TI tL4 tS 1Pt. THE JOURNAL OF THE HISTORICAL
ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA
Charlton W. Tebeau, Ph.D.
Thelma Peters, Ph.D.
Arva Moore Parks
Timothy F. Schmand
Number XLIX 1989
Barry University: Its Beginnings 4
Sister Eileen F, Rice, O.P.
Richard Ashby: Miami Pioneeer 27
Donald C. Gaby
Among The Farmers 44
Shadows in the Sunshine: 63
Race and Ethnicity in Miami
Raymond A. Mohld
List of Members 81
COPYRIGHT 1989 BY THE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA
__ cm st': is published annually by the Historical Association of Southern Florida.
Communications should be addressed to the Managing Editor of
Tequesta, 101 W. Flagler Street, Miami, Florida 33130. The Association does not assume
responsibility for statements of facts or opinions made by contributors.
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Historical Association of Southern Florida, Inc.
FOUNDED 1940 INCORPORATED 1941
Raul L. Rodriquez
First Vice President
Second Vice President
Mary Stuart Mank
D. Alan Nichols
Arva Moore Parks
Charlton W. Tebeau, Ph.D.
Editor Emeritus Tequesta
Thelma Peters, Ph.D.
Editor Emeritus Tequesta
Editor South Florida History Magazine
Editor South Florida History Magazine
Randy F. Nimnicht
Miguel A. Bretos, Ph.D.
Dennis M. Campbell
Gregory M. Cesarano
Lamar Lousie Curry
Marvin Dunn, Ph.D.
E. Barlow Keener
Mary K. Lynch
John C. Nordt III, M.D.
Tessa Tagle, Ph.D.
Alicia M. Tremols
Sandra Graham Younts
Howard Zwibel, M.D.
Barry University: Its Beginnings
By Sister Eileen F. Rice, O.P.
"If he had a fault, it was his kindness, his generosity to his priests
Bishop T. J. Toolen, Bishop of Mobile, writing about Bishop
Patrick Barry in a letter to Sister Mary Philip Ryan, O.P., October 22,
"This institution. . is the result of... the daring undertaking of.
. courageous Sisters."
Archbishop Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, Apostolic Delegate and
Pronuncio to the United States, at the dedication of Barry College,
February 4, 1941.
Barry University did not have a casual beginning. One member
of the Barry family from County Clare Ireland, Mother Mary Gerald
Barry, conceived the idea of a Catholic college for women in Florida.
Superior General of the Adrain Dominican Sisters in Adrian, Michigan,
she had long dreamed of building a Catholic college for women
somewhere in Florida. She shared that dream with her brother, the Most
Reverend Patrick Barry, Bishop of St. Augustine.1 When they commu-
nicated the dream to their brother, the Right Reverend Monsignor
William Barry, pastor and founder of St. Patrick's parish in Miami
Beach, he responded with some practical advice to Mother Gerald in a
letter of April 27, 1937:
The idea of a woman's college is fine and surely it would
be a wonderful thing if it could be financed. Miami would
be a good location but you have to consider the Miami
University [University of Miami] ... Again, Jacksonville
might be thought of. Building costs, finance for operation,
some endorsement, teachers qualified, etc., and wise plan-
ning and counsel and the survey necessary [are all needed]
to come to a final conclusion. Never buy a pig in a poke.2
Sister Eileen F. Rice, O.P., Ph.D., Professor of History Emerita, has
taught history at Barry University for twenty-six years. This is the first
chapter of a forthcoming book on the history of Barry University.
Barry University: Its Beginnings
Mother Gerald and her two brothers saw a need for a Catholic
college for women in Florida since, at that time, no such institution
existed in the southeastern states. Florida's accredited public institu-
tions of higher education included two universities, Florida State and
the University of Florida; one college, Florida Agricultural and Me-
chanical College; and two junior colleges, Palm Beach and St. Peters-
Mother Gerald Barry, O.P..
burg. In the private sector, there were two accredited universities,
Stetson and the University of Miami, and two accredited colleges,
Rollins and Florida Southern. But none of these institutions was a
Catholic college for women.3 In spite of Monsignor Barry's suggestion
to Mother Gerald to think of building a college in Jacksonville or
Miami, later correspondence reveals that only Miami was seriously
When Mother Gerald and Bishop Barry commissioned Monsignor
Barry to find a suitable location for the college, he sought the assistance
of John Graves Thompson, a young man with whom he had often played
handball across the street from St. Patrick's Rectory on Miami Beach.
Thompson was a partner in the law firm of Thompson and Thompson,
Monsignor William Barry.
later Smathers and Thompson.4 He and Monsignor Barry spent almost
two years searching for a satisfactory location for the proposed college,
and suggested four sites.
Three of the sites were rejected. The first was at Bay Point, east of
Biscayne Boulevard, but that was judged too isolated with no space for
Barry University: Its Beginnings
~e, red an area in Mi-
ami Shores near N.E.
13 Avenue between
101 and 104 Streets
to Biscayne Bay, but
1 there were problems
Sf about the title to the
land and again there
was no possibility for
growth.5 The third
was Viscaya, the
James Deering Es-
tate, but the owners
had decided to use the
cial purposes; be-
Ssides, the cost was
fourth site, the one
and the present loca-
tion of Barry Univer-
sity, comprised the 40
Bishop of St. Augustine, Patrick Barry. acres extending north
from 111 Street to 115 Street betweenN.E. 2 Avenue and North Miami
Thompson obtained the deed for the property in his name on June
16, 1939, and completed the transaction on May 2, 1940.7 He paid
$24,000 for the 40 acres, which, at the time, according to Miami
historian Dr. Thelma Peters, "was covered by typical pine woods and
palmettos and inhabited by mosquitoes and snakes.'"
The architect selected for the new college was Gerald Barry, a
nephew of the Barrys and a partner in the firm of Barry and Kay in
Chicago, Illinois. Mother Gerald asked him to draw up the plans for the
new college. With few changes, the Barrys approved the architect's
plans and the General Council of the Adrian Dominicans ratified them.
The General Council became the Board of Trustees of the new college
on January 2, 1940.9
Again as Monsignor Barry had suggested in his April 27, 1937,
letter to Mother Gerald, "building costs" had to be considered. These
costs, of course, had to be sustained by the Adrian Dominican Congre-
gation which financed the two residence halls, the administration-
classroom building and the dining hall-home economics unit.
One of the principal benefactors of Barry was a wealthy Catholic
woman from Albany, New York, a winter resident of St. Patrick's parish
on Miami Beach, Margaret Brady Farrell. When she learned that a
shortage of money postponed the immediate building of the chapel, she
not only provided funds for the construction of the chapel but also for
the pews and marble altar. Within the next two years, this generous
woman donated the tennis courts and paid for the swimming pool. After
Mrs. Farrell's death, Barry received a chalice decorated with her
personal jewels. 10
Although the Barry family had a pre-eminent role in founding the
college, when it came to choosing a name for the institution, their names
were not the first to be mentioned. In the spring of 1939, Mother Gerald
told Thompson that "his next job was to find a good name for the
college."" In a letter to Mother Gerald on May 24, 1939, he suggested
"Geraldi College." Mother Gerald rejected the suggestion and submit-
ted a list of names for his and Monsignor Barry's consideration.12
Mother Gerald's list included these names: Dominican College of San
Patrice, Kinkora, Salve Regina, Christ the King and Ponce de Leon. 13
After this correspondence, nothing was said about the name of the
new college until the meeting of the Board of Trustees in Adrian,
Michigan, on January 2, 1940. According to the minutes, the members
engaged in a lengthy discussion before they finally approved the name
"Barry College, which would honor His Excellency, the Most Reverend
Patrick Barry, Bishop of St. Augustine, Florida and co-founder of the
Ground breaking started on January 24, 1940, a raw, cold day. The
men wore overcoats, the Sisters wore cloaks and shawls. The weather
that day prompted Mother Gerald to install steam heat in the chapel and
dining hall.15 The Miami Herald, the Miami Daily News and the Florida
Catholic carried pictures of the principal participants: Bishop Barry,
Mother Gerald, Monsignor Barry, John Thompson, Gerald Barry,
Sister Gonzaga Greene, Mother Magdalena, the administrator at St.
Francis Hospital in Miami Beach, and Scott Kitson, the mayorof Miami
Shores.6 Other clergy, Adrian Dominicans, benefactors and friends
Barry University: Its Beginnings
were also present.
On February 5,
1940, Judge Paul D.
h TBarnes approved the
charter for Barry
College, a Catholic
institution for the
higher education of
lier, in November,
1939, Mother Gerald
had notified Monsi-
gnor Barry that she
Barry's first adminis-
b Gonzaga Greene, to
supervise the erection
of the buildings. 8
Sister Gonzaga had
with Gerald Barry in
John G. Thompson, attorney, Mayor of the building of Aqui-
Miami Shores (1943 1944), and co-founder of nas High School in
Barry College. Chicago. The daugh-
ter of an Owosso, Michigan, hotelier, Sister Gonzaga was a tall, broad-
shouldered woman, who, in her own way, supervised all the details of
construction. With her white habit flicking up sand and dust, her black
veil turning brown from the sun, she was a familiar figure on the scene.
She climbed the ladders, walked on the scaffolding and checked to see
that the construction work matched the specifications of the blueprints.
During this time, another Adrian Dominican, Sister Jean Marie Sheri-
dan, recalling a popular 1937 musical, playfully referred to Sister
Gonzaga and her crew as "One Hundred Men and a Girl."19
In the beginning, Sister Gonzaga lived on Miami Beach with the
Adrian Dominicans at St. Patrick Convent and commuted daily to the
construction site. In the summer, when St. Patrick's convent was closed
because those sisters were attending summer school at northern univer-
sities, Sister Gonzaga accepted the gracious hopsitality of the Al-
The Dining Hall under construction.
legheny Franciscan sisters at St. Francis Hospital on Miami Beach.
From its infancy then, Barry has enjoyed strong ties of friendship with
the Franciscans at St. Francis Hospital.
As the days passed, the first five buildings began to take shape: the
chapel, the administration-classroom building, the two residence halls
and the dining hall-home economics building. They were built on either
side of the mall which led from the chapel to N.E. 2 Avenue. Cor Jesu
chapel, facing east, was to mark the center of the campus. To the right
of the chapel, on the north side of the mall, was the second building, the
administration-classroom building. Originally called Angelicus for St.
Thomas Aquinas, it is now named Adrian Hall, after the Adrian
Dominican community whose mother house is located in Adrian,
Michigan. On the south side of the mall two residences were erected.
Instead of constructing one sizable building which would accom-
modate a large number of students, the architect used the cottage plan;
that is, he built two small halls, each housing a few students. These
residences, initially named Maris Stella and Rosa Mystica, titles for the
Blessed Virgin, became known as Farrell after Margaret Brady Farrell,
and Kelley after Mabel Scollen Kelley, another major donor.20 To the
left of the residence halls, still on the south side of the mall, Calaroga
Hall was built to house the dining hall and home economics department.
Barry University: Its Beginnings
This building is now called La Voie in honor of Sister Eulalie La Voie,
who developed the home economics department and taught in it for
A backward glance at Miami reveals that even though the United
States was not yet officially in World War II, Miamians, like other
Americans, were apprehensive about Hitler's victories, especially after
the fall of France to the Nazis in the summer of 1940. On August 4,
1940, the Miami Daily News printed two grim headlines: "War Horror
in England is Depicted" and "Japs Threaten to Blockade Hong Kong
Area.""2 The Navy Air Reserve in Opa-locka and the Coast Guard in
Miami kept a daily watch for submarines in the intercoastal waterway
and the ocean. On August 10, 1940, the University of Miami "joined
forces with Pan American Airways to train cadets for the U.S. Army Air
Corps in long range air navigation and meteorology."22 A pessimistic
editorial writer in the Miami Daily News wrote: "There is no telling how
the war... is going to affect Miami .... The immediate fears have
already injected a note of caution in building and real estate pro-
grams."2" To build a college in such times required both vision and faith
in God and the future of the United States.
In spite of the world situation, a group of people assembled in
Miami Shores on June 20, 1940, when Bishop Barry, assisted by
acolyte, Michael O'Neill, future member of Barry's Board of Trustees,
blessed the first five buildings. The midday sun beat down on Monsi-
gnor Barry, Mother Gerald, Mother Theresa Joseph, Superior-General
of the Sisters of St. Joseph of St. Augustine, Mother Magdalena from
St. Francis Hospital on Miami Beach, many clergy, and a representative
group of Dominicans. Also present were Lawton McCall, city manager
of Miami Shores; Frank Wheeler, the contractor, and E. W. Nice, Miami
Shores building inspector.24 The Bishop blessed the cornerstones
which enclosed copper boxes containing copies of the Miami Herald,
the Miami Daily News, the Florida Catholic, other Catholic newspa-
pers, and lists of city, county and state officials. Imprinted on each cor-
nerstone was the Barry escutcheon, which combined the coat of arms of
the Barry family with that of the Dominican Order. Sister Helene
O'Connor, a certified heraldist from Siena Heights College in Adrian,
Michigan, had designed the escutcheon.2
After the five cornerstones were blessed, and each placed in its
proper building, luncheon was served at St. Patrick School at the
invitation of Monsignor Barry and Sister Ann Terence McClear, prin-
cipal of the school. Sister Jean Marie Sheridan, who was there at the
time, recalls that Monsignor had suggested a simple buffet where the
Bishop, priests, and other guests could serve themselves in the school
cafeteria, but, to honor the Bishop, Mother Gerald insisted that the
tables be set with linen and china.26
At the conclusion of the meal, Sister Jean Marie Sheridan invited
Bishop Barry to Rosarian Academy in West Palm Beach for a few days
of rest before his return to St. Augustine. He replied, "Sister, I will get
my rest under the sod, but thank you." This was his last public
appearance before his death from a heart attack nine weeks later on
August 13, 1940.27 After the loss of Bishop Barry's leadership and
support, Mother Gerald and Sister Gonzaga worked untiringly to open
the college in the fall of 1940.
