sea. The pine was not
entirely adapted to the highly calcareous conditions of the limestone
ridge, but, in the course of time a tolerant variety grew from the tens of
millions of germinating seeds, and this one matured and produced seeds
from which other limestone-tolerant pines grew. Today the Dade
County slash pine is a distinct variety of Pinus elliotti, the most common
tree of the Florida woods."
While the pines and the saw palmettos were the dominating plants
of our woods, countless other native species thrived here when we built
in 1951. Many of the native pine woods/plants, however, are dependent
on fire for survival. At one time the pine woods burned regularly.
Lightning set fires before the Indian arrived. Although the fires burned
the understory plants, new growth sprang from the durable underground
stems. Soon the woods again were covered with green shrubs, grasses
and a great variety of annual and perennial species. Older pines were
unhurt, of course, while pine seedlings, although perhaps scorched,
recovered to grow for a time without undue competition.
When woods are protected from fire, understory plants and palmet-
tos grow rampant. After a few years such a quantity of flammable
material accumulates, principally pine needles and palmettos, that an
accidental fire may produce enough heat to kill the largest pines. In the
late 1960s neighborhood children, roasting wieners over a fire in the
adjacent woods, let a wild fire get started that swept across the southeast
corner of our property where the palmettos had grown head-high among
the pines. Such a hot fire was created by the blazing palmettos and the
accumulation of pine needles that flames shot to the tops of the trees,
igniting a top-fire that leapt from tree to tree in angry, consuming fury.
All the pines in this location were killed, much to our dismay. Only with
the help of neighbors and the fire department was the fire prevented
from leaping the swale and consuming the rest of our pine woods.
After we first opened vistas among the pines by removing palmet-
tos, we could see many small underfoot things in bloom at almost any
time of the year. Then we planted centipede grass that covered the
ground in a dense carpet and had to be mowed at intervals. In time most
of the underfoot things gave up the struggle. Here and there we might
see a few bright green leaves of the fern-like zamia poking through the
grass, while among the rank palmettos nothing grew but weed trees such
as Brazilian pepper, strangler fig and wax myrtle, which we removed.
Our conservation-minded friends used to tell us that our place was
"like a gem" because it had been left in a natural state. But although the
place had a certain wild charm, in time it was no longer the natural
landscape we found when we built. Thinking about the changes that
occurred over the years, I wrote the following:
"Our place has only the appearance of being natural. To say these
acres are in their original condition would be misrepresenting the facts.
The pines, if protected from fire and bulldozers, will survive us, and
perhaps survive another generation of humans, but in time they will go.
The saw palmettos already have lost their original character, and are
becoming tall, spindly, and, from an aesthetic standpoint, are no longer
completely pleasing. We find we are removing more and more
palmettos, even entire clumps, with increasing frequency. For one
thing, these large clumps are a dangerous fire hazard and sure death to
the pines about which they stand if they become ignited.
"Kindness to nature is not enough. You must know nature and
understand its ways. What you may want yourself is of no concern to
the wilderness. For the wilderness has its own laws, and these laws must
be observed more strictly than mankind observes its own if the natural
landscape is to survive."
When we moved to Montgomery Drive, I must confess I was under
the influence of the late Dr. John C. Gifford, promoter of the "tropical
subsistence homestead." I wouldn't want anyone to think I was naive
Pioneering in Suburbia 23
enough to believe it possible to subsist on the products grown on five
acres. Still I respected the ideas of Professor Gifford, who preached
"living on the land and using what you have at hand" to generations of
students at the University of Miami who took his course in tropical
I had become acquainted with Gifford in 1942, when we lived on
Southwest 27th Avenue a few blocks from the Gifford home in Coconut
Grove. Gifford taught me a great deal about tropical horticulture that
was to play a role in my experiences at Montgomery Drive and in my
View from the screened porch.
Although I reached 40 in 1951, the year we moved to Montgomery
Drive, the spell Gifford had cast upon me remained. With a great
expenditure of energy, I propagated and planted more than two dozen
species of tropical fruits, together with a number of varieties of mangos,
avocados and citrus. Twenty years later we have half that number.
Many we became disenchanted with, not only because of their question-
able quality, but also because of the poor health of the trees. Some failed
to thrive, partly because of competition by the pines, partly because of
the limestone soil or the climate. Some were attacked by diseases or
insects, and we got tired of their ratty appearance. More interested in
esthetics than food production, we got rid of the "cats and dogs," as
Isabelle Krome, our friend from Homestead, described them.
In the beginning we had a dozen mango varieties, but over the years
eliminated several, winding up with the Haden, Zill, Irwin, Morris and
We grew a number of citrus varieties but found grapefruit to be
superior in quality to the oranges and tangerines, and the grapefruit trees
had a more healthy appearance because they were less susceptible to
insects and diseases.
Considering the cost and the problems of growing dooryard citrus,
I thought then (and still do) that the South Florida home owner might
do well to limit his citrus production to limes, preferably the key lime.
When they are in season, you can find Persian limes in the supermarket.
But key limes are seldom grown commercially and are rarely sold
except at a roadside stand. Thornless varieties are propagated and sold
by nurserymen, but some old-time Conchs in the Florida Keys insisted
on planting seedlings, claiming they were better producers. Seedlings
may have so many thorns that picking the fruit becomes a problem. We
grew key limes not so much to use in drinks but for Evelyn to make key
Among our most successful fruit trees were the lychees and jaboti-
cabas. Two lychee trees we planted in the early 1950s grew rapidly; and
in a few years were about equal in size to any in Dade County.
Unfortunately they only yielded crops every other year. When they did
produce, we had bushels of colorful fruit. The jaboticaba was more
dependable, bearing its grape-like fruit along its trunk and branches two
to three times a year. A very slow grower, the jaboticaba requires
several years to reach fruiting size. In its early life, if planted in
limestone soil, it may require applications of chelated iron to prevent its
leaves from yellowing.
In the early years much of the development of the landscape
consisted of clearing saw palmettos to create open areas about the house
and vistas that carried the eyes into the distance. Usually this wasn't too
difficult, since we knew before building what kind of effect we wanted.
First, we cleared the palmettos in the immediate area about the house.
Then we opened a broad vista extending southeast to the swale. Since
we knew a street eventually would be built along the west property line
behind the house, we removed virtually all the palmettos in the north-
west area and began establishing what was to be a dense screen along
the west and the north borders. This screen, of large shrubs, small trees,
and cluster-type palms, proved to be as aesthetically satisfying as it was
effective in cutting out the view of passing cars. We later extended this
Pioneering in Suburbia 25
screen about the entire property. Between the back of our house and the
screened borders was an area of about one-half acre in which we left
only the pines. This open, uncluttered area proved to be very effective
as the pines let in ample light for the centipede grass to thrive.
If it can be arranged, it's nice to have a pleasing view from every
window in the house. We found the views from the breezeway to be the
most important, while the view from the window over Evelyn's kitchen
sink was second only in importance. This window framed a view that
drew your eyes into a vista through pines and past palmetto islands to
the open green swale in the distance. Eventually Evelyn had the pond
in her view. Over the years she witnessed the growth of a screen of
plants we set behind the pond. But the most dramatic development was
the growth of three massive, gray-leaved medemia palms from Ma-
dagascar, planted along the south and southeast border of the pond.
Behind the pond, beyond the medemias, and taller, were several royal
palms that raised their heads above the screen of plants to more than 30
feet. Shifting her eyes to the right, her vision was stopped by a jungle
of jumbee bean trees. But eventually a second colony of medemia
palms, planted along Montgomery Drive, rose to tower over the jumbee
trees. Both the medemia palms and the royal palms, which Karl and I
set out in the early years, have stories behind them.
In the 1940s only two medemia palms existed in South Florida, a
female at the U.S. Plant Introduction Garden and a male at the Robert
H. Montgomery estate. Each flowered, but being more than a mile
apart, no offspring were produced. Early in the 1950s H. L. (Loo)
Loomis, director of the Plant Introduction Garden, took a flower stalk
from the male palm and hung it among the fronds of the flowering
female palm, leaving the role of Cupid to the bees. The bees did their
work well; several hundred pollinated female flowers produced viable
seeds. These seeds were planted and, after germination, were set in
individual containers. After dividing with the Montgomery estate and
the Fairchild Garden, Loomis distributed the remainder to individuals
who promised to grow them. I received three potted palms, together
with several late-germinating seeds that Loomis planned to dump. The
three potted plants Karl and I set out behind the pond. The plants from
the germinating seeds were later planted in the swale along Montgom-
ery Drive. Fifteen years later these medemia palms made a striking
show for passing motorists as well as for us, on more than one occasion
curious admirers stopped to ask the name of this "beautiful" palm and
where plants could be obtained. I told them to become members of the
Fairchild Tropical Garden Association, for I knew the botanical garden
was growing a number of medemias that eventually would be distrib-
uted to members. When Harold E. Moore, Jr., palm authority of Cornell
University, came to visit us, he looked for the medemia colony as a
signal to slow down in order to turn into our entrance.
The royal palms were grown from seeds collected in the Everglades
National Park by Dan Beard while he was superintendent. They were
planted in the moist swale behind the pond soon after we got settled in
our new house. Twenty years later, visitors found it hard to believe we
had planted these palms ourselves; from their height and diameterof the
trunks the palms appeared to be at least half a century old.
Upon moving to Montgomery Drive, in July, one of the first things
we noted was the hot glare of the late afternoon sun upon our living room
and breezeway. Shade was needed, the sooner the better. I got
permission from Adolph Jordahn, superintendent of the Montgomery
estate, to airlayer three six-foot-long branches of a rubber tree, or
banyan, the same species (Ficus altissima) that forms a tunnel over Old
Cutler Road just south of Cartagena Circle. To create a multiple-
trunked tree, of "instant banyan" in character, I dug a large hole with the
help of dynamite and planted the three rooted branches together. With
generous quantities of fertilizer and water, they grew rapidly. Within
two years, they reached a height of 12 feet, while the trunks welded
together characteristic of the banyan. Then we began to discover
banyan roots 30 feet from the tree. Whenever we set out a plant nearby,
the banyan's roots were soon there to compete for fertilizer and
moisture. Although the banyan already was beginning to provide
shade, its vigor and aggressive roots frightened us. While driving to and
from work, I observed the giant rubber trees along Old Cutler Road, and
my conclusions frightened me: our tree would grow to monstrous size
in a few more years, spreading its great branches over our house and
doing enormous damage with its powerful root system. We would
surely have to remove it, or at least keep it severely pruned, at a cost
greater than we could afford. So it was agreed that our little giant should
be sacrificed. But what would we plant in its place?
It so happened that Stanley Kiem, superintendent of the Fairchild
Garden, had collected seed of Bucida macrostachys in British Hondu-
ras. About 40 plants were distributed to members of the Fairchild
Garden, and we received one. This tree, a relative of the common bucida
planted along parkways in the Miami area, was described by Stanley as
a "desirable shade tree." Although rather odd shaped and scrubby, it had
a unique individual character.
Pioneering in Suburbia 27
"Why don't we replace the banyan with Stanley's bucida?" Evelyn
Agreeing, I chopped off the banyan at ground level this usually
kills rubber trees and planted the bucida. A vigorous tree, it grew
rapidly. But pruning was difficult because of the contrary and unpre-
dictable way the tree shot out its impetuous, zigzagging branches.
Moreover the branches were armed with sharp spines, which I had to
contend with when later I climbed into the tree to do severe pruning of
heady branches that decided the sky was the limit in their determined
reach. Meanwhile the lower branches drooped so low that I had to tie
them up with wire run through sections of old garden hose so that we
could walk underneath. Meanwhile the tree grew rapidly, and late in the
day when the sinking sun silhouetted the zigzagging branches, we
looked out from the breezeway upon this tree with admiration and
especially did Evelyn who was responsible for its planting.
William Lyman Phillips, right, was the landscape architect for
While I was a director of the Fairchild Tropical Garden, we fre-
quently had William Lyman Phillips, the Garden's landscape architect,
for lunch. Working at the Garden was a part-time job for me, for I had
to continue with my duties at The Miami Herald. Thursday was my full
day at the Garden, and this was the day that Phillips dropped in nearly
always just before lunch. I would telephone Evelyn so she could plan
for an extra person. Phillips and I would sit on the breezeway while
Evelyn made last-minute preparations for lunch, he with a scotch and
soda, I with a martini. If he was in the mood we talked. When Bill
Phillips was not in the mood for conversation it was useless trying to
force him. Then we contemplated the landscape in silence as we sipped
our drinks. Phillips was erudite and very sensitive to the scene about
him, but getting him to express his feelings was another matter.
A graduate of the Harvard School of Landscape Architecture, Phil-
lips assisted Fredrick Law Olmsted, Jr., to lay out the gardens of the
Mountain Lake Sanctuary at Lake Wales. He designed the major Dade
County parks as well as the Fairchild Garden. Previously he had drawn
the plans for the City of Balboa in the Canal Zone and worked on the
landscape planting of the American military cemeteries in France after
the First World War. In France he fell in love with a French girl, Simone
Guillot, and married her. She bore him two daughters, but she had died
before we had a chance to know her.
It was my hope to get some advice from Phillips that would be helpful
in the design and planting of our grounds. I wanted to be able to say of
some feature that "William Lyman Phillips suggested that." But I never
got the slightest hint of advice from him, despite the countless times he
ate with us. We did sometimes walk over the grounds, particularly
during the pleasant, cool days of late fall or winter, but, although he
appeared always to enjoy himself, he made no comment. If this seems
strange, I hasten to say that I never heard Phillips make any comment
about the plantings at the Fairchild Garden except when a tree or a
shrub was set in the wrong place. Then you heard from him. He would
stop short, study the planting with an expression of surprise, disbelief
and dismay on his face. "Who did that?" he would say in a dry tone,
implying, "How could anyone be so stupid?" This got results. The
offending plant was removed.
When I asked his advice about a landscape problem at the Fairchild
Garden, he might answer or he might not. But he never forgot, and
eventually perhaps weeks or months later he would give me an
answer. Once, in a hurry for a decision, I pressed him for an answer, but
he kept putting me off. "I do think about it," he said on one occasion,
"but nothing original or worthwhile comes to my mind." He did come
up with a decision eventually. The only answer I ever got from him
when I asked his advice about improving the landscape at Montgomery
Drive was, "Well, I don't see anything wrong with things the way they
Pioneering in Suburbia 29
Phillips made only one positive comment about the place that I heard.
We had invited a long-time friend of Phillips to lunch on a Thursday
when we knew Phillips would be present. He was Ray Ward, engineer
in charge of the plans and designs department of the Dade County Parks
Department. Ward had a dry, sardonic sense of humor that Phillips
liked. On the day, they each took a second drink while they talked and
Phillips chuckled as we sat on the breezeway. While I was in the kitchen
preparing a second round of drinks, they apparently fell to talking about
the place, which Ward was seeing for the first time. As I returned
through the living room I heard Ward say:
"I think this place is unique."
"Yes," replied Phillips, "I particularly like the palmetto islands."
In the 1950s when the Dade County Parks Department adopted civil
service for its employees, Phillips was given an opportunity to join civil
service so that at 65, he would be eligible to retire on a pension, which
was fast approaching. The offer was made because of his outstanding
contributions to Dade County.
"No, I don't think I want to join," he told Douglas Barnes, director of
county parks. Although Phillips had worked for the parks department
since shortly after its inception in the 1930s, he had done so on a
consulting basis rather than as a regular employee. "I don't want to
punch a clock," he added.
"But, Bill, you won't have to punch a clock," said Barnes. "You don't
have to make any changes at all in your routine."
"No, I don't think I want to be in civil service," said Phillips, uncon-
Later, I pressed Phillips for the reason he had turned down Barnes'
"I didn't want to punch a clock," he replied.
"But, Bill, Bames told me you wouldn't have to punch a clock," I
"I would have felt like I should have done it, though, and that would
have been even worse than going to the office every day and punching
the idiot thing," he replied sharply, and in a way indicating he wanted
to hear no more about the subject.
We enjoyed Bill Phillips' company at lunch off and on for the seven
years that I was director at the Fairchild Garden and for some time after.
An avid reader, he frequently filled us in on some new, old or ancient
author, commenting with wry humor and a chuckle about something
that had caught his fancy in the author's work. On rare occasions he
would quote a French author. Once I sought to guide him into talking
about his experiences in France and of his meeting with Simone Guillot.
This was a mistake, for he fell silent.
As Phillips' health began declining we saw him less frequently, for
he lived in North Miami, nearly 20 miles from Montgomery Drive, and
he reached a point where he dreaded the long trip. Moreover, I was
home only on weekends, and Phillips' routine, driving to the Fairchild
Garden on Thursdays, talking for awhile about some landscape prob-
lem, then accompanying me home for lunch, had been broken. In the
fall of 19661 was among newspapermen invited by the National Science
Foundation to visit the Antarctic and write about what was happening
at the bottom of the world. Shortly before I left, I visited Phillips. He
was 81 then and in a nursing home. I could see that he had but a short
time to live. I wrote his obituary before I left. Upon my return, one of
the first things Evelyn said upon meeting me at the airport was:
"Bill Phillips died while you were away."
Old Friends, the Plants
"Strolling among the trees, palms, and shrubs I have planted over the
years is like associating with old friends," I wrote in 1973, the year of
my retirement from The Herald. "Many of these plants date back to the
early 1950s. One tree, a lysiloma, now sprawls for 75 feet, some of its
branches so long they rest on the ground, elbow-like, in order to reach
farther out. I collected seed of this tree at Paradise Key in the Everglades
National Park during an outing with my family. Starting the seed in a
small container, I worried a hole in the rock with the aid of a railroad
pick and planted the small tree. The lysiloma it is also called wild
tamarind is the grandchildren's climbing tree. In our walks, Evelyn
and I sometimes pass under this tree, whose small leaves make lacy
shadows. Both of us have remarked that from its appearance it might
have been here a century. Yet we have seen it make its scrambling,
undulating growth, taking on the gnarled and tortuous insinuations of
old age, during the time we have lived here."
A record book I kept of the plants acquired and planted over the years
at Montgomery Drive has more than 300 entries. Many of them came
from the Fairchild Tropical Garden, which distributes plants to its
members each year. Quite a few were new to Florida at the time I
Pioneering in Suburbia 31
acquired them. Some were native, like the lysiloma. A good many were
collected in the Bahamas where virtually all of Florida's tropical flora
is repeated. A number came from friends or from other plant collectors
with whom I made exchanges. Several came from the Montgomery
estate or from the Kampong (David Fairchild's home). A few grew from
seeds I collected in other parts of the world, particularly Central
America which we visited frequently at one time.
As I walked over the grounds, I passed plant after plant that recalled
a person who was no longer around. One such plant was a slender,
single-trunked palm that bore quantities of bright red fruit in large
clusters. David Fairchild gave it to me as a small plant a couple of years
before his death in 1954. Like so many of the plants I grew, this palm
had no common name, such as, for instance, the coconut or the royal
palm. Fairchild had attached a tag bearing the name of Ptychosperma
"Take this palm home and plant it," he admonished. "Grow it and
give the seeds to your friends."
I took the palm home and planted it. In time it grew to ten feet tall.
It was indeed like an old friend, recalling to a fascinating personality.
"My old friends the plants are always the same, never changing in
mood like people," I wrote. "And although they have chlorophyll rather
than blood in their veins, they nevertheless are living things that react
to the elements, in their way, the same as you and I. And, although they
remain silent and motionless, except when a breeze passes through
them, rippling their foliage and sometimes bending their branches, I am
strongly attached to them, even more, I suppose, than I am to the birds
and furry animals that live among them. Each species has its own
personality, and, although I must admit having been as cruel as nature
in their selection and cultivation, I have come to look upon them with
respect as well as with wonder. The plants have become an ineluctable
part of our lives. To leave here and have to give them up would be
dismaying. I can't imagine living anywhere else in the contentment that
I have experienced here. I know that some day I must leave them behind
- if we have to move because of increasing taxes, because age makes
it impossible to maintain the place, or if death intervenes. My hope is
that the new owners will like the place and maintain the plants we have
collected over the years and have watched grow into their present
Among the earliest names on the list of persons from whom I
received plants is that of Adolph Jordahn, superintendent of the
Montgomery estate. On January 19, 1953, I received from him four
species of palms. The Thrinaxfloridana and Thrinax microcarpa were
native to the Florida Keys. The others, Cocothrinax fragrans and
Veichia winin, were introductions. (I use the names Jordahn gave me.
Botanists have since changed some of the names.) Jordahn later gave
Nixon Smiley working on the landscaping of his home, 1956.
me a Veitchia montgomeryana, a newly discovered species which was
named in honor of Colonel Montgomery, but it eventually was so badly
damaged by a frost that it failed to recover.
The plant I associate most with Jordahn was one grown from seeds
I sent to him from Okinawa at the end of the Second World War. I had
seen this small tree growing on the roadside outside Chimu, a small
Pioneering in Suburbia 33
village, in the spring of 1945. It was covered with flowers that
resembled small apple blossoms, and after they were shed the tree was
still attractive in its deep green foliage. In the fall of 1945, I1 stopped by
this tree and found it loaded with ripening, pea-size fruits, each
containing a single seed. Collecting several, I removed the pulp, put
half a dozen seeds in an envelope and sent them to Jordahn. Upon
returning home I called upon Jordahn, whom I found working among
the orchids in the Montgomery greenhouses. He put aside his pipe to
greet me then took me to another greenhouse where six healthy young
plants were growing in individual pots.
"These grew from the seeds you sent from Okinawa," he said, pleased
with his success. "Every seed germinated."
Eventually the plants were set out at the Montgomery place and at
the Fairchild G arden. We still did not know the name because I had been
unable to collect a botanical specimen from the original tree. When the
first plant bloomed, I pressed and dried a specimen and sent it to the
National Herbarium in Washington. The plant was identified as
Raphiolepis indica, a small shrub of three or four feet in height that is
widely grown in the United States as an ornamental. But the Okinawa
plant continued to grow to six feet, eight feet, ten feet. Eventually
I sent a specimen to Dr. Richard Howard, director of the Arnold Arbo-
retum at Harvard. He replied immediately, identifying the plant as
Raphiolepis liukiuensis, the name by which the plant was later distrib-
uted by the Fairchild Garden to its members. This tree proved to be well
adapted to limestone soil. We grew several from seeds and planted them
along the borders at Montgomery Drive where they helped to make a
tall, dense screen. But I don't believe I have seen any plant bloom so
profusely as the small tree at Okinawa, which miraculously escaped the
shelling and the bombing that riddled so much of the southern part of
the island during the final major battle of the Second World War.
Another native, the paradise tree (Simarouba glauca), was given me
by Charlie Brookfield, National Audubon Society guide. I planted it
near the northeast comer of the property, and it grew to 30 feet. A native
of the Bahamas, West Indies and Central America, it is a common
hammock tree in South Florida. It grows on Indian sites in Big Cypress
Swamp. The fruit is rich in oil, which the Indians probably rendered by
cooking in water and skimming the oil from the surface. Too bitter for
most tongues, the oil may have been used by Indians as a protection
against mosquitoes and sandflies. How the name "paradise tree"
originated I have no idea; but its glossy, compound leaves and tall
growth habit make it a handsome tree.
In the early 1950s, Hal Moore returned from Cuba with seeds he had
collected from a rare palm growing at Harvard University's Atkins
Garden near Cienfuegos. We planted several seeds and grew a fine
specimen near a comer of our bedroom. With its several slender green
trunks resembling large bamboo, this cluster palm grew to 20 feet. The
origin of this mysterious palm was never solved. No one, including Hal,
was able to find it growing wild in any part of the world, nor was it
mentioned in botanical literature. Many years ago a ship's physician, a
Dr. Cabada, collected the seeds while on a voyage to Madagascar,
Hal believed. At the time of Cabada's death a fruiting specimen grew
in his garden at Cienfuegos. The garden was neglected, however, and
the palm might have been lost except for the interest of Robert M. Grey,
director of Atkins Garden, who collected seeds from the unidentified
species and planted them. Hal immediately recognized the palm as
being in the genus Chrysalidocarpus, but the species was as much a
mystery to him as it had been to Grey. Hal waited 10 years to describe
the palm as a new species and give it a name, hoping that someone in
the meantime would discover its nativity. Meanwhile the palm was
widely planted in South Florida as the "Cabada palm." When Hal finally
gave it a botanical name, he honored the physician who introduced it to
cultivation by calling it Chrysalidocarpus cabadae. Unfortunately the
Cabada palm proved susceptible to the lethal yellow disease, which
wiped out most of the common coconuts of South Florida and a number
of other palms. We lost our beautiful Cabada palm along with all our
coconuts except the Malay variety which is resistant to the disease.
One of our favorite small palms was the native Thrinaxfloridana,
which grows abundantly in South Florida, the Bahamas and the West
Indies. It is well adapted to limestone soil and to the warmer coastal
areas and the keys. Once established, it requires no further attention-
no sprays for insects or diseases and no irrigation during the dry season.
Its growth is slow; but in its early years it makes an excellent screen; and
you are reluctant to see it grow taller, raising new fan-shaped leaves
above the screening level as older lower leaves die.
Bahama plants are particularly well adapted to South Florida because
the soil and the climate of the two areas are similar. I grew 20 species
of Bahama plants at Montgomery Drive, most of them collected by Dr.
John Popenoe, who succeeded me as director of the Fairchild Garden.
Once a Bahama plant is thoroughly established, it requires no further
care, except a little fertilizer from time to time to promote growth.
Pioneering in Suburbia 35
One of the most wind-resistant plants I have ever seen is the Bahama
silver palm, Coccothrinax argentata. It is an unbelievably tough palm.
Once at Eleuthera during a northeaster, I saw the fronds of this slender
palm whipped by a 50 m.p.h. gale like so many flags. After three days
the wind suddenly stopped, and I was amazed to see how the fronds fell
back into place and appeared to have suffered no injury whatever from
the severe buffeting. This palm also is native to Florida, but only in the
Florida Keys does it attain the height it does in the Bahamas. We had
many of these native palms growing in our pine woods, but after a
quarter-century they seemed no larger than when we moved to Montgom-
ery Drive. The tallest trunk was under 18 inches. Twenty-foot speci-
mens can be seen at Big Pine Key. I have wondered if the silver palm
of the Dade County pine woods is a distinct variety. According to Hal
Moore, it is botanically the same species as the silver palm of the
Bahamas and the Florida Keys.
Of the Bahama trees my favorite is the eugenia, whose small, dense
evergreen foliage remains the same all year even during the long dry
season of winter and spring. Several of the eugenias are native to
Florida Indian sites. What did the Indians use them for? Were the
aromatic leaves and fruit used in Indian medicine? As condiments?