In undertaking a college in Florida, the Adrian Dominicans brought
to this institution many years of educational experience, kindergarten
through college. Several of the incoming faculty had taught at Siena
Heights College in Adrian, Michigan.28 One of the administrators,
Sister de Lellis Raftrey, the Academic Dean, had spent the academic
year 1938-39 preparing for her work at the Catholic University of
America, Washington, D.C., by studying college curricula. She real-
ized that Barry was not to be just another Catholic college, "a growing
aggregation of courses, of academic islands, a collection of special-
ties."29 In the words of Sister Mary Alice Collins, later vice-president
of the college, "It was to be a distinctive Catholic college for women
with objectives which were deeply rooted in the . legacies of the
Dominican Order... and the Catholic educational system in the United
In the first catalog the Adrian Dominicans stated the broad aims of
Barry College, a Catholic College for Women, using a quotation from
Here then, I conceive, is the object of the Holy See and
the Catholic Church in setting up universities: it is to reunite
things which were in the beginning joined together by
God, and have been put asunder by man .... I wish the
intellect... and religion to enjoy an equal freedom; but what
I am stipulating for is that they should be found in one and
the same place, and exemplified in the same persons ....
It will not satisfy me if religion is here and science
there. ... It is not touching the evil, to which these remarks
are directed, if the young eat and drink in one place, and
think in another, I want the same roof to contain both the in-
Barry University: Its Beginnings
tellectual and moral discipline ... I want the intellectual
layman to be religious, and the devout ecclesiastic to be in-
The first catalog also stated that the Barry College graduate was
expected to be a "valiant woman and to put her hand to strong things."
This does not mean that there would "be an atmosphere of gloom and
repression but rather that the spirit of abundant gladness that comes
from the accomplishment of worthwhile things will dominate the
campus."32 Among the other objectives of the college, so reflective of
the thinking of the day, were:
1) To develop to the fullest the intellectual powers
of the young women.
2) To so permeate this intellectual training with Catho-
lic principles that the products . may be a regenerating
force in the society.
3) To so develop the social nature of the students that
they may live happily, graciously and unselfishly.
4) To develop in the ... student a realization of
her dignity as a woman... queens they must always be.
5) To provide a continuous...training in the fine art of
homemaking since.. for the majority of women, the home
is the final goal and the most desirable sphere unless they be
called to the higher life of consecration in the service of God
6) To prevent the new leisure for women brought by
labor saving services . from degenerating into
idleness.... [Students are encouraged] to appreciate litera-
ture, and the classical and modem languages. .. to prepare
for the right use of spare hours in the years to follow
7) To provide the student with the ability to gain a
livelihood should the exigencies of life demand it. [Students
are offered] ... courses in teacher training, music, art, sec-
retarial science, dietetics, clothing, radio speech and labo-
Eleven majors were open to the liberal arts student in 1940:
English, Latin, French, Spanish, biology, chemistry, mathematics,
history, music, home economics and secretarial science. Besides those
subjects, minors were offered in philosophy, speech, German, Italian,
and education. For graduation 128 semester hours of credit were
required. To receive the Bachelor of Arts degree each student needed:
8 semester hours of Religion
9 semester hours of Philosophy
12 semester hours of English
14 semester hours of Classical Language
6 semester hours of Social Sciences
6-8 semester hours of Mathematics or Science
For Teacher Education, eighteen semester hours of education
were required. Besides the Bachelor of Arts, the college would confer
degrees of Bachelors of Philosophy, Music, and Science in Home Eco-
nomics.34 After completing two years in Secretarial Science, a student
could earn a Secretarial Certificate.
The catalog further stated: "The characteristic feature of Domini-
can education and the chief integrating factor in the curriculum is the
interpretation of all subjects in the light of religion and Thomistic phi-
From the beginning there was an effort to attract students from the
middle class. For this reason, the tuition was $250 per year, board and
room was $500 to $600 per year depending on the room.36 The students'
accommodations were not intended to be luxurious but rather to
resemble rooms in the students' homes. Each room, single, double or
quadruple, was furnished with a bed, dresser, desk, desk lamp, chair,
drapery, venetian blinds, bed linen, and a spread.
In keeping with the practices of the times, a directress lived in
every residence and the students observed regular hours of study. The
catalog stated that since Barry College was a "home school," students
were expected to conduct themselves like women... "brought up in a
well-regulated home ... where their actions were to be based on right
moral ideas and fine consideration for the rights of others."37
In the first few years, the two top administrators of the college
resided in Adrian, Michigan: President, Mother Gerald Barry, and
Vice-President, Sister BenedictaMarie Ledwidge. Two administrators
lived on campus: Sister Gonzaga Greene, Treasurer and Superior, and
Sister de Lellis Raftrey, Secretary and Academic Dean. Twelve Sisters,
one priest, and two lay persons constituted the Barry College faculty for
1940-41. Listed below are the degrees they held, the universities where
they had earned them, and their areas of expertise.
Sr. Rita Cecile Boyle, M.S., University of Michigan, Mathe-
matics and Science
Sr. Michael James Carter, A.B., Rosary College, Librarian
Sr. Gonzaga Greene, B.Ed., Siena Heights College, Busi-
Barry University: Its Beginnings
Sr. Mary Jane Hart, M.S., Institutum Divi Thomae, Science
Sr. Regina Marie LaLonde, M.A., De Paul University,
Sr. Rose Dominic Le Blanc, B.Ed., Siena Heights College,
Sr. Denise Mainville, M.M., University of Michigan, Music
Sr. Francis Clare O'Brien, B.B., Siena Heights College,
Sr. Agnes Cecile Prendergast, Ph.D., Catholic University,
Sr. de Lellis Raftrey, M.A., De Paul University, Dean/
Sr. Loyola Vath, Ph.D., Fordham University, Social Science
Sr. Frances Joseph Wright, M.A., University of Michigan,
English and Religion
Reverend James Bernard Walker, O.P., Ph.D., University of
Fribourg, Religion and Philosophy
Helen Meyer, B.A., Siena Heights College, Home Econom-
J. Clinton Shepard, Art.8
One of the pioneer faculty, Sister Agnes Cecile Prendergast, de-
scribed her first days at Barry:
Only Rosa Mystica (now Kelley House) was ready for
occupancy. The Sisters ate, slept, prayed and played there
until the other buildings were completed. I recall washing
our long white habits in the upstairs laundrette, carrying
them downstairs and hanging them on ropes strung from tree
to tree only to have the rope break and habits drop in the sand
and having to carry them upstairs and wash them again. All
the Sisters ate in the first floor hall of Kelley. Mr. Fred
Adeeb, the chef, prepared meals in the kitchenette until the
kitchen in Calaroga (La Voie) was finished. I recall that
Sister Mary Jane and I did a great deal of driving for Sister
Gonzaga as she shopped to furnish the various buildings,
getting ready for the opening of school and for the dedication
later in the year. God bless Sister Gonzaga--every time I
drove her anywhere she insisted on buying us chocolate
Another pioneer, Sister Regina Marie Le Londe, described her trip
to Florida and her first reactions to Barry:
There were five of us who left Adrian by car. Sister de
Lellis' sister, Mabel, drove Sister de Lellis, Sister Gonzaga,
Sister Denise and me. On our laps were piled lamp shades
and many other things which we thought might be broken
if they were shipped. All of these articles had to be moved
each time we got out of the car. It took four days to get there.
Each evening we stopped before nightfall, stayed overnight
in a motel, and started out after Mass, if we could find one.
On our arrival at Barry we found the buildings unfinished
and the grounds a rough, sandy mess. The window screens
had not been put in, and the mosquitoes were biting. So we
lived at St. Francis Hospital on Miami Beach until the
dormitories were ready. The chapel was not yet finished so
we had Mass in the dining hall until November 1.40
The public was invited to the first open house of Barry College on
September 13-17, 1940. The weather was not promising. Friday, the
13th, began with hurricane weather, on the 14th the hurricane was 500
miles east of Miami with little change; on Sunday, the 15th, the
hurricane turned north. In spite of the threatening weather, however,
over 1,000 people visited the campus.41
The Miami News predicted the college's future in the area:
The trim new college will seldom monopolize the
newspaper headlines. It is, first, a college for women. That
lets out football. Second, it is a small college. Third, it is
a modest institution endowed and administered by a relig-
ious order, the Sisters of St. Dominic whose seat is in the
small town of Adrian, Michigan. But all that does not
detract from the fine prospects that Barry College offers for
the enrichment of the cultural climate of Greater Miami. It
will be a highly useful institution, dedicated to education in
its higher sense, to civic and religious duty, and to personal
The Florida Catholic printed a supplement advertising the new
college on September 27, 1940. The supplement included this wel-
Miami Shores is deeply conscious of its privilege in
being chosen as the home of Barry College. The cultural
Barry University: Its Beginnings
and intellectual stimulus of this institution is a welcome
asset to this community of distinctive character and beautiful
The Miami Herald described the new college on Sunday, Septem-
ber 15, 1940:
Forming the central motif for the campus is the chapel,
named Cor Jesu (Heart of Jesus), which is nearing comple-
tion. Topped by an 80-foot tower holding carillon chimes,
the chapel will seat 500 persons and will be equipped with
a pipe organ and marble altar... Arranged around the double
royal palm fringed driveway which leads to the chapel from
the entrance on Second Avenue, the college buildings are
airy and spacious, marked by a liberal use of glass.44
With temperatures about eighty-six degrees and occasional show-
ers, the first days of registration were held September 16-18, 1940;
classes began on September 19, 1940. The Registrar's records for 1940-
41 included nineteen freshmen, fifteen sophomores and six juniors. Of
these, nineteen lived on campus, among them six postulants or candi-
dates planning to become Adrian Dominicans.45 The student body rep-
resented seven states besides Florida: Connecticut, Indiana, Michigan,
New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin.
In October, Barry became more involved with the community
when the college began offering evening and Saturday classes in
modem languages, secretarial science, and art.
On November 1, when the chapel was completed, Monsignor Barry
quietly offered the first Mass in Cor Jesu Chapel. The next Sunday
afternoon, November 3, the Barry faculty entertained the faculty of the
University of Miami at a tea in the rotunda (a circular formal reception
room) in Angelicus Hall, now Adrian Hall. On November 17, 1940,
Sister Denise Mainville broadcast the first of a series of piano concerts
over radio station WIOD for the purpose of enriching the Miami
community and advertising the college.46
On November 27-30 two students, Patricia Ridge and Jane Rich-
ter, attended the State Sodality convention in Tampa, Florida, where
Miss Ridge was elected president of the state organization. Also during
November the student paper, Barry College Digest, appeared for the
first time with Eleanor Neary as editor and Sister Francis Joseph Wright
as faculty advisor.47 In June the name the Digest changed to The
Angelican, later to Angelicus, then Hourglass, and more recently, to
After the students went home for the Christmas holidays, the
Sisters began cleaning the residence halls. Although men did the heavy
cleaning, the Sisters completed the work because they could not afford
additional help. It happened that rags for cleaning were very scarce.
When the Adrian Domincan principals in Florida asked Sister Gonzaga
what she would suggest their giving the Sisters at Barry for Christmas,
she suggested that a bag of rags would be most appropriate. So the Barry
faculty received bags of rags for their first Christmas in Florida.48
On Christmas Eve, Monsignor Barry called the college to ask the
Barry choir to sing at the Firestone Estate during the annual parade of
floats on Indian Creek. When Monsignor Barry learned that there were
no students on campus, he asked that the Sisters come; Father Walker
went with them. The Sisters drove to the Firestone Estate, sang
Christmas carols, and returned to campus just in time for Midnight
All during Advent, Sister Rita Cecile Boyle and Father Walker
had been planning for Midnight Mass. Since there was no crib, Father
Walker purchased small crib figures at St. Patrick's Book Shop in
Miami Beach. He cut down a pine tree on campus and Sister Denise
Mainville made ornaments by coloring pine cones which she tied on the
tree with colored ribbons. At Midnight Mass a spotlight illuminated the
crib and tree. The only floral decorations on the altar, hibiscus, grew on
campus.50 From December 26-29, the first Christmas party for the
Dominican Sisters in Florida was held at Barry, a tradition which
continued into the 1960s.
Early in January, when the students returned to campus, everyone
labored to complete the first semester's work and to plan for the
dedication of the college scheduled for February 4, 1941. Mother
Gerald and Sister Gonzaga collaborated on the long invitation list which
included 1,500 guests. The students from St. Patrick High School of
Miami Beach in cap and gown would form a bodyguard. The Knights
of Columbus agreed to handle the parking, provide ushers and a guard
of honor. The Board of Trustee members from Adrian brought two
sedilia, orthrones, to be used by Archbishop Amleto Giovanni Cicognani,
the Apostolic Delegate, and Archbishop John T. McNicholas from
Dedication Day, February 4, 1941, was a pleasant day with sev-
enty-six degree temperature. Sister Rita Cecile recalls that she set up
altars in Rosa Mystica (now Kelley) parlors because the chapel could
not accommodate the large numbers of priests and bishops who wanted
Barry University: Its Beginnings
Apostolic Delegate, Archbisop Cicognani, leading Dedication Day
to say private Masses. Besides, there was a shortage of chapel linen.
Consequently, any Sister not otherwise engaged was washing or
ironing linen. Even stately Sister Magdalene Marie Weber, a commu-
nity counselor from Adrian, took a turn at the iron.52 The ceremony
began with the Apostolic Delegate, Archbishop Cicognani, leading the
procession. His assistants followed, Archbishop McNicholas and four
other archbishops: Edward Mooney of Detroit; Samuel Stritch of
Chicago; John Glennon of St. Louis; Joseph Rummel of New Orleans;
the Most Reverend Joseph Hurley, the new bishop of St. Augustine;
eight other bishops and a large group of clergy.53
Sister Rita Cecile said: "Every bishop was flanked by two Mon-
signori in red robes. I had never seen such a display of color before."54
The procession continued with Mother Gerald Barry and several other
major superiors of women, followed by Barry students in cap and gown;
Barry faculty, and many lay people, among whom were John G.
Thompson; Mrs. J. W. McCollum, National President of the National
Council of Catholic Women; Margaret Brady Farrell; Bowman Ashe,
President of the University of Miami; Guy Snavely from the Associa-
tion of American Colleges; Professor Edward Reinberg of Rollins
College; Charles Milles, Director of the Miami Hospital; George
Merrick, Postmaster of Miami; Frank Kelly, City Clerk of Miami; The
Honorable Gonzalo Gallegos, Consul from Costa Rica; J. W. Gleason
from St. Augustine and R. W. Beuttenmuller from West Palm Beach,
both benefactors.55 A loud speaker enabled those outside the chapel to
follow the Mass, celebrated by the Apostolic Delegate, Archbishop
In his sermon, Archbishop McNicholas said: "I like to think
today of the women of Barry College a generation hence as ... noble
Christian examples of women who unostentatiously will make life an
Apostolate for the benefit of others."56 At the conclusion of Mass the
group proceeded to the dining room for a banquet after which Bishop
I congratulate the Catholics and non-Catholics of this
favored city and state, and the mothers and fathers of
America, to whom our college represents a new golden
opportunity of service. We have sanctified it with prayers
and sacrifice and ceremonial. Confident that it will be an
acceptable gift, we now offer it to you.57
Immediately after the meal, the hierarchy, priests, sisters, faculty,
and guests assembled on the mall in front of the chapel where seating
was provided. The students presented a program which included Sister
Denise's musical composition, Welcome, Eleanor Neary's Greetings,
and John Masefield's historical play, End and Beginning. The verse
choir recited G. K. Chesterton's Lepanto.5 The Apostolic Delegate
then spoke directly to the students:
Upon you young women, the first to enjoy the advan-
tages of this college, will fall the high responsibility of
establishing firmly the traditions of Christian education
here. Everything has been prepared for your better intellec-
tual and spiritual training.59
The dedication concluded with Benediction of the Blessed Sacra-
ment in the chapel, Bishop Hurley presiding. For the founders, Dedi-
cation Day fulfilled a dream which they had discussed in the Adrian Do-
minican Generalate in Michigan, debated in the Barry home in County
Clare, Ireland, continued in John Thompson's law offices in Miami, and
planned in St. Patrick's Rectory in Miami Beach.
The next day the Miami Daily News, the Miami Herald and the
Florida Catholic gave lavish press coverage to the illustrious group of
hierarchy, the students, priests, sisters and guests. An editorial in the
Miami Herald "congratulated the 'good nuns' engaged in imparting
higher learning to our young women... which makes for upright and
patriotic American Womanhood."60
Barry University: Its Beginnings
The Miami News noted:
The greatest assemblage of Catholic Church dignitaries
ever seen in Florida, headed by the Most Reverend Giovanni
Cicognani, Apostolic Delegate to the United States... added
an impressive note to the colorful ceremonies marking the
dedication of Barry College today.61
An editorial in the Florida Catholic discussed Barry's "unlimited
possibilities," not only for Florida but for the "whole of the U.S.A. [sic]
and .. beyond our borders to the South." The editorial continued:
Latin America is much in the mind and plans of the
people of the North just now, and what more natural than to
visualize great numbers of South American young women
pursuing learning and culture in our new college, seeking the
ancient and soul-sustaining wisdom of the Catholic Church
in new and happy surroundings.62
During the remainder of the school year, Barry College entertained
several distinguished visitors including His Eminence, William Cardi-
nal O'Connell of Boston and Father James Keller, a Maryknoll mission-
ary. On May 2, the students initiated Barry College's program of Pan
American relations when the sociology class presented a symposium on
In the scholastic year 1940-41, the Barry College faculty and
students began a number of student societies: 1) The Sodality; 2) Tara
Singers; 3) Press Association; 4) Verse Speaking Choir; and 5) The
Hobby Club. The college community also initiated some traditional
events: formal investiture in cap and gown; Christmas caroling; tree
planting ceremony; St. Thomas Aquinas Symposium; St. Patrick's Day
as Freshman Class Day; Retreat; crowning of the campus queen;
College Day for incoming students; coronation of the Blessed Virgin
statue in chapel; Sophomore Spring Formal which became the Spring
Prom; and baccalaureate and rose and candle ceremonies with the
During the first year, the Barry College faculty, mindful of their
professional obligations, participated in or attended the following
meetings: Sister Agnes Cecile Prendergast, Conference of the Classical
Association, November 27-30, 1940, Charleston, South Carolina; Sis-
ters Gonzaga Greene and de Lellis Raftrey, Florida Education Meeting,
March 19-22, 1941, Tampa, Florida, and Florida Association of Col-
leges and Universities, April 25-26, 1941, West Palm Beach, Florida;
Rev. James B. Walker, speaker at the Diocesan Convention of the
National Council of Catholic Women, April 28-30, 1941, Gainesville,
The Annual Report of the Dean, September 1941, described the
scholarly activities of the faculty: Sister Francis Joseph Wright had
written an article on the work of Barry College which was to be
published in Our Sunday Visitor during 1942; Sister Loyola Vath, by
the end of the year, had nearly completed her book, Visualized Church
History, which was to be published by Oxford Press; Sister Mary Jane
Hart conducted ongoing research on cancer and would report the results
to the Institutum Divi Thomae, which had established a unit on the
Barry campus. She was also working on shark liver oil "with a view to
furnishing vitamin B and D to be combined with other elements now
being handled at the Institutum in West Palm Beach." Sister Regina
Marie LeLonde became a member of the first seminar to Lima, Peru,
sponsored by the Sign Magazine. The seminar was held "to strengthen
the spiritual and cultural relations between the Americas." Sister
Regina Marie and another Adrian Dominican, Sister Laurine Neville of
Siena Heights College, Adrian, Michigan, were the only two Sisters in
the group which included faculty from Yale, Columbia, Harvard,
Wellesley, Loyola, Catholic University, University of Chicago, Uni-
versity of Notre Dame and others. Sister Denise Mainville wrote
several original compositions.66
The first edition of The Angelican, June 4, 1941, carried an ac-
count of the awards which the art instructor, J. Clinton Shepard, had
received. At the Miami Art League Exhibition, Shepard won first prize
for his work in composition, "The Range Horse." At the Florida Artists
Exhibition at the Miami Woman's Club he was awarded a gold medal
for the painting, "Lively Lad."
The end of the school year activities included spiritual, patri-
otic, and academic exercises. The students celebrated World Sodality
Day, May 11, 1941, when Barry students incap and gown marched from
Gesu Church to Bayfront Park where Patricia Ridge, the Diocesan
President of the St. Augustine Sodality Union, crowned the statue of the
Blessed Virgin. After Benediction, with Monsignor Barry presiding,
the students enjoyed a dance on the roof of Gesu School.68
The patriotic traditions at Barry began when the students and fac-
ulty assembled in chapel on May 18, 1941, to light the peace candle and
dedicate the American flag. John Thompson, the speaker, began by
Barry University: Its Beginnings
quoting from the First Amendment of the American Constitution on
religious freedom. He reminded the group that the "American
Constitution is a precious heritage, one that must be maintained so that
schools like Barry can continue."''69
There was no graduation ceremony in 1941, but an honors convo-
cation was held in the rotunda. After Mass and breakfast June 5, 1941,
the students departed from campus concluding their first year at Barry
ABBREVIATIONS OF SOURCES
FMBUR Barry University Records, Miami Shores, Florida
FMBURT Barry University Records Tapes, Miami Shores, Florida
FMMH Miami Herald, Miami, Florida
FSAFC Florida Catholic, St. Augustine, Florida
MADA Dominican Archives, Adrian, Michigan
1. Sister Mary Alice Collins, O.P., undated Founders' Day Address,
FMBUR; Sister Mary Alice has written about the Barry's "of County
Clare, Ireland ... a remarkable family ... The parents, Michael and
Catherine (Dixon) Barry, descended from ancient families of Ireland.
The father was a physician. Of their eighteen children, thirteen were
raised to maturity, ten boys and three girls, and of these eleven came to
America. The family produced three priests (including a bishop), a nun,
two lawyers, three engineers, a journalist, a farmer, and two house-
wives." Collins, Short History of Barry College in Nance, Elwood, ed.,
The East Coast of Florida (Delray Beach, Florida: The Southern Pub-
lishing Company, 1962) II, 557, hereafter cited as Collins, Short
2. File on Monsignor Barry, MADA, hereafter cited as MB.
3. SACS Proceedings, Vol. 40, #2, March-April, 1988.
5. The proposed property is described in an April 5, 1939, letter
from John Thompson to Ray M. Earnest, Florida National Building:
"Beginning at a point where Northeast 13th Avenue intersects the
shoreline of Biscayne B ay; then North along Thirteenth Avenue to the
North sectional line of Section 5, Township 53 South, Range 42 East;
then East along this section line to Biscayne Bay to the point of
beginning, together with all riparian and water rights and appurte-
nances, ... located in the Village of Miami Shores, Florida." MB. See
Redi Map 33B in the Dade County Courthouse.
7. Deeds to original40 acres, Barry University Records, FMB UR,
hereafter cited as BUR.
8. Dr. Thelma Peters, conversation with author, June 14, 1988.
9. Minutes of the board oftrustees meetings, 1939-1940, FMBUR,
hereafter cited as BTM.
11. Barry College File, MADA, hereafter cited as BC.
14. BTM, January 2, 1940.
15. Sister Jean Marie Sheridan, O.P., interview by author, August
7, 1987, Adrian, Michigan, tape recording #187, FMBURT, hereafter
cited as #187.
16. Miami Herald, January 24, 1940, 8, FMMH, hereafter cited as
17. MH, February 5, 1940, 10.
21. Miami Daily News, August 4, 1940, 10 and 1A FMMDN,
hereafter cited as NDN.
22. Tebeau, Charlton W. The University of Miami: A Golden
Anniversary History 1926-1976 (Coral Gables, Florida: University of
Miami Press, 1976), 107.
23. MDN June 20,1940, 1.
27. Ibid. For a life of Bishop Barry see Ryan, Mary Philip, Sister,
O.P., A Long Hot Day: Biography of Bishop Patrick Barry of Saint
Augustine, Florida. [Adrian, Michigan: Dominican Sisters, Congrega-
tion of the Holy Rosary, Adrian, Michigan.]
29. Collins, Short History, 564.
30. Ibid., 563.
31. Barry College Catalog, 1940, 6, FMBUR, hereafter cited as
Barry University: Its Beginnings
32. Ibid., 8.
33. ibid., 8,9.
34. Ibid., 18.
35. Ibid., 17.
36. Ibid., 8.
37. Ibid., 77.
38. Barry College Annals, 1940-41, FMMDN, hereafter cited as
39. Sister Agnes Cecile Prendergast, O.P., Interview by Sister
Jeanne Lefebvre, O.P., July 5, 1980, Adrian, Michigan, tape recording,
#176, FMBURT, hereafter cited as #176.
40. Sister Regina Marie La Londe, O.P., Letter to the author,
October 22, 1985, FMBUR.
42. MDN, September 15, 1940, Editorial page.
43, The Florida Catholic, Barry College Supplement, September
27, 1940, FSAFC, hereafter cited as FC.
44. MH, September 15, 1940, 11A.
45. Official Records of the Registrar, Registrar's Office,
46. BCA, 1940-1941.
48. Sister Rita Cecile Boyle, O.P., Interview by author, April 13,
1988, Burbank, Illinois, tape recording, #188, FMBURT, hereafter
cited as #188.