One of the most bizarre plants found anywhere is the spiny Bucida
spinosa, sometimes called "bonsai tree." It is a relative of Bucida
macrostachya but much smaller. Several years ago, Stanley Kiem and
Gerard Pitt (the latter a plant collector and volunteer worker at the
Fairchild Garden) found a large colony of this shrubby, oddly shaped
tree growing along the rocky shore of a brackish lagoon near Freeport,
Grand Bahama. Being in a low area, the trees were frequently flooded
by high tide, attesting to their tolerance of salt water. Although varying
greatly in form from tree to tree, even under natural conditions it
develops a character like a Japanese bonsai. Once introduced to
cultivation, it became immensely popular as a potted plant. But efforts
to propagate the bucida from seed at first met with failure. The early
introductions were confined to small plants that Pitt made special
journeys to Grand Bahama to collect, following like a nursemaid
through federal plant quarantine, then growing with delicate care in the
Fairchild Garden's greenhouses. The entire lot of Pitt's plants were set
out in two colonies in the lowland of the Garden, about the shore of a
brackish lake. Here they thrived. Efforts to collect and germinate seed
continued to prove a failure, but small plants did spring up beneath the
established trees. In this way enough plants were collected and grown
to distribute to Fairchild Garden members. I obtained one of the plants,
but mine never got beyond a pot where its characteristic bonsai form
discouraged us from parting with it for some outdoors location.
In the mid-1950s while Leonard Brass, an Australian botanist and
explorer, was collecting in New Guinea for Archbold Expeditions, he
sent to the Fairchild Garden seeds of several palms new to botany. I was
acting director of the Garden at the time, and I remember well how those
seeds arrived in packages of moist sphagnum moss, many of them
having sprouted during the long journey. So clean were the seeds that
federal plant quarantine passed them without fumigation. We lumped
all the plants we grew from these seeds as "Brass palms," which
otherwise were identified only by numbers the FTG's accession
numbers as well as by the Archbold Expedition's collecting numbers.
Brass, of course, had collected and sent botanical specimens to other
institutions, including Comell University, with expedition numbers.
The FTG did not at that time have a herbarium. According to the
botanist's notes, most of the seeds had been collected in wet tropical
forests. We rigged up sprinklers in the branches of a colony of live oaks,
and, to further simulate wet tropical forest conditions, we covered the
ground beneath the sprinklers with a thin blanket of leaf mold and wood
chips. Here we planted half of the Brass palms, watering them from the
overhead sprinklers. The remaining palms were planted in dissimilar
situations. It so happened that all thrived, but those in our wet forest did
best. As a result, we wound up with a "rain forest," a feature that is still
one of the Garden's finest displays.
In time, botanists got around to classifying and naming the Brass
palms, among which was found a new genus that, appropriately, was
named after the collector Brassiophoenix. All of these New Guinea
palms eventually fruited, and their offspring have been distributed
among Fairchild Garden members. A Brassiophoenix drymophoeides
grew just outside a window of my study, while another Brass palm, a
then-unnamed Ptychosperma species, was planted near the north bor-
der of our property. Whenever I looked out a window to rest my eyes
and relax my mind, my gaze often fell upon one or the other of these
palms and I recalled the quiet, intelligent botanist. Brass, who worked
at the Archbold Expeditions headquarters near Lake Placid, Florida,
when not on collecting trips, became ill. He returned to Australia to be
buried beside his deceased wife. The several fine "brass palms" he sent
from New Guinea still thrive in South Florida gardens.
Pioneering in Suburbia 37
One family of plants I wanted to collect were the cycads, oldest
survivors of the seed-producing plants, but I never got seriously
involved with them except in the building of collections at the Fairchild
Garden and at the Montgomery Foundation established at the Montgom-
ery estate in 1959. During our early years at Montgomery Drive, we
were interested mainly in plants that would provide screen, a lush
tropical effect about the house and harmonize with the dominant natural
landscape of pines and palmettos. I did manage to collect a few cycads
but only in the later years that we lived there, not enough to say that I
had anything like a collection. My prize cycad was a Dioon spinulosum
from Mexico, given me in 1967 by Henry Coppinger, one of the rare
personalities I met as a newspaperman. His father planted and main-
tained the gardens of Flagler's Royal Palm Hotel, built in 1896 in
downtown Miami. The elder Coppinger later opened a tourist attraction
on the Miami River where visitors strolled through lush tropical
gardens, viewed caged native wildlife and gazed at a family of Semi-
noles living in an open chickee.
Here Henry Coppinger grew up, working with the plants, which he
loved, and caring for the wildlife, including a pen of alligators. In his
early teens he got the idea of wrestling alligators as a possible tourist
attraction. Observing that an alligator grew about a foot in length each
year, he began wrestling a four-footer, and continued to wrestle it as it
grew to five, six and seven feet long. Tourists loved the show, and
Coppinger began making national tours as the "alligator boy from
Miami." By this time he was no longer wrestling a "tame" alligator. He
would go into a lake, creek, tank or swimming pool after the wildest
kind of 'gator, so long as the reptile was no longer than eight feet. As
he grew older, the public forgot his exploits, and most people assumed
the Seminoles developed the art of alligator wrestling. Coppinger
taught Seminole youths to wrestle alligators and the Indians have been
wrestling ever since.
When I met him, Henry Coppinger was in his upper 70s, living a
couple of miles south of us on Old Cutler Road. With his alligator
wrestling days behind him, he spent most of his time working among his
plant collection, mainly cycads, that he had spent years developing.
One day I dropped in to see Coppinger. After some embarrassment, he
got out his scrapbooks and began showing me the write-ups he had
received, including one by Grantland Rice in Old Collier's magazine.
Coppinger couldn't have been happier when an article about him came
out in The Herald. Having remembered that I showed an interest in a
fine cycad a Dioon spinulosum growing in a large tub he loaded
it on his pickup truck and delivered it to me.
This cycad was one of the most striking plants on our five acres.
Whenever I passed it, I was likely to think of Henry Coppinger, forever
smoking a cigar as he worked in his jungle of plants, growing in tubs or
in halves of oil drums. I also thought about the history of the cycad
family, which covered much of the earth during the time of the
dinosaurs, pterodactyls and other incredible reptiles. Somehow it made
me feel that collecting cycads and wrestling reptilian alligators was
Even at his age, Coppinger was a singular man. Day after day, he
worked among his collection of cycads and other plants with amazing
energy and unstinted devotion. While I liked plants, I sought to use
them not so much as individual "collectors items" but as an integral part
of a unified landscape, an effect I sought to achieve at Montgomery
To Be Continued
The Carver Village
By Teresa Lenox
Restricted to designated areas, Miami's growing black community
had little choice in where they could purchase land, build a home, or rent
a decent apartment. In 1951, the pressure of population expansion
finally broke the rigid barriers of segregation in Miami. Acts of
violence and terrorism followed.
In the early morning of September 22, 1951, thunderous dynamite
blasts tore gaping holes in the walls and foundation of Carver Village,
an apartment complex located in the Edison Center section of Miami.'
For months, Carver Village had been the center of an emotional and
controversial issue--black integration of a white neighborhood.
Housing in Miami's black community had been a serious problem
for several years in Miami. Twice in 1951 citizens voted overwhelm-
ingly for slum clearance and public housing. Everyone agreed that
something had to be done about the deplorable conditions in the black
neighborhood. 2 The largest of the ghettos, the Central Negro District,
housed approximately 37,000 blacks in 136 residential blocks. Most of
the residents did without electricity, running water, and garbage collec-
tion, creating conditions ripe for contagious diseases.3 The slums had
to be cleared and public housing provided for the displaced residents.
On this issue blacks and whites agreed. Yet, no one could agree on
where to locate the new black housing project.4
One black housing project had been built in 1937. Located in Edison
Center, the Liberty Square project had been heralded as the largest
housing project in the south and the most beautiful in the country.
However, Liberty Square was surrounded by a six-foot stone wall.s The
Teresa Lenox is Research Historian for Metro-Dade Division of His-
toric Preservation, a partner in the historical consulting firm of Research
Atlantica, and a graduate student at Florida Atlantic University.
wall, a physical and mental barrier, stood as a reminder to blacks to keep
out of the white areas. For the black community, the wall became a
source of tension. For the whites, it stood as a safeguard against blacks
invading their neighborhood. That was all soon to change.6
Malcolm Wiseheart and John Bouvier had built two private housing
projects in Edison Center; one black project inside the wall and one
white project on the other side. Units in the black project filled quickly
while units in the white project, known as Knight Manor, remained half
empty. Realizing the need for black housing, Wiseheart and Bouvier
renamed 216 units Carver Village and opened them to blacks in June of
1951. This decision tore down the barrier of segregation and began a
wave of terrorism that brought shame to the city and citizens of Miami.7
In 1951, Miamians voted twice for slum clearance and public
News of the owner's decision to rent to blacks spread quickly through
Knight Manor. The white residents immediately formed the Dade
County Property Owner's Association. They retained attorney William
J. Pruitt to help keep blacks out of Knight Manor. Led by Ira David
Hawthorne, the Property Owner's Association met with the Miami City
Commission several times to plead for help with their problem. The
commissioners, however, understood that something had to be done
about the shortage of black housing and refused to help the association.
Shocked by the City Commission's decision, citizens and residents took
matters into their own hands.8
The Carter Village Controversy
On July 14th the Ku Klux Klan distributed hate literature and burned
giant letter Ks in four locations around Carver Village. The campaign
escalated when Knight Manor residents organized an "Indignation
Meeting" and "Mammoth Motorcade" to demonstrate white suprem-
acy. After the meeting, cars filled with whites circled Carver Village
honking horns and flashing search lights. During the motorcade an
employee of The Miami Daily News shot and wounded a black man.9
Mr. Daniel Francis, a long-time resident of the area, recalled that
during more than one motorcade whites threw rocks at windows in
Carver Village. Whites also posted signs and patrolled the area during
the summer, warning blacks of trouble if they moved into Carver
Village. Tensions rose to fevered pitch when reports surfaced that 76
units of Carver Village had been sold to black project managers George
Bubee and Stanley Sweeting.10
All efforts by the white community to keep blacks out of Carver
Village failed. The first blacks moved in during the week of August 11.
In September, David Hawthorne, of the Property Owners' Association,
again went to the City Commission to ask for help. This time he
requested that the city secure Carver Village through negotiations or
condemnation. Hawthorne believed this would end the tension and he
had little problem convincing the commissioners. Before a packed
meeting, commissioner Louie Bandel offered the motion to begin
negotiations "to condemn buildings at Carver Village... and to acquire
them by eminent domain for municipal purposes other than public
housing." Bandel also went on record stating that this resolution would
not be a permanent solution to the problem. Earlier during the meeting
Commissioner Perrine Palmer asked Hawthorne what would prevent
the owners from allowing Blacks to rent their property east of Carver
Village. Hawthorne assured Palmer that whites already occupied those
units. Unconvinced, Commissioner Palmer offered an amendment to
the resolution--the city acquire the entire project owned by Wiseheart
and Bouvier. This suggestion received thunderous applause from the
audience. Bandel refused to accept the amendment."I
At this point, the meeting turned into a political battlefield. When
B andel refused to accept the amendment, Palmer accused him of "trying
to fool these people, because the election is close..." He went on: "I am
going to second Mr. Bandel's resolution with my tongue in my cheek..."
With this, Bandel retorted, "You are determined to beat me in the
election...I welcome your opposition." The resolution passed four to
one. The City of Miami would acquire, through condemnation, Carver
Village and the units would be used as fire and police sub-stations and
office space for the city's sewage disposal project.12
The commission's decision to condemn Carver Village only added
more tension to the situation. The Miami Daily News called the decision
"a vote-getter, no more and no less." Everyone seemed to agree that
making Carver Village out-of-bounds for blacks did nothing to solve
the real issue. As one black man put it, "Negroes went out to Edison
Center not to make trouble... They went out there so they could live in
clean apartments with little yards around them. You don't see much of
that in Negro town." 13
Some citizens were outraged at the commission's decision. Attorney
Victor Levine, referred to the decision as an "extravagant squandering
of tax funds." As a taxpayer, Levine filed a suit to halt the condemnation
proceedings. After all, the cost of acquiring Carver Village exceeded
Miami's Treasury by $1.3 million.14
The situation literally exploded on September 22, 1951. At 2:15 a.m.,
two 100-pound boxes of dynamite ripped two holes into the walls of an
untenanted building in Carver Village. The dynamite shattered win-
dows, twisted doors off their hinges, and ripped off the roof. Police
estimated the damage to be in excess of $200,000. A third box
containing 80 sticks of dynamite failed to detonate. The blasts shook
the whole Northwest section of Miami. Dan Francis, who lived a few
blocks away, grabbed his shotgun and headed for Carver Village. "You
see," he stated, "I knew what had happened." A large group of blacks
and whites gathered around Carver Village, but the newspapers re-
ported no other disturbances. The Miami Police Department followed
several leads to no avail.15
As police kept guard, an uneasy quiet prevailed at Carver Village.
City Attorney John W. Watson drafted a letter to the Assistant U. S.
Attorney, Fred Botts, asking an opinion on the legality of a declaration
of a state of emergency "in view of civil rights statutes."'6 Except for
alarming area residents, the bombing of Carver Village "aroused no
serious public reaction.""7 David Hawthorne asked the City Commis-
sion to vacate the Negroes from Carver Village; they refused his
request, stating no law existed by which they could be evicted. After a
few weeks Wiseheart and Bouvier hired a night-watchman to patrol
Knight Manor and the police removed their guards.18
In spite of increased purchases of arms and ammunition by whites,
the month of October saw no disturbances at Carver Village. The
dynamiting, however, continued. Three times during the month of
The Carter Village Controversy
October, Jewish synagogues and schools were blasted. Miami Police
Chief Walter Headley saw no connection between these bombings and
the Carver Village bombing. He perceived the blasts at Carver Village
as the work of professionals, while the bombings of the synagogues
appeared amateurish. The police chief said, "the explosions were
Communist-inspired to incite racial hatred."19
Police inspect Carver village after bombing, 1951.
A writer for The Nation magazine saw it differently. "The Ku Klux
Klan," he wrote, "have long used terror to keep Negroes inside the
ghettos assigned to them, and their program for exploiting any minority
has included anti-Semitism." He went on to cite Miami's long history
with the Klan and police support given the organization.2 David
Hawthorne went so far as to accuse Blacks of the bombings in order to
receive Jewish support.21 Indignant over the bombing of their syna-
gogues, the Jewish community united with the black community to
demand a stop to these acts of violence.
On November 30th at 2:12 a.m. a second blast rocked Carver Village,
totally demolishing two units. The culprits again placed the dynamite
in an untenanted building, suggesting that they did not want to kill but
only intimidate. Mrs. Senecheria, the wife of Miami's new mayor, told
reporters that she had received a threatening phone call. The caller told
her "to get the Negroes out or we'll blow the whole place apart." The
night watchman, employed by Bouvier and Wiseheart, had driven past
the complex just a few moments prior to the blast and saw "nothing out
of the ordinary." A bomb expert from Chicago, in Miami to aid local
officials, sorted through the debris, but found little evidence. Police
Chief Headley insisted the explosion was "an attempt [by the Commu-
nists] to create racial discord."22
Black leaders accused the Miami police of not doing enough to halt
the bombings. Outraged, Miamians demanded a stop to the violence
that swept their resort city. The dust had barely settled from the last
explosion when, on December 2nd, three more bombs exploded. The
first blast hit Carver Village at 3:57 a.m., but caused no damage. The
second blast thirty minutes later shattered the windows of a Jewish
synagogue. The third bomb exploded harmlessly at 5 a.m. in a
southwest residential area.23
Finally, spurred into action, Governor Fuller Warren dispatched
Adjutant General Mark Lance of the Florida National Guard to Miami
to study the situation. The Governor also sent an investigator from his
office to assist local officials in their investigations. Miami police
believed the bombings on December 2 to be the work of pranksters.
Regardless of who was responsible, the citizens of Miami were fright-
ened and ashamed. Jewish and black leaders met with the city and
county commissions to plead for an end to the bombings. The Commit-
tee Against Bombing, a Jewish group headed by Bumett Roth, offered
the Miami City Commission a plan to end the violence. Their plan
called for F.B.I. intervention, regulated dynamite sales, and a $5,000
reward for the capture of those responsible for the recent atrocities.24
A newly elected city commission met on December 5. Guarded by
six policemen and four detectives, the commissioners took several
actions to help end the wave of bombings. In order to attack what they
felt to be the basic problem, the commission passed an emergency
measure to obtain additional low-cost housing and federally financed
slum clearance. To get the slum clearance underway as soon as
possible, they passed a resolution asking the Miami Housing Authority
to acquire Knight Manor, Carver Village, and the adjacent vacant land
The Carter Village Controversy
(also owned by Bouvier and Wiseheart) to be used for a low-cost
housing project.25 The previous commission had recommended the
purchase of only Carver Village. This change in decision suggests that
Miami city officials were ready to do something about housing the black
At the meeting, speaking on behalf of the property owners of Edison
Center, David Hawthorne stated, "It is unfair for the authorities to
uphold this situation since these colored people have not invested the
first dime in this white section." Mr. Hawthorne recommended that the
commission declare an emergency and clear Carver Village of all its
residents. The commissioners had no comment.26
The commission also passed three specific resolutions in response to
the bombings. First, they offered a $3,000 reward for the apprehension
of the criminals responsible for the bombings. Second, they created a
$5,000 fund for the police department to pay for overtime relating to the
bombings. Third, they passed an ordinance regulating the sale and use
of dynamite in Miami. All of the commission's decisions passed
Miami received some unwanted national attention after the December
2 bombings. The Justice Department began a study as requested by the
Anti-Defamation League.28 Representative Louis B. Heller, a Demo-
crat from New York, said that if the Justice Department did not push the
inquiry immediately, he would introduce a severe bill to curb such
action "against racial and religious groups, their property and institu-
tions."29 Heller also wrote a letter to Florida's Attorney General, J.
Howard McGrath, urging him to find the culprits of this "wave of
vandalism" and bring them to justice before the violence spread to other
The violence did spread into a north Florida community. On the night
of December 25, 1951, a bomb exploded beneath the home of the
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's leader,
Harry T. Moore. Moore died enroute to the hospital; his wife was
critically injured. At first, some officials believed the bomb-murder of
Harry Moore to be linked with the Miami bombings.31 This could never
be proven. However, the thread of hatred, bigotry, and violence had
been woven into all of these incidences.
The murder of Harry Moore brought swarms of F.B.I. agents into
Florida. On January 8, 1952, Attorney General Howard McGrath
widened the F.B.I. investigations to the bombings in Miami. Mean-
while, the national director of the Anti-Defamation League, Benjamin
Epstein, met with Governor Warren to confer about a statewide pro-
gram to halt the violence. Epstein recommended a survey of local areas
to determine racial or religious tension and a project, at the community
level, to combat the "basic issues of racial and religious hatreds."32
On November 30th, Carver Village was bombed for a second time.
As February approached, with no further bombings reported, Mia-
mians began to calm down. But, the recent violence had not been
forgotten. F.B.I. agents continued their investigations while officials
laid the groundwork for a proposed Dade County Council on Commu-
nity Relations. The Council, composed of leading white and Black
Miami citizens, set as its objective a community-wide effort to better
The Carter Village Controversy
relations between racial and religious groups. In New York, The
Americans Protesting Florida Terror suggested an "Americanism"
educational program for Florida.33 In Washington, D.C., Representa-
tive Heller proposed a federal law carrying a penalty of death for acts
of violence inspired by racial or religious prejudice. In addition,
Senator H. Alexander Smith of New Jersey asked for an immediate
report by the F.B.I. on the recent wave of terrorism in Florida and for
a determination by the Justice Department on the adequacy of federal
Finally, on October 6, 1952, over a year after the first bomb was set,
Attorney General James P. McGranery asked a federal grand jury to
review the evidence gathered by the F.B.I. concerning Carver Village
bombings. McGranery stated that he believed "there have been viola-
tions of the Civil Rights statutes...and other federal laws."35 The jury
thought that the testimony on Carver Village would take approximately
three weeks. The first witnesses to testify were the F.B.I. agents who
had investigated the possible civil rights violations at Carver Village.
The jury also ordered twelve other witnesses to produce all records of
the John B. Gordon Klavern of the Ku Klux Klan in Hialeah. On
December 9, two months later, the federal grand jury returned indict.
ments against fourpeople; three men and a woman: William G. Orwick
Harvey G. DeRosier, Arthur F. Udgreen, and Mrs. Helen Russell. A:
four surrendered to federal authorities after being indicted for pej
The grand jury charged William Orwick, a linotype operator i
Miami, on two counts of making false statements pursuant to th
Federal Employees Loyalty Program and to the provisions of tht
National Security Act of 1947. Orwick told F.B.I. agent Melvin Jett
that he had not been a member of the Ku Klux Klan since 1946 and that
he had no knowledge that Sports, Inc., in Hialeah, was used as a front
for John B. Gordon's Klavem. Investigators showed that Orwick had
been a member of the Klan during the years 1950 and 1951 and that he
also knew Sports, Inc., to be a Klan meeting place, because he hac
attended regular meetings there.37
The indictment against Harvey G. DeRosier, a Post Office em-
ployee, stated that he had given false statements to the Postal Loyalty
Board. Apparently the Loyalty Board learned that DeRosier had beer
a member of the John B. Gordon Klavern, and that through his job at the
Post Office, had been assembling information concerning organiza-
tions opposed to the Klan. DeRosier denied membership in the Klan,
saying that he had resigned in 1950 when he learned the nature of Sports,
Inc. The jury charged that DeRoser had not resigned but, in fact, had
been installed as Klan Kludd (chaplain) in January of 1951.38
In response to the bombings, in 1953, the Florida Legislature
passed legislation to control the sale of dynamite.
Arthur Udgreen, a Miami laborer, was charged with one count of
making false statements to the F.B.I. Udgreen told F.B.I. agents that he
had not taken part in any Klan activities. The indictment states that he
participated in the Miami burnings on July 14,1951.39
Mrs. Helen Russell, a 55-year-old resident of Edison Center, was
charged with perjury. She denied under oath that she had met with a
The Carter Village Controversy
committee of Klansmen to discuss ways of preventing blacks from
moving into Carver Village and had requested the assistance of the
Klan. The jury also reported that as vice president of the Edison Center
Civic Association, Helen Russell organized the protest motorcade in
Edison Center during the summer of 1951.40 To reporters, Mrs. Russell
replied, "I've never lied in my life...I've got a daughter and a fine
husband. I've never even been in traffic court."41
The Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Grand Jury had reason to
believe that the John B. Gordon Klan had something to do with the wave
of violence that shook Miami between September and December, 1951.
Despite months of investigation and 3,200 pages of testimony taken in
connection with the bombings of Carver Village, the jury never indicted
any one of the bombers. The jury said in its defense, "Dynamite leaves
no traces, making crimes difficult to solve."42 Jurists criticized the
absence of laws dealing with the purchase of dynamite and recom-
mended tighter controls. In addition, the jurors pointed to "the Negro
housing problem in Miami," stating that the Carver Village bombings
demonstrated "the urgent need for slum clearance and adequate hous-
ings."43 Referring to the Ku Klux Klan, the jury said, "It is a cancerous
growth...a foul pollution in the body politic...[and] is founded on the
worst instincts of mankind."44
Testimony concerning Carver Village continued until March, 1953.
Then, suddenly, the jury swung the spotlight to the murder of Harry
Moore. In its investigation, the F.B.I. uncovered a "reign of terror" in
Florida that covered a three- to- four year period. In Miami, the Carver
Village and synagogue bombings led the incidences cited. The jury also
discovered that the home of a black woman, Maime Woodward, had
been burned to the ground in 1947 because it was located within a white
residential area. Most of the violence had taken place in central Florida.
In June, 1953, the Grand Jury indicted six men on counts of perjury.
Reportedly, these men had denied under oath that they had been
members of the Ku Klux Klan or that they had taken part in a series of
violent acts in central Florida from 1949 to 1952.45
Though the Grand Jury insinuated that the Ku Klux Klan was involved
in the bombings of Carver Village, they could never prove it. So,
instead, the jury and everyone else came to the same conclusion, that the
bombings of Carver Village had been caused by the failure of the City
of Miami and its officials to provide adequate housing for the Black
community. Though the jurors attempted, in their feeble way, to
chastise the community for its failings, they failed to point out the
inequity of keeping blacks in segregated areas. No one saw, except
perhaps the black community, that they had a right to decent housing no
matter where it might be located.
In October, 1952, Bouvier and Wiseheart opened more apartments
in Knight Manor to blacks. The Miami City Commission rescinded its
resolution of December 5, 1951, to acquire Bouvier and Wiseheart's
vacant property near Carver Village. Instead, they changed the prop-
erty's zoning from residential to industrial. Erection of any more
housing in the Carver Village area had been blocked. The Miami
Housing Authority said it would acquire "the development for white
public housing, but only if new areas are designated for Negro hous-
Today, if you ride by Carver Village it shows no signs of having
been the site of some of Miami's most extreme racial violence. The
Miami Housing Authority never took over the disputed complex. John
Bouvier became the sole owner after Malcolm Wiseheart's death.47
Carver Village appears clean and well-kept. Potted flowers sit outside
and young children play on the manicured lawn. However, something
is missing. There are no white faces to be seen. After the bombings,
black families continued to move in and the whites slowly moved out.
Only remnants of the six-foot stone wall that once surrounded Liberty
Square remain. Perhaps the remnants remain as a reminder to the black
community of the hardships they underwent just to find a decent place
1. Miami Daily News, 22 September 1951.
2. Miami Daily News, 17 October 1951.
3. David Gillogly and Reinhold Wolff. "Housing in the Miami
Area: Effects of the Postwar Building Boom" (Miami: Bureau of Business and
Economic Research, University of Miami, 1951), 12.
4. New York Times, 1 January 1952.
5. James E. Scott "Miami's Liberty Square Project," The Crisis, 49 (March,
6. Daniel Francis interview with author, Miami, Florida, 17 November
7. Charles Abrams. Forbidden Neighbors. (New York: Harper & Brothers,
8. Stetson Kennedy. "Miami: Anteroom to Fascism," The Nation, (Decem-
ber 22. 1951), 546; Abrams, Forbidden Neighbors, 123; City of Miami
Commission meeting minutes, 5 December 1951.
The Carter Village Controversy 51
9. Miami Herald, 14 July 1951; Abrams, Forbidden Neighbors, 123.
10. Francis interview
11. Miami Times, 11 August 1951; City of Miami Commission minutes, 19
12. City of Miami Commission minutes, 19 September 1951.
14. Ibid.; Abrams, Forbidden Neighbors, 125
15. Miami Daily News, 22 September 1951; Francis interview 1987, Miami
Daily News, 24, September 1951.