51. BCA, 1940-41.
56. Barry College Dedication File, FMBUR, hereafter cited as
60. MH, February 5, 1941, lB.
61. MDH, February 4, 1941, 1B
62. FC, February 2, 1941, 4.
63. BCA, 1940-41.
64. BCA, 1940-41
65. Annual Report of the Dean, September, 1941, FMBUR, here-
after cited as ARD.
67. Angelican, June 4, 1941, 3, FMBUR.
68. Ibid., 1.
69. John Graves Thompson, What the Constitution Means to the
Students of Barry College, FMBUR.
70. BCA, 1941.
Richard Ashby: Miami Pioneer
Richard Ashby: Miami Pioneer
By Donald C. Gaby
In the very heart of Miami, a seventy-story building is planned on
what formerly was the homesite of a Miami pioneer. Who was this
pioneer, and what brought him to Miami?
Richard Ashby was an immigrant from England. Born in the town
of Ashton near Northampton in 1844, his widowed mother ran the Old
Crown pub while he was apprenticed to a cabinet maker. Furniture he
made that is still in the family shows he had much talent. At twenty-five
he married Drusilla Billingham and almost immediately they sailed for
America, arriving in New York in May 1869.1
Richard and Drusilla Ashby settled in Decatur, Illinois, where he
began to earn his living as a cabinet maker and they began to raise a
family. Daughters Lillian and Laura were born in 1870 and 1872, and
a third daughter died in infancy. They were members of St. John's
Episcopal Church. Richard soon entered the furniture and housewares
business and in 1878 he formed a partnership, Ashby and Andress, that
became one of the more successful businesses in that city. Richard had
an estate in 1870, after one year in America, of $100; equivalent to about
$6,400 in 1990 dollars. By 1879 he had an annual income of about
$70,000 in 1990 dollars. A son Walter was born in 1880 and the
following year--at the age of thirty-seven --Richard Ashby moved his
family to Colorado.2
Colorado Springs is similar to Miami in having been founded by
a railroad builder. Gen. William J. Palmer founded Colorado Springs
on his Denver and Rio Grande Railroad line in 1871. The new resort
attracted so many English people that it was nicknamed "Little Lon-
don." Richard Ashby moved there when it was but a decade old. He was
again well established in the furniture and housewares business by
1882. A few years later he sold that enterprise and entered the jewelry
business. The discovery of gold on nearby Cripple Creek brought great
prosperity to Colorado Springs in the 1890s and 1900s. By the turn of
the century the Ashby Jewelry Company at 12 North Tejon Street
became the finest jewelry business in Colorado Springs. The Ashbys
Don Gaby, retired satellite meteorologist turned historian, writes about
a great-grandfather. His usual area of interest is the Miami River.
Richard Ashby bowling on a greensward in Miami, Florida, at age
81 (taking aim in foreground), from the Illustrated Daily Tab, 9
were members of old Grace Episcopal Church. Richard became a
Mason. He continued his favorite sports of archery and lawn bowling.
Both daughters, Lillian and Laura, married and moved to Salt Lake in
Utah Territory. Drusilla died at forty-seven in 1893; and three years
later Richard married his second wife, Margaret Donnelly. Her sister,
Mary Donnelly, was already employed as his housekeeper and would
remain with him until his demise. In 1902 he moved to Miami but kept
his jewelry business in Colorado until much later. He had been
successful in two careers and was then a wealthy man fifty-eight years
Richard Ashby may have visited Miami in the late 1890s. He was
probably attracted to Miami by its dynamism as well as its excellent
year-round climate. Sometime before 1901 he purchased the land that
would become his homesite--the west end of Lot 3, Block 119 North,
after the original plat of Miami by A. L. Knowlton.4 Margaret Ashby
bought the east end of that lot in April 1902.5 That completed the
acquisition of Lot 3, a rectangular parcel fifty feet by 193 feet that ran
through the middle of the block presently bounded by Flagler and N.E.
1 Streets, Biscayne Boulevard and N.E. 3 Avenue. Richard Ashby may
have lived initially in Fort Dallas Park.6 He immediately began to invest
Richard Ashby: Miami Pioneer
in real estate, purchasing ten acres of land well west of Miami near the
edge of the Everglades and two city lots on today's Biscayne Boulevard
near N.E. 5 Street.7
Those were exciting times! The scene downtown was dominated
by the Royal Palm Hotel--said to be the largest wooden structure in the
world and surrounded by beautiful park-like grounds. In 1903 the first
steel bridge to cross the Miami River was opened on Avenue D (today
Miami Avenue), providing access to the southside community and the
road to Coconut Grove. That same year the Florida East Coast Railway
crossed the river headed for the Florida Keys. In 1904 Dade County got
a beautiful new courthouse. The 12 Street (today Flagler Street) bridge
opened in 1905, providing access to the Riverside subdivision and other
points west. In 1904 or 1905, Richard Ashby built his home at 1111
Avenue A (today N.E. 3 Avenue).8 He built on the west end of Lot 3,
Block 119N on a parcel fifty feet by 104 feet with a rock wall marking
the eastern boundary. One could see across the east end of the lot and
Biscayne Drive (today Biscayne Boulevard ) to the bay whose waters
then lapped at the drive's edge. He built a two-story frame house similar
to the one he had in Colorado Springs, that is, comfortable but unpre-
tentious. At the time there were only four other houses and a curio shop
on the remainder of that block.
Royal Palm Park, part of the grounds of the Royal Palm Hotel, lay
to the south of 12 Street (today Flagler Street) by Biscayne Drive. This
was the place for weekly concerts and numerous other social activities.
Across Biscayne Drive was the Stone Dock from which one could take
a boat to the "ocean beach" (today Miami Beach). Just two blocks from
the Ashby home was Trinity Episcopal Church. Diagonally across the
comer to the northwest was the large home of William Burdine, with
whose son Roddy he would later make a deal. There was nothing yet
to block the refreshing ocean breezes. Biscayne Bay was still quite
clear. His home was close by the business center. Many private homes
then were located within what today is the downtown business district.
The 1904 Miami City Directory shows Richard Ashby listed among the
members of the Miami Board of Trade. The Metropolis ran an article
in 1905 called, "Where Various Miami People Are Spending The
Summer," which showed him in Colorado Springs.9 He may have spent
other summers there, although he was often in Miami in July.
In February 1904 Richard Ashby bought the north portions of Lots
11 and 12, Block 122N, today below Burdine's Department Store east
of Miami Avenue. In February and November 1905 he bought first one-
half interest and then the remaining one-half interest in a parcel
including parts of Lots 1, 2, 23 and 24, Block 123N. In July 1907 he
bought the remaining portions of those lots, today below the Annex to
Burdine's Department Store west of Miami Avenue.10 The 1908 Miami
City Directory shows the "Ashby Flats" above the U.S. Post Office at
1218-1220 Avenue D, indicating that he wasted no time in gaining
benefit from part of this property. In March 1907 he bought Lots 1 and
2, Block 105N, at the northwest comer of today's North Miami Avenue
and 2 Street."
The year 1909 marked a turning point for Richard Ashby. By mid
summer he had purchased ten parcels of real estate in Florida and in
every case gave his address as El Paso County or Colorado Springs
while living in Miami. Margaret Ashby died in August 1909 and the
following month he bought his eleventh parcel of real estate, giving his
address as Miami for the first time.12 It was as if he had finally moved
to Miami for good! Evidence indicates that Margaret never joined her
husband in Miami until the year of her death, perhaps coming finally
because of the illness that caused her passing."3 The following year
Richard Ashby sold his jewelry business in Colorado Springs.14 By
1914 he had bought six more properties, making a total of seventeen.
Along the way he sold eight of them, including the ten acres near the
Everglades. He often loaned money secured by land.'5 He was well
established as an investor in Miami real estate.
Excavation of the Miami Canal began in 1909 and was significant
both for how it changed the local area and how it attracted other men
from Colorado Springs. Five men from that city formed the Everglades
Land Co.1' Richard Ashby was invited to join that group but de-
clined.17 One of the five, A. J. Bendle, built a beautiful home and
became a developer in Miami, and R. P. Davie developed an experimen-
tal farm at Zona--later a town called Davie. R. J. Bolles bought 500,000
acres of yet undrained land in the Everglades, thus helping the State of
Florida in its drainage efforts." Thelma Peters has given an excellent
description of Miami in 1909 including some of the excitement attend-
ing drainage of the Everglades.19 In 1912 the Broadmoor subdivision
was platted in northeast Miami between today's Biscayne Boulevard
and Biscayne Bay north of 22 Street. It included many major street
names from Colorado Springs and must have been developed by men
from that city.20 Bendle was selling lots in Broadmoor as early as 1913
and those street names appear in the 1918 Miami City Directory.2'
Richard Ashby had many old friends as well as new ones in Miami.
Richard Ashby: Miami Pioneer
The Ashby Flats over the Post Office continued to be listed through
1913.22 In 1912 Richard Ashby built the Ashby Block (today we'd say
Ashby Building) on today's S.W. 1 Street. It was just west of the Ashby
Flats building, having sixty-three feet of frontage and running north 100
feet. It was a two-story brick structure with provision for adding a third
story and was rented before completion. That year he also built a new
garage on today's S.E. 1 Street near Miami Avenue. It was only one
story, but high and for the care of motor cars which were not so common
then. It, too, was rented for that purpose before completion.4 Next to
his home the new Elks' Club building was nearing completion at the
northeast corner of Avenue A and 12 Street (today N.E. 3 Avenue and
Flagler Street). Described as a "magnificent palace," it made a good
neighbor and remained with some of its former beauty still evident until
1988.25 Miami was booming. Municipal improvements in 1913
exceeded all previous records; with more buildings erected, more
streets paved, more sidewalks and sewers laid, than in any previous
twelve month period.26 In New York City the Woolworth Building was
completed, at 792 feet towering far above all other buildings. A sixteen-
story "skyscraper" was planned for Miami that year but it never mate-
rialized. In February 1914, Richard Ashby began construction on
another commercial building next to the new Federal Building at the
comer of today's N.E. 1 Street and 1 Avenue. It had three floors and a
basement connected by an elevator, and was strongly built to support
four or five floors when development of that street warranted.27 That
year he appears also to have added the "Ashby Building" at 1202
Avenue D (southwest comer of today's Miami Avenue and Flagler
Street) in the very center of Miami.28
Many consider the period between the turn of the century and
World War I as the best time to have lived in Miami. The author tends
to agree. People living in today's modem era of air-conditioning seem
to forget what an excellent climate Miami has. In those days even the
summers were renowned, with continued breezes off the bay keeping
life pleasant while in many northern cities people literally died in large
numbers from the heat. The major businessmen knew each other and
they knew their customers. One's reputation rested on actual perform-
ance rather than clever advertising. The city had grown enough to
provide for almost any need or want, and there were ample opportuni-
ties for entertainment or recreation. Much of it occurred in the open air.
For those desiring a change, there were good rail and steamship
connections to almost any city.
By 1914 Richard Ashby had greatly improved his homesite. He
enlarged the back porch facing east toward Biscayne Bay, and he added
a detached, two-story cabinet maker shop at the northeast comer of the
west portion of the lot (Lot 3, Block 119N). At the east end of the lot
fronting on Biscayne Drive (today Biscayne Boulevard) were three
rental properties. One was the Guarantee Investment Co., another was
the Bay-An-Teek Shop selling fine antiques and rare arts and crafts, and
the third, much deeper, was a restaurant.29 It may have been good
business sense that caused him to build his home at the west end of Lot
3, in order to have income-producing property at the east end which
would develop as Miami's only boulevard. But it also had the advan-
tages of being more protected from hurricanes and much quieter. The
bayfront was becoming very busy with marine activity. Two of his
granddaughters came to visit about this time. Drusilla Gaby remem-
bered especially that one could cross Biscayne Drive and step directly
into Biscayne Bay. He told her she could return home however she
wished; and she chose to take Flagler's overseas extension to Key West,
steamer to Galveston, and train again to Salt Lake City. Martina
Marriott was allowed to sort out and catalog all of the antiques in his
workshop storage space.30
During 1914, five years after the death of his second wife, Richard
Ashby married again. He was seventy years old when he took his third
and final wife, Harriet Prichard, another lady from Colorado Springs.31
She was fifty-four.
They had lived together at 1111 Avenue A only a year when Mrs.
Emma C. McAllister began to build a large hotel on the southeast comer
of Block 119N that included the Ashby home. She had been in the real
estate business in Miami for many years and her home was nearby on
today's Flagler Street. Construction of the McAllister Hotel began in
1916, but due to financial difficulties it would not be completed for
almost four years. It was designed by Frohling and DeGarmo for eight
floors and a roof garden.32 This no doubt caused Richard Ashby to plan
a move. The noise and commotion of construction must have been a
nuisance. As the hotel building rose it blocked the morning sun in
winter. Actually this project was a blessing. By 1920 Miami would be
the fastest growing city in the United States with a population of 26,000
not counting the suburbs, and this number could double during the
winter tourist season.33 Downtown was becoming too busy a place to
Richard Ashby: Miami Pioneer
In May 1917, Richard and Harriet Ashby leased the property on
the east side of today's Miami Avenue north of S.E. 1 Street to R. B.
Burdine for ninety-nine years. "Roddy" Burdine was the son of William
M. Burdine, founder of Burdine's Department Store. An adjacent parcel
had been added to that owned in 1907. This property is known to his
heirs today as the "Burdine's" property. The lease provided for an
annual rental of $4,000 in 1917, increasing to $8,500 in 1982. It was
carefully written to cover all comers, in particular that the lessee would
pay all taxes and assessments and maintain the property.34
In November 1917, Richard and Harriet leased the property on the
west side of today's Miami Avenue between Flagler and S.W. First
Streets to J. W. Wallace and S. M. Tatum for ninety-nine years. This
parcel is known to his heirs today as the "Burdine's Annex" property,
although the Burdine's annex was not built until after World War II.
This lease provided an annual rental of $15,000 in 1917 increasing to
$30,000 in 1982.15
Finally in March 1919, Richard and Harriet leased their homesite,
Lot 3 of Block 119N, to Frank Davey of Detroit, Michigan for ninety-
nine years. Mr. Davey probably was involved with the financing for
Mrs. McAllister's hotel and the purpose of the lease was to permit en-
The original McAllister Hotel in Miami, opened in 1919, with the
Ashby home, cabinet maker shop, and three rental properties still
on the lot north of the hotel.
largement of the hotel onto the Ashby property. This is the parcel
known to his heirs today as the "McAllister" property. The lease
provided an annual rental of $1,950 in 1919 increasing to $5,850 in
1974. Inexplicably, it included an option to renew the lease upon
termination for another ninety-nine years.. The Ashbys reserved the
right to use their residence and workshop until 1 October 1919.36 These
three properties placed under ninety-nine year leases comprised only
part of Richard Ashby's estate. It is interesting to note that in 1919 these
leases provided him an annual income of $20,950. That was equivalent
to about $410,000 per year in 1990 dollars.37 It was a very comfortable
income and far in excess of his needs.
While the McAllister Hotel was being built, Richard Ashby used
stationery showing an artist's rendition of downtown Miami with the
planned McAllister Hotel and the Royal Palm Hotel dominating the
scene. The artist showed the McAllister with eight floors of a similar
plan plus a large peaked-roof penthouse." Photographs show that the
McAllister had nine floors of a similar plan in 1917 and an additional
tenth floor by 1919 making it Miami's first "skyscraper."39 It appears
that the penthouse idea was abandoned. The McAllister opened to the
public on the last day of 1919.40 A 1922 photograph shows the Ashby
house adjacent to the north still intact. Another in 1923 shows the north
wing of the McAllister, built on the old Ashby homesite, about three-
fourths complete. One in June 1924 shows the McAllister Hotel with
three wings as we knew it until its demolition in 1989. Royal Palm Park
on the Royal Palm Hotel grounds across Flagler Street from the
McAllister Hotel was still "undeveloped" in 1924.41
During 1919 Richard and Harriet Ashby moved to a new home at
106 Colorado Avenue (later 334 N.E. 22 Street) in Edgewater.42 This
was near the Broadmoor subdivision that was platted in 1912 and
developed by 1918, probably by men from Colorado Springs. Perhaps
Richard Ashby had a hand in naming the street upon which he came to
live. His new home was on a 50 by 110 feet northeast comer lot just one
block from Biscayne Bay. Only one similar home and a large mansion
on a huge lot separated him from the bay. It was a fine residential
neighborhood with mansions scattered among smaller quality houses.
Here he had a larger house with a long porch facing the bay, a workshop,
and an automobile garage with an apartment above it.43 They enjoyed
their new home together for less than four years, as Harriet died in
1923.44 Richard was seventy-nine when his third wife passed on.
Richard Ashby: Miami Pioneer
Richard Ashby drawing a stout bow in his early eighties near his
home at 334 N.E. 22 Street, Miami, Florida.
Richard Ashby was always a hard-working individual and
prudent. But he enjoyed life, too. As a young man he took up the old
English sport of archery which he pursued through his entire life,
making much of his own equipment and entering competitions even in
his eighties. In 1914 he attempted to revive the sport in Miami by a
match with W. E. Miller, they using six and seven foot bows, respec-
tively, while scorning the common variety of bows and arrows.45 In
the early 1920s, in his mid seventies, he visited his son Walter's family
in Illinois. Among other things he was testing Osage orange trees as
possible bow material!46 He liked fly fishing in Colorado and deep sea
fishing in Florida. And he enjoyed lawn bowling with the kind of off-
set balls still so popular in England and Scotland. The photograph on
page twenty-eight shows him lawn bowling in Miami at eighty-one.
(Two sets of his bowls, one beautifully inlaid, are in the artifact
collection of the Historical Museum of Southern Florida.)
Richard Ashby lived ten years after the death of his third wife,
cared for by Mary Donnelly, spinster sister of his second wife. She was
his devoted housekeeper and friend for forty years.
South Florida experienced an unprecedented real estate boom
during the 1920s. Coupled with Prohibition and Miami's favored status
as port-of-entry for contraband liquor, the downtown scene became
rather hectic. They must have been doubly glad to have moved to the
new home in a quiet residential area still convenient to town.
Such a boom could not last. It peaked in 1925 and collapsed with
passage of the great hurricane of September 1926. Downtown Miami
was just within the edge of the northern "eye wall" of the storm so the
Ashby house must have taken the worst of the wind. The water rose
eleven feet at the mouth of the Miami River and it is likely that sea water
flooded the Ashby home.47 How much damage was done is not known.
Then as now well-built houses sustained little damage and were easily
There was extensive damage in downtown Miami, but the McAl-
lister appeared to escape it. A 1925 photograph shows a final addition
being made to the hotel on land that lay east of the Elks Club. The same
photograph shows the Columbus Hotel nearing completion on land
immediately north of the former Ashby homesite. Another from
February 1927 shows both the McAllister and Columbus Hotels fin-
ished, the Columbus with sixteen stories being considerably higher.48
By 1926 today's Bayfront Park was complete, having been built on fill
taken from the bay bottom so the bayfront was then well removed from
Biscayne Boulevard and the two hotels.
Richard Ashby was very generous with his children antd grandchil-
dren overmany years. The author's father often quoted his grandfather,
saying that "It is much easier to make money than it is to keep it!"
Probably with such a thought in mind he set out to protect his estate for
the benefit of his heirs. On 18 January 1924 he made a Deed of Trust
in which his assets were transferred to the First Trust and Savings Bank
in Miami (later the First Trust Co.) with the Bank as his trustee.49 This
instrument allowed him to continue to make transfers to the Trust. On
23 February 1924 he made his Last Will and Testament in which he
Richard Ashby: Miami Pioneer
made the Bank executor of his estate.50 It should be noted that he had
just turned eighty years of age and was in excellent health.
Richard Ashby's will was simple. It gave his entire estate (includ-
ing what was not already in the Trust) to the Trust, to distribute the
proceeds to his heirs as specified. The Trust first listed his real estate
holdings. These included the three ninety-nine year leases already men-
tioned plus another on a parcel on Biscayne Boulevard between N.E. I
and 2 Streets. There was a lot on Miami Avenue near the river used by
a garage, three choice residential lots in Coconut Grove, and his home
property on N.E. 22 Street. Many mortgages were listed. The Bank,
acting as Trustee, was to collect all rents, pay insurance, taxes, etc. All
investments were to be in "safe, conservative securities." It was his wish
that "safety shall in all cases be the first consideration in the making of
an investment." He provided well for Miss Donnelly.
The Trust paid him the proceeds from the Wallace and Tatum
and the Thomas leases. The rental from the Thomas lease is not known,
but the Wallace and Tatum lease (the "Burdine's Annex" property)
provided $1,250 per month in 1924, equivalent to about $23,000 per
month in 1990 dollars.5 All the net income remaining after various
expenses were paid by the trustee was to be distributed during his
lifetime to his lineal heirs, specifically: one-third to Walter Ashby, one-
third to Lillian Gaby, and one-ninth to each of the children of Laura
Marriott who was already deceased. This was another example of his
generosity, it being his desire that his heirs should benefit as soon as
possible. Finally, the trustee was to pay all his funeral expenses,
including a "monument suitable to the financial standing of the said
Richard Ashby." The desire for such a monument seems out-of-
character, but he may have foreseen that his heirs would remember him
only for his money.
The onset of the Great Depression brought suffering to many and
the income from the Richard Ashby Trust must have been a great help
and comfort to his heirs. By 1933 both Edward Gaby (Lillian's husband)
and Walter Ashby had suffered financial setbacks and moved to Miami.
The lessee of the "Burdine's Annex" property experienced difficulty
and that lease was modified to waive the requirement for a bond and
allow a reduced rental temporarily.52 The suffering around him may
have weighed on Richard Ashby. He continued to enjoy good health
into his eighty-seventh year. In his eighty-eighth year he began to show
the effects of old age, and by his eighty-ninth birthday he was becoming
physically weak and suffered occasional lapses of memory. He himself
recognized that he was becoming feeble-minded, which is good evi-
dence of sanity. His children became very concerned about his estate.53
In 1933 his children, Lillian Gaby and Walter Ashby, moved to
have their father declared incompetent and themselves made his guardi-
ans. They had become suspicious that a mortgage broker who had his
confidence was about to make off with a fraction of his estate using Miss
Donnelly as an unwitting tool. The Miami Herald later told the story.54
Why action was not taken against the broker is a mystery. Under Florida
law at that time a person could only be declared incompetent by
declaring him insane. The necessary action was filed in February 1933.
This court proceeding, known as an "Inquisition of Lunacy," was and
is confidential; but the author was allowed to read the confidential file
in the chambers of a judge of the Probate Court, Dade County." Then
Judge Blanton appointed an examining committee of Dr. M. Jay Flipse
(the Ashby family physician), Dr. Bascom H. Palmer, and C. J. Martin.
Their report stated, among other things, that Richard Ashby was 5' 1"
tall, weighed 175 pounds, was eighty-nine years old, in good physical
condition, feeble-minded because of senility, not violent, not indigent,
etc. On 1 March 1933, Judge Blanton decreed that: ". . Richard Ashby
is insane within the meaning of the Act in such case provided."
Richard Ashby died some four months later on 13 July 1933.
His death was reported on the front page of the Miami Herald. The
following day's issue ran an article titled, "Miami Loses Pioneer in
Death of Richard Ashby," and described his coming from England,
living in other cities, that he was an investor in valuable downtown
property, and that he regarded the Miami area as ideal for residential
purposes.56 He was interred in the Miami City Cemetery close by the
monuments to such pioneer giants as Tuttle, Belcher, Burdine and
Budge."7 However, no monument was provided nor a marker of any
kind. How this came to be is another mystery, but Richard Ashby was
left in an unmarked grave for many years while his children continued
to live well in Miami.
When Lillian Gaby and Walter Ashby petitioned the court for
guardianship of their father, they appeared to be content with his Will
and Deed of Trust. Something may have caused them concern, because
after gaining guardianship of their father, they moved to set aside his
Will and Deed of Trust and the Will of Mary Donnelly. When the dust
settled, Richard Ashby's Will and Deed of Trust were replaced by an
Indenture dated 30 December 1935.58 It made no mention of Miss
Donnelly--no doubt because she, too, had passed on.59 This Indenture
Richard Ashby: Miami Pioneer
declared the Will and Deed of Trust null and void and ordered the First
Trust Co. to transfer all estate holdings to the heirs. The Indenture was
similar to Richard Ashby's Will and Deed of Trust in that it divided his
estate among his lineal heirs as he had specified. Was all the legal
activity justified? Leave the benefit of doubt to those on the scene at the
The Probate of Richard Ashby's estate gave an evaluation of
$968,608.60 That was equivalent to about $15,800,000 in 1990 dol-
lars.61 His death came at an opportune time for his heirs, falling as it did
near the worst of the Great Depression. Of his many real estate holdings
not under ninety-nine year leases, two-thirds were sold within three
years of probate and the last was sold in 1955.62 If the three properties
under ninety-nine year leases often mentioned had not been so encum-
bered, they probably would have been sold also. As it is, his heirs still
benefit from the leases on the "Burdine's" property, the "Burdine's
Annex" property, and the "McAllister Hotel" property. During the
Depression years, when the value of the dollar actually increased, they
benefited greatly. Since World War II, with a high rate of inflation
overall and corresponding decline in the value of the dollar, the income
from those ninety-nine year leases has become very little compared to
the market values of those properties if unencumbered by the leases.
Even so, Richard Ashby was wise to protect his estate in that manner,
and no one could have foreseen in 1917-19 the rapid decline in the value
of the dollar that would begin in 1940. In those days there was no CPI
(Consumer Price Index) or other index calculated annually by the
federal government to which one might tie lease payments. He did the
best he could at the time and it has been very good for his heirs.
Richard Ashby was a remarkable man. Honest, hard-working,
and thrifty, he was also adventurous, a master craftsman, an astute busi-
nessman, and a wise investor. He was a pioneer in two American cities.
From a humble beginning he rose to prominence. Four generations of
his descendants have benefited directly from his endeavors.
The author regrets that he was too young and arrived in Florida too
late to know his great-grandfather personally. Through the writing of
A Sketch of the Life of Richard Ashby and this account he feels that he
has come to know him better and to have found a friend. Richard Ashby
surely would be pleased to see the tallest and perhaps the finest building
in modem Miami rising above where he once lived so enjoyably.