16 New York Times, 23 September 1951
17. Kennedy, "Fascism," 547.
18. Miami Times, 29 September 1951.
19. Kennedy, "Fascism,"547; Miami Daily News, 1, 9, 15, October 1951.;
New York Times, 1 January 1952.
20. Kennedy, "Fascism," 547
21. City Commission minutes, 5 December 1951.
22. Miami Daily News, 30 November 1951.
25. City Commission minutes, 5 December 1951.
28. New York Times, 4 December 1951.
29. New York Times, 7 December 1951.
30. New York Times, 9 December 1951
31. Miami Daily News, 26 December 1951; Miami Herald, 26 December
1951; New York Times, 27 December 1951.
32. New York Times, 9 January 1952.; New York Times, 31 December 1951.
33. New York Times, 3 February 1952
34. New York Times, 9 February 1952.; New York Times, 15 February 1952.
35. New York Times, 5 October 1952
36. New York Times, 11 December 1952; United States District Court.
United States of America vs. William G. Orwick (Miami: Southern District,
1954), Case 8363-m-Cr. The Federal Employee's Loyalty Program was
established for the purpose of eliminating employees of the U. S. Government
who were disloyal. Membership in any organization designated by the
Attorney General to be subversive was in violation of the Loyalty Program.
38. United States of America vs. Harvey G. DeRosier (Miami: Southern
District, 1954), Case 8760-m-Cr.
39. New York Times, 11 December 1952.
40. "First Fruits" Time (December 22, 1952), 18.
41. New York Times, 26 March 1953.
42. Miami Herald, 26 March 1953.
43. New York Times, 26 March 1953.; Miami Herald, 26 March 1953.
44. New York Times, 26 March 1953
45. Miami Herald, 3 March 1953.; Miami Herald, 4 June 1952.
46. Miami Herald, 7 January 1953.; Miami Herald, 6 March 1953.
47. Donald Skoglund interview with author, Miami, Florida, 3 November
This Page Blank in Original
Among the Farmers
By Howard Kleinberg
When Charles Featherly began his 1898 trek throughout South
Florida in a journalistic census of the area's farmers, he identified
sections that today are unfamiliar to us.
His series of articles in the Miami Metropolis not only serves as a
valuable document in the sense of South Florida's fruit and vegetable
growing industry but also plays a role in filling in pieces of area's
In two previous articles (Tequesta XLVIII-1988 and Tequesta XLIX
1989), Featherly covered the farmed land around the Miami River,
Cocoanut Grove, Alapattah Prairie, Lemon City, Little River, and
Biscayne, the latter being the vicinity of today's Miami Shores.
In his third article, he moved north. He introduced his readers to
places such as the Halland Prairie, which we now know as Hallandale,
and Modello, which became Dania. He also ventured around Big and
Little Snake Creeks, which is the general vicinity of today's North
Of particular curiosity was an area he identified as Orange Ridge.
Some of Miami's premier pioneers, including first mayor John Reilly
and Joseph McDonald, were recorded by Featherly as growing citrus at
Orange Ridge. A check of area history books, ranging from Dr. Thelma
Peters' 1981 Biscayne Country and 1976 Lemon City to E.V. Black-
man's 1921 Miami and Dade County, Florida failed to make any
mention of Orange Ridge.
Issues of the weekly Miami Metropolis occasionally carried articles
about the citrus-oriented settlement, but the articles appeared to cease
with the start of 1899.
Howard Kleinberg is a Miami based syndicated columnist
After much scanning it was found in the March 11, 1898, issue.
"Orange Ridge is a new settlement, situated three miles west
of Lemon City, and was a forest three months ago," the
unnamed Metropolis correspondent reported. The corre-
spondent then wrote that he, J.W. Ives and E.L. Morse,
"started out from Miami, September 15, 1897, and com-
menced making a road leading from the northeast comer of
John Watkins' homestead one mile west from the middle of
Section 15 [township 53-41 ], thence north one mile, which
gives us two miles of good road connecting this settlement
with the road from Lemon City."
Following that path indicated that Orange Ridge was the site of
today's Liberty City and, perhaps, Brownsville.
This was all but confirmed by a 1926 map of greater Miami which,
while not identifying the settlement which obviously had long ceased
to exist, showed an Orange Ridge Road running in a line equivalent to
today's Northwest 22nd Avenue.
The map has Orange Ridge Road going from Northwest 35th Street
to Northwest 79th Street.
Also of interest in Featherly's 1898 report was mention of acreage at
Biscayne being cultivated by S. D. Reid. Featherly reported that Reid
was living on the old Sturtevant homestead and cultivating tomatoes,
squash, corn, okra, and eggplant.
Ephram Sturtvant was the father of Julia Tuttle, the mother of
In the final week of Featherly's survey, he visited Cutler and other
portions of South Dade. His description of the fruit and ornamental
plants and trees on the S. H. Richmond property in Cutler reveals a rich
growing area. At Modelo, he is impressed with G. B. Hinkley's "Four
-Mile Hammock" which he called "a perfect dell surrounded with every
description of tropical plants money can purchase."
Among the Farmers 55
(From The Miami Metropolis, Nov. 25, 1898)
AMONG THE FARMERS
The Metropolis Scribe Interviews
Many of Them
ON BISCAYNE PRAIRIE, SNAKE CREEK,
MODELO, HALLAND AND NEW
RIVER, AND FINDS
Amazing Increase of Acreage
This Year Over Last Year.
The METROPOLIS this week continues its interviews with the fruit-
growers and truckers of South Dade, the work of Chas. G. Featherly, the
junior publisher. This is our fourth week at this work, which has
entailed a large amount of hard work and expense. In the first three
weeks 248 homes were visited and notes made of what was learned.
With this issue this number is increased to 8--.(sic) This week we cover
the Biscayne, Snake Creek (Ojus), Halland, Modelo (Dania) and New
River (Ft. Lauderdale) sections, completing the work south of New
River, with the exception that lack of time prevented a visit to "Tiger
Tail Hammock," the place of T. J. West; "Four-Mile Hammock," the
Hinckley place, and the Ord pineapple plantation, all at Modelo. These
we shall visit next week and close up the work on the mainland by
visiting the Cutler section. Again we ask that where omissions or errors
have been made that our attention be called to it. It is our purpose to get
this information as correct as possible, not only as matter of news but
for future reference.
Owns 10 acres about midway between Little River and Biscayne, upon
which he is putting in three acres of tomatoes.
Has a pleasant home of 100 acres just east of Biscayne station upon
which he will cultivate one acre of tomatoes.
S. D. REID
Is living upon the old Sturtevant homestead just east of Biscayne
station. This place was settled by E. T. Sturtevant away back in the 70s,
and is a quaint and picturesque old place with its old Southern dwelling
house, surrounded by tropical fruit trees and a fine old cocoanut grove.
Mr. Reid will cultivate two acres of tomatoes, one acre of squash, one
acre okra and one-half acre eggplants himself, and will have cultivated
on prairie land of his seven acres of tomatoes, and one-half acre of
C. H. IHLE
Has one of those Florida homes which it does one good to look upon.
Mr. Ihle has 40 acres, with a nice clearing. Along the front is a grove
of magnificent cocoanut trees, while his house is surrounded by 25
different varieties of tropical fruits. He is cultivating two acres of
tomatoes and one acre of Irish potatoes.
W. A. COOK
Has just recently purchased what is known to our readers as the Pinder
Farm, adjoining C. H. Ihle's place on the north, out of which he proposes
to make a nursery on an extensive scale as rapidly as possible. Mr. Cook
is an old orange grower and nurseryman of experience, having been in
the business almost continuously since 1868. He has a grove at Orange
Ridge, where he also set out groves for Messrs. McDonald & Reilly,
Corell, F. I. Wiggins, J. S. Frederick and W. I. Lewis. We found his
place to be one tropical grandeur, with 1,000 trees of different varieties
already growing, besides about two acres of Porto Rico pineapples. In
the way of vegetables Mr. Cook will cultivate five acres of tomatoes,
one acre of peppers and one-half acre of eggplants.
C. M. INGALLS
Owns 15 acres of land just across the road from Mr. Cook's place, about
11 acres of which is prairie. He has growing upon his pine land about
two acres of young guava trees. In connection with his sons, Ed and
Homer, he will put in a crop of five acres of tomatoes on his place, and
five acres of tomatoes, one acre of eggplants and one acre of peppers at
Little River and seven acres of tomatoes on Biscayne prairie.
Is working the farm of R. C. Pinder, adjoining the old Pinder Farm
Among the Farmers 57
on the north. Here we found a nice lot of mango and alligator pear trees
growing. Mr. Pinder has just received the first shipment of orange trees
for a 10-acre grove, which will be set out by W. A. Cook. There is being
cultivated on the place five acres of tomatoes.
ON BISCAYNE PRAIRIE.
The Solomon J. Peters family lived at N.E. 2nd Avenue and 74th
Besides the homes surrounding Biscayne Prairie, we find the following
land being worked upon the prairie proper, the crop being tomatoes,
except when otherwise specified:
S. J. Peters, 15 acres.
Thos. Peters, 12 acres.
W. I. Peters, three acres.
Nelson Bros., one acre, besides 12 acres which are being worked by
the Ingall boys.
H. B. Myers, three acres of tomatoes and one-fourth acre of cucum-
bers. Mr. Myers also has a homestead 1-1/2 miles northwest of Biscayne
station, with a small clearing and 250 nice trees growing.
George Watkins, four acres.
W. H. Harrington, one acre.
W. G. Carter, three acres.
A. H. McClellan, three acres.
Rulerford 7 Lewis, three acres.
Fifteen acres of tomatoes on Win. Freeman's place.
J. Peden, three acres of tomatoes and one acre of peppers and
The William Freeman family included left to right, George, Mr.
Freeman, Ethel, Rebecca, Edison, Mrs. Freeman, and Cora.
J. S. Pardue has 30 acres of prairie land which is being worked as
follows: E. A. Hawkins, six acres of tomatoes. T. Garrett, 10 acres of
tomatoes, one-half acre of eggplants and one-half acres of peppers. Gus
Bausman, five acres of tomatoes, one-fourth acre of eggplants and one-
fourth acre of peppers.
Gentry & Jordan, six acres of tomatoes and one-half acre of peppers.
CAPT. S. N. ANDREWS
Has a very fine homestead one mile west and one mile north of Biscayne
station, upon which he has a clearing of eight acres and a very neat and
comfortable residence. He has about 1600 fruit trees of different kinds
growing and an acre of pineapples. Mr. Andrews will cultivate two
acres of tomatoes and eggplants.
Among the Farmers 59
R. C. HUNTER
Has 40 acres of very fine land about two miles up the prairie from
Biscayne station. He has 500 young trees of rough lemon stock, which
he will bud and set out in the spring. Mr. Hunter's crop consists of four
acres of tomatoes, one-fourth acre of eggplants and one-fourth acre of
peppers. He has tomatoes from which he will be shipping in 30 days and
some eggplants ready for shipment now.
F. F. WILSON'S
Homestead, adjoining Mr. Hunter's place, is a very pretty place, being
surrounded by trees and tropical flowers and plants. Charles Spurrier,
who is attending the place during the absence of Mr. Wilson in Porto
Rico, will put in one-half acre of eggplants and a few cucumbers.
ON HALLAND PRAIRIE.
We found a comfortable settlement of congenial people upon the
edge of the rich prairie. They have one store and a large and commo-
dious boarding-house, with new dwellings in the course of construc-
tion. The people here, as elsewhere in this section, were busy making
their crops, which is tomatoes unless otherwise specified in this report,
and is as follows:
J. M. Bryan, Jr., 10 acres.
McIntosh & Paxton, six acres.
Mosley & Hillyard, 10 acres of tomatoes, one acre peppers, one acre
eggplants, one acre beans, four acres Irish potatoes and four acres
cucumbers and squash.
Charles Anderson, 44 acres.
Nelson Carlson, nine acres.
Sverker Lundberg, 2-1/2 acres.
S. Jostrom, nine acres.
S. M. Wright, three acres.
John Wallace, 4-1/2 acres.
Thure A. Johnson, four acres.
A. Larson, two acres.
0. C. I. Carlson, two acres.
N. A. Carlson, nine acres.
A. Andrews, five acres.
L. Timm, two acres.
Lewis and Wm. Norton, 20 acres.
W. W. Killam, four acres.
C. P. Carlson, two acres.
J. T. Wofford, 10 acres.
Wm. McRae, five acres.
H. and A. Geiges, six acres.
J. P. Owens, five acres.
At this thriving and beautiful little village we found every one busy
with their crops. Although the crop here will not be as extensive as at
some of the other settlements of the county, the prospects are favorable
for a large yield. The following is the acreage which will be cultivated:
James Paulson, 12 acres of tomatoes.
Fred Shaw, five acres of tomatoes.
Hance Johnson, seven acres of tomatoes and two acres of beans.
Joe Bell, 1-1/2 acres of tomatoes and one-half acre of beans.
Eskelson & Clark, three acres of tomatoes, one acre of Irish potatoes
and four acres of beans. Mr. Clark himself will cultivate three acres of
J. S. Crane, six acres of tomatoes.
R. Crane, two acres of tomatoes.
Charles Chambers, one acre of tomatoes and one acre of beans.
B. J. Sherrard, two acres of tomatoes.
S. E. James, two acres of tomatoes.
Ed Hill, two acres of tomatoes.
J. Randolph, three acres of tomatoes.
At Ojus (Big Snake Creek) six months ago there was only the water tank
and section buildings. Now there is thriving settlement, two stores and
a school recently established, with 15 scholars. The people here are
badly in need of a station house of some kind, as all fertilizer and other
freight is thrown out without anything as a shelter. Here we found a
large acreage being cultivated, which is tomatoes unless otherwise
specified in this report.
Lightsey & Harrison, seven acres.
H. C. Welch, five acres.
Among the Farmers 61
Douglas Bros., four acres.
J. W. Hilton, one acre. Mr. Hilton also has one acre of pineapples.
H. U. Harris, four acres.
House & McLean, five acres.
D. R. Knight, 30 acres.
Abrams & Smith, 7-1/2 acres.
J. B. Combs, two acres.
Abrams & Cosgrove have the land prepared and are setting out five
acres of orange trees.
Bull Brothers, 1-1/2 acres of tomatoes, one-half acre of eggplants,
one-half acre of peppers, one-half acre of okra and one acre of pine-
H. E. Snipes, six acres.
W. C. Sayers, 10 acres.
N. Livermore, 2-1/2 acres.
Edsall & Fort, 10 acres.
J. L. Nugent, one-half acre of tomatoes and one-half acre of
LITTLE SNAKE CREEK.
At this section of the Ojus country we found a rich and handsome
prairie, which is being extensively cultivated. The crop as given below
is tomatoes unless otherwise specified.
G. W. and D. A. King, eight acres.
Charles Schuler, five acres.
Edward Tucker, two acres of tomatoes on Capt. Fulford's place.
N. Curry, three acres.
Clements & Dunham, five acres.
McDonald Bros. & Tucker, 22 acres of tomatoes and one acre of
eggplants and peppers.
A. H. McCall, 10-1/2 acres of tomatoes and one-half acre of peppers.
Goodrich & Bryan, six acres.
Sloan & Kennett, eight acres.
S. McEaddy, 8-1/2 acres of tomatoes, three acres of eggplants, one
acre of peppers and one-half acre of okra.
McLeod & Montfort, seven acres.
Elliott & Phillips, eight acres of tomatoes and one acre of peppers.
W. J. McEaddy, eight acres of tomatoes and one acre of peppers.
Keane & Co., four acres.
Ed. Cook, five acres of tomatoes and two acres of eggplants.
M. G. Lang, 2-1/2 acres of tomatoes.
James Murphy, two acres of tomatoes, one acre of peppers and one
acre of okra.
Denham & Clements, three acres of tomatoes.
Tom Harp, two acres of peppers and eggplants.
Lee & Woods, eight acres of tomatoes and two acres of eggplants.
Located as it is upon New River and adjacent to the sound, oceans and
House of Refuge, is certainly a beautiful place, and the people there take
just pride in pointing out the many points of interest and advantage
surrounding them. We found the following places located upon the
banks of the river, and composed largely of rich muck and hammock
E. T. KING
Has 25 acres located about one mile below the postoffice, upon which
he has seven acres cleared. He has some orange trees, mangoes, pears,
etc., growing. Mr. King will cultivate five acres of tomatoes.
R. S. KING
Has 10 acres with 3-1/2 acres cleared, adjoining the above place, upon
which he has oranges and a miscellaneous lot of tropical fruit trees
growing. He is growing 2-1/2 acres of tomatoes.
0. L. HARDGRAVE
Has five acres very prettily located just west of the railroad, two acres
of which is cleared. He has cocoanut trees, guavas, etc., growing, and
intends making a fine place. We also found here one-half acre of
pineapples growing, and the cultivation of 1-1/2 acres of beans.
J. M. BRADLEY
Has 10 acres of land beautifully located which is all cleared. He will
make a crop of five acres of different kinds of vegetables.
A. J. WALLACE
Has a pretty home upon the banks of the river just across from the post-
office. He also has 12 acres about one mile up the river, upon which he
Among the Farmers 63
has four acres cleared. Here we found about 50 orange trees, 100 dozen
pineapples, limes, guavas, sapodillas, alligators, etc., growing. Mr.
Wallace will cultivate three acres of tomatoes, one acre of beans and
one-half acre of onions here, and three acres of tomatoes on Brickell
Also has a very prettily located home across from the postoffice, besides
10 acres of rich land up the river just east of the land of Mr. Wallace,
which he intends clearing and setting out to fruit trees, principally
oranges, as rapidly as possible. Mr. Marshall will cultivate on land
belonging to W. R. Bracknell one-half acre of cucumbers, 1-1/2 acres of
tomatoes and one-fourth acre of peppers.
W. B. JOYCE
Has seven acres one-half mile up the south fork of the river, six acres
of which is cleared. Mr. Joyce will cultivate three acres of tomatoes and
one-half acre of beans.
L. W. MARSHALL
Has 75 acres of fine rich land, mostly hammock, on the south fork, about
25 acres of which is cleared. Mr. Marshall is fast making a model place.
He will make a crop of 10 acres of tomatoes and one acre of mixed
vegetables. The following crop will also be made by different parties
upon his land: George Brabham, two acres of tomatoes and one acre of
peppers and beans; J. S. Boyd, two acres of tomatoes; Thomas Powell,
two acres of tomatoes; J. E. Marshall, three acres of tomatoes; J. W.
Marshall and J. R. Marsh, two acres of eggplants; Wm. Marshall
1-1/2 acres of tomatoes.
MARSHALL & MARSH
Are putting in two acres of tomatoes on the site of Osceola's old camp,
and are putting in 5-1/2 acres of tomatoes 1-1/2 miles south of Lauder-
P. M. BRYAN
Has 120 acres of fine land on the edge of the Glades at the head of the
river, with about six acres cleared, upon which he has 500 fine young
orange trees growing. Mr. Bryan will cultivate 4-1/2 acres of tomatoes
and one-half acre of beans on his land and two acres of tomatoes at "Old
Tommie's" camp, just across the river from Osceola's camp.
SABATA & BRAVO
Have 80 acres at the head of the river, pleasantly located and fine rich
soil, with a clearing of about four acres. Owing to the absence of these
gentlemen we were unable to learn the extent of their crop.
CAPT. W. C. VALENTINE
Modestly asked us not to refer to his place, and we will simply remark
that the Captain has a mighty fine place, upon which he will cultivate
15 acres of tomatoes.
C. M. CARN
Is making a crop of five acres of tomatoes and one acre of beans on J.
N. Bradley's land, three-quarters of a mile up the north branch.
W. S. PHILLIPS
Will make a crop of one acre of cucumbers on W. R. Bracknell's land
up on the north fork.
The genial superintendent of the House of Refuge, has a place at
Progresso upon which he has one-half acre of pineapples and is setting
out all kinds of tropical fruits. He is also cultivating one acre of tomatoes
on the prairie south of Lauderdale.
One of the old settlers of this section, and former superintendent of the
House of Refuge, has place at Progresso, but owing to lack of time we
were unable to visit it, but understand he is making no crop. Capt.
O'Neal occupies his time largely in cruising about the river and sound
with a naphtha launch.
Postmaster at Lauderdale, has a very pretty place on the banks of the
river, and although he is doing no farming, his place is worthy of
mention on account of its typical Florida beauty.
Among the Farmers 65
The Frank Stranahan house and trading post on the New River.
(From the files of the Fort Lauderdale Historical Society.)
It is scarcely a year since the first attempt was made to break ground
at Orange Ridge for the cultivation of citrus fruits, yet 30 days since the
writer ate both kid-glove and kumquats grown and ripened at this point.
It is claimed by those who have purchased lands here for the cultivation
of citrus fruits that this section is best adapted of any portion of the Bay
Country. Of this we can not say. We note that the young groves are
looking healthy and growing rapidly.
Adam Corell owns 20 acres of fine land. He has already cleared five
acres and has set out 500 orange and grapefruit trees.
J. A. McDonald owns 20 acres of land. He also has set out, with J.
B. Reilly, 1,000 orange trees; 700 of the trees were set out by W. A.
Cook last February. They are looking fine. The others were set out in
W. A. Cook owns 20 acres of land at the Ridge. He also has set out
175 beautiful orange trees; several of them are bearing. He picked over
100 kumquats from a tree that he set out on the 31st day of last
December. Mr. Cook contemplates setting out several hundred orange
trees in the spring.
W. J. Lewis owns 10 acres of land with a fine young orange grove
set by W. A. Cook last August. The trees are looking fine. Mr. Lewis
will extend his grove.
Next is E. L. Morse. Mr. Morse owns 10 acres. He also has set out
280 fine orange trees, as well as quite a number of other fruit trees. He
will continue planting trees until he completes the 10 acres.
Frank I. Wiggin has a beautiful little orange grove just west and
adjoining E. L. Morse. Mr. Wiggin owns the finest young grove we
have seen in Dade county for a year-old grove. He will extend his grove
S. R. Frederick, just opposite and east of Corell's lot, has also set out
a small orange grove. His trees are looking fine. He owns 10 acres of
land here, and has set quite a number of fruit trees, such as pear, mango
and other trees. Mr. Frederick will extend his orange grove next spring.
The METROPOLIS last week overlooked three acres of tomatoes
being put in on the Wagner prairie, just west of the city, by Praut &
W. H. Mitchell will cultivate five acres of tomatoes on Alapattah
Prairie on a 20-acre tract which he purchased this week.
(From The Miami Metropolis, Dec. 2, 1898)
AMONG OUR FARMERS
We Finish the Work of Interviews with Truckers
With Modelo and Cutler Sections
Continuing our work at Modelo of last week which was cut short
because of the day not being two hours longer, the METROPOLIS
representative visited three other places there this week, being those of
F. J. West in "Tiger Tail Hammock," G. B. Hinckley in "Four-Mile
Hammock" and W. B. Ord's pineapple plantation near the Hinckley
We found Mr. West had just completed the placing of an irrigating
plant on his place, which consists of 35 acres of very rich hammock a
mile west of the station. Mr. West's plan of irrigating is a pump with a
Among the Farmers 67
capacity of 150 gallons of water per minute driven by a 12-horse power
boiler. His main pipes are 3-1/2 inch and his auxiliary pipes 3-inch with
1-1/2 inch hose and 3/4-inch nozzles. This plant has been extended over
his 16 acres of young citrus grove. Mr. West has a pleasant home and
family and is about to make an extensive addition to his residence. Mr.
West's place has not been under improvement two years, yet great
advancement has been made. It will be one of the crack places of the
county in a few years. There are now growing upon the place 16 acres
of citrus fruits and three acres of pineapples. Mr. West will cultivate this
year six acres of tomatoes, one acre of eggplant and 1-1/2 acres of beans
in his hammock.
At Mr. Hinckley's hammock we note a truly tropical home. For his
own quarters he has a gem of a log cabin built on artistic lines and
supplied with modem conveniences. It is a perfect dell surrounded with
every description of tropical plants money can purchase. Everything is
constructed on artistic lines with a view to pleasing the eye and
producing a sense of rest and quiet when Mr. Hinckley seeks its
seclusion from his business cares at Savannah and Waycross, Ga. We
notice here a banyan tree of most wonderful growth which in itself is
worth a long walk to visit. Another species of tree not common in our
hammocks is the West India silk cotton tree, a most peculiar tree in its
growth. Mr. Hinckley's hammock consists of about seven acres in the
form of a circle in the midst of a pine ridge. It is divided in the centre
by the railroad. An irrigating plant has been introduced. J. J. Joyce has
the management of the place which shows great care in its cultivation.
On the prairie near by Mr. Hinckley is having cultivated 15 acres of
tomatoes, two of beans and 1-1/2 of eggplant. He has in all 80 acres of
his own and besides owns 80 prairie land in association with J. P. Gibson
of Saratoga, N.Y.
About 40 rods west of Mr. Hinckley's is the pineapple plantation of W.
B. Ord, consisting of about two acres under half shade. Mr. Ord has
three varieties of pineapples growing which are very uncommon. One
is the Giant Kew which grows to the weight of 25 pounds. Another is
the Red and Green Ceylon which Mr. Ord secured from the Island of that
name in the Indian Ocean. The third is a pineapple variegated in colors.
The plant as well as the fruit runs by graduation from one color to
another and is a most handsome plant. The Giant Kew is a smooth plant
similar to the Smooth Cayenne. Instead of producing one sucker as does
the Cayenne it produces from six to 10 and therefore multiplies very
The Cutler Post Office was located on what is now 168th Street.
Our representative this week made a trip to Cutler and inspected the
farming and other interests of this thriving community. The history of
Cutler and the litigation through which it has passed to the present time
has been discussed thoroughly in these columns heretofore until our
readers are all familiar with it, hence we will not touch upon this feature
of affairs there.
We will not go so extensively into a personal description of each
place as we have at some of the other places in this section, but will give
a general description of the interests of the grant and go into a
description of one or two places as representing the entire community.
We found everything thriving and in a prosperous condition, with a
considerable amount of improvement under way. The rock barrier
between the prairie and the bay has been blasted out, giving a free and
unobstructed waterway. S. H. Richmond, superintendent of the work
there, will soon begin work upon the necessary ditches to take the water
Among the Farmers 69
off from thousands of acres of this rich prairie land and make it
accessible for cultivating, and the necessary roads will soon be under
course of construction whereby the farmers can get their truck down to
the bay for shipment. We were reliably informed that the present
improvements, which have been commenced on a small scale, will be
continued until the present needs of the settlers have been met.