1. Record of the parish church, Ashton, Northamptonshire, Eng-
land; Census for Northamptonshire, England, 1851 (ref. HO- 1737, Fol.
326); Record of Martina Marriott Smith, granddaughter of Richard
Ashby, as told to the author's sister, Margaret G. Ashby; Certificate of
Birth, Drusilla Billingham, and Certificate of Marriage, Richard Ashby
and Drusilla Billingham, General Register Office, London, England;
personal letter from Margery L. E. Fisher, author of A Scrapbook of
Note: More detailed but in some ways less complete information
on the English origins of Richard and Drusilla Ashby is contained in
Gaby, D. C., A Sketch of the Life of Richard Ashby, 1988, privately
printed but in the collections of the Historical Museum of Southern
Florida and the Miami-Dade Public Library, Miami, Florida.
2. Record of St. Johns Episcopal Church, Decatur, IL; 1870 and
1880U. S. federal censuses, Decatur, Macon County, IL; Public records
of Macon County, IL; 1880-81 City Director, Decatur, IL; equivalent
1990 dollars were derived using the technique described in Gaby, D.C.,
"What Would It Cost Today?," South Florida History Magazine, Vol.
I, No.2, Spring 1989, Historical Association of Southern Florida,
Note: Much more detailed information on Richard Ashby's life in
Decatur, IL, Colorado Springs, CO, and Miami, FL can be found in
Gaby, D. C., A Sketch of the Life of Richard Ashby, 1988, privately
printed but in the collections of the Historical Museum of Southern
Florida and the Miami- Dade Public Library, Miami, Florida.
3. Sprague, Marshall, Newport in the Rockies (Athens, Ohio: Uni-
versity Press, 1987); 1882 Colorado Springs City Directory; Official
record of Grace Episcopal Church, Colorado Springs, CO; Colorado
Springs Gazette, 15 May 1886; Public records of El Paso County, CO;
Official record of Evergreen Cemetery, Colorado Springs, CO; Con-
versation with Mark H. Bryan, president, Bryan & Scott Jewelers, Ltd.,
112-114 N. Tejon St., Colorado Springs, CO, 25 August 1988; Miami
Herald, Obituary, 14 July 1933.
4. Land deed records through 1900 are very difficult to read and
no transaction by Richard or Margaret Ashby was found. About one-
Richard Ashby: Miami Pioneer
third of the entries are unreadable and that third may contain the desired
record. Land deed records for 1901-1908 show Margaret Ashby bought
the east end of Lot 3, Block 119 North in Miami in 1902, but there is no
record of purchase for the west end of Lot 3. There are no abstract
records prior to 1912. Public records of Dade County, FL.
5. Public records of Dade County, FL.
6. Comment to the author by his father, Walter E. Gaby, grandson
of Richard Ashby, during construction for the downtown exit ramp
from Interstate 95 near Fort Dallas Park.
7. Public records of Dade County, FL.
8. Sanborn Insurance Co., Maps of Miami, FL, 1903 and 1906.
9. Miami Metropolis, 27 June 1905.
10. Public records of Dade County, FL.
13. Grace Church Record, October 1909, Grace-St. Stevens Epis-
copal Church, Colorado Springs, CO; Miami Herald, "Obituary," 25
14. Colorado Springs City Directories, 1909 and 1911.
15. Public records of Dade County, FL.
16. Miami Metropolis, 6 February 1909.
17. The author was so told by his father, Walter E. Gaby,
grandson of Richard Ashby.
18. Miami Metropolis, 4 June 1909, 4 January and 17 March and
26 April 1910, and 15 January and 7 November 1913.
19. Peters, Thelma, Miami 1909 (Miami, FL: Banyan
20. Public records of Dade County, FL.
21. Miami Metropolis, 16 October 1913.
22. Miami City Directories, 1908 through 1913.
23. Miami Metropolis, 19 July 1912.
24. Ibid., 7 June 1912.
25. Ibid., 21 November 1912 and 6 April 1914.
26. Ibid., 2 January 1914.
27. Ibid., 6 February 1914 and 30 March 1914.
28. Miami City Directory, 1914.
29. Sanborn Insurance Co., Maps of Miami, FL, 1910 and 1914;
Miami City Directory, 1914; Photograph from collection of the Histori-
cal Museum of Southern Florida (see page thirty-five); MiamiMetropo-
lis, 24 February 1914.
30. From a collection of letters to the author from Richard Ashby
Marriott, grandson of Richard Ashby; plus personal conversations with
31. Death certificate of Harriet E. Ashby, Public records
of Florida, Jacksonville; Marriage certificate of Richard and Harriet
Ashby, Public records of El Paso County, Colorado; and Miami Herald,
"Obituary," 24 April 1933.
32. Miami Metropolis, 11 and 26 October 1915, 15 July 1916,
and 1 January 1920.
33. Miami City Directory, 1920.
34. Public records of Dade County, FL.
37. Gaby, Donald C., "What Would It Cost Today?,"
South Florida History Magazine, Vol. I, No. 2 (Spring 1989).
38. Letter, Richard Ashby to Walter E. Gaby, postmarked 1 May
39. A series of photographs of the McAllister Hotel, Florida
State Photographic Archives, Tallahassee.
40. Miami Metropolis, 1 January 1920.
41. A series of photographs of the McAllister Hotel, Florida
State Photographic Archives, Tallahassee.
42. Miami City Directory, 1920.
43. Sanborn Insurance Co. Map of Miami, FL, 1921.
44. Death certificate of Harriet E. Ashby, Public records of
45. Miami Metropolis, 14 February 1914.
46. Letter, Letitia Ashby Levy to the author, October 1988.
47. Gaby, Donald C., "Historic Hurricanes of South Florida,"
Update, Vol. 13, No. 2 (May 1986).
48. A series of photographs of the McAllister and Columbus
Hotels, Florida State Photographic Archives, Tallahassee.
49. Public records of Dade County, FL.
50. Probate File #6399, County Court, Dade County, FL.
51. Gaby, Donald C., "What Would It Cost Today?,"
South Florida History Magazine, Vol. I, No. 2 (Spring 1989).
52. Letter, Walter S. Ashby to the Ashby heirs, 5 March 1933;
Modification Agreement Concerning 99-year Lease of Cheatham and
Meeks, Inc., Public records of Dade County, FL.
53. Letter, Walter S. Ashby and Lillian M. Gaby to Walter E.
Richard Ashby: Miami Pioneer 43
54. Miami Herald, 30 May 1937.
55. File No. 1238, Docket 4, page 331, Richard Ashby (white)
Insane, 1 March 1933, Probate Court of Dade County, FL.
56. Miami Herald, 14 July and 15 July 1933.
57. Record of Miami City Cemetery, Miami, FL.
58. Indenture, 30 December 1935, Book 1670, Page 353, Public
records of Dade County, FL.
59 Record of Miami City Cemetery, Miami, FL (showing graves
of Margaret Ashby, Harriet Ashby, Mary Donnelly, and Richard
Ashby, all in the same block); Death certificate of Mary Donnelly,
Public records of Florida, Jacksonville.
60. Probate File #6399, County Court, Dade County, FL; Miami
Herald, 30 August 1933.
61. Gaby, Donald C., "What Would It Cost Today?,"
South Florida History Magazine, Vol. I, No. 2 (Spring 1989).
62. Public records of Dade County, FL.
Among The Farmers
Introduction by Howard Kleinberg
Charles G. Featherly's 1898 trek through a largely undeveloped
Dade County to locate and report on all its farmers was twofold. In
addition to the reporting he was doing for his brother Wesley's Miami
Metropolis, he was selling subscriptions to the newspaper.
In the first two weeks of his census-like effort, Featherly covered
the areas immediately around the Miami River and down to Coconut
Grove (Tequesta XLVIII 1988). Then he moved on to areas such as
Alapattah Prairie, Lemon City, Little River and Biscayne.
As a preface to the article about the aforementioned, he boasted
that he had received a flattering reception from those he met "in the
nature of many new subscribers in each section visited, one half day
spent in Alapattah Prairie resulting in the addition of twelve subscrib-
ers in three hours' work."
The Alapattah Prairie, as it then was spelled by white people (all-
a-pa-taw is the Seminole word for alligator), was located between the
Miami River and Wagner Creek, a narrow body of water that still flows
from the river at Northwest Seventh Avenue past the Civic Center.
Immediately nearby were the Tuttle and Wagner Prairies.
In this report, his third, Featherly made contact with some of the
area's premier pioneer families, including the son, daughter, and half-
brother of Julia Tuttle, all of whom lived on contiguous pieces of
property at Biscayne, which centered in the general vicinity of today's
Northeast 103rd Street near the Bay. (It was here that Julia Tuttle's
father Ephraim Sturtevant first settled and where she stayed when she
first came to Florida for a visit in 1875.)
Featherly also visited the forty acre farm of William Wagner, first
settled a half-century earlier on Wagner Creek.
Needless to say, the trek was arduous considering the physical
state of 1898 Dade County.
His voluminous reports covered several pages of the Metropolis
for five weeks.
Featherly arrived in Miami in the third week of October 1898
aboard the ship Algonquin. His journey began in Michigan. His
Howard Kleinberg is a Miami based syndicated columnist.
Among the Farmers 45
brother, Wesley Featherly, had taken control of the Metropolis several
months earlier. Charles Featherly immediately embarked on his ex-
haustive and substantive journeys from Fort Lauderdale on the New
River to past Cutler in South Dade.
He reported that in the first three weeks of his travels throughout the
area, he had visited 248 homes. In subsequent articles, Featherly
reported that he had been "engaged for five weeks in the various
sections securing the data."
From THE MIAMI METROPOLIS, Nov. 18,1898
The Metropolis Scribe Interviews
Many of Them
IN THE ALAPATTAH PRAIRIE, LEMON CITY
LITTLE RIVER AND BISCAYNE SECTIONS
Amazing Increase of Acreage This Year
Over Last Year
The METROPOLIS continues this week its interviews with the
truckers and fruit-growers of the Alapattah Prairie, Lemon City, Little
River, and Biscayne Sections. What we have found we tell in the several
columns which follow. We are proud to state that the METROPOLIS
representative has been cordially greeted and has met with a flattering
reception at the hands of truckers and fruit growers in the nature of many
new subscribers in each section visited, one-half day spent in the
Alapattah Prairie resulting in the addition of twelve subscribers in three
hours work. We have received a number of letters from farmers
expressing their appreciation of the METROPOLIS'S enterprise and
those from sections not yet visited urge us not to miss them.
Again we urge truckers and fruit growers whom we have missed
by any chance to write us what they are doing. The field of work is so
large that it is reasonable to suppose we must miss some.
Z.T. Merritt (left) and Peter Merritt in the carriage in front of
Charles Montgomery's packing house in Buena Vista. On the
platform are Helen Conrad, A.D.H. Fossey and Charles Montgom-
Z. T. & F.W. MERRITT
Have a very commodious home on the Bay front at Buena Vista. They
will cultivate on Merritt's Island two and one-half acres of tomatoes, one
acre of Irish potatoes, one acre of peppers and one-half acre of onion.
J. W. WEATHERFORD.
Last week in our review of the section of the country north of Miami
we overlooked the home of J.W. Weatherford a mile north of the city.
Mr. Weatherford has four acres set to citrus and tropical fruits and will
this year cultivate one and one-half acres of peppers.
W. B. VORHEES
Has 80 acres, nearly all prairie, just north of Buena Vista, on which he
will cultivate 10 acres of tomatoes.
H. L. GRIFFIN
Will move his family to Buena Vista from Michigan in the near future
and will cultivate two acres of tomatoes on prairie land of W.B.
Among the Farmers 47
W. J. GREEN
Lives at Lemon City and is making a crop of four acres of tomatoes on
prairie land of Geo. Olson just south of Lemon City and one-quarter acre
of eggplants on pine land of his own.
Dr. Henrietta Martens relaxes on her front porch of nine-acre
prairie land developed by her husband in Lemon City.
H. E. MARTENS
Has nine acres of prairie land just south of Lemon City upon which he
moved about a year ago from West Florida. He will cultivate this winter
three acres of tomatoes. Mrs. Martens is a practicing physician in the
Lemon City section.
W. S. MAYBERRY
Just came to the Lemon City section from Gainesville in April and
located in Lemon City. He is making the following crop on land
belonging to Mrs. L.W. Pierce: Eight acres of tomatoes, one-half acre
of cucumbers and one-quarter acre of peppers.
MRS. L. W. PIERCE
Has about 300 acres of land just at the south end of Lemon City, running
down to the Bay and composed to some extent of prairie land. A large
tract of Mrs. Pierce's land is platted into village plots. She has a neat,
commodious and comfortable home, surrounded by some 60 fine
bearing orange trees, 400 lime trees, and guavas, sugar apples and all
kinds of tropical fruits in abundance.There will be cultivated upon Mrs.
Pierce's land 12 acres of tomatoes, six acres of eggplant and six acres of
D. B. KNIGHT,
Merchant at Lemon City, has 40 acres at Snake Creek upon which he
will make a crop of 15 acres of tomatoes and seven acres of okra.
C. H. BILLINGS,
Living at Lemon City, has six acres of hammock land at Little River
upon which he will cultivate two acres of tomatoes, one acre of
eggplants, three-fourths acres of okra and one-fourth acre of peppers.