The prairie here is of a soft clay and loam mixture, which works up
into a fine soft bed upon the first time plowing, after the water is drained
off to allow the cultivation, and there are thousands of acres of it. The
pine land is of the rock formation; that part of it inspected by the writer
being of a reddish brown color, and puts out a fine growth on fruit trees
of all kinds.
There has been located at Cutler a good stock of general goods owned
by W. A. Larkins of Cocoanut Grove and managed by B. A. Burtashaw,
The people of Cutler take just pride in their school which is under
the capable management of Miss Hattie G. Richardson of Cocoanut
Grove, who has enrolled at present 15 scholars.
As an example of what the pine land will do in the way of growing
trees we will take the place of S. H. Richmond, where we found 48
different varieties of fruit and ornamental trees and plants growing, and
with a few exceptions all were looking nice. The following is the list
as we found the: alligator pear, camphor, cinnamon, banana, three
S. A. Richmond operated the Richmond Inn at Cutler. It is now
part of the Charles Deering estate.
varieties of fig, four varieties of grape, three varieties of common guava,
two varieties of Catelay guava, Jamaica sorrel, common lime, Spanish
lime, red plum, Kelsey plum, peach, pomegranate, Medlar plum,
lemon, mango, olive, sweet and sour orange, Tangerine and Otahaitii
orange, six varieties of grapefruit, three varieties of pineapples, rose
apple, sugar apple, sapadillo, rubber, tamarind, teias, mulberry, maume
apple, pigeon pea, cork oak, Australian oak, oleander, eucalyptus,
vanilla, sisal hemp, sansivers, sea grape, cassava, pepper, crape myrtle,
geiger tree, hibiscus, arrow root, aloes.
John and Mary Addison, who lived in this house, were Cutler's
On the place of G. J. Sullivan we found a coffee tree with ripe fruit
upon it, and ate a fig from a tree only 10 months old from the slip,
standing eight feet high and which had been bearing since July.
We should hardly be doing justice did we not mention the fine rich
hammock of J. A. Addison, which is a dense growth of mammoth guava
and other fruit trees. We saw here the alligator pear trees which excel
anything seen by us in this line on our trip of inspection. Mr. Addison
is the oldest settler in the Cutler section, having located there 32 years
ago, and takes pleasure in reciting tales relating to the early history of
this section. A portion of beautiful hammock has been reserved for a
To any who may be skeptical as regards the growing of oranges in this
section, we would say pay a visit the beautiful grove of Wm. Fuzzard
at Cutler, where you will find 10 acres set out to different kinds of
tropical fruits and 100 orange trees bearing. Mr. Fuzzard will this year
sell over 100 boxes of oranges.
Among the Farmers 71
At every place we visited we found a fine growth of trees for the time
they had been growing.
The attention of the people of Cutler in the past has been given almost
exclusively to the growing of trees, and not until this year has any
attention been given to the growing of a vegetable for market. Never-
theless we found 75 acres under course of cultivation. The crop will be
found in the annexed schedule.
In conclusion we wish to call attention to the rare and valuable
mineralogical collection of S. H. Richmond, which consists of over
1,000 specimens gathered from all sections of the country, the collec-
tion of which covers a period of about 20 years.
This Page Blank in Original
Contents of Tequesta
Numbers I through L
Introduction by the Editor
The First Fifty Years
In 1941, the one-year-old Historical Association of Southern Florida
published the first issue of Tequesta. The first editor was University of
Miami English professor Dr. Lewis Leary, who sadly died this year.
Until 1956, Tequesta was a bulletin of the University of Miami, and
after that the University continued as co-publisher until 1974 when the
Historical Association took over full responsibility.
The first issue of Tequesta contained a number of articles that set a
standard of excellence that continues to this day. The writers included
professional historian Robert E. McNicoll and non-professionals like
George E. Merrick, Thomas P. Caldwell, and John Matthews Baxter.
Dr. Charlton W. Tebeau, who first edited Tequesta in 1943 and
became the permanent editor in 1946, has had the greatest influence on
the journal. For forty years, Dr. Tebeau stamped Tequesta with his
understanding of the importance of local history, his ability to work
with would-be-historians, and his belief in Tequesta's importance to the
understanding of the South Florida community. Since 1986, Dr.
Tebeau has continued as Editor Emeritus, along with historian and
author Dr. Thelma Peters,
Any study of South Florida history begins with Tequesta. No other
published source of our history contains as many scholarly articles, eye-
witness accounts, and important reprints.
As we begin work on our 51st Tequesta we look forward to our new
editorial board to help us make the next fifty years of Tequesta as
important as the last.
Arva Moore Parks
VOLUME ONE, NUMBER ONE, 1941
"Pre-Flagler Influences of the Lower Florida East Coast," by George E. Merrick
"The Caloosa Village Tequesta: A Miami of the Sixteenth Century," by Robert E.
"Bradish W. Johnson, Master Wrecker, 1846-1914," by Vincent Gilpin
"Pre-Columbian Man in Southern Florida," by Karl Squires
"The Episcopal Church in South Florida, 1764-1892," by Edgar LeGare Penning
"To Miami, 1890 Style," by Mrs. John R. Gilpin
"The History of Air Transportation in Florida," by Thomas P. Caldwell
"An Annotated Check List of Florida Maps," by John Matthews Baxter
VOLUME ONE, NUMBER TWO, 1942
"George Edgar Merrick," by Helen C. Freeland
"Some Plant Reminiscences of Southern Florida," by David Fairchild
"Henry Perrine, Pioneer Horticulturist of Florida," by T. Ralph Robinson
"Ceremonial Practices of the Modern Seminoles," by Robert F. Greenlee
"Food Plants of the DeSoto Expedition," by Adin Baber
"The Administrative System in the Floridas, 1791-1821," by Duvin Clough
"Florida in History and Literature," by Watt Marchman
Constitution of the Historical Association of Southern Florida
Communication from Spessard Holland
VOLUME ONE, NUMBER THREE, 1943
"Beginnings in Dade County," by F. M. Hudson
"The Florida Indians in the Seventeenth Century," by Charles M. Andrews
"Pioneer Women of Dade County," by Mary Barr Munroe
"The Administrative System in the Floridas, 1783-1821, II," by Duvon Clough
NUMBER FOUR, 1944
"Frank Bryant Stoneman," by Marjory Stoneman Douglas
"Archaeological Investigations on the Upper Florida Keys," by John M. Goggin
"Five Plants Essential to the Indians and the Early Settlers of Florida," by John C.
"Recent Economic Trends in South Florida," by Reinhold P. Wolff
"The Freducci Map of 1514-1515," by David 0. True
NUMBER FIVE 1945
"Flagler Before Florida," by Sidney Walter Martin
"Blockade-Running in the Bahamas During the Civil War," by Thelma Peters
"A Canoe Expedition into the Everglades in 1842," by Gearge Henry Preble
"Three Floridian Episodes," by John James Audubon (reprint)
1946 (NO OTHER DESIGNATION)
"Pirate Lore and Treasure Trove," by David 0. True
"Medical Events in the History of Key West," by Albert W. Dibble
"Some Reflections of the Florida of Long Ago," by John C. Gifford
"The Adjudication of Shipwrecking in Florida in 1831," by Albert W. Dibble
"Population Growth in Miami and Dade County, Florida," by James J. Carney
"Select Biography for History of South Florida," by the Publications Committee
Contents of Tequesta 1941 1990 75
NUMBER SEVEN, 1947
"The Ingraham Everglades Exploring Expedition, 1892," edited by Watt P.
"Diary of a West Coast Sailing Expedition,1885," by Mrs. John R. Gilpin
"Perrine and Florida Tree Cotton," by T. Ralph Robinson
"The Perrines at Indian Key, Florida, 1838-1840," by Hester Perrine Walker
NUMBER EIGHT, 1948
"Jacob Housman of Indian Key," by Dorothy Dodd
"Thomas Elmer Will, Twentieth Century Pioneer," by J. E Dovell
"The Lower East Coast, 1870-1890," by W. T. Cash
"Miami: A Study in Urban Geography," by Millicent Todd Bingham
"Discovery of the Bahama Channel," by Robert S. Chamberlain
NUMBER NINE, 1949
"Cape Florida Light," by Charles M. Brookfield
"A Dash Through the Everglades," by Alonzo Church
"Recollections of Early Miami," by J. K. Dorn
"Early Pioneers of South Florida," by Henry J. Wagner
"William Shelby Harney: Indian Fighter," by Oliver Griswold
NUMBER TEN, 1950
"Colonel Thompson's Tour of Tropical Florida," by George R. Bentley
"The Indians and the History of the Matecumbe Region," by John M. Goggin
"Army Surgeon Reports on Lower East Coast, 1938," by James F. Sunderman
"John Clayton Gifford: An Appreciation," by Henry Troetschel, Jr.
"Across South Central Florida in 1882,"( reprint from New Orleans Times
NUMBER XI, 1951
"Miami on the Eve of the Boom: 1923," by Frank B. Sessa
"The Pennsuco Sugar Experiment," by William A. Graham
"Random Records of Tropical Florida," by Dr. Henry Perrine (reprint)
"Across South Central Florida in 1882," (reprint from New Orleans Times
NUMBER XII, 1952
"Newspapers of America's Last Frontier," by Jeanne Bellamy
"We Chose the Sub-Tropics," by F. Page Wilson
"Starch Making: A Pioneer Florida Industry," by Mrs. Henry J. Burkhardt
"South Florida's First Industry," by Earnest G. Gearhart Jr.
An Early Map of Key West
"William Adee Whitehead's Description of Key West," edited by Rembert W.
The Association's Historical Marker Program
NUMBER XIII, 1953
"Building the Overseas Railway to Key West," by Carlton J. Corliss
"John Loomis Blodgett (1809-1853)," by R. Bruce Ledin
"Chakaika and the 'Spanish Indians,"' by William C. Sturtevant
The Association's Historical Marker Program
NUMBER XIV, 1954
"Stronghold of the Straits: Fort Zachary Taylor," by Ames W. Willams
"Miami; From Frontier to Metropolis: An Appraisal," by F. Page Wilson
"The South Florida Baptist Association," by George C. Osborn and Jack P. Dalton
"A Petition from Some Latin-American Fishermen, 1838," edited by James W.
"'Volunteers' Report Destruction of Lighthouses," edited by Dorothy Dodd
NUMBER XV, 1955
"Forty Years of Miami Beach," by Ruby Leach Carson
"Vizcaya," by Adam G. Adams
"The Florida Keys: English or Spanish in 1763?," by Charles W. Amade
"On Blockade Duty in Florida Waters," edited by William J. Schellings
NUMBER XVI, 1956
"Miami: 1896-1900," by Ruby Leach Carson
"Miami in 1926," by Frank B. Sessa
"Mango Growing Around Early Miami," by Harold W. Dom
"A Seminole Personal Documen,t" by William C. Sturtevant
NUMBER XVII, 1957
"Homesteading in Florida During the 1890's," by Mary Douthit Conrad
"Some Pre-Boom Developers of Dade County," by Adam G. Adams
"Key Vaca, Part I," by Florence Storrs Brigham
"Soldiers in Miami, 1898," by William J. Schellings
NUMBER XVIII, 1958
"Wreck on the Reef," by Joseph F. Cheetham
"Exploring the Ten Thousand Islands in 1838," edited by James W. Covington
"Earliest Land Grants in the Miami Area," by Henry S. Marks
"Key Vaca, Part II Modem Phase," by Flrorence S. Brigham
The Association's Historical Marker Program
NUMBER XIX, 1959
"Flagler's Undertakings in Miami in 1897," by Nathan D. Shappee
"The Wreck of Houseboat No. 4, October 1906," by William H. Saunders
"Dedication of Tamiami Trail Marker," by James Lorenzo Walker
"Digging the Cape Sable Canal," by Lawrence E. Will
NUMBER XX, 1960
"Jupiter Lighthouse," by Bessie Wilson DuBois
"Key West and the Spanish American War," by William J. Schellings
"Captain Brannan's Dilemma: Key West 1861," by Vaughan Camp, Jr.
"Two Opinions of Key West in 1834," edited by Charlton W. Tebeau
"A Forgotten Spanish Land Grant in South Florida," by Henry S. Marks
"Notes on the Passage Across the Everglades," (from The News, St. Augustine,
January 8, 1841)
The Association's Historical Marker Program
Contents of Tequesta 1941 1990
"Robert E. Lee and the Civil War," by Bruce Catton
"Fort Dallas and the Naval Depot on Key Biscayne, 1836-1926," by Nathan D.
"Anti-Florida Propaganda and Counter Measures During the 1920's," by Frank B.
"The Indian Scare of 1849," by James W. Covington
"Doctor Strobel Reports on Southeast Florida, 1836," edited by E. A. Hammond
NUMBER XXII, 1962
"The Cruise of the Bonton," by Charles William Pierce
"Ornithology of 'The Cruise of Bonton,'" by William B. Robertson, Jr.
NUMBER XXIII, 1963
"Lieutenant Hartsuff and the Banana Plants," by Ray B. Seley, Jr.
"The Wreck of the Victor," by Mrs. Bessie Wilson DuBois
"Cycles of Conquest in Florida," by Charles W. Arnade
"North to South Through the Glades in 1883," edited by Mary K. Wintringham
NUMBER XXIV, 1964
"Miami Beach Reaches the Half Century Mark," by Ruby Leach Carson
"St. Andrew's Episcopal Church, Built and Forgotten," by Laura Conrad Patton
"The Florida Excursion of President Chester A. Arthur," by Joe M. Richardson
"The Florida Seminoles in 1847," by James W. Covington
"North to South Through the Everglades in 1883," Part II, edited by Mary K.
NUMBER XXV, 1965
"William Adee Whitehead's Reminiscences of Key West," edited by Thelma
"First in Palm Beach," by Louis Capron
"A Story of Liguus Collecting With a List of Collectors," by Ralph H. Humes
"Three Early Spanish Tampa Bay Maps," by Charles W. Arnade
"Two Spanish Expeditions to Southwest Florida, 1783-1'793," by Jack D. L.
NUMBER XXVI, 1966
"The Tampa Bay Hotel," by James W. Covington
"The Spanish Camp Site and the 1715 Plate Fleet Wreck," by Marion Clayton Link
"King of the Crackers," by Lawrence E. Will
"Jos6 del Ri6 Cosa," by Jack D. L. Holmes
"Kissimmee Stcamboating," by Edward A. Mueller
NUMBER XXVII, 1967
"Florida's Clipper Ship," by Edward A. Mueller
"Reminiscences of the Lake Okcechobee Area, 1912-1922," by Dorothy Darrow
"John Newhouse, Upper Everglades Pioneer and Historian," by J. E. Dovell
"Who Was Juan Ponce do Le6n?,"by Charles W. Arnade
NUMBER XXVIII, 1968
"The Orange Grove House of Refuge No. 3," by Gilbert L. Voss
"Jupiter Inlet," by Bessie Wilson DuBois
"The Rockets Came to Florida," by James W. Covington
"Workers on Relief, 1934-1938, in Key West," by Durward Long
"A Lost 'Psyche,': Kirk Munroe's Log of a 1,600 Mile Canoe Cruise in Florida
Waters, 1881-1882," edited by Irving A. Leonard
"Juan Baptista Franco and Tampa Bay, 1756," by Jack D. L. Holmes and John D.
"The Juan Baptista Franco Document of Tampa Bay, 1756," by Charles W.
A Communication: Aurelio Tio to Charles W. Arnade
NUMBER XXIX, 1969
"Sponge Fishing on Florida's East Coast" by David Shubow
"The Iron Horse on the Florida Keys," by Carlton J. Corliss
"Pioneering on Elliott Key, 1934-1935," by Chralotte Niedhauk
"Who was the Frenchman of Frenchman's Creek?," by Walter P. Fuller
"A Scottish View of West Florida in 1769," by Charles A. Gauld
"Richard Keith Call's 1836 Campaign," by George C. Bittle
"Sketches of the Florida Keys, 1829-1833," by E. A. Hammond
NUMBER XXX, 1970
"The Federal Music Project in Miami, 1935-1939," by Marilyn S. Stolee
"Miami's Bootleg Boom," by Patricia Buchanan
"150 Years of Defence Activity in Key West, 1820-1970," by Clayton D. Roth, Jr.
"Samuel Hodgman, Haines City, Florida, Pioneer," by Bruce W. Ball
"The Matecumbe Methodist Church," by Rev. Jean U. Guerry, Pastor
Contents of Tequesta, Volumes I-XXX, 1941-1970
NUMBER XXXI, 1971
"The Coconut Grove School," by Gertrude M. Kent
"The Wreck of The Three Sisters," by Arva M. Parks
"Marco, Florida, in 1925," by Mary S. Lundstrom
"Glimpses of Antebellum Florida: Tampa Bay, Key West, North Florida," by
Bartlett C. Jones
"Sailing in South Florida Waters in the Early 1880's," Part I, edited by John F.
NUMBER XXXII, 1972
"The Development of the Major Commercial Airlines in Dade County, Florida:
1945-1970," by Aurora E. Davis
"Federal and State Relations with the Florida Seminoles, 1875-1901," by James
"Labor Problems of the East Coast Railway Extension From Homestead to Key
West, 1905-07," by Henry S. Marks
"Mystery of the New Atlantis," by Bruce W. Ball
"Life on the Loxahatchee," by Dora Doster Utz
"Sailing in South Florida Waters in the Early 1880's," Part II, edited by John F.
Contents of Tequesta 1941 1990
NUMBER XXXIII, 1973
"Key Biscayne Base Marker- 1855," by Arva M. Parks
"Two Way Stretch: Some Dichotomies in the Advertising of Florida as the Boom
Collapsed," by Elliott Mackle
"Martyrs All: The Hero of Key West and the Inocentes," by Jose B. Fernandez and
Jerrell H. Shofner
"Two South Florida Lighthouse Keepers," by Bessie Wilson DuBois
"West Palm Beach," by Dora Doster Utz
"The Port of Palm Beach: The Breakers Pier'," by Sue Pope Burkhardt
"James M. Jackson, Jr., Miami's First Physician," by William M. Straight, M.D.
"The 'Friends of the Seminole' Society: 1899-1926," by Harry A. Kersey, Jr.
"Judge Henry Hudson Hancock, 1868-1951," by Ruby Jane Hancock
"Ernest Graham and the Hialeah Charter Flight of 1937," by Peter G. Klingman
"Foreign Colonies in South Florida, 1865-1910," by George E. Pozzetta
"Early Families of Upper Matecumbe," by Richard E. Gentry
"Miami's Earliest Known Great Hurricane," by Donald C. Gaby
"Cape Sable and Key West in 1919," (reprint) by Willis S. Blatchley
"The Cape Florida Society of 1773," by Roland E. Chardon
"Northern Biscayne Bay in 1776," by Roland E Chardon
"The Samuel Touchett Plantation, 1773," by James C. Frazier
"Miami in 1876," by Arva Moore Parks
"Indian Key," by Michael G. Schene
"The Evolution of Miami and Dade County's Judiciary, 1896-1930," by Paul S.
"The Florida East Coast Steamship Company," by Edward A. Mueller
"Brighton Indian Reservation, Florida, 1935-1938," by James W. Covington
"Yamato Colony: A Japanese Presence in South Florida," by George E. Pozzetta
and Harry A. Kersey, Jr.
"I Remember the Everglades Mail Boat," by Gordon L. Williams
"Traffic Control in Early Miami," by Paul S. George
"Not A Shot Fired: Fort Chokonikla and the 'Indian War' of 1849-1850," by
Micheal G. Schene
"Richmond Naval Air Station, 1942-1961," by David A. MacFie
"Notes on South Florida Place Names: Norris Cut," by Roland Chardon
'Aftermath of the Brown Decision: The Politics of Interposition in Florida," by
David R. Coleburn and Richard K. Scher
Christmas Day in Florida, 1837," by Floyd Monk
The Log of the Biscayne House of Refuge," by Thelma Peters
History of Pinewood (Cocoplum) Cemetery," by Oby Bonawit
From Tampa Bay to Biscayne Bay in 1799," by Andrew Ellicott, introduction by
"Railway Location in the Florida Everglades," by William J. Krome, introduction
by Jean C. Taylor
"The Kissimee Valley: An Appreciation," by Ruby Jane Hancock
"A Letter by Dr. Henry Perrine"
"Bootleggers, Prohibitionists and Police: The Temperance Movement in Miami,
1896-1920," by Paul S. George
"The Dania Indian School, 1927-1936," by Harry A. Kersey, Jr. and Mark S.
"The West Palm Beach that I Remember," by Gordon L. Williams
"Biscayne Sketches at the Far South," by James Buck, introduction by Arva Moore
"Growing Up, Sort Of, in Miami, 1909-1915," by Will Davenport
"Seminole Leadership: Changing Substance, 1858-1958," by James W. Coving-
"The Seminole's Christmas," "A Seminole Reminiscence," (reprints from the
Miami Metropolis) by J.W. Ewan
"Richard Fitzpatrick's South Florida, 1822-1840, Part I, Key West Phase," by
Hugo L. Black, III, introduction by Charlton W. Tebeau
"The John DuBois Family of Jupiter: A Florida Prototype, 1887-1981," by Harry
A. Kersey, Jr.
"The Seminole Women of Florida," by Mary Barr Munroe, introduction by Arva
"Richard Fitzpatrick's South Florida, 1822-1840, Part II, Fitzpatrick's Miami
River Plantation," by Hugo L. Black, III
"Sugar Along the Manatee: Major Robert Gamble, Jr. and the Developement of
Gamble Plantation," by Michael G. Schene
NUMBER XLII, 1982
"The Wagner Family: Pioneer Life on the Miami River," by Margot Ammidown
"Library in a Pioneer Community: Lemon City, Florida," by Ron Blazek
"The Cleveland Connection: Revelations from the John D. Rockefeller Julia
Tuttle Correspondences," by Edward N. Akin
"Changing Economic Patterns in the Miami Metropolitan Area, 1940 1948," by
Raymond A. Mohl
Contents of Tequesta, Numbers I through XLI
NUMBER XLIII, 1983
"Diary of an Unidentified Land Official, 1855," edited by Wright Langley and
Arva Moore Parks
"My Life in South Florida," by Edna Morris Harvey
"Newspaper Pioneering on the Florida East Coast, 1891-1895," by Ruby Andrews
"Life in Palm Beach County, Florida, 1918-1928, Part I: Engineering and
Farming," from Noah Kellum Williams' "Grandpop's Book," edited, with an
introduction, by Charlton Tebeau
Contents of Tequesta 1941 1990
NUMBER XLIV, 1984
"Retracing the Celestial Railroad," by Geoffrey Lynfield
"'...Everything Carried the Face of Spring': Biscayne Bay in the 1770's," by Daniel
"Miami's City Marshal and Law Enforcement in aNew Community, 1896-1907,"
by Paul S. George
"The Florida Mutineers, 1566-67," by Eugene Lyon
"Life in Palm Beach County Florida, 1918-1928, Part II: The Real Estate Boom
and the Hurricane of 1928," from Noah K. Williams' "Grandpop's Book," edited
by Charlton W. Tebeau
NUMBER XLV, 1985
"Birds of aFeather: The Coconut Grove Audubon Society, 1915-1917," by Emily
"Seminole Beach, 'The Best Beach in Dade County,"' by Frederick H. Harrington
"'The Firing of the Guns and Crackers Continued Till Light', A Diary of the Billy
Bowlegs War," edited with commentary by Gary R. Mormino
"Railroad Stations in Dade County," by Seth Bramson
NUMBER XLVI, 1986
"Last Command: The Dade Massacre," by W. S. Steele
"Boca Raton and the Florida Land Boom of the 1920s," by Donald W. Curl
"The State of Florida and the Florida Indians, 1954-1961," by James Covington
"The Development of the Overseas Highway," by Alice Hopkins
"The Log of the Biscayne House of Refuge," by Thelma Peters
NUMBER XLVII, 1987
"History of The Miami News, 1896-1987," by Howard Klienberg
"Watch Miami: The Miami Metropolis and the Spanish-American War," by
Thomas F. Fleischmann
"Arch Creek: Prehistory to Public Park," by Emily Perry Dieterich
NUMBER XLVIII, 1988
"Editor's Notes and Communications," by Arva Moore Parks
"The Early Years Upriver," by Donald C. Gaby
"The Bilging of the Winchester," by William M. Straight, M.D.
"Santeria: From Africa to Miami Via Cuba; Five Hundred Years of Worship," by
Diana Gonzalez and Sara Maria Sanchez
"Liberty Square: 1933-1987: The Origins and Evolution of A Public Housing
Project," by Paul S. George and Thomas K. Peterson
"Among the Farmers," introduction by Howard Kleinberg
NUMBER XLIX, 1989
"Barry University: Its Beginnings," by Sister Eileen Rice, O.P.
"Richard Ashby: Miami Pioneer," by Donald C. Gaby
"Among The Farmers," introduction by Howard Kleinbcrg
"Shadows in the Sunshine: Race and Ethnicity in Miami," by Raymond A. Mohl
NUMBER L, 1990
"Pioneering in Suburbia," by Nixon Smiley
"The Carver Village Controversy," by Teresa Lenox
"Among the Farmers," introduction by Howard Kleinberg
Contents of Tequesta 1941 1990
This Page Blank in Original
LIST OF MEMBERS
Members of the Historical Association of Southern Florida enjoy a
wide variety of benefits which include free admission to the Museum,
subscriptions to the three Museum publications, Tequesta, South Flor-
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and discounts on educational and recreational programs.
Each membership category offers the benefits as outlined above,
plus additional gifts and privileges for the higher levels of support.
During the past year eighty members upgraded their level of support.
Membership revenues primarily cover the costs of the benefits pro-
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of the Museum. The membership listing is made up of those persons and
institutions that have paid dues since August 1989; those who joined af-
ter November 1, 1990, will have their names in the 1991 Tequesta.
CATEGORIES OF MEMBERSHIP
Corporations and Foundations
$500.00 (and up)
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( no longer available )
Any changes in the level or listing of membership should be reported
to the membership office at 375-1492.
Honorary Life Membership is voted by the Board of Trustees to rec-
ognize special service to the association. The symbol ** indicates
Founding Members; the symbol indicates Charter Member.
Alpert. Mr. Maurice
Franklin, Mr. Mitchell
M. R. Harrison Costruation
Ryder, Jr., Mr. and Mrs. Ralph
*Waters, Mr. Fred M., Jr.
Withelli. Mr. narms
Withers, Mr. and Mrs. Wayne E.
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Ackedey Conmm. of Florida, Inc
Ryder System Inc.
Southeast Banking Corp, Foundation
Citizens Federal Bank
Eaglc Braids. Inc.
Consolidated Technliques, Inc.
John Alden Life Insurance Co.
Atlantis Group, Inc.
Bierman, Shohat & Loewy, P.A.
C. G. Chase Construction Co.
City National Bank
Coastal Puels Marketing Inc.
Edward J. DeBartolo Corp.
Kloster Cruise Limited
Mershon, Sawyer, Johnstoan, Dunwody
Farey's Wholesale & I lardwarc
Flcrida Power & Light Company
East Coast Painters.
East River Terminals, Inc.
Greater Miami Convention & Visitors
Katz, Barron. Squileru,
Key Power Technical Institute
KPMG Peat Marwick
Mount Sinai Me.dical Center
Pal, Landy, Bciley & Harper, P.A.
Post, Buckley, Schuh & Jcniigan
Saloroan, Karmer & Damsin, P.A.
Keen, Battle, Mead & Company
Miami He mld
Parties By Pat
WAXY FM 105.9
Mudrick. Witt, Levy & Consor
Rosen & Switkrs
Roset Pilloy and Coanpany
Service Station Aid, Int.
Shurts & Bowcn
Taglairino Advertising Crmap
The Brewer Co. ofFlorida, inc.
Trust Company of the South
Turner Construction Company
Aircraft Electric Motors, Inc.
Atico Financiai Corporation
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Black Archives & History FDN
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Flooring Etc Cotp.
Kennedy Family Foundation, Inc.
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Just Catering, Inc.
National EBdownent for the Ans, Folk
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List of Members 85
Adams, Mrs. Faith
Adkins, Mr. and Mrs.
Agardy, Mrs. Beverly
Anderson, Ms. Marie
Anderson Dr. and Mrs.
Banks, Jr., Dr. and Mrs.
Battem, Mr. and Mrs. Jarmes
Battle, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Battle, Mr. Michael
Baumberger, Mr. and Mrs.
Bermont, Mr. and Mrs. Peter
Barn, Dr. and Mrs. Michael
Bowker, Mr. and Mrs.
Caldwel, Mr. and Mrs,
Campbell, Mr. and Mrs.
Campbell, Mr. Gcorge
Canrrera-Justiz, Mr. nd Mrs.
Cesrano, Mr. and Mrs.
Casa.rno, Mr. and Mrs.
Chapman, Jr, Mr. and Mrs.
Cole, Mr. and Mrs. Carlton
Collier, Ms. Beth
Craett, III. Mr. and Mrs.
Coaoan, Mr. and Mrs. Allen
Cox, Mrs. Edna
Cullom, Mr. and Mrs.
Curry. Miss Lamar Louise
Davis, Mr. and Mrs. James
Deutsch, Mr. and Mrs.
Dictz, Mrs. Beverly
Ericsmn, Mr. Douglas
Andron,Mr. andMrs. Chris
Apthorp, Mr. andMrs.James
Cole, Mr. Richard
Pogel, Mr. and Mrs. Joel
Glinn, Mr. and Mrs.
Abass, Sr., Mr. and Mrs.
Adams, Mr. and Mrs. James.
Adler, Dr. and Mrs. Robert
Alexander, Mrs. Selin
Allen, Mr. and Mrs. Charles
Andcrson, Mr. and Mrs.
Amrca, Mr. and Mrs. P.
August, Mr. and Mrs. Leslic
Averill, Mr. Joiph
Fodor, Dr. and Mrs. Kenneth
Ferguson, Mr. Waller
Fitzgerald, Dr. and Mrs.
Frankel, Dr. and Mrs. David
Friedman, Mr. and Mrs.
Galan. Mr. and Mrs. Juan
Garia-Chacon Mr. andMrs.
George, Dr. and Mrs. Phllip
Gcnspacher, Mr. and Mrs.
Goldberg. Mr. Michael A.
Goodlove, Mrs. Avis
Graham, Mr. and Mrs.
Gray, Mr. and Mrs. James
Greenfeld, Mr. and Mrs.
Harper. Mr. and Mrs. Gcorge
Harrison, Sr., Mr. and Mrs.
Hawkins, Mr. and Mrs. Mark
Hector Mr. and Mrs. Louis
Hector, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Henry. III, Mr. and Mrs.
Hills, Mr. and Mrs. Lee
Hudson, Mr. and Mrs.
Johnsn, Mr. andMrs. Lester
Kanner, Mr. and Mrs. Lewis
Katz, Ms. Janet
Katz, Mr. and Mrs. Jay
Kenny, Mr. and Mrs. James
Kent, Mr. and Mrs.
Killian, Jr., Mr. and Mrs. A.
Kislak, Mr. and Mrs. Jay
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Krakow, Mr. and Mrs.
Kyle. Mr. Alan
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LaRoue, Jr., Mr. Samuel
Lashar, Jr,, Mr. and Mrs.
Laurence, Mr. Kenneth
Lawrence, Mr. and Mrs.
Lewis, Mr. and Mrs. Michael
Lowell, Mr. and Mrs. Jack
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Mank, Mr. and Mrs. R.
Matheson, Mr. and Mrs.
Matteson, Mr. Arnold
McCrimanmon, Mrs. C. T.
McLamore, Mr. and Mrs.
McMahon, Mr. andMrs.PauJ
McMilian, Mr.and Mrs.
Mead,Jr..Mr. andMrs.D. R.
Mead. Sr., Mr. and Mrs. D.
Mansch, Dr. andMrs.Joseph
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Martison,Dr. andMrs. Glenn
Murphy, Dr. and Mrs. Brian
Murphy, Mr. and Mrs.
Nord, Ill. Dr. and Mrs. John
Noriega, Ms. Lamar,
Norman, Dr. and Mrs.
Oren, Dr. and Mrs. Mark
Pappas, Mr. Theodore
Highleyntan, Mr. Daly Martinez. Dr. and Mrs.
Huston, Mrs. Torn Milton
Jtaws, Mr. and Mrs. Matheson, Mr. Hardy
Raymond Peacock, Mr. Henry
Kahn, Mr. and Mrs. Donald Rodriguez, Mr. and Mrs. P.
Marrnesh, Dr. and Mrs. Nelson
Parks, Ms. Arva Moore
Prevatt, Mr, amnd Mrs. Paston
Prunty, Mrs. John
Pryor, Jr., Dr. and Mrs. T.
Read, Mrs. Bess Burdine
Reid, Mr. and Mrs. R.
Rcitcr, Mrs. Robin
Risi, Jr., Mr. and Mrs. Louis
Robinson. Mr. and Edward
Schmidt, Mr. andMrs.Rober
Shack, Richard and Ruth
Smiley, Dr. and Mrs.
Soman, Mr. and Mrs.
Stwart, Sr., Dr. and Mrs.
Stewast, Jr., Dr. and Mrs.
Tebea Dr. Chariton
Thatcher, Mr. John
Thoason, Mr. and Mrs.
Toms, Mr. and Mrs. Gerald
Train, Dr. and Mrs. Joseph
Trainer, Mr. Monty
Trochet, Dr. and Mrs. Jean
Vergaa, Dr.andMrs.G Gore
Volter, Mrs. Karl
Warren, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Wcitz, Dr. andMrs.Michael
White, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Wsaeheast, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Wolt, Ms. Jody
Wolfson, Jr., Mr. Mitchlll
Woodirff, Mrs. John
Younts, Mr. and Mrs. David
Younis, Mr. S.A.
Zwibel, Dr. and Mrs.
Zwick, Mr. andMrs. Charles
Shapiro. Ms. Phyllis
Sherry, Mr. Lawrence
Straight, Dr. and Mrs. Wil-
Zeppa, Dr. and Mrs. Robert
Baker,Mr.and Mrs. Leonard
Barkell, Mr. and Mrs.
Baros, Mr. and Mrs. Evans
Barrow, Dr. and Mrs. James
Beam, Mr. Frank
Black,Jr.,Mr. and Mrs.Hugo
Blank, Mr. and Mrs.
Botifoll, Mr. and Mrs. Luis
Brennan, Ms. Mary and
Janson, Mr. Glcnne
Carboncll, Dr. and Mrs.
Cari.llo,Dr. id Mrs. Emilio
Cassidy. Mr. and Mrs.
Chapman, Ms. Virginia and
Kovatch, Mr. John
Collins, Mr. and Mrs.
Cook, Mr. and Mrs. Cark
Cooper. Mr. and Mrs. Mike
Corin, Dr. and Mrs. Morton
Cosello, Ms. Marjori Lea
Crawford, Mrs. James
Crow, Jr.,'Mr. and Mrs. Lon
Dane, Mr. and Mrs. George
Danforth, Mr. and Mrs. Dan
Danielson, Mr. and Mrs. J.
Davis, Mr. and M. Frank
De Caron, Mr. George
DcHart, Jr., Mr. Stan ey
Dellapa,Mr. and Mr. Gary
Diamond, Mr. and Mnr. J.
Dombrowsky, Mr. and Mr.
Dowlmn, Jr., Dr. and Mrs.
Doyle, Mr. and Mrs. James
Duna, Mr. and Mrs. George
Dunrwdy, Mr. and Mo.
Durbin, Ms. Grace
Eaton, Judge and Mrs. Joe
Blrhard, Mrs. Harrien
Ellenburg, Mr. aid Mrs.
EntEnmann, Mr. and Mo.
Evoy, Mr. and Mr. Bill
Feldman, Mr. and Mn, Eric
Finkelatin Mr. and Mrs.
rinly,. Ms. Jane
Fojaco, Dr. Rita
Gaffin, Mr. and Mr. Harold
Gallagher, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Gangizza, Mr. and Mn.
Garcia, Mrs. Maria
Garcia, Mr. and M Ruben
Gardner, Mr. and Mrs.
Gibson, Mr. David
Goldman, Ms. Smu
Goldstcin.Mr. andMrs. B.B.
Gmnzalez, Jr., Mr,. Alvaro
Goodman, Mr. and Mrs.
Goodman, Mr. and Mr.
Gossett, Mr. and Mr.
Groenfield, Mr. and Mrs.
Gregorisch, Mr. and
Grentmr, Mr. and Mrs.
Grier. Ms. Helen
Guerra. Mr. and Mrs. Phil
Gahrie, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Gunrtcnadcer, Mr. Edward
Hass, Mr. and Mrs. Gcorge
Hancock, Mr. and Mrs.
Abrams, Mr. and Mrs.
Adair, 111, Mr. John
Adams, Jr., Mr. Andrew
August. Mrs. and Mrs.
Ball, Mr. and Mrs. Ivan
Barker, Mr. and Mrs.
Hardin, Jr., Dr. Henry
Haverfeld, Mrs. Shirley
Heims, Mr. and Mrs Brent
Hemmings, Mr. and Mn.
Hcnkin, Dr. and Mrs. Jeffrcy
Hem, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur
Hicks, Mrs. and Mr.
Hinds,Mr. and Mrs. Richard
Hinds, Dr. and Mrs. Ronald
Hollingcr, Mrs. Barbara
Hortein, Mrs. Norene
Hunter, Dr. and Mrs. Burke
Ingelmo, Mn. Esther
Izaguirc, Dr. and Mrs.
Jaffe, Dr. Jonathan
Je.mings, Ms. Arlene
Jimenea, Mr. Juan
Kain, Mr. and Mrs. Francis
Keen, Mr. and Mrs. Gcrge
Keen, Ms. Patricia
Keller, Mr. Bruce
Keys, Mr. Neal
Kienral, Mr. Carl
Kicinherg, Mr. and Mrs.
Kniskern, Mr. and Mrs.
Korach, Mr. and Mrs. Irvin
Korth, Mr. and Mrs. James
K.eiuberg, Mr. and Mrs.
Laucr, Mr. and Mrs. John
Lawrence,Mr. and Mrs.
Leake, Mr. and Mrs. Martin
Levine, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur
Levitt, Mr. and Mrs. Ronald
Levy, Mr. and Mrs. Harry
Lewis, Mr. and Mrs. John
Lewis. Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Licblcr, Dr. -Wd Mrn. John
Lipinsky, Mr. and Mrs.
Little, Dr. and Mrs. William
London, Mr. and Mrs. I.
Long, Ms. Joyce T.
Lotspcich, Mr. aod Mrs. Jay
Lunford, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Masson, Mr. and Mrs. S. C.
MasvidalMr. and Mrs.Raul
Matheson. Mr. and Mrs.
Maxted, Jr,, Mr. and Mrs.
McCormick, Mr. and Mr.
Medin. Mr. and Ms. David
Meyer, Mr. and Mr.J lck
Mcycr, Mr. and Mrs. Sylvan
Miller, Mr. and Mrs. HE.
Miller, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Misleh, Mr. Roger
Morgenslm,. Mr. and Mrs.
Moris, Mr. and Mrs. Emrest
Mose,Mr. andMrs. Michael
Neinken. Mrs. Ruth
Nenmei, Mr. Joseph
Newcomb, Mr. and Mrs.
Norton, Dr. Edward
Oliver, Jr., Dr. and Mrs.
Owen, Mr. and Mrs. David
Palacio. Ms. Margarita
Pancoast. Ms. Kathirinc
Pearce, Ms. Elirahbeth
Peck, Jr., Mr. G-eoe
Plumer, Mr. Mrs. Richard
Price, Mr. and Mrs. Stanley
Rappcrport, Mr. and Ms.
Rawls, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Rebozo, Mr. Charles
Reid, Dr. and Mrs. Walter
Righjtti. Dr. and Mrs.
Rubinr, Mr. andMrs.Joseph
Ruggles, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Rusell, Ms. Darlemn
Rutter, III, Mr. and Mrs.
Sachek, Mr. and Mrs.
Santiago, Mr. and Mrs.
Saratoglu, Dr. and Mrs.
Scott. Ms. Martha
Segal, Mr. and Mrs. David
Seidel, Mr. and Mrs. Barry
Sepp, Mr. John
Shay, Mr. and Mrs. Rodger
Shayne, Mrs. Genic and
Shayrn, Miss Cindy
Sleinvold, Mr. MichaelPaul
Sirnknkan, Mr. and Mrs.
Shouse, Ms. Abbic
Sisselnan, Mr. and Mrs.
Silvcster, Mr,and Mrs.Larry
Sleek, Jr., Mr. George
Smith, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel
Smith, Mr. and Mn. Samunl
Sonrett Mr. and Mrs. NCal
Spak, Mr. and Mrs.
Staten, Ms. Eva
Stein Mr. Artiur
Steinberg, Mr. Alan
Stevens, Mr. and Mre.
Stirrup, Ms. ldeane
Sullivan, Mrs, Patricia
Sures. Mrs. J.
Sweeny, Mrs. Edward
Swetland, Mr. and Mrs.
Theobald, Ms. Yvmon
Tholrdike, Mr. and Mrs.
Thornton, Mr. and Mn.
Tierney, Mr. and Mrs. John
Tribbl, Mr. and Mrs.Jamras
Tryaon, Mr. and Mrs.
Tunstall, Mr. and Mrs. Jack
Tuamer, Mrs. Roberta
Tyson, Mr, and Mrs. Chris-
Underwood, Mr. and Mrs.
Vajlega, Mr. Jack
VanDenend. Mr. and Mrs.
Vaughan, Mr. and Mrs.
Vernon, Mr. and Mrs. lark
Waldberg. Mrs. Jean
Ward, Mr. and Mrs. Carl
Wien, Mr. and Mrs. Leonard
Wilson, Mr. and Mrs. Gorge
Wilson, Mrs. Peylcn
Wolfsaon Mr. and Mrs.
Wood. Sr., Mrs. Warren
Woore, Mr. Margaret
Wyllie, Mr. and Mr. Stuart
Wynne, Mr. Jamns
Yates, Mrs. Eunice
Zolten, MD.. Robert
Barkcit, Mrs. Sybil
Batle, Mr. Carilos
Bell, Mr. Paul
Brand. Mr. and Mrs.
Br-eze. Mrs. and K.W.
Bucrman, Mr and Mrs. Eric
Buklstel, Dr. and Mrs. Leslie
Campbell, Mr. and Frances
Chiaro, Ms. Maria
Claughton, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Davis, Mr. Roger
de Castro, Mr. Raymond
Delaspozas, Ms. Zuleika
Dorick, Ms. Diane
Dowdell. Mr. and Mrs. S.H.
DuLtchr, Mr. andMrssDavid
Eisnor, Mr. and Mrs.
Fairbaiim.Mr. andMrs. Ralph
Feltman, Dr.and Mrs.Robert
Fernandez, Mr. andMrs.John
Fiashman, Dr. and Mrs.
Fitzgerald, Jr., Mr. and Mra.
List of Members 87
Fortaine, Miss Bertha
Pantaine, Mis Coecelia
Preidin, Mr and Mr. Phitlip
Gabler, Mrs. George
Gaby. Mr. and Mrs. Dcmald
Gardner, Mr. and Dick
Gamer., Dr. and Mrs. Stanley
Goldwyn, Dr. amd Mrs.
Gonzale-Viera, Mr. Raul
Goodson, Jr.. Mr. and Mrs.
Gordon, Mr. and Mrs. Reed
Gottfried, Mrs. Carol Janm
Grcn, Dr. and dMr Edward
Hall, Mr. and Mrs. John
Hanley, Mr. and Mrs. Pbler
Harrington, Ms. Nancy
Harrison, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Hatl, Mr. and Mrs. Bayard
Hellnamn, Mr, and Mrs.
Hrst, Jr., Mr. and Mn.
Hilliard, Ms. Mairjery
Hirsch. Mr. and Mrs. Sol
Holder, Mr. and Mrs. Hal
Horacek, Mr. and Mrs.
Hughs, Mr. and Mrs.
Irvin, IIl, Mr. and Mrs. E.
Jacobson,Mr. andMrs. Larry
Jollivetic, Mr. Cyrus
Jorgenson, Mr. and Mrs.
Jude, Dr. and Mrs. J.
Juncosa.Mr. and Mrs. Ralph
Junkin, III,Mr.a nd Mrs.John
Kessler, Ms. Bonty
Kremer,Mr. andMrs. Donald
Kristal, Mr. Marvin
Lanzphcar, Mr. and Mrs.
Levine, Mr. Martin
Levy, Ms. Eleanor
Laane, Mr.-nd Mrs. 'Thoma
Lubitz, Mr. and Mrs. Alan
Mannis, Dr. and Mr. Arnold
Maroks, MCIUSAR, Major
and Mrs. Roy
Mathews, Ill, Mr. and Mrs.
Matteson, Miss Eleanor
McCabe, Dr. Roben
McMinn, Mr. John
Mesh, Mr. and Mrs. Howard
Mayers, Mr. and Mrs, Frank
Michelson,Mr. arlMrt. Don
Mitchell, Ms. Flra
Mitchel, Mr. and Mrs.
Mohr, Mr. Alfred
Muhtar, Mr. and Mrs.
Naticllo. Dr. Thnmaws
Neaedll, Dr. andMrs. Mervin
Norcross, Mr. Brim
Orlingy, Mr. Paul
Peare., Ms. Libby
Perez, Mr. and Mrs. John
Pakic, Mr. and Mrs.
Pfrnniger, Mr. Richard
Preacher, Mr. Douglas
Price, Ms. Judith
Quinton, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Ramsey, Ill, Mr. and Mn.
Rapa, Mr. Vicente
Rechticn, Mr. and Mrsn.
Rockf rd, Dr. andMrs.Philip
Reed, Sr., Mr. and Mrs,
Reilly, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Ridgely, Mr. and Mrs.
Rivero, Mr. GeOrgy
Roach, Mr. and Mrs. Patrick
Ryan, Ms. Colleen
Sandicr, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Sheehan, Ms. Elaine
Simon, Mr. and Mrs. Edwin
Snyder, Mr. and Mrs. Philip
Sullivan, Mr. and Mrs. R.S.
Sutton, Mr. and Mrs.
Tabcmilla, Mr. Armando
Tilghman. Jr., Mr. and Mr.
Troner.Dr. and Mrs.Michamel
Underwood, Dr. and Mrs.
Velar, Mr. and Pedro
Mrs. Laurm A.
Villa, Ms. Sandra
Williams, Mr. and Mrs.
Williarim Mr.indMr. Prank
Wills, Mr. and Mrs. James
Wright, Dr. R.K. and Hunt,
Abbott. Mr. and Mrs. Henry
Abess, Jr., Mr. Leonard
Adams, Mr. and Mrs. John
Adlcr, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel
Aguilcra, Mr. andMrs.Pablo
Aguirre, Mr. and Mrs. Louis
Aibol, Mrs. Howard
Ainsworth, Ms. Mary
Ajamni, Mr. and Mrs. Raffoal
Akarman, Mr. andMrs.John
Alcalde, Mr. and Mrs. Jore
Alejandro, Mr. and Mra. Joe
Allen, Mr. Paul
Allnson, Mr. and Mrs.
Altman, Mr. andMrs. Robet
Alsamyer, Mr. and Mrs. Bud
Amaro, Mr. andMrs. Araldo
Amrnarall, Jr+. Mr. aid Mrs,.
Anderson, Mr. and Mrs.
Anderson, Mr. and Mrs.
Angones, Mr. and Mrs. Frank
Apgar, Mr. and Mrs. Ross
Apple, Mr. Larry and PFrc7,
Arch, Mr. and Mrs. Ted
Archer, Mr. Edward
Armbrister, Mrs. Esther
Arndt, Mrs. Jo-Ann and
Arndt, Mr. Tim
Arredordo, Mr Carlos
Adlmn, Mr. and Mrs. Peter
Atkins, Hon. and Mrs. C.
Atlass, Mr. and Mrs. Alvin
Avant, Mr. and Mrs. John
Averbook, Mr. and Mrs.
Axel. Ms. Joyce
Bflbco.k, Mr. and Mrs.
Bachcr, Mr. and Mrs. Louis
Boar, Mr. and Mrs. Kenr
Bailey, Ms. Rosena
Baker, Mr. and Mn. David
Baker, Mr. and Mrs. John
Baldwin, Mr. snd Mrs. Cliv
Ball, Mr. and Mrs. Rod
Ballard. Mr. andMrs Robert
Bander, Mr. and Mrs.
Banks, Col. and Mrs.
Barbancra, Mr. and Mrs.
Barber, Mr. and Mrs. Earl
Bare, Mr. and Mrs. Charles
Barko, Mr. and Mrs. Paul
B amhill,Mr.and Mrs. Lester
Bass, Mr. and Mrs. Michael
Bass, Dr. and Mrs. Robert
BatLISa, Ms. Maria
Battle, Mr. Robert
Battle, Mr. Timothy
Baumgartlier, Mr. and Mrs.
Bavly, Mr. and Mrs. Harry
Beard. Mr. Wendall
Beck, Mr. and Mrs. Allen
Becker, Dr. and Mrs. Earl
BRheb, Mr. and Mrs, Morton
Beer, Mr. and Mrs, Albert
Beglarin, Dr.and Mrs .Grant
Beiley, Mr. Stanley
Belcher, Mr. and Mrs. Edwin
Bell, Mr. and Mrs. William
Bandler, Mr. and Mrs. Fred
Bennett, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Bennet, Mr. andMrsRobert
Benowitz, Mr. H. Allen
Brntlcy. Mr. C.P.
Berard, Mr. and Mrs. Julio
Berg. Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Berger, Mr. and Mrs, Arthur
Berke. Mr. and Mrs. Michael
Berman, Mr. and Mrs.Leslie
Bernstein, Mr. and Mrs.
Bemstein, Mr. and Mrs.
Betrin. Mr. and Mrs. Ray
Bectelson, Mr. and Mrs.
Bethune, Ms. Mildred
Betwor, Mr. and Mrs.
Beveridge,Mr. and Mrs.i.A.
Beycr, Dr. and Mrs. Robert
Bieroran, Mr, Donald
Birminsgham, Mr. and Mrs.
Bischoff, Ms. Connie
Bischoff, Mr. and Mrs.
Biver, Mr. and Mrs. Marvin
Bivins, Mr. and Mrs. Charles
BjorIman, Mr. William
Blackburn. Mr. and Mn.
Blanco, Mr. and Mrs. Jose
Blank, Dr. and Mrs. Harvey
Blazevic, Mr. and Mrs.
Blcechman Dr. and Mrs. WJ.
Block, Mr. and Mrs. Jeffrey
Bloom, Dr. and Mrs.
Bludwarth, Mr. and Mrs.
Blub, Mr. and Mrs. R.
Blumberg, Mr. and Mrn.
Blumberg. Mr. and Mrs.
Bobcr, Mr. and Mrs. Steven
Bocgen Mr. and Mrs. R.W.
Karner, Ms. Ellen
Bohlon Dr. and Mnr. John
Bomar, Mr. and Mrs.
Bourne, Mr. and Mrs.
Bowen, Mrs. R.
BowmanMr. and Mrs.Philip
Boyd, Ms. Debrah
Boyd, Dr. and Mrs. Russell
Boyncr, Mr. Leonard
Baza, Ms, Olas and Carver,
Brack, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Brady, Mr. and Mrs. Daniel
Bragassa, Mr. and Mrs.
Brake, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Brant, Mr. William
Brantley Mr. and Mn. Bill
Brecher, Mr. and Gaiter, Mrs.
Breit, Mr. and Mrs. Coarlea
Brennan, Mr. and Mrs. Bob
Brennan, Mr. Robert
Bricknan, Mr. and Mrs. P.
Broder, Dr. and Mrs.
Brodcur, Mr. and Mrs. G.
Brody, Mr. and Mrs. Alan
Brody, Mr. and Mrs. Jon
Brooke, Mr. and Mrs. Peter
Brolkner, Mr. and Mrs.
Broudo, Mr. and Mrs. Jack
Brown, Mr. and Mr. Bert
Brown, Mr. and Mrs.
BrownMr. and Mrs.Edward
Brown, Mr. and Mrs. Harvey
Brown, Mr. and Mrs. Jack
Brown, Mr. and Mrs. Jasmes
Brown Mr. and Mrs. James
Brown, Mr. and Mrs. Jerry
Brownell,Mr. and Mrs. ER.
Brurmbaugh, Mr. and Mn.
Brumer, Ms. Charlotte
Bryan. Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Buchbinder, Mr. and Mrs.
Buchabaum, Mr. and Mra.
Bubhlr, Mr. and Mnrs. Jean
Buhnnarster, Mr. and Mrs.
Bullock, Mr. and Mrs. Jack
Burdin, Mr. and Mrs. lJass
Burke, Mr. and Mrs. Gordon
Burke. Ms. Mary
Burton, Jr., Mr. andl Mrs.
Burton, Jr., Col. and Mrs.
Busby, Mr, and Mnr. Gcorge
Bush, Mr. and Mn. Jeb
Bush, Mr. Jesse
Butler, Mr. and Mrs. Donald
Butler. Mr. Jack
Butler, Mr. John
Butler, Mr. Kevin and
Winston, Ms. Tamara
Cahill, Mr. and Mn.
Caldwrcl, Ms. Genevieve
Callander, Mr. and Mn.
Campbell, Mr. and Mrs.