Home on the Bay front at Lemon City is certainly a beautiful place with
a grand growth of cocoanut trees in the foreground. The view of the Bay
is perfect and the breeze from the bay is here enjoyed to its fullest extent
the year round. Mrs. Keys has 840 acres of land at Cutler, the points
concerning which we will give with our Cutler matter.
W. T. PENT
Also has a magnificent Bay front house shaded by a grand old growth
of cocoanut trees. Mr. Pent, in company with his brother Charles, will
cultivate three acres of tomatoes just south of Little River.
S. K. BROWN & SON
Came from Washington, D.C., about one year ago and bought six acres
of Bay front property of which they are making an ideal home. These
gentlemen are business men at Washington and came to the Bay section
purely for its climactic conditions, and to make themselves a tropical
home in this land of perpetual warmth. They have about three acres of
pineapples and 500 buds of citrus fruits, all doing nicely; besides
mangoes, guavas, alligator pears, sugar .apples and numerous other
tropical fruits. They have in operation and extensive irrigating plant
supplied by an aermotor, which also supplies their dwelling with a
complete water system. They will cultivate one and one-half acres of
tomatoes and one-half acre of eggplants.
Among the Farmers 49
C. WATSON AND CHAS. MAYBERRY
Will cultivate six acres of tomatoes and four acres of lettuce
one and one-half miles up Little River.
Who live at Lemon City, will cultivate six acres of tomatoes and three
acres of cucumbers on land of Mrs. Pierce at Lemon City.
Owns seven acres two miles west of Lemon City, which is all cleared,
upon which are growing all kinds of fruits and a nice pineapple field of
about three acres. He will cultivate five acres of tomatoes at Little River.
Have a tract of 16 acres of fine rich land at Little River, which they are
fast clearing up. They will make a crop of six acres of tomatoes
themselves and M.P. Whidby will cultivate three acres of tomatoes.
One-fourth mile west of Lemon City, has five acres of Pine Land with
a nice clearing and some nice buds of grapefruit started. He will put out
one-half acre of eggplants and one-half acre of peppers. Mr. Morse also
has 20 acres one-half mile further west which he will set out to an orange
E. T. BYINGTON
Has 10 acres adjoining that of Mr. Morse, with a clearing of five acres,
on which he will cultivate four acres of tomatoes and one acre of
Merchant at Lemon City, has nine acres one mile west of Lemon City
on which he has five acres of nice pineapples and will set the balance
One-half mile west of Lemon City, has a fine little place of five acres
on which he has grown eight and three-quarters acres of pineapples, and
is also putting out 200 orange and grapefruit trees.
Lives just west of Lemon City and is preparing to cultivate three acres
of tomatoes on land belonging to Mrs. Pierce at that place.
Has a neat little home of 20 acres just north-west of Lemon City with
a clearing of seven acres. He has growing some nice citrus fruits and
alligator pears, and mangoes, etc., and will make a crop of one and one-
quarter acres of tomatoes and one acre of eggplants.
The Freeman family posed for this 1897 photograph. From left:
George Freeman, William Freeman, Ethel, Rebecca, Edison and
Mrs. Adaline Freeman.
B. C. DUPONT
Has 18 acres of pine land just south of Little River, 120 acres just west,
and 15 acres of prairie, which will be put into tomatoes. Mr. Dupont has
some nice pineapples growing and has about 800 trees of tropical fruits
of different kinds.
CHAS. E. ROBERTS
Has 62 acres just south of Little River prairie with a clearing of three
Among the Farmers 51
acres which is set out to fruit trees and pineapples. He will prepare for
market two and one-half acres of tomatoes.
LITTLE RIVER PRAIRIE.
Wm. Freeman has four 80-acre tracts at Little River and four 80-acre
tracts at Biscayne. Mr. Freeman will cultivate 50 acres of tomatoes
himself, and his brother, L. Freeman, and nephews, Burt, Charles, and
Ward Freeman will cultivate 15 acres of tomatoes on his land at
Biscayne and three acres at Little River.
Wm. Filer has a handsome home on the south side of the prairie near the
railroad. He has a nice clearing on his pine land, where he has a good
patch of pineapples and all kinds of tropical fruits growing. He will
make a crop of five acres of tomatoes on the prairie and seven acres on
Stanton & Hauser have 20 acres running down on the prairie, on which
they have a fine showing of trees of all kinds and about four acres of
pineapples. They will prepare for market seven acres of tomatoes, two
acres of eggplants, one acre of peppers and one acre of Irish potatoes.
E. F. Moffat was called a fool many times about six years ago, when he
paid $8 per acre for40 acres of Little River prairie land. He recently sold
ten acres at $85 per acre. He will cultivate five acres of tomatoes and two
acres of eggplants. Mr. Moffat also has a homestead about a mile west
of Lemon City with a clearing of two acres, which is set out to fruit trees.
Henry Desrocher will put in 2 1/2 acres of tomatoes, one-half acre of
eggplants and one-half acre of peppers.
Jim Sanders has 20 acres on the edge of the prairie, with four acres
cleared set out to fruit trees and set to fruit trees. He will work two acres
of tomatoes and one-half acre of eggplants.
Hudson Burr will cultivate seven acres of tomatoes and 1/2 acre of egg-
J. D. McDonald, six acres of tomatoes, one-half acre of eggplants and
one-half acre of peppers, besides a general garden for his boarding
Thos. Harrington, three acres of tomatoes.
W. A. Chard, two acres of tomatoes at Little River and three acres on
M. G. Strayer, 30 acres of tomatoes.
T. A. Winfield has six acres of pineapples on the east end of the prairie;
also some nice orange trees. He will cultivate seven acres of tomatoes.
T. W. Dyche, six acres of tomatoes and one-half acre of eggplants.
S. F. Pollard, 1 1/2 acres of tomatoes.
John B. Merritt, five acres of tomatoes. Mr. Merritt has one acre of nice
pineapples and one acre set out to guavas.
John Gillette, five acres of tomatoes, one-quarter acre of eggplants and
one-quarter acre of cucumbers.
Bunn Burr, four acres of tomatoes and three acres of eggplants.
A. K. McMullen and C.H. Billings, five acres of tomatoes, two acres of
eggplants, one-half acre peppers, one-half acre lettuce, one-half acre
celery, one half acre okra, one-half acre cucumbers. These gentlemen
have an interesting piece of hammock land, through which are running
two old Spanish canals and on which is located the site of an old Spanish
J. S. Lattimar & Son have 85 acres, on which we found all kinds of land.
They have 1,200 trees of assorted varieties and a fine field of pine-
apples. They will cultivate 12 acres of tomatoes, one acre of Irish
potatoes, one acre of beans.
F. Matthaus, 10 acres of tomatoes and a few peppers and beans.
Chas. Schmidt, two acres of tomatoes, one-half acre of eggplants and
Among the Farmers 53
one-half acre of peppers.
S. J. Peters has 20 acres on the prairie on which he has a fine home. He
will cultivate 15 acres of tomatoes at Little River and 15 acres at
Biscayne, where he also has 29 acres.
Frank Peters, four acres of tomatoes.
Thos. Peters has 26 acres on Little River on which he is setting out a
considerable number of orange and grapefruit trees. He will prepare 20
acres for tomatoes here and 15 acres at Biscayne and 12 acres at Snake
Peters & Douthit, 30 acres of tomatoes, three acres of beans at Little
River and nine acres at Biscayne.
W. I. Peters, 15 acres of tomatoes at Little River and three acres at
B. F. Murphy, seven acres of tomatoes.
Chas. Gagnier, five acres of tomatoes.
Cook & Zimmerman, five acres of tomatoes, one acre of lettuce, one
acre of Irish potatoes,
John Hamilton, three acres of tomatoes.
Thos. Carrey, five acres of tomatoes.
Parter & Smith, seven acres of tomatoes, two acres of eggplants and one
acre of beans.
J. B. Padgett, four acres of tomatoes.
Jordan & Spivey, eight acres of tomatoes, one acre of eggplants and one-
half acre of peppers.
S. C. Littlefield, six acres of tomatoes.
Soar Bros., five acres of tomatoes,
W. P. Brooks, 1 1/2 acres of tomatoes, one acre of beans, one-half acre
of cucumbers, one-quarter acre of peppers and one-quarter acre of okra.
F. J. Devane, three acres of tomatoes.
S. H. Lewis has 20 acres just north of the prairie, with 3 1/2 acres
improved. He will cultivate 1 1/2 acres of tomatoes and one-half acre
of beans. Mr. Lewis also has a nice patch of pineapples.
W. F. Brooks has 90 acres just north of the prairie, with a nice
improvement and nice trees growing.
Joseph Sanders, five acres of tomatoes.
Jules Watson, six acres of tomatoes and one acre of lettuce.
Ralph Cleare, three acres of tomatoes.
Henry Filer, two acres of tomatoes and 1 1/2 acres of eggplants.
C. E. Geiger, five acres of tomatoes at Little River and three-fourths acre
of peppers at Lemon City.
DR. J. W. PLUMMER
And his son, Joseph Plummer, have 50 acres one and one-half miles
west of Lemon City, which is a beautiful home made out of the pine
land, with a clearing of about 12 acres, with seven acres of pine-
apples and the balance set out to tropical fruits. They will cultivate
no winter crop.
MRS. LOTTIE KEMP
Has a neat little home of two acres adjoining the above, which is set out
to various fruits.
Among the Farmers 55
Is just preparing a 2 1/2 acre home for oranges and fruit trees 1 1/2 miles
west of Lemon City; no winter crop.
Homestead 1 1/2 miles west of Lemon City was called upon but no one
was at home. We found a comfortable home, a nice clearing and all
kinds of tropical fruits.
W. M. GRUNIER
Has more than 100 orange trees set out on his 5-acre lot 1 1/2 miles west
of Lemon City, besides guavas, alligator pears, etc.
Homestead is located two miles west of Lemon City, where we found
a clearing of seven acres, with four acres of pineapples in a thrifty
condition and all kinds of fruits growing.
Has made a very pretty home out of his 160 acres, two miles west of
Lemon City, where we found about 150 orange buds growing and a
large number of miscellaneous tropical fruits. Mr. Sands will cultivate
one-half acre of eggplants here and five acres of tomatoes on Little
In July moved on to 30 acres of pine land one mile north of Little River
and since that time has succeeded in clearing 10 acres, which he has all
set out to orange and grapefruit buds. Mr. Spradling is cultivating five
acres of tomatoes on the prairie.
Has a homestead three miles back of Little River station which takes in
a considerable amount of the prairie. He has 2 1/2 acres of his pine
cleared and has some nice tropical trees growing. Mr. Hubel is making
acrop of five acres of tomatoes, one-half acre of eggplants and one-half
acre of beans.
Owns 40 acres joining that of Mr. Hubel. He has one acre of his pine
land cleared and is putting in a crop of four acres of tomatoes, one-half
acre of eggplants and one half acre of peppers on the prairie.
A. J. DOUTHIT'S
Homestead is located about 2 1/2 miles west of Biscayne station. He has
about six acres of his pine land cleared, upon which we found all kinds
of fruit trees growing, also about one acre of pineapples and about 200
orange trees. Mr. Douthit will cultivate two acres of tomatoes, one acre
of eggplants and one acre of peppers and okra on his pine land and six
acres of tomatoes on his glade land.
MRS. FANNIE SAUNDERS,
Formerly Miss Fannie Tuttle, has a homestead located about two miles
back of Biscayne station, where we found a very pretty and comfortable
home surrounded by tropical fruits in abundance, with a grove of young
orange trees 40 acres in extent. John Soar is taking care of the place, but
as he was absent when we called, we did not learn the amount, if any,
that will be cropped.
MRS. MATTIE POMEROY
Has an elegant display of all kinds of tropical fruits upon her 40-acre
tract just back of Biscayne station. She has six acres cleared, upon
which she will cultivate one-half acre of tomatoes and one-half acre of
eggplants. Mrs. Pomeroy is cultivating her own crop, which is quite a
feat for a lady in this climate.
W. D. STURTEVANT
We found to have a clearing of eight acres upon his homestead 2 1/2
miles back of Biscayne station, which is all set out to citrus fruits. Mr.
Sturtevant has as fine a patch of pineapples as we have inspected
anywhere during our travels. He will cultivate no vegetables.
Homestead adjoins that of Mr. Sturtevant on the north. Mr. Tuttle has
a clearing of about 15 acres all set out to citrus fruits.
Among the Farmers 57
Pretty place, surrounded by a tropical growth of trees of different
kinds, is located just west of Mr. Sturtevant's homestead. Mrs. Moffat
will put in a small crop, but we did not learn the amount.
Is an enthusiast concerning this section of Florida. His homestead is
located upon the very edge of the Everglades, of which he has a
commanding view from his residence, which sets upon a slight eleva-
tion of ground overlooking the 'Glades for miles. Mr. Soop's trees, of
which he has a considerable number of all varieties, are looking nice and
putting out a good growth. He has five acres cleared, 1 1/2 acres of
which he will cultivate to cucumbers and one acre to eggplants and
peppers. If any of our readers doubt Mr. Soop's culinary ability, let them
happen there about 12 o'clock some day, when Mrs. Soop is absent from
home, and partake of his bachelor hospitality.