Carpbell, Mr. and Mrs. John
Camps, Mr. and Mrs. Carlos
Cano, Mr. and Mrs. Patco
Caprn Mr. r"d Mrs, Richard
Capman, Mr.andMrs. Philip
Carbonc, Mrs. Grace
Carbon, Mr. and Mrs, Art
Carr, Ms. Barbara
Carrasco, Mr. Rone
Carroll, Dr. and Mrs.
Carroll Ms. Susan
Cary, Mr. and Mrs. Robent
Casal, Mr. and Mrs. Gemaun
Cast, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Caster, M.D., Milaon
CastrMr. and Mrs.Manuel
Castro, Mr. and Mrs. Roque
Caauso, Mr. and Mrs. Carlos
Catasus, Mrs. Graciela
Caulder, Mr. and Mrs. Mark
Cenal. M and Mrs. Joa
Chaille, Mr. and Mrs.
Chmanums, Ms. Patricia
Chamorro, Dr. and MrsJow
Chandler. Dr. and Mrs. J.R.
Chapman, Mr. and Mr.
Charles,Mr. andMrs. David
Chase, Mr. Larry
Chase, Mr. Ronald
Chester, Mr.andMrs. Robert
Chillag, Mr. and Mrs, George
Christensen, Mr. Thomas
Christman, Mr. Robert
Christopher, Mr. and Mrs.
Church,Mr. and Mrs. David
Ciereszko, Mr. and Mrs. L.
Citrin, Mr. and Mrs. Charles
Clark, Jr. Mr. and Mrs. D.M.
Clark, Mr. and Mrs. James
Claypool, Mr. Will iam
Claypool, Mr. and Mrs.
Clayton, Mr, and Mrs. C.G.
Coblentz, Ms. Jo Anne
Codlna, Mr. Armando
Cody, Mr. and Mrs. Dennic
Coffin, Mr. Nick
Cohn, Mr, and Mrs. George
Cohen, Mr. and Mrs,
Cohn, Dr. Lamte
Cold, Mr. and Mrs. Ronald
Cole, Mr. and Mrs. Philip
Coctrman, Mr. J.
Coryns, Mr. and Mrs,.
Conger, Mr. and Mrs.
Coaoly, Dr. and Mrs. James
Ceonnll, Mr. and Mrs. Neil
Cocnolly, Mr. and Mrs.
Conrolly, Mr. andMr.] lugh
Connor, Mr. and Mrs.
Contc, Mr, and M.s,
Contreras,Mr. and Mrs. Abel
Cook, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Cooney, Mr. and Mrs.
Cooper, Mr. and Mrs. Marc
Copeland, Mr. Char cs
Cordova, Ms. Lynn
Cotton, Mr. Carlos
Cosgrove, Rep. John
Couio, Mr. Alberto
Coughin. Mn. Linda
Courtney Ms. Karen
Coverman, Mr. and Mrs.
Cowling, Mr. and Mrs. John
Crews, Mr. ard Mrs. Harold
Crosby, Ms. Karla
Cullison. Mr. and Mrs.
Curtis, Mr. and Mrs. DeVere
Cutie, Mr. and Mra.
Dabney, Mr. and Mrs.
Dacy, Mr. and Mrs. John
Dailey, Mr, Richard
Daly.Mr. andMrs. Jose Luis
Daniell, Mr. andMrs.Martin
Daniels, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Davidsni,Mr. andMrs. Barry
Davis, Mr. and Mrs. Dale
Davis, Mr. and Mr. Ronald
Davis, Mr. and Mrs. Ted
Dawkins, Mr. and Mrs.
Day, Mr. and Mrs. Jonathan
De Agucro, Mr. and Mrs.
De Arribe. Ms. Magaly
de Cardenas, Mr. Jorge
De La Cruz Ms. Elvira
Daring, Mr. and Mrs. Jose
Decker, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
DcGlopper, Mr. Daniel
Delgado, Ms. Pantica
Dcmi, Ms. Barbara
DcMulling, Mrs. Mary
Denaro, Mr. and Mrs. Jack
Dr. Dendy and Mrs. Good
Dereus, Mr. and Mrs. Don
Detrick. Mr. John and
Sawyer. Ms. Rona
Diaz, Mr. and Mrs. Bruno
Diaz, Mr. and Mrs. William
Dichl, Mr. and Mrs. Ronald
Dictrichson, Mr. andMrs. R.
DiPietro, Mr.andMrs. James
Diprima, Ms. Adrienne
Dix, Mrs. John
Donnell, Mr. and Mrs.
Donner, Mr. and Mrs. Chris
Dora, Mrs. Leslie
Doucha, Mr. Roger
Dougherty, Mr. and Ms.
Drake, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Du Bois, Mr. aid Mrs.
Duncan, Mr. and Mrs.
DuncanMr.and Mrs. Jamas
Dunr, Mr. and Mrs. Charles
Dunn, Jr. Mr. and Mrs.
Dumberg, Mr. and Mrs. Cart
Duvall, Mr. and Mrs. M.
Dye, Mr. Michael
Eaglsiln, Dr. and Mrs.
Eason, Mr. and Mrs. Vemon
Eaton, Mr, and Mrs. Joel
Eckhlom, Mr. and Mrs. Eric
Eckhart, Mr. and Mrs. James
Edelnmn, Mr. andMrs. Lester
Edison, Mr. and Mrs. Lewis
Egglston, Ms. Jeanette
Ehlert, Mr. and Mrs. Albert
Eidecire, Mr. andMrs.Todd
Einspruch, Mr. and Mrs.
liert, Mr. and Mrs. Henry
Ellis Mr. and Mn. Kenneth
Emerson, Dr. and Mn.
Enriquez. Mr. Leonard
Enistrom, Mr. and Mm.
Erikson, Mr. and Mrs. Henry
Esco, Ms. Jacquslyn
Esserman, Mr. and Mrs. Jim
Esica, Mr. Donald
Easlves,Mr. ad Mrs.Robert
Evans, Mr. and Mrs. Cecil
Evans, Mr. and Mrs. David
Evans, Ms. GrCia
Evans, Mr. and Mrs. James
Eydl, Mr. and Mrs. Dan
Fabelo, Mr. and Mrs.
Pales, Jr., Mr. and Mra. H.
Fancher, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Featbherstaoe, Hon. and Mrs,
Fein, Mr. Alan and Westfall,
Feingeld, Dr. and Mr
Feldman, Mr. and Mrs. Larry
Fels, Mr. and Mr. Leonard
Felser, Mr. and Mrs. Fred
Fcrnan&dz, Mr. and Mrs.
Fimandca Mr. and Mrsn
Femandez, Mr. and Mrs.
Ferry, Mr. and Mrs. Paul
Fine, Dr. Ellen aid PolWnd,
Fine, Mr. and Mrs. Martin
Finkelstein, Mr, and Mrs.
Finrday, Mr. and Mrs. James
Fisher, Mr. and Mrs. Dentis
Fitzgerald, Mr. andMns.WJ.
Flattery, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Flcming, Mr. and Mrs. Harry
List of Members 89
FPlick, Mr. and Mrs. Charles
Flirm, Mr. and Mrs. Torn
Plipse, Mr. and Mr. Dornn
Flynn, Ms. Mary and
Toomey, Mr. Mike
Pog, Mr. and Mrs. Stephen
Fonnegra, Mr,. and Mrs.
Foare Mr. and Mrs. Daniel
Forthman, Mr. and Mrs.
Foster. Mr. and Mrs. David
FPotei Mr. and Mrs. Paul
Fot, Mr. and Mrs. Spencer
Frakes, Mr. Bill and Scott,
Fraynd, Mr. Paul and Stein,
Frazier, Mr. andMrs.Dwight
Freeman, Mr. and Mrs.
Freeman, Mr. and Mrs.
Freistat, Mr. and Mrs. Scott
Freshman, Mr. and Mrs.
Friberg, Mr. and Mrs.
Friedran, Dr. andMrs.Eivan
Friedman, Ms Muriel
Friedrichasn, Mr. and Mrs.
Frumn, Mr. and Mrs. David
Fudali, Mr. and Mn. Peter
Fuentcs, Mr. and Mr.
FPunk, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur
Furst Mr. and Mrs. AJ.
Gacek, Ms. Sharmon
Gach, Ms. Laurie and
Praioas, Mr. Tony
Gallo, Mr. and Mrs. Jorge
Gamba, Mr. and Mrs Tomass
Gardner, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Gardnrer, Mr. andMrs.
Gardner Mr.and Mcr.Robert
Gardner,Mr. andMrs. Robert
Garrison, Dr. and Mrs. Bruce
Garvett, Mr. and Mrs. Peter
Gaskins, Ms. Nancy
Goada, Dr. and Mrs. Luis
Gcffcn, Mr. and Mra. Gerald
Geist, Mr. and Mrs. Gerald
Gelberg, Mr. Robert
Geller, Dr. and Mrs. Edmund
Ocet, Mr, and Mrs. Patrick.
Gentry. Mr. Sam
George, Dr. and Mrs. Paul
Geraldi, M.D. Dr. and Mrs.
GcrberJr., Dr. andMrs. Paul
Gill, Mr. and Mrs. Daniel
Gillan, Mr. and Mrs. John
Giller, Mr. and Mrs. Norman
Gilmore, Mr. and Mrs. John
Ginsburg, Mr. and Mrs.
Gladstone, Hartarablc and
Glass, Mr. and Mrs. James
Glasser, Dr. and Mrs.
Glatstein. Mr. flistor and
Freeman, Mrs. Elizabeth
Glatstein Dr. and Mrs. Phil
Glukstad, Mr. and Mrs. Sig
Goeaer, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Goldberg. Dr. and Mrs.
Goldman, Mr. and Mrs.
Goldstein, Mr. Leroy and
Gould, Mrs. Laurn
Goldweber, Mr. and Mrs.
Gonmzalec, Mr. and Mrs. Jose
Gonzalez, Ms. Nancy
Gooden, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Goodfriend, Ms. Regina
Goodwin, Mr. and Mrst C.
Gordon. Mr. and Mrs. Elliot
Gottlieb. Mr. and Mrs.
Grabois, Mr. and Mrs. D.
Grad, Mr. and Mrs. Edward
Grady, Mr. and Mrs. Henry
Graham, Ms. Dorothy
Grant, Mr. and Mrs. Leslie
Gaual, Mr. and Mrs. David
Gray, Mr. and Mrs. James
Gray, Ms. Nancy
Green, Mr. and Ms. Donald
Green, Mr. and Mrs. Edward
Green, Mr. and Mrs. Marvin
Greenberg, Mr. and Mrs.
Greenblatt, Mr. and Mrs.
Grennfidd, Mr. and Mrs.
Greenhouse, Mr. and Mrs.
GrccQspan, Mrs. Mulvauey
Gregg, Mr. Robert
Grimm, Rev. and Mrs. Robb
Grimley. Mr. andMrs.John
Grossmnan, Mr. and Mrs.
Grudzinski, Mr. and Mrs.
Grunwell. Mr. and Mrs.
Gualt, Ms. Nan
Guilfoyle, Mr. and Mrs.
Gumtran, Mr. and Mrs.
Gyyom., Dr. and Mrs.
Hack, Ms. Paula
Hackley, Mr. and Mrs.
Hague, Mr. and Mrs. Pald
Hahn, Mr. Carlos
Hahn, Mr. and Mrs. Jack
Halcrow, Mr. and Mrs.
Halegua, Mr. and Mrs. Stove
Hall, Mr. and Mrs. Monroe
Hallstrand, Mr. and Mrs.
Hamnbright, Mr. Thomas
Hammond, Mr. and Mrs.
Han, Dr. and Mrs. Gregory
Hanafourde. Ms. Lucy
Hann, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Hansen, Mr. and Mrs.
Hantman, Mr.and Mrs.Lairy
Hadlce, Jr., Mr. John
Harris, Mr. and Mrs. Jay
HIarris, Mr. Robert
Harrison, Jr., Mr. MR.
Harrison, Mr. and Mrs. Paul
Hart, Mr. and Mrs. Ray
Hartman, Mrs. Robin
Hasis, Mr. Thomas
Hatfield, Mr. and Ms.
Haws, Mr. andMrs.Maurice
Hawke, Mr. and Mrs. David
Hawkins, Mr. W. Roger
Hayes, Mr. and Mrs. Tom
Hayes, Mr. and Mrs. W.
Hayo. Ms. Barbara
Heckerling, Mr. and Mrs.
Helene, Ms. Carol
Hellinger, Dr. and Mrs.
Helweick. Mr. and Mrs,
Hencinski, Mr. and Mrs.
Hendcrson, Mr, and Mrs.
Homnnssy,Mr. and Mrs.John
Henry, Mr. and Mrs.
Herrra M r.and Mrs. gnacio
Herron, Mr. James
HeIrkowitz, Mr. and Mrs.
Hertz, Mr. and Mrs. Marvin
Sloster, Mr. and Mrs. Gerald
Hester, Mr. and Mrs. Louis
Hester, Mr. and Mrs. W.
Hickey. Mr and Silver-
Hildner, Dr. and Mrs. Frank
Hinckley, Mr. and Mrs.
Hinds, Jr., Mr. and Mrs. L.P.
Hipps. Mrs. T.F.
Hirschl, Dr. and Mrs. Andy
Hirsh Mr. and Mrs. Chris
Hinde, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
iHodges. Mr. and Mrs.
Hodus, Ms. Fern and
Rothstein Mr. Mike
HoTffel, Mrs. Kenneth
Hoffnan, Dr. and Mrs.
Holcomnb, Jr., Mr. and Ms.
Hollings worth, Mr. Drothy
Holsonbeck, Mr. J.M.
Holhaus. Mr. Dernnis
Honycut Mr. and Mrs.
Honyak, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Hope, Mr. Clifford
Horan, Mr. and Mrs. James
Hormer, Mr. and Mrs. Danny
Horton, Mrs. Charles
Hostetler, Mr. and Mrs.
Houghton, Mr. Peter
Hourihan, Mr. and Mmr,
House. Mr. D.
Houston, Mr. and Mn. J.
Howard Mr. and Mrs. Gene
Hudnall, Mrs. Helen
Hughes, Mr, andMrsRussell
Hundevadt, Mr. and Mrs.
Hunt, Mr. and Mrs. Charles
Hunter, Mr. andMrs. Robert
Ilurwitz Ms,. Marilyn
Huston, Mr. Edwin
Hutchinaon, Mr. and Mrs.
Hutson, Dr. and Mrs. Janies
Hyde, Mr. and Mrs. John
Hyman, Mr. and Mrs.
Hynes, Ms. Christine
Hynes, Mr. and Mrs.
Isicoff. Mr. and Mrs. Steven
Issenberg. Mr. and Mrs.
Jackson, Ms. Debora
Jackson, Mr. and Mrs.
Jacobs, Mr. and Mrs.
Jacobsen, Mr. andMrs.T.M.
Jacobsot, Dr. and Mrs. Jed
Jacowita, Mr. andMn.
Jaffer, Mr. and Mrs. Harold
Jeclff Mr. and Mrs. James
Jenkins, Mr. Frank
Jenkins, Mrs. Mary
Jenks, II, Mr. and Mrs.
Jensen. Mr. and Mrs. John
Johns, Mr. Steve
Johnson, Ms. Jean and
Priscak, Ms. Betty
Johnson, Jodie and Joella
Johnson, Mr. and Mrs. Lyle
Johnson, Mr. and Mrs.
Jonas, Dr. and Mrs. Stanley
Jones, Mr. and Mrs. Bardy
Jones, Mr. and Mrs. Daniel
Jones, Mr. and Mrs. E.
Joc',Mr. andMrs. Ernst
Jones Mr. and Mrs. Frank
Jesa., Mr. and Mrs. Richard
Jones, III, Dr. and Mrs,
Julsmud, Jr. Mr. nd Mr.
Justinini, Dr. and Mrs,
KaisCwr. Dr. and Mrs. Gerard
KarmmarMr, andMrs, Robert
Kanold, Mr. and Mrs.
Kaplan Mr. and Mrs.
KaplanMr. aid Mrs.
Kaplan, Mr. and Mrs.
Karl, Drs. Robert mad NilU
Karnas, Mr. Kornstantine
Kat.s, I1l, Mr. and Mrs. Jolhn
Katz, Mr. and Mrs. Hy
Katz, Mr. and Mrs. Jack
Katzker, Mr. and Mrs,
Kaufiman Mr. James
Kaufiman Mr. aid Mrs.
Keefa, Dr. and Mn. Paul
Keeley, Mr. and Mrs. Brian
Keep. Mr. and Mrs. Oscar
Kchaya, Lis and Peggi
Kendall, Mr. Harold
Kenn dyMr.a idMn. Terry
Kenmady. Ms. Trin
Kennon, Jr. Mr. and Mrs.
Kenyon, Mr. and Mrs.
Kcppie. Mr. and Mrs. C .M.
Kerr, Mr. and Mrs. Oliver
Keumch, Dr. anid Mrs.
Keyes. Mrs. LIe
Kilnarin, Ms. Patricia
Kilpatrick Mr. and Mrs.
Kinzcr, Mayor and Mrs.
Kirby,Mr. andMrs. N. Riley
KinrchtEr, Mr. and Mrs.
Kislak, Mr. and Mrs.
Kistler, Mr. Robert
Kligler, Ms. Judy
Kline Mr. and Mrs. Smtuart
Knezevich. Mr. and Mrs.
Knotts, Mr. and Mrs. Kimn
Knots, Mr, and Mrs. Torn
Knowles, Mr. and Mrs.
Kollhoff, Mr. Craig
Konopko, Mr. and Mrs. Joe
Koper, Jr.. Mr. T"icidorec
Koss, Mr. and Mrs. Abe
Kossman Mr. and Mr. David
Koyakl, Mr. and Mrs. John
Kraslow, Mr. David
Kratcer, Dr Susan and
Venablec, Dr. Henry
Kreutzer, Mr. and Mrs.
Kromn, Mr. and Mrs.
Krug, Mr. and Mrs. Warren
Krupnick, Mr. and Mrs. Joa
Knraick. Mr. and Mrs.
Kubicki, Mr. Gene
Kuper. Mr. and Mrs. lJack
La Plante, Ms. Leah
Lagomasin., Ms. Lcacrn
Lair, Mr. and Mrs. David
Laird. Mr. and Mrs. Peter
Lake, Mr. John
Lambert, Mr. Robert
Lambert, Mr. and Mrs. V. E.
Lancaster, Ms. Donnar
Landy, Mr. and Mrs. Burton
Lane, Mr. Stephen
Langer. Mr. and Mrs. Allen
Lann, Mr. and Mrs. Martin
Lapa. Mr. Steve
LaRusae, Mr. and Mrs.
Lasa, Mr. and Mrs. Luis
Lash, Ms, Linda and
Whildin, Mr. L.
Lauer, Dr. aid Mrs. I. Jay
Lawrence, Mr. and Mrs.
Leary, Mr. and Mrs. Lewis
Lee, Mr. and Mrs. Richard
Lee, Mr. and Mrs. Terry
Leftwich, Mr. and Mrs.
Lehman, Mr. Douglas
L.hman, Mr. Richard
Lelue.rt, Mr. JF. and
Pinar, Ms. R.
Leon, Mr. and Mrs. Abilio
Leon, Dr. and Mrs. Rafael
LeSuer, Ms. Elizabeth
Levin, Ms. Pamela
Levin, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Levine, Dr. Harold
Levirt.Dr. and Mrs. Richard
Lewis, Mr. and Mrs. Marvin
Lewis, Mr.and Mrs. Richard
Lewis, Dr. and Mrs. Sylvan
Lewis, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Lianzi, Mrs. Margaret
Liebman. Dr. and Mrs.
Lindsay,Mr. and Mrs. Guion
Lipoff, Mr. and Mrs.
Little, Mr. H. Kent
Livesay. M Mrs. Leigh
Livingstoue, Mr. Di,
Locwy, Mr. and Mrs. Ira
Logue, Mr. and Mrs. Tom
Lombana, Mr. and Mrs.
Long, Mr. Glenn arnd
Cumins, Ms. Susan
Long, Mr. and Mrs. James
Longo, Mr. Dennis
Lopez, Mr. and Mrs. Carlos
Lopez, Mr. and Mrs. Jose
Lopez, Mrs. and Mrs. Lou
Lope, Ms. Millie
Loars, Dr. and Mrs. Edward
Lorie, Mr. and Mrs. Rafael
Losada. Mr. and Mrs Mark
Losak, Mr. ind Mrs. John
Loth, Mr. and Mrs. Stan
Lovell, Mr. and Mrs. Gry
Lovinsky, Mr. and Mrs.
Low, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur
Lowell, Mr. and Mr. Robert
Lowry, Jr,, Mr. Jamrs
Lubin, Ms. Dman
Ludovici, Mr. and Mrs.Philip
Ludwig, Dr. and Mrs.
Luginbill, Mr. andMrs.Mark
Luker. Mr. and Mrs. Robin
Lummaus, Mr. and Mrs. Lynn
Luytjes Mr. and Mrs. Jan
Lynch, Mr. and Mrs. George
Lynch. Mr. and Mrs. Joseph
Lyons. Mr. and Mrs. Richard
Mabbs,Mr.and Mrs, Edward
MacDonald, Mr. and Mrs.
Mack, Mr. and Mrs. James
Mack, Ms. L. Ciristimn
Mack, Mr. and Mrs. Stephen
Magidao, Mr. and Mrs.
Magionick, Ms. Rcna and
HustMed, Mr. Robert
Mahmany, Mr. and Mrs.
Mahmncy, Mr. id Mrs. Roy
Maingot, Dr. and Mrsn.
Maivct, Mr. Larry and
Manttes, Ma. Jodi
Maloy, Mr. and Mrs.
Man. Dr. and Mrs. Eugener
Mank,Jr., Mr, andMrs. Philip
Mann. Mr. Michael
Manship, Mr. and Mrs. E.K.
Maratos, Mr. and Mrs.
Margoluis, Mr. and Mrs.
Mark. Mr. and Mra. Robert
Mark, Mr. and Mrs. Thlornrs
Markowitz, Mr. and Mrs.
Marks, Dr.andMrs. Clifford
Marmrsh, Dr. and Mrs.
Martell Mr. and Mrs. Jamres
Martin, Mr. and Mrs. Frank
Martin Mr. and Mrs. Louis
Martinmz-Ramos, Mr. and
Marvat, Mr. arnd Mrs, Larry
Masson, Ms. Tesalia
Masterson, Mr. and Mrs.
Matched, Mr. and Mrs.John
Matkov, Mr. and Mr,.
Maxwell. Mr. and Mrs.
Maxwell, Mr. and Mrs.
Maxwell, Mr. Thomas
Maydak, Mr. and Mrs. John
Maynard, Mr. and Mrs. Carl
Mayo, Mr. and Mrs. John
Mayorte, Mr. Paear
McArdle, Mr. and Mrs.
McAuliffc. 111. Mr. Thlmaa
McCorqaodale, Jr., Dr. and
McCready, Dr. James
McDonald, Ms. Gail
McDonald, Mr. and Mrs.
McDonald, Mr. and Mrs.
McDonald, Ms. KimbCry
McDougal. Mr. PIter
McDowell, Mr. C.R.
Mcarry, Mr. and Mrs.
McGovern, Mr. and Mrs.
McGratlh, Mrs. and Aim
McGuirieaa, Mr. and Mrs.
McGuinncsn, Mr. and Mrs.
Mclver, Mr. and Mrs. Stuart
McKinley, Mr. and Mrs.
McLean, Mr. and Mrs. Bart
McLesore Mr. and Ma.
McMeniman, Jr. Mr. and
McNanughtl. Dr. and Mrs.
McQuale, Mr. and Mrs. Jack
McSwiney, Ms. Joyce
McTaguc, Mr. ad Mrs.R.H.
Means, Dr. and Mrs.
Mehas, Ms. Patricia
Mendoza, Mrs. andMr. Enid
Merlo, Mr. and Mrs.
Merritt, Mr. and Mrs. W.C.
Metcalf, Drs. Gcocge and
Meltk, Jr. Mr. Joseph
Meyers, Mr. and Mrs.
Millard, Mr. and Mrs. Joli
Millard, Dr. and Mrs. Max
Millas, Mr. and Mrs.
Miller, Dr. and Mrs. David
Miller, Mr. and Mrs. Edward
Miller, Mr. andMrs.H. Dale
Miller, Mr. and Mrs
Millott, Mr. and Mra Daniel
Milner, Mr. Charles and
Greenfield, Ms. Sharon
Miot, Mr. and Mrs. Sanford
Mitchell DonorMr. andMrs.
List of Members 91
Mitchell, Mr, and Mrs.
Mixon, Mr. Larry
Mocller, Mr. and Mr, ULloyd
Molt, Mr. and Mrs.Fawdrey
Monroe, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Monsanto, Judge and Mrs.
Monson, Mr. and Mrs.
Montano, Mr. and Mrs.
Monteagudo, Mr. and Mrs.
Monzon, Mr. Jorge
Moora, Mr. andMrs. Donald
Morales, Mr. and Mrs. JLR
Moraics, Mr. and Mrs.
Moran, Mr. and Mrs. Ramon
Morat, Mr. George and Car-
nicelli, Ms. Gina
Moreno, Mr. and Mrs.
MorganMr. and Mrs. Robert
Morris, Mr. and Mrs, A.
Morris, Mr. and Mrs. David
Morris, Mr. and Mrs. Don
Morrison, Mr. and Mrs.
Moses, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur
Moss, Mr. AlErcd
Moss, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Moss, Mr. and Mrs. Lyman
Mostciro, Mr. and Manuel
Mostcl, Ms. Claire
Moya, Mr. and Mrs. P.A.
Mulcahy, Mrs. Ircmn
Muller, Mr. and Mrs.
Mulligan, Mr. Donald
Munoz, Ms. Mary
Munroe, Mr. and Mrs.
Mural, Mr. and Mrs. Rmes
Murphy, Mr. Eugene and
Bcrman, Ms. Janinm
Murphy, Mr. andMrs. Roger
Murray, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Murray, Mr. and Mrs. O.C.
Mustard, Misses Margaret &
Myers, M. Ruth
Myers, Mr. and Mrs. Stanley
Nachwalter, Ms. Irenr
Nagel, Mr. and Mra. Craig
Nagy, Mr. and Mrs. R. M.
Nash, Mr. Jim
Navarro, Mr. and Mrs.
Navarro, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Ncalcr, Mr. and Mrs. Jimi
Neidhart, Mr. and Mrs. Paul
Nelson, Mr. and Mrs. Stephen
Nemey, Mr. and Mrs. Denis
Netsky, Mr. and Mrs.Martin
Novins, Mr. and Mrs. Gary
Newman, Mr. and Mrs.
Newport, Ms. Carol
Newtmo-Montil, Ms, Brandi
Nichols, Mr. D. Alan
Nichols, Mr. and Mrs. Frank
Noquira, Mr. Many
Nordt, Mr. and Mrs. John
Norman, Jr., Mr. and Mr.
Norton, Mr. and Mrs. Henry
Noury, Mr. and Mrs. S.
Novack, Mr. and Mrs. Ben
Novak, Mr. Alfred
Nucbt. Mr. and Ms. George
Nuckols. Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Nuchring, Mr. and Mrs.
Nuncz, Mr. and Mrs. Eugenio
OYDomll, Mr. andMrs. Jirm
Odio, Mr. and Mrs. Cesar
Ohlzn, Mr. andMrs.Ronald
Oister, Jr.Mr. and Mrs.W.P.
Olott Mr. and Mrs. Charles
Olemberg, Mr. Robsrto
Ollc, Mr. and Mrs. Dennis
Olson, Dr. and Mrs, Chuck
Olsson, Mr. Frad
Onoprienko. Prof. and Mrs.
Oppcnhcimer, Mr. and Mrs.
Oroshnik, Mr. and Mrs.
Orr, Mr. Pablo E. and
Ortega, Mr. and Mrs. Jose
Osborn, Mr. and Mrs.
Ostene Mr. and Mrs. Jim
Ostrovsky, Mr.andMrs. Abo
Otto, Ill Mr. and Mrs.
Ovcrbcck, Mr. and Mrs.
Owens,Mr. andMrs. Francis
Owens, Mr. and Mrs. John
Paidas, Mr. and Mrs, George
Pakula, Mr. and Mrs. Arnold
Pala io, Ms. Carla
Palenzuela, Mr. and Mrs.
Palow, Mr, and Mrs.
Pampe, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Pancoast,Mr. andMrs.Lest r
Pane, DVM, Dr. and Mrs.
Pantin, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Papper, Dr. and Mrs.
Parcell, Mr. and Mrs. Paul
Parker, Mr. Austin
Parker, Mr. David
Parker, Mr. and Mrs. Garth
Parker, Ms. Janet
Parker, Mr. and Mrs. Robin
Pames,Dr. andMrs. Edrnund
Parsons, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
PPttsrson,Mr,andMrs, I arry
Patti, Mr. Michael and
Gordon, Ms. Lizara
Paul, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Paulk, Mr. Jule
Pawlsy, Anita and Marcia
Paync. Mr. and Mrs. W.E.
Peacock, Mr. and Mrs. Larry
Pearlman, Dr. and Mrs.
Peddle, Mr. and Mrs. Grant
Pahr, Mr. and Mrs. Marvin
Pcna, Mr. and Mrs. Marce o
PA Mr. and Mrs. Walter
Penichet, Mr. Claudlo
Pemnnokanp, Mr. John
Perez, Mr. and Mrs. Jorge
Paea-Stablc, Ms Alina
Pergakis,. Mr. and Mrs. Paul
Perkins, Mr. and Mrs. Jay
Perlman, Mr. and Mrs. David
Pcrlmaan., Mr. and Mrs.
Perlmatter, Mr. Bernard and
Chamberlin. Ms. Pamela
Perry Mr. and Mrs. LeRoy
Perse, Mr. and Mr. E.A.
Perwin, Mrs. Jean
Peterson, Mr. and Mrs.
Petit, Ms Lynda
Petry, Mr. and Mrs.
Petricone Mr. and Mrs.
Pettigrew, Mr. and Mrs.
Piccini, Mr. and Mrs, Sivo
Picrini. Mr. and Mrs. Fred
Pierce, Mr. and Mrs. Julius
Pijuan, Mr. and Mrs.Edward
Pimm, Mr. and Mrs. Gordon
Pitrrlino, Mr. and Mrs. John
Pitts, Mr. and Mrs, Victor
Platt Ms. Annr
Plotkin, Mr. and Mrs. Paul
Plotkin, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Plummner. Mr. and Mrs.
Plunkett, Mr. and Mrs.
Pollack. Mr. Richard
Pollard, Mr. and Mrs.
Poole, Ms. Joanettc
Parfiri, Mr. and Mrs. Austin
Porter, Mr. and Mrs.
Poses, Mr. and Mrs. Mark
Post, Mr. and Mrs. Budd
Powcll, Mr. and Mrs. Earl
Powell, Mr. and Mrs. Larry
Pozzesocrs, Mr. and Mrs.
Prentiss, Mr. and Mrs.
Price, Ms. Judith and Cohn,
Price, Mr. Lee
Primak, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur
Promoff, Mrs. Adrienne
Prosperi, Ms. Chanlal
Provenzo, Dr. and Mrs.
Prutt, Mr. Pter
Puga. Mr. and Mrs. J. David
Purdy, Mr. and Mrs. Bruce
Quackenbush, Mr. and Mrs.
Quartip. Mr. and Mrs.
Quick, Mr. and Mrs. David
Quintana, Mr. and Mrs.
Qsinstna, Mr. Raul
Rabin, Ms. June
Rabin, Ms. Sharla
Raiun. Mr. and Mrs.
Railey, Mr. and Mrs.
Ramirez, Dr. and Mrs.
Ramos, Mr. and Mrs. Victor
Ramsey, Dr. and Mrs. David
Randall, Mr. and Mrs. John
Randall, Mr. and Mrs.
Randolph, Mr. and Mrs.
Rapeo. Mr. and Mrs. Stuart
Ravcnscraft Mr. Mark
Reed, Mr. and Mrs. Barric
Rsichmuth, Mr. George
Reininger, Mr. Sieve and
Darunhelser, Ms. Lynn
Ress, Mr. mand Mrs. Lewis
Rcuben, Mr. and Mrs. Jay
Reyna, Dr. LJ.
Royna, Mr. and Mr. Patrick
Rhodes, Dr.and Mn.Milton
Rich, Dr. and Mrs. Maurice
Richards,Mr. and Mrs.Lois
Richards,. Mr. and Mrs.
Richter, Mr. and Mrs
Rico, Mr. and Mrs. Justo
Rider, Dr. Dorothy and
Bonapart, Mr. Mark
Ripoll, Mr. and Mrs. Julio
Risi, Jr. Mr. and Mo. Louis
Rist, Mr. and Mrs. Karsten
Rivera, Mr. Mario
Roache, Mr. andMrs.Robert
Roadman, Mr. Ross
Roberts, Mr. and Mrs. Mike
Robertson, Mr. andMrs. Neil
Robins, Dr. and Mrs.
Roca, Mr. and Mrs. Pedro
Rodriguez, Mr. and Mrs.
Rodriguez, Mr. Angel
RodriguezMr. andMrs. Ivan
Rodriguez, Dr. and Mrs.Jows
Rodriguez, Mr. and Mrs.
Radwell, Mrs. Dorothy
Rogers, Mr. and Mrs.
Rogers, Mr. and Mrs.
Rojas Mr. and Mrs. Estetan
Rojas, Mr. and Mrs. Jose
Roldan, Mr. and Mnr
Rrmanao, and Mr. andMrs.
Romncty. Mr. Hervin
Root, Mr. and Mrs. Keith
Rosas-Guyon, Mr. Luis
RoseaMr", mad MrsNorman
Rosenberg, Mr. and Mrs.
Rosenbcrg. Dr. and Mrs.
Rosenberg, Ms. Norma
Rosenblatt, Mr. saxd Mrs.
Rosenbluth, Ms. Joanne and
Rigl, Mr. Stephen
Rosendorf, Mrs. Howard
Rosenthal. Dr. and Mr. A
Rosinck, Mr, and Mrs.
Rossin, Mr. Jay
Roth, Mr. and Mrs. Jeffrey
Rothblatt, Ms. Enmea
Rothman, Mr. and Mrs. Max
Rouleau Ms. Carolyn
Routh, Mr. and Mrs. Donald
Rubin, Dr. and Mrs. Richard
Rubinson, Dr. and Mr.
Rudolph. Mr. and Mrs. Jay
Ruffer, Mr. and Mrs.
Ruiz. Mr. and Mrs. Rene
Rumile, Mr. and Mrs. John
Russ, Mr. Denis
Ryan. Mr. James,
Ryder, Mr. adMrs. William
Ryskamp, Judge and Mrs.
Sacher, Mr. and Mrs.
Sackett, Mr. and Mrs. Jseph
Saffir, Mr. and Mn. Herbert
Sager, Mr. and Mrn. Bert
Sager, Mr. arid Mrs. Louis
Sain. Ms. Dosha and Orr,
Sakhnovsky, Mr. and Mrs.
Salow, Mr. and Mrs. Arturo
Samberg, Mr, ndMrs. Mike
Sanders, Mr. and Mrs.
Sanford, Jr. Individual Mr.
SantarellaMr. and Mrs.
Santos, Mr. Rolando
Sapp, Mr. and Mrs. Stephen
Sarasohn, Dr. Sylvan
Sardina,Dr, and Mrsx Ricardo
Sas rtt Mr, David
Satuloff, Mr. and Mrs. Barth
Saulson, Mr. and Mrs.
Sawyer, Mr. and Mrs. Bill
Scarr, Ms. Helen
Schachblcir, Mr. and Mrs.
Schaefer, Ma. Norah
Ms. Scechmnanand Mr.S ill
Schell, Ms. Patricia
Schorker, Mr. and Mrs. Leo
Schiff, Dr. and Mrs. William
Schindler, Mr.andMr. Irvin
Schmachienberg, Mr. and
Schmard, Mr. and Mrs.
Schmutz Mr. and Mrs. Alan
Schoen, Mr. and Mrs. Marc
Schoen, Mr. and Mrs. Roy
Schreiber, Mr. and Mrs. Sol
Schuh, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Schulte, Mr. Thomas
Schultz, Mr. and Mrs.
Schultz, Mr. and Mrs. Mark
Schwabcdissen,Ms. Liz and
Miller, Mr. Michael
Schwartz, Mr. and Mrs.
Schwartz, Mrs. Jay
Schwartz, Mr, andMr.anMrs. Larry
Schwartz, Mr. and Mrs. Sd
Schwartz, Mr. and Mrs.
Schwartz, Mr. and Mrs.
Schwedel. Mr. and Mrs.
Schweitzer, Mr. and Mrs.
Scott, Mr. and Mrs. James
Scurtis, Mr. and Mrs. John
Scidemnan, Mr. and Mrs.
Sclts, Mr. and Mrs. Patrick
Seltzer Mr. and Mrs. A.F.
Shaw, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Sh=aly, Mr. and Mrs. Walter
Sheffrnan, Ms. Tamara
Shelley, III, Mr. and Mrs.
Shey, Mr. and Mrs. Leo
Shields. Mrs. Eilcen
Shipley, Mr. and Mrs. Vergil
Shippe,Dr. and Mrs.Robert
Sheaf, Mr. and Mrs. David
Shoffaer, Mr. and Ms. A.
Shohat, Mr. and Edward
Short, Rev. and Mrs. Riley
Shrewasbuy, Mr. and Mrs.
Shugar, Mr, and Mrs, Irving
Sibley, Mr. and Mrs. Blair
Siegel, Mr. and Mra, Mark
Siegmeister, Dr. J.
Siferd, Mr. L. Frances
Silverman, Mr. and Mrs. Eli
Silv-rnAn, Mr. and Mrs.
Silverrnan,Mr. andMrs. Sal
Simmrnos,Mr. andMrs. Glen
Simon Mr. and Mrs. Gary
Simon, Mr. and Mts. Larry
Simonor, Judge Jose and
Comras, Mrs. Rema
Simpson, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Sims, Ms. Candy
Sims, Mr. and Howard
Sindelar, Mr. andMrs. Robert
Singer, Dr. and Mrs. Joseph
Singer, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Skaggs. Dr. and Mrs. Glen
Skigcn Mrs. Barbara
Skolnick, Mr. Nathan
Slater, Mr. and Mrs. William
Slesrnick, II, Mr. and Mrs.
Slomick, Mr. and Mrs.
Smiley, Mrs. Evelyn
Smit, Ms. Pat
Smith, Sr., Mr. Cheasmrfield
Smith, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Smith, Jr. Mr. and Mrs.
Smith, Mrs. Jacqueolin
Smith, Mr. Kcnerth and
Barker, Ms. NormaJean
Smith, Mr. and Mrs. L.W.
Smith, Mrs. Lillian
Smith, Mr. and Mrs. Mark
Smith, Jr., Mr, arld Mrs.
Smith, Ms. Pat
Smith, Mr. and Mrs, R.C.
Smith, Mr. Ralph
Smith, Mr. and Mrs. Steven
Smith, Mr. andMrs. Thomras
Smith, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Snow, Dr, and Mrs. Solig
Snyder, Mr. and Mrs. Larry
Socol, Mr. and Mrs. Howard
Soldinger. Mrs. Lillian
Soliday, Mr. andMrs. John
Solomon, Mr. and Mrs.
Solomon, Mr. and Mrs.
Soper, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Sorando, Dr. and Mrs. Juan
Soto, Mr. and Mrs. Edward
Sontilc, Mr. and Mrs. James
Spatz. Mr. and Mrs. Carl
Spector, Mr. and Mrs. Louis
Spector, Mr. and Mrs.
Spenuer, Mr. John
Spencer, Ms. Susie
Spitzer. Mr. and Mrs. Jan
Splano, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Spool, Mr. and Mrs. Phiiip
Squillante. Ms. Judith
Stadler, Ms. Linda
Stanfill, Dr. and Mrs. L.M.
Stcamrns, Mr. and Mrs. Reid
Stein, Mr. and Mrs. Gerald
Stem, Mr. and Mrs. Michael
Steircr, Mrs. Barbara
Steionhauer, Mr. and Mrs.
Stem, Mr. and Mrs. Harry
Stewart, Mrs. Cynthia
Stewart, Dr. and Mrs. Harris
Stewart, Mr. and Mrs.
Sticglitz, Mr. and Mrs.
Stillman, Mr. and Mrn.
Stocks, Jr., Dr. andMrs. GJ.
Stokesberry, Mr, and Mrs.
Stonm, Ms. Lyndaand Brndt.,
Strauss, Mr. Robert
Strhl, Dr. and Mrs.
Stubi s, Mr. and Mrs.
Suarez, Mrs. Amanda
Suchman, Mr. and Mrs.
Sumner, Mr. and Mrs.
Surless, Mr. andMrs. James
Sussex, Dr. and Mrs. lJaur
Sussman, Mr. Jeff
Sussman Mr. and Mrs.
Sussman, Mr. Sid
Sutton, Mr. H. Bruce
Swarm. Mr. and Mrs.
Swink, Mr. and Mn.
Tanrey, Mrs. Barbara
Taracido, Mr. and Mrs.
Tatc, Mr. and Mrs. Theodae
Taylor, Mr. and Mrs.
Tellez, Mr. and Mrs. Eugene
Tcmkin,Mr. andMr. Roald
Tendrich, Mr. and Mrs.
Tcrman, Mr. and Mr,
Test, Ms. Peggy
Theobald, Mr. and Mrs.
Thompson, Mr. and Mrs.
Thcanpson, Mr. Loren
Thompson, Mr. and Mrs.
ThIrer, Dr. andMrs.Richard
Thuriow, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Thurmond, Mrs. Alice
Tigerman, Mr.andMrs. Craig
Tipmore, Mr.and Mrs. Floyd
Tipton, Mr. and Mrs, Robert
Todd, Mr. Nelson and
Eidinire, Mrs. Gail Warren
Tomldinon, Mr. and Mrs.
Tones, Mr. and Mn. Hilario
Touchton, Mr. and Mrs.
ToupinMr.and Ms. Edward
Trammell, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Traum.Mr. andMrs. Sydney
Trejo, Ms. Maria
List of Members 93
Trilling, Sr., Mr. Morton
TrMhs, Mr. and Mrs. Bill
Troop, Mr. and Mrs. Alan
Tachurmy. Jr. Mr. and Mrs.
Tucker, Mr. and Mrs. Keith
Tucer-Griffith, Dr. Gail
Tuggle, Mr. and Mrs. Auby
Turnoff. Judge and Mrs.
Tyre, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
iUlman, Mr. and Mn.
Unger, Dr. and Mrs. Stephen
Usategui, Mr. Raman
Vadia, Mr. and Mrs. Jorge
Vadillo,Dr. and Mrs. Alberto
Valdez-Fauli, Mr. tnd Mrs.
Van Elten, Mr. Thnomas
Van Orsdcl, Mr. and Mrs.
Clifford van Valkenbtrgh,
Mr. and Mrs. James
VanderWyden. Mr. William
Vandesande, Ms. Melissa
Vanegas, Mr. Luis
Vasqucz, Mr. and Mrs.
Vazqucz, Ms. Odalys
Veenmtra, Mr. and Mrs.Tom
Visser, Mr. and Mrs. Paul
Vitagliano, Mr. and Mrs.
Vladimir, Mr. and Mrs.
Vos. Mrs. Nancy
Wadie, Mr. and Mrs. David
Waksman, Mr. and Mrs.
Walker, Ms. Sara and
C:rvoni, Ms. Caley
Walker, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Wall, Mr. and Mrs. Bernard
Ward, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph
Wasscrmman, Mr. and Mrs.
Watson, Mr. and Mrs. Carey
Watson. Ms. Hattie
Watson, Ms. Lori
Watts. Ms. Stephanie
Webb, Mr. andMrs.William
Webber, Mr. and Mrs.
Weiner Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Weingrad, Dr. and Mrs.
Weir, Mr. and Mrs. James
Weisberg,Mr. andMos. Alan
Welsberg, Mr. and Mrs.
Welbaumn Mr. and Mrs. R.
Weldon, Mr. and Mrs.
Wells, Ms. Barbara
Wenck, Mr. and Mrs. James
Wemer, Mr. and Mrs. Stuart
West, Mr. and Mrs. Evrctta
Westfall, Ms. Bene
Weston, Mr. and Mrs. David
Well. Dr. Charles
Whalley, Mr. Keith and
Connor, Ms. Andrea
While.Sr.Mr.and Mr. Hlugh
White, Mr. and Mrs.
Wick, Jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Wickett, Mr. Richard
Wilkins, Mr. Joe
Willcnsky, Mr. and Ms.
Williams, Ms. Celia
Williamn, Mr. Fred
Williams, Lt. Cal. and Mrs.
Winianm, Jr., Dr. and Mrs.
Williams, Mr. and Mrs.
Williams, Mr. and Mrs.
Willis, Mr.and Mrs. Norman
Wills, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas
Wilson, Ms. Barbara
Wilson, Mr. and Mrs. David
Wilson, Mr. and Mrs. PFed
Wilson, Mr. Tom and
Bonacic, Ms. Irish
Winmbish, Mr. and Mrs. Paul
Wimmars, Mr. and Mrs.
Windren, Mr. and Mrs. Bill
Winslow, Jr.. Dr. Oliver
Winslow,Dr. and Mrs.Philip
Winstan, Mr. and Mrs.
Winter, III, Mr. and Mrs.
Wirkus, Mr. and Mrs.
Wisecup, Mr. and Mr.
Wisham, Mr. and Mrs. D.
Wisotsky. Mr. and Mrs.
Withers. Mr. and Mrs.
Witenntein, Mr. and Mrs.
Wolf, Dr. andMrs. Benjamin
Wolff, Jr,, Mr. Mnd Mrs.
Wolfson, Mr. and Mrs. Jerry
WolfUon. Mr. and Mrs.
Wolven, Mr. and Mrs. Fred
Wood, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas
Woods, Mr. and Mrs. John
Woods, Mr. and Mrs.
Woolsey, Mr. Tm
Woolen, Mr. and Mrs. James
Worden. Mr. and Mrs.
Wodey. Mr. and Mrs.
Worley, Jr. r.M.andMrs.Jaek
Worm, Ms. Rita
Worth, Mr. and Mrs. James
Wright, Mr. and Mrs.
Wrubl.e Dr. and Mrs. Lloyd
Yaeger. Ms. Marilyn
Yanno, Mr. and Mrs.Robert
Yclen, Mr. and Mrs. Bruce
Yeoman, Mr. and Mrs.
Yoder, Mr.and Mrs. L.
Young, Ms. Barbara and
Huff, Mr. R.
Young, Mr, Craig
Young, Mr. and Mrs. John
Zakis, Mr. Andrew
Zme, Dr. and Mrs. Sheldon
Zannis, Mr. Thomas
Zapetis, Mr. and Mrs., James
Zdo, Jr., Mr. ndMrs.
Zeder, Mr, and Mrs. Jmn
Ziers, Mrs. Joyce
Zics, Dr. and Mrs. Peter
Ziff, Mr. and Mrs. Sanford
Zimmert, Mr. and Mrs. Craig
Zuckerman, Mr. and Mrs.
Abemathy, Mrs. Arm
Adams, Mrs. Betty
Adams, Mrs. E.C.
Adamm, Mr. Gus
Adams, Mrs. Lamer
Adlcr, Ms. Sharry
Al-Qusoims, Mr. Jabir
Albietz, Ms. Carol
Albrighlt. Ms. Julie
Allen, Mrs. Eugenia
Altman, Ms. Ruth
Alvatez, Mrs. Gloria
Alvarez, Mr.. Lino
Amigo, Ms. Julia
Amnudown, Ms. Margot
Amsterdam, Mr. Carl
Anicna, Mrs. John
Anderson, Mrs. Betny
Anderson, Ms. Reba
Andros, Mr. Ted
Anbolt, Ms. Betty
Anllo, Mr. Bill
Arias. Ms. Ana Maria
Anrbruster, Ms. Ann
Arstrmnrg, Mr. Charles
Arnold. Mr. Mike
Arnold. Ms. Patricia
Arnson, Mrs. Fayc
Arrington, Ms. Viviana
Atwood, Mr. Anthony
Ayres, Mr. Frederic
Babson, Mrs. Dorothy
Bagg, Jr., Mrs. John
Bainbridge, Ms. Lois
Baldwin, Mr.. C. Jackson
Balfe, Mr. Alx
Balfe, Mrs. E. Hutchins
Balfe, Ms. Roberta
Ball, Mr. Charles
Baqurro. Mr. Jose
Barnes, Ms. Ava
Barmctte. Ms. Betty
Barrentt, Mr. J,T.
Barrist, Ms. Lori
Baumcz, Mr. WL.,
Bcagle, Mr. James
Beamish, Ms. Josephine
Beatty. Ms. Jacqueline
Beazel. Ms. Mary
Bechamup, Mr.. B. N.
Becker, Ms. Hilda
Becton, Ms. Irene
BHeels, Mr. Robert
Belanger, Ms. Joyce
Benn, Mr. Nathan
Bernett, Ms. Barbara
Bennett, Ms. Dorothy
Bennett, Ms. Dorothy
Bennett, Ms. Hazel
Benctt, Ms. Sarah
Bennett, Ms. Sharon
Benovitz, Dr. Larry
Benson, Mr. Edwin J.M.
Berg, Ms. Brenda
Berkowitz, Mr. Mark
Being, Ms. Cyano
Biedron, Mrs. Charlotte
lBigelow, Mr. Jol
Biggane, Ms. Jacquelyni
Bill Ms. Diane
Bills, Mrs. John
Biondi, Mrs. Jeris
Birchmire, Mrs. Thomas
B inner, Mr. Warn
Black. Rev. Raymond
Black, Mr. Roy
Blackwell, Mr. Stephen
Blakeslee, Miss Zola Mae
Blount, Mrs. Sylvia
Blyth. Ms. Mary
Bom, Mr. Ed
Boldrick, Mr. Samuel
Boruchin, Ms. Diana
Boaselman, Mr. Fred
Bowell. Mr. James
Bower. Mr. Roy
Bradfsch, Ms. Jean
Bradley, Mrs. William
Brady, Ms. Margaret
Brady, Mr. Raymond
Brammer, Mr. Don
Bramntson, Mr. Seth
Bramien, Mrs. H. Stilson
Brant, Mrs. Anne
Brewer, Ms. Charioth
Brian, Mr. J. Andrew
Bridges, Ms. Kathy
Brooks. Mr.. J.R.
Brown, Jr., Mr. A.L.
Brown, Mrs. Andrew
Brown, Mrs. Caress
Bruce, Mrs. Therese
Bryan, Mr, Thomas
Buckle Mrs. Bernice
Buhler, II. Mr. Emil
Buhldr, Mrs. Paul
Buhler, Mr. Phillip
Burgess. Mr. Gordon
Burnett, Ms. Sandy
Burrows, Mr. David
Burrus, Jr.. Dr. E. Carter
Bush. Mr. Blake
Bussel, Ms. Arm
Byrd. Ms. Barbara
Carbajo, Mr. Antonio
Cardillo, Ms. Juliet
Carid, Mr. Miguel
Cadrims, Mr. Don
Carroll, Mrs.Ed Fh
Carter, Ms. Carls
Cason, Mr. Robert
Casady, Ma. Janet
Casselberry, Jr. Mr. Hibbard
Caster, Mrs. George
Catlow. Mrs. Patty
Catddl, Ms. Helen
Cavaco, ML Mis
Chacon, Mr. An-el
Ch(ill, Mr. Joseph
Chastain, Mrs. Dixie
Chaunccy. Mr. Dalidd
Chawlik, Mr. Walter
Cheezem, Ms. Jan
Chealey. Mo. Jsephine
ChievarT, Ms. Catherine
Chief, Ms. Cynthia
Chin, Mr. Sandty
Christ. Mrs. Anita
Christenson, Mr. Stcve
Christopier, Mrs. JJ.
Chrystie, Ms. Margot
Cibula, Ms. Kathy
Clark. MI. Lydia
Clark, Mrs. Mac
Clark, Mr. Robert
Clay, Ms. Dan
Clay, M. Madelie
Cleary, Mr. Timothy
Cobtrn Mr. Louis
Cohen, Ms. Nancy
Cote. Mr. Robert
Coleman, M. Hannah
Canius, M. Mary
Collins, Ms. Thress
Calsky. Dr. Ienm
Conchso, Ms. Mari Teresa
Cond, Ms. Mabel
Conduit, Ms. Catherine
Coanea. Ms. Lillian
Canlr, Mr. Lyndon
Camn. Ms. Htolen
Coriellan, Ms. Barbara
Cormrr. Mrs. Daphne
Cook, Mr. Steven
Cookm, Mrs. Francis
Cooper, Mr. Paul
Carbelle, Mr. Amanmdo
Crsono, Mr. Hal
Costelo, Mr. James
Courtright, LU, Johnr
Co, Mrs. Pecy
Cox-Jaes, Mrs. Janice
Craig. Ma. Notant
Crampt Dr. Donald
Crockwell, Mr.. Alan
Cross. Mr. David
Croucher Mr. William
Crump, Mrs. Dorothy
Cucvas. Ms. Judith
Culmcr, Mrs. Latc
Culpcerpr. Ms. K.M.
Cummings. Ill. Mr. George
Cunninghamn, Mr. Charles
Cunninghxam, Mr. Frank
Cunuingham, Mr. Justin
Curl. Mr. Donald
Cutler, Dr. Edward
Dacy, Mr. George
Dakau, Ms. Ellen
Daniels, Mr. Fred
Daniels, Mrs. Kathlren M.
Dansky, Mr. King
Daugherty, Ms. Georg tto
Daughtry. Mr., Dewintt
Daum, Mr.. Phillip
David, Ms. Anne
Davidasm, Ms. Ursula
Davis, Mr. Jim
Davis, Ms. Marion
Davison. Mr. Carletma
Davison, Ms. Liu Ann
Davison. Mr. Walter
Dawson, Ms. Phyllis M.G.
Day, Ms. Janre
Dayhofl Ms. Sandy
De Flom, Mr..J. Allison
Dc Los Saeto, Ms. Adele
Deans. Mr. Douglas
DeNies, Mr. Charles
Dedrth, Ms. Linda
Deville, Ms. E. Josephine
Dewitt, Ms. Betty Ruth
Diaz, Ms. Alicia
Diaz, Ms. Angela
Diz. Mr. Jose
Diz., Ms. Louise
Dickey, Mrs. Robert
DiDomenico, Mrs. Margic
Dicterich, Ms. Emily
Dirnmoc, Mrs. Marion
Dobrow, Dr. Stephen
Docrer, Mrs. Rosemary
Dominguez, Mr. Juan
Donnclly. Mr. J.F.
Dorsey. Mrs. Mary
Doss, Mr. William
Downs, Mrs. Dorothy
Dmlard, Mr.. Manti
Dugas, Mrs. Faye
Dumas, Mr. Earmest
Duan, Mr. Hampton
Duvall, Mrs. John
Eakins, Mr. William
Eaton, Ms. Sarah
Edeemr, Ms. Norman
Edward, Mr. Jim
Ellis, Mr. John
Elsasser, M. Ruth
Engrl, Ms. Beatrice
Egeld, Dr. Gertrude
Ernst, Ms. Patricia
Errickson, Mr. David
Elling, Mr. Walter
Evar Mr. Don
Evans, Ms. Linda
Ewald, Ms. Joan
Eyster, Mr. Irving
Faber, Mrs.. Mary
Farrell. P.A., Mr. John
Fascell, Rep. Dante
Fechan, Mr. Paul
FPenan, Mr. Arthur
Feilherg. Ms. Eaine
FPllabom, Ms. Roberta
Fernandez, Dr. Daniel
Fernandez, Mr. Wilfcedo
Feurrado, Ms. Mary
Fichtoer, Ms. Margaria
Firenco, Mrs. Nell
Finley. Mr. George
Fisch, Sister Jean
Fisher, Mr. Ray
Fishman, Mrs. Bibi
Fishwick, Mr. Joseph
Fitzgerald-Bush, Mr. Frank
Fitzgibbon. Dr. J.M
Fleischmamn, Mr. Thomas
Forces, Mrs. Maria
Florez, Mr. Leopoldo
Flowers, Ms. Dorothy
Floyd, Mr. Robert
Fonseca, Dr. Luis
Foote, Mr. Edward
Foote, Miss Etliebcth
Ford, Mr. Richard
Faster, Ms. Sheila
Frankel, Mrs. Blossom
Franz, Mr. John
Freeman, Ms. Susan
Freier, Miss Arlene
Pried. Ms. Leah
Friedman, Ms. Emiry
Frisbie, Ms. Armnntic
Fritsch, Miss Renee
Frohbboa, Ms. Elizabeth
Frohock, Mr. John
Frost, Mr. Raymond
Fuchs, Mr. Richard
Gacnoslcn, Mr. Roy
Galatia, Ms. Marorie
Gale, Ms. Mrs. Janiat
Garcia, Mrs. Joyce
Gardiner, Ms. Janet
GargEao, Ms. Caron
Garis, Mr. Millicent
Garrard, Ms. Jkcari
Garrett, Mr. Frank
Garrison, Ms. Pamela
Garvin, Ms. Carel
Gaub, Dr. Margaret
Gawley, Mrs. Lonrran
Gerac, Mrs. Terence
Gerhart, Mr. George
Gibbs. Mr. W. Tucker
Gillis, Ms. Patricia
Ginsburg. Mr. Robert
Gittelson, Mr. Abraham
Glad*oorn, Mr. John
Glaese, Ms. Barbara
Glass, Ms. Minna
Glattaucr, Mrs. Alfred
Gleans, Mr. William
Goldenberg, Mrs. Anna
Goldstein, Mr. Albert
Goldstein, M.D. Edward
Goldstein, Judge Harvey
Gomctz, Ms. Anne
Gonzalez, Mr. William
Goodin, Jr., Mr. Jack
Gop(mn, Ms. Beth
Gordon, Mr. Harold
Gordon, Dr. Mark
Gowin, Dr. Thomas
Graftn, Ms. Mautha
Graton, Mr. Jorant
Gray. Ms. Pricilla
Green, Ms. Uloma
Greenfeld, Dr. David
Gregory Mr. Ledford
Greist Mr. John
Grentner, Ms. Lynn
Griffith, Mr. Glenn
Grill, Ms. Joatmr
Gross, Ms. Sherry
Gross, Dr. Zale
Gross, Mr. Armm
Grout, Ms. Nancy
Grover, Ms. Marlene
Grumbach, Mrs. Margaret
Gun, Ms. Dona
Gudticne, Ms. Mari
Hale, Ms. Kay
Hall. Mr. Frank
Hall, Ms. Isa
Hamptnl, Ms. Elimbeth
Hanafourde, Mrs. John
Hanian, Ms. Juliet
Hancock, Mrs Ruby
Hanley, Ms. Barbara
Harring, Ms. Margie
Harris, Mrs. Henriette
Harrison, Dr. Robert
Harwell, Miss Wanda
Harwood, Mrs, Manton
Hathan, Mrs. Muriel
Hauser Mr. Leo
Hawes, Jr., Mr. Leland
Hawkins, Mrs. Dorothy
Heckcrling, Mr. Ruth
Helms, Mr. Neil
Heinlein, Ms. Carods
Holdt, Ms. Agnets
Hilfand, Ms. Rosel
Helliwell, Ms. Anna
Helsabeck, Ms. Rosemary
Hoplr., Mrs. Chadene
Herin, Mr. Thomas
Herring, Mr. V.R.
Herts, Ms. Linda
Het,. Ms. Marilyn
Hill, Mr. Gregory
Hines, Ms. Phyllis
Hinichs, Ms. Anita
Hiscano. Mr. Michael
Hoberman. Mr. Richard
Hodge, Ms. Nedra
Hodges, Mr. Charles
Hodus, Mr. Jack
Hochl Mr. Jotm
Hofstein, Ms, Susan
Hofstetor, Mr. Ronald
Holland, Jr., Mr. Charles
Hooper, Ms. Patricia
Hoppenbrunwer. Mr. Waltr
Homeby, Mr. M.
Hort. Ms. Terefs
Hoskins, Mrs. Eddie
House, Mr. Naami
Howard, Dr. Paul
List of Members
Howe. Mrs. Helen
Howell, Mr. Roland
Howl, Mrs. Martha
Hubetr, Mrs. Anna
Hubsch, St., Mr. Robert
Huramky, Mr. Joe
Hunter, Mr. William
Hutchinson, Mrs. Kathicryn
Hutton, Mr. Tomn
Inraham. Jr., Mr. William
Irvin, 111, Dr. Gorge
Iturry, Mrs. Sylvia
Jacobs, Mrs. Ruth
Jacobson, Dr. George
Jacobslcin, Dr. Helen
Jacoby, Mr. Ken
Jaffe, Ms. Leah
Jasmes, Ms. Mary
James, Dr. O.E.
Jenkins. Mr. Todd
JemroIm, Ill. Dr. William
Joffe, Esq., David
Johnson, Mr. Frederick
Johnston, Ms. Suzanne
Jolly, Mr. Robert
Jonea, Ms. Anne
Jancs, Mrs. Henrietta
Jones, Ms. Jacqueline
Jones. Ms. Sally
Jones, Mr. Thomnpson
Jordan, Ms. Katharine
Jurika, Mr. Louis
Kaisr, Ms. Roberta
Kallweit, Mr. Lothar
Kanzer, Ms. Barbara
Kasnmier, Ms. Ann
Kassewitz, Mrs. Ruth
Kastln. Mr. Elic
Kathe, Mr. Guy
Kearney, Mrs. Pamalaa
Keaton, Ms. Martha
Koely, Mrs. Lucile
Keith, Mr. Scott
Keller, Ms. Barbara
Kelley, Dr. Robert
Kelly, Ms. Pat
Kent, Mrs. Frde.rick
Kern, Ms. Carolyn
Kessler, M. Loraino
Kigbrg, Mm. AJ.
King, Sr., Mr. Arthur
King, Mr. Dennis
Klein, Mr. Masosn
Klingensrinh Mr. Charles
Knapp, Jr., Mrs. Morris
Knight, Mr. Jeffrey
Knott, Judge James
Koestlinm, Ms. Frances
Kogon, Ms. Michele
Kokenzie, Mr. Henry
Kolski. Mrs. Patricia
Korporowski, Ms. Camilla
Kononoff. Ms. lazl
Koski, Ms. Antoinette
Koder. Mr. Meyer
Kouchalakos, Mr. Peter
Kramer, Ms. Sandra
Kriebs. Mr. Robert
Krieger, Mr. Stanley
Kubota Mr. Mieko
Kulpa, Mr. Bob
LaBauve, Ms. Caroline
La Belle. Mr. Dexter
Lacey, Mr. Robert
Lamme, Mr. Robert
Lancaster, Ms. Patricia
Lancaster, Mr. R.D.
Lane, Ms. Elizabeth
Lang, Mr. Richard
Larsen, Mr. Paul
LaRussa, Ms. Lymnee
Laxson, Sr., Mr. Dan
Lazarus, Mrs. Theodora
La Wells, Ms. Gena
Laduc. Ms. Charlotte
Loc, Ms. Linda
Lee, Mr. Roswell
Lee, Jr., Mr. Rosw.ell
Leesha, Miss Sara
Lehman, Mrs, David
Lehman, Ms. Joan
Leiber, Mr. Robert
Leiva, Mr. William
Lenor Ms. Teresa
Leon, Jr., Mr. Salvador
Leonard, Mr. Joseph
LeJsli, Ms. Nancy
Lester, Mr. Paul
Levin, Mr. Marc
Levine, Dr. Robert
Lewezns.hn. Mr. San
Lewis, Mr. Harry
Lewis, Mr. Kirk
Libert, Ms. Sharon
Lils, Mrs. E.Qark
Limousin, Ms. Flore
Lineback, Ms. Janet
Linohan, Mrs. John
Link, Mrs. E.A.
Lippert, Mr. Kemp
Lippincott, Ms. Carol
Lipscomib. Mrs. Elizabeth
Livingston, Mr. Grant
Livingston, Mr. Robert
Loerky, Ms. Donna
Lombardo. Ms. Barbara
London, Mr. Jordan
Lope, Mrs. Maria
Lorencz, Ms. Valerie
Lve., Ms. Mildred
Low ry, Mrs. Neteida
Lubel, Mr. Howard
Lukach, Ms. Joan
Lukens, Mrs. Jaywood
LummLus, Ms. Martha
Lund, Ms. Joyce
Lunnon, Mrs. Betty
Lansford, Mrs. Mrs. E. C.
Lynch, Mrs. Jeannctto
Lynch, Mr. Joseph
LynfirldMr. if. H-eolrey
Lynn, Ms. Kathryn
MacCullough, Mr. Don
Mackle. Ms. Milbrey
MacLamn, Ms. Valeri
Madsen, Ms. Mary
Maholm, Rev. Richard
Mahoncy, Mr. Michael
Majewski. Ms. Mabel
Malinia, Mrs. Dorothy
Malone, Mrs. Claire
Mangels, Dr. Celia
Manklilow, Ms. Loretta
Manlio, Dr. F.L.
Manly, Ms. Grace
Marcus, Mrs. Bessie
Mark, Mr. Waymn
Marks, Ms. Carol
Marks, Ms. Toby
Markus, Mr. Victor
Marshall, Mr. Art
Martin, Jr.,Dr. John
Martin, Ms. Kimberly A.
Martine Ms. Odalys
Mason, Mrs. Joe
Mason-Smith, Ms. Lymntic
Massa, Mrs. Jeanmarie
Masterson, Mrs. Nancy
Matesanz, Mrs. Alice
Matheson, Mr. Bruce
Matheson, Mr. James
Maura, Ms. June
Mayes Ms. Bernic
McAliley, Ms. Janet
McAllister, Mr. Jim
McCartney, Mr. Chuck
McConmick, Ms. Martha
McCulloch, Mr. John
McGraw, M. Juady
McGuire, M. Jeanic
Mcintosh, Ms. lJanntett
McKenma, Mrs. Alice
McKenzie Dr. Jack
McKinney, Mr. Bob
McLean, Mr. John
McLean, Ms. Leonace
McLean, Ms. Lotu
McLeod, Mrs. Wiliam
McSuiggan, Mr. G.
Medcros, Mr. Oscar
Medina, Mr. Robert
Meltzer, Ms. Toni
Mendez, Mr. Jesus
Merritt, Mrs. Isabel
Mets, Jr., Mr. J. Walter
Meyers. Mrs. Bert
Millar, Mrs. Gavin
Milledg, Ms. Evalyn
Miller, Ms. Gertrude
Miller, Ms. Margaret
Miller, Ms. Paula
Miranda, Ms. Mary Ann
Mitchell, Ms. Katherin
Mitchell, Mrs. L. Diane
Mitchell. Mr. Thomas
Milich, Mr. Louis
Mizrach, Mr. Larry
Mobt, Jr., Mr. Raymond
Mondres, Ms. Lois
Monk, Mr. J. Floyd
Morors, Mrs. Care
Moore., Mr. Patrick
Moore, Mr. William
Morales, Ms. Michele
Morris. Mrs. Edwin
Morris, Ms. Thomnasinc
Morrison, Mrs. Jean
Mo;s, Mr. Jamres
Moss, Ms. Pamela
Moure, Mrs. Almalee
Moylan, Jr., Mrs. E.B.
Moynahan, Mr. John
Muir, Mrs. W.W
Munccy, Mr. John
Muniz, Mr. Mannel
Murphy, Mrs. Patricia
Murray, Miss Mary
My.s, ML Lillian
Narup, Mrs. Mavis
Nasca, Ms. Suzanne
Nelsoa, Mr. Jonathan
Nelson, Mr. Tmeodom
Ncmcti, Ms. Gay
Neumann, Mr. Robert S.
Newman, Mr. Peter
Ncwman, Mr. Stuart
Niles, Mr. James
Nimnicht, Mrs. Helen
Nimic. Mrs. Mary Jo
Ntsche, Ms. Caroline
Nitzsch., Mrs. R. Earnest
Noble, D. Nancy
Nodarac, Ms. Anita
Nolton, Mr. Ron
(OBrien, Mrs. Hermnmia
Oliphant, Mr. Richard
Orden, Ms. Roberta
Odin, Ms. Karen
Oscar, Ms. Marie
Osman. Mr. Peter
Ostrout, Jr., Mr. Howard
Oswald, Mr. M. Jackson
Oterson, Ms. Dana
Oversa ret, Ms. Estellc
Overstreet, Jr., Mr. James
Pacheco, Ms. Anna
Palmer. Mrs. Mary
Paparella, Mrs. Denise
Parnme, Mr. Robert
Park. Jr. Mr. Dabney
Parker, Mr. Crawford
Parks, Ms. Jeanne
Parks. Mrs. Merle
Parsons, Mrs. Edward
Parsons, H. Scott
Paugh. Mr. Gerald
Paul. Ms. Jean
Peabody. Mr. Edward
Pearce, Mrs, Edgar
Pearson, Ms. Madeline
Peeler, Ms. Elizabeth
Peeples, Mr. Venon
Pell, Ms. Gloria
Pelton, Dr. Margaret
Pepper, Jr., Mr. John
Peroz, Mr. Rafad
Pems-Piedra, Mr. Salvador
PeCmr, Mrs. Henry
Perrone, Ms. Carolyn
Peters, Mrs. Rita
Peters, Dr. Thelma
Phelps, Mrs. Dorothy
Phillips, Mrs. Lynn
Pierce, Mrs. Margie
Pietro, Ms. Virginia
Pittman, Mr. Robert
Platt. Mr. Jeffrey
Porter. Mr. Daniel
Posner, Mr. Joseph
Posner, Mr. Martin
Pastlethwaite, Ms. Nina
Powell, Ms, Eva-Lynn
Prado. Ms. Miriam
Price, Mr. Bedford
Provost. Mr. Orville
Pullen, Ms. Judith
Purdy. Ms. Betty
Quesenberry, Jr., Mr.
Quincy, Ms. Suzanne
Ragan, Ms. Patti
Rahm, Mrs. Virginia
Raiden, Mr. Michael
Ramircz, Miss Lissette
Ranms, Ma. Pauline
Rarmsey, Mrs. Manuela
Rankin. Ms. Sally
Rappaport, Dr. Edward
Raimuossn, Mrs, Ray
Ray, Mr. Peter
Reagan, Jr., Mr. A. James
Redding, Ms. Susan
Reed, Ms. Donna
Reed, Ms. Eve
Reader, Mr. William
Regotti, Ms. Terri
Reid. Mrs. Janet
Rein, Mr. Martin
Reisman, Mrs. Gall
Rermpe, Ms. Lois
Renick, Mr. Ralph
Reno, Esq., Ms. Janet
Riano, Ms. Maria
Rice, Sister Eilcon
Rice, Jr., Mr. R.H.
Rice, Mr. Ralph
Richards, Ms. Rose
Richheimcr, Ms. R.
Ricketsn, Mrs. Runald
Ridolph, Mr. Edward
Rieder, Mrs. William
Riess, Mn. Marie
Riley, Mrs. O.V.
Ritter, Mrs. Emma
Roberts, Mr. Richard
Roberts, Ms. Ruth
Rodriguez, Ms. Ofrlia
Rogers, Mr. John
Rogers, Mrs. Shirley
Roller, Mrs. Rachel
Rolinms Ms. Annie
Rood, Mr. Nathan
Roper, Ms. Margaret
Rose, Ms. Brenda
Rosn, Mr. Paul
Rosendorf, Jr., Mr. Howard
Roer. Mr. Aliz
Ross, Mrs. Audrey
Roas, Mr. Jay
Roth. Mrs. Shirley
Rowen, Msa Cecy
Ruden, Mrs. Eliza
Rullmat, Ms. Jean
Ryan, Jr., Mr. AJ.
Sackman, Ms. Arlene
Sala, Ms. Carin
SaleCDo, Ms. Evelyn
Salley, Mrs. Sadie
Salcmon, Mr. Carlos
Salzman. Ms. Phyllis
Samet, Mr. Alvin
Sampicri, Ms, Deborah
Samson, Dr. Stephean
Sanchez, Mr. Alan
Sanders, Mrs. Zarmie
Sanford, Jr., Mr. E. Philip
Santos, Mr. Arnold
Sarans, Ms. Robbye
Sax, Ms. Connie
Saye. Jr., Mr. Roland
Scarborough, Mrs. Chaffee
Schaalfr, Ms. Becky Sue
Scherr, Mrs. Ruth
Schneider, Mr. A.
Schollz, Ms. Mary
Schuh, Mr. Niles
Schulte, Mrs. W.
Schultz, Mrs. William
Schwartz, Mrs. Geraldine
Schwartz, Ms. Jane
Scott, Ms. Kathy
Segal, Mr. Martin
Segal, Mrs. Natalie
Scitlin, Ms. Janet
Selig, Ms. Amy
Selinsky, Dr. Herman
Sellati, Mr. Kenneth
Semes, Mr. Robert
Seminario, Mrs. Betty
Sequcira. Ms. Antonieta
Scrkin, Mr. Manuel
Sessionsa, Ms. Ellen
Shafer, Ms. Kathryn
Shapiro, Mr. J11H.
Sharer, Mr. Cyrus
Sharp. Ms. Sandy
Shaw, Ms. Emilic
Shaw, Mrs. Henry
Shaw, Mrs. W.F.
Sheeran Ms. Kathy
Sheffield, Mrs, Charlotte
Shepard, Mr. Sara
Sbhrman, Ms. Dr. Joannm
Siaa, Miss Siu Kim
Sigale, Mr. Merwin
Silver, Mrs. Doris
Silver, Mrs. Mrs. Sam
Silverman, Ms. Judy
Simpson, Mrs. Eleanor
Sizemore. Ms. Christina
Skipp, Ms. Marjorie
Slussar, Mr. Bruce
Smith, Jr., Mrs. Avery
Smith, Mr. Daniel.
Smith, Mr. Emanucl
Smith, Mr. Harrison
Smith, Ms. Rebecca
Smith, Mrs. Richard
Smothers, Mr. Lawrence
Sniffen, Mr. Lan
Snyder, Mrs. Wahl
Solano, Ms. Trma
Sommers, Mr. L.B.
Smudercggcr. Ms. Marthal
Soaoodo, Ms. Astrid
Spector, Mr. Brent
Spencer, Mr, John
Sperling, Mr. Stephen
Speroni, Mr. Donald
Spore, Ms. Mary
Sprat, Jr., Mr. William
Spurling, Mr. George
Stacey, Mr. George
Stark, Miss Judi
Starr. Ms. Sandra
Starrett, Ms. Michelle
Stearns, Ms. Laura
Stebbins, Ms. Karen
Stedman, Mr. Carling
Steel, Mrs. William
Stein, Ms. Lois
Steinmetz, Mr. Christopher
Stevens, Ms. Anne
Stevens, Dr. Elizabeth
Stewart, Ms. Ruth
Stickler. Mr. Robert
Stock, Ms. Ruth
Stock him, Ms. Jcane
Stofllk Ms. Marty
Stone, Mrs. A.J.
Stone, Dr. Arline
Stone, Mrs. Muriel
Storm, Ms. Larme
Stovall, Ms. Lucy
Strait, Ms. Patricia
Strobl, Miss Aunetc
Suiter, Ms. Patricia
Sullivan. Mr. Patrick
Sundquist Mr. Percy U.H.
Suris, Ms. Beatriz
Sutton, Ms,. Cannrmn
Swartz, Ms. Donna
Sweet, Mr. George
Swicher, Ms. Pamn
Swisher, Mr. Joht
Szita, Ms. Blanche
Tanner, Mrs, Gwer
Taro, Ms. Linda
Tassinari, Ms. Caprice
Tatham, Mr. Thomasi
Teaol, Ma. Julie
Taylor, Mr. Janmes
Taylor. Ms. Jane,
Taylor, Mrs. Jean
Teed, Ms. Mary
Tharp, Mrs. Charles
Thayer. Ms. Laura
Thayr, Ms. Margaret
Theakston, Mrs. Pierce
Thoeras,. Mr. Phillip
Thompson, Mr. Michael
Thompson, Ms. Roberts
Thornton, Esq., Mr. Dade
Tierney, Ms. Cecilia Prany
Tigh.e Ms. Russica
Timanun, Mrs, Martha
Tompett, Ma. Clara
Towle, Mrs. Helen
Tranchidi, Mr. Michael
Tremals, Mrs. Alicia
Tresize, Mr. John
Trias, Mr. Ramon
Tripp-Bluc Mrs. Margaret
Trudcau, Mr. Joe
Tucker, Mr. Bruce
Taurner, Ms. Molly
Twead, PH.D, Thomas.
Udell, Ms. Marilyn
Uffendell, Mrs. William
Underwood, Mrs. Jean
Urquiola, Mr. Narciso
Valla, Mrs. Eilen
Valladares, Mr. Pablo
Valley, Rev. Robert
Van Eaton, Ms. Eacanmr
Van Meek, Ms. Luz
Vanderlaan, Mr. Charles
Vanmostrand, Mr. David
Vendini. Mr. Robert
Vera, Mr. George
Vickers, Ms. Audrey
Vicle, Mr. John
Villamil, Mr. lJan
WalaitS, Ms. Jane
Walcutt, Ms. Norms
Waldronm Mrs. Neal
Wallace, Mr. Michael
Waller, Mr. David
Walters, Ms. Ruthe
Ward, Ms. Doris
Washbum, Mrs. James
Waers, Miss Elva
Watson, Ms. Carol
Watson, Mrs. Elizabeth
Webb, Mr. Harold
Westeer, Ms. Nancy
Weinkle. Mr. Julian
Weinlraub, Mr. Robert L.
Weiss, Mr. Daniel
Waler, Ms, Dite
Weiss, Ms. Milton
Weiss, Ms. Susan
Weiss, Ms. Tracy
Weit, Mr. Richard
Wellington, Ms. lora
Wenzrl, Ms. Barbara
Werblow, Mrs. Marcella
Wescot, Mr. William
West, Ms. Beverley
Wcstbrook, Mrs. AJ.
Wetmoreland, Ms. Colleen
Wetterer, Ms. Mary
Wheeling, Mr. Craig
White, Mr. Richard
Whimer. Mrs. K.S.
Whiltny. Ms. Brenda
Whitworth, Judge Lewis
Wickman, Ms. Patricia
Wienerr, Mr. Don
Wiggins, Mr. Larry
Wilder. Mr. Jo
Wilken, Mrs. Jane
Williams, Mr. GL.
Williams, Ms. Linda
Willing, Mr. David
Wllis, Ms. Helen
Willis, Mrs. Hillard
Willis, Mr, Walier
Wills, Mr. Billie
Wilson, Mr. Daniel
Wilson, M, Mary
Wilson, Ms. Sandra
Witimer, Ms. Marcila
Wolf. Mr. Steve
Wolkowsky, Ms, Edu
Wood, Mr. Edward
Wood, Mr. William
Woodall, Ms. Anna.
Wright, Ms. Carolyn
Wright, Dr. lIne
Wanderls, Mr. Horace
Yarborough. Ms. Joan
Yehle, Ms. Jean
Yost, Mr. Roger
Young, Ms. Emilio
Young, Mr. Montgomery
Zabsky, Mr. Harold
Zakis, Ms. Michele Lynn
Zapf, Mr. John
Zawisa, Ms. Christine
Zeiner, Ms. Carol
Zphirin, Ms. Christina
Zerivitz. Mr. Marcia
Ziegler, Mr. Joe Pigman
Zimmerman, Mrs. Louis
Zuckerman, Mr. Bertram
Zwermr, Mrs. Carl
List of Members 97
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