E. F. KNOWLS
Has a homestead joining Mr. Soop's place on the north upon which he
has a clearing of 15 acres, 10 acres of which are set out to tropical fruits.
Mr. Knowls has a very comfortable and pretty home and good outbuild-
ings, and also one of the most complete starch mills in this section. His
winter crop is being made with E. Moffat on the prairie.
T. D. WRIGHT
Has a very pleasing place of 160 acres 1 1/4 miles west of Biscayne
station, 12 acres of which are cleared and set out to oranges, lemons,
guavas, grapes, alligator pears, mangoes, etc. Mr. Wright is making a
crop on Biscayne prairie of six acres of tomatoes and 1 1/2 acres of
D. E. SMITH
Is just building a home on his 40 acres, one mile west of Biscayne
Station and will soon move his family there. He has a clearing of seven
acres, four acres of which are set out to oranges, lemons and grapefruit,
and two acres of pineapples; no winter vegetables.
S. K. ANDERSON
Was just moving his family from Lemon City to the place of Dr.
Truman, which he had just bought, and which is located one mile back
of Biscayne station. He has a clearing of about 4 1/2 acres, one acre of
which he will put into tomatoes.
THE UP-RIVER PRAIRIE SECTION.
Saturday last the METROPOLIS representative made a trip to that up-
river section known as "Alapattah Prairie," which has been receiving so
much attention through the columns of this paper of late by our most
excellent correspondent. Before reaching Alapattah Prairie we find a
number of truckers on which is known as the Wagner and Tuttle
THE WAGNER PLACE.
The 40-acre farm of Wm. Wagner, just west of the city limits, was
settled by Mr. Wagner 50 years ago and he has since that time resided
upon it. He has a large assortment of fruit trees of different kinds, some
of which are very large and choice. There are different fruits here than
are to be found anywhere else in this section. The old homestead is still
occupied by Mr. Wagner, A considerable improvement was made upon
it by Mrs. Julia D. Tuttle during the last years of her life in buildings for
a dairy. John Lindgren is occupying one house, while J. T. Wildman
occupies another. Mr. Wildman still operates a dairy upon the farm,
having purchased 10 of the most choice cows of the Ft. Dallas dairy.
J. J. HOLLY,
one mile west of the city, has 30 acres with five acres cleared. He has
a fine location on the river and a nice start for a home and has a few
promising fruit trees. He has five acres of tomatoes on the prairie.
GEO. L. FRIAR
has 8 1/2 acres on the riverfront just west of the city limits. He has a
pleasant home and a nice start in fruits. He will plant 2 1/2 acres to
tomatoes, one-half acre eggplant and one-half acre of beans on the
J. H. MAY
has 10 acres at the same point on the river of which he has nine acres
cleared and a fine start for a home. He will cultivate three acres of
tomatoes, two acres of eggplant and one-half acre of peppers.
J. H. Vareen has 2 1/2 acres of tomatoes on the Wagner prairie which
Among the Farmers 59
will be planted to beans between the plants for an early crop.
J. T. Williams has 8 1/2 acres of tomatoes on the Wagner prairie next
J. D. Schackleford will cultivate five acres of tomatoes on the Tuttle
prairie which lies just west of the Wagner prairie. Mr. S. is a recent
arrival from Birmingham, Ala.
C. A. McCullum has also two acres of tomatoes on the Tuttle prairie.
D. T. Sellers, also on the Tuttle prairie, has five acres of tomatoes.
W. F. Barry has a new home on the point of pine land extending into the
prairie and ending with a pretty hammock. In company with E. B.
Douglas he will cultivate four acres of tomatoes.
B. Strauel has a new home adjoining that of Mr. Barry. He will cultivate
two acres of tomatoes. Mr. Strauel comes from a section of France
where the French language is not allowed to be spoken.
P. J. Turnbull has 15 acres of prairie upon which he will this year
cultivate 12 acres of tomatoes and one-half acre peppers.
H. A. Braddock, who owns the place upon which Mr. Turnbull is
operating, is cultivating an acre of eggplant to the edge of the pine
woods, which are looking handsome and promise a fine crop.
A. H. Stanton has eight acres which he is putting out to tomatoes.
J. W. Johnson is the pioneer settler upon Alapattah Prairie. He has 15
acres of very fine loam land as rich as an ash heap, very mellow, and
shows fine cultivation. He has a pretty home, recently built, from which
there were wafted upon the air as we passed the strains of the piano
played by a skillful hand in the person of Mrs. Johnson. It is at Mr.
Johnson's house that the people of the prairie gather for social inter-
course. Mr. Johnson will cultivate four acres of tomatoes and an acre
John Lindgren is about to occupy one of the small houses near J. W.
Johnson's place. He will cultivate four acres of tomatoes.
H. T. Downing, who arrived two weeks since from Andover, Kans., has
purchased five acres next north of J. W. Johnson's place, and will erect
a handsome home. He is preparing the ground for four acres of
R. F. Sellers has two acres of tomatoes.
Lieutenant F. T. Smith, late of the Second Louisiana Regiment camped
here, who thoroughly understood the animus of the troops against
Miami, resigned his commission soon after leaving Miami, and
returned to make his home here. He will cultivate 2 1/2 acres of
tomatoes and a half-acre of peppers. Mr. Smith is a traveling man by
profession, but has decided to settle down to truck farming and orange
raising. He will set out 10 acres to oranges this winter.
Joseph Doughtrey will cultivate five acres of tomatoes on a place
T. E. Savage will diversify a little his crop, and cultivate five acres of
tomatoes, one acre of beans and one acre of potatoes.
J. C. Hooks & Brother have purchased 40 acres of prairie. They are
experienced truckers from the central part of the state. There are three
brothers of them, and they will constitute a valuable acquisition to our
community. They will cultivate 11 acres of tomatoes, two acres of
eggplant and two acres of peppers.
Jas. Hooks, one of the Hooks brothers, will cultivate eight acres of
tomatoes adjoining J. C. Hooks & Brothers.
R. B. Fickle has three acres which he will cultivate in tomatoes.
Messrs. Fornell & Pallas will cultivate three acres of tomatoes and
1-1/2 acres of eggplant.
Among the Farmers 61
Tucker & Drew have five acres which will be grown with the standard
J. H. Johnson has 10 acres of the same vegetable.
James Griffin, on land belonging to Irons & Matthews, is getting things
in shape for seven acres of tomatoes.
R. L. Collins, one of the new arrivals, was caught shoeing a mule. He
has 10 acres of the prairie, of which he will plant nine acres to tomatoes.
M. McCoy will have eight acres of tomatoes.
G. W. Smith will cultivate 5 1/2 acres of tomatoes and one-half acre of
Neal & Highman are old and experienced truckers from the western-
central part of the State, where they have left fine property because of
the freezes. They will cultivate 10 acres of tomatoes and two acres of
Johnson & Gardner have things in shape for five acres of the red fruit,
S. E. Beckes, ofLassiter & Beckes, the feed store men, will operate on
five acres of tomatoes.
B. F. Lassiter, of the same firm, will have two acres of tomatoes.
Holly & Allen, six acres of tomatoes.
B. B. Hopson, 4 1/2 acres of tomatoes.
H. W. Padgett, three acres of tomatoes and one-quarter-acre of peppers.
Lawrence Hay, two acres of tomatoes.
Guzman & Chandler, four acres of the same.
Michael McGroff, three acres tomatoes.
Louis Becker, the dairyman, will, besides dispensing milk daily,
cultivate three acres of tomatoes.
J. L. DeVan, two acres of the same vegetable.
Messrs. Braddock and Buxley will cultivate respectively, two and three
acres of tomatoes.
Granger & Overstreet have five acres which they are cultivating in
Jordan & Sprivey have 16 acres which will be similarly devoted.
C. E. Scott has ten acres which are being cultivated for tomatoes.
John Britt has about six acres which he will cultivate to this vegetable.
J. H. Johnson, whose home is in Miami, as well as a large number of the
others whom we have mentioned, will cultivate six acres to tomatoes.
A gentleman named Horton, who was not at home and whose first name
we did not learn, will cultivate seven acres to tomatoes.
Henry Fritze has five acres away off on the south-western section of the
prairie upon which he will raise tomatoes.
Riley Johnson has 3 1/2 acres on the prairie which will be set to
As near as possible we have given a resume of the operations on this
prairie. There are a few small tracts which have not yet been located
which will be cultivated. Upon this prairie this season there will be
between 140 and 175 acres cultivated where last year there was but 26
acres tilled. We will esteem it a favor if perchance we may have missed
any truckers or have given wrong estimates to have the parties missed
or wrongly estimated notify us promptly. We have used the best
information at hand in all this work. Where we have not been able to
see the operator we have taken the estimate of some friend or neighbor.
In the Miami River section last week we overlooked Henry Pollack,
who has 2-1/2 acres of tomatoes on the north side of the rapids.
Shadows in the Sunshine: Race and Ethnicity in Miami
Shadows in the Sunshine:
Race and Ethnicity in Miami
By Raymond A. Mohl
Few places have captured the American imagination so completely
and so consistently during the twentieth century as have Miami and
South Florida. Although a raw tropical frontier at the turn of the
century, Miami was soon turned into a tourist spot of some renown as
a result of the railroad building and urban boosterism of Henry Flagler.
With typical promotional hype, Flagler established a newspaper in
1896, calling it the Miami Metropolis; Miami was barely three months
old and had about 300 residents at the time. By 1913, when Flagler died,
Miami was not yet a metropolis, but it had become a thriving town of
11,000 permanent citizens and about 125,000 annual tourists. Across
the bay, Carl Fisher, the "Fabulous Hoosier," was building up Miami
Beach as a rival tourist destination, using sensational publicity and
promotional activities to grab the national spotlight. Not far away,
George Merrick was developing and, with some help from William
Jennings Bryan, selling exclusive lots in the planned "City Beautiful,"
Coral Gables. As one writer observed in 1916 in the midst of all this
activity, "Florida is the native home, the birthplace, the congenial
atmosphere, the permanent abiding place of the booster." The incred-
ible South Florida real estate boom of the 1920s, and then the disastrous
bust, kept the national attention focused on Miami, the "Magic City."1
Miami's Public Image
The pattern of image making continued in successive decades. In
1936, in an article entitled "Paradise Regained," Fortune magazine
reported that "today Miami is one of the most fantastic cities of the
Western Hemisphere." The article never fully substantiated that state-
ment, and even admitted that Miami's "only salable product" was its
Dr. Raymond A. Mohl is Professor of History and Chairman of the
Department at Florida Atlantic University. A specialist on American
urban and social history, he is currently completing a scholarly book on
the history of race and ethnicity in twentieth century Miami.
climate; but it is clear that the Fortune piece was referring to the city's
ability to maintain its resort glitter even in the depths of the Great
Depression. By the 1930s, Miami's resort image was firmly implanted
in the American media, if not in widespread public perceptions. When
people thought of Miami and South Florida, they could hardly help but
think of perpetual sunshine and wide sandy beaches and gentle ocean
breezes, of Gulf Stream and golf course, of race tracks and polo
matches, of the rich and famous and infamous cavorting in what even
mobster Al Capone proclaimed to be the "Garden of America."2
This public imagery hardly changed in the 1940s and 1950s. Ac-
cording to Miami journalist Henning Heldt, by the late 1940s the multi-
farious attractions of Miami and Miami Beach drew a "circle of celeb-
rities, who, for a few brief weeks each winter, [gave] this point on the
map as cosmopolitan a population as ever gathered anywhere. The
political great, the sinister characters of the underworld, business
tycoons and those born to wealth, the current stars of stage, screen, and
radio, and those struggling on their way up, all find their way sooner or
later to Miami and Miami Beach." For journalist Heldt of the Miami
Herald, the incongruities of the 1940s were fascinating and delightful:
"Winston Churchill visits in a North Bay Road home not far from Al
Capone's Palm Island refuge," he wrote. Politicians, labor leaders and
entertainers "rub elbows at the same racetracks. Puerto Rican sugar
millionaires play at the same beach clubs as dime-store heiresses.
Wives of Latin American political exiles mingle with society leaders
from Oshkosh, Toledo, and Trenton. President Herbert Hoover fishes
in the same waters as a Chicago Democratic ward boss."3
In the 1950s, the long-established pattern of Miami imagery per-
sisted. With the advent of television, Miami became instantaneously
synonymous with Arthur Godfrey and Jackie Gleason, who despite
different TV faces shared an affection for the good life in the sunbelt
before Americans had ever heard that term. But there was also a darker
side to South Florida. In the 1920s, prohibition had created new oppor-
tunities for rum-runners from Cuba and the Bahamas. Gambling and
racketeering became integral aspects of the Miami tourist industry in
the 1930s, and organized crime became well-entrenched. By the 1950s,
knowledgeable folk knew that Meyer Lansky and company lurked in
the background, ran the lucrative rackets, and bought up beachfront
hotels to legitimize their activities. For most Americans, Miami
Shadows in the Sunshine: Race and Ethnicity in Miami
continued to appear a glitzy resort capital, but for locals in the know the
tourist playground image was admittedly losing some of its luster.4
The New Miami
A new ingredient was added to the old Miami image at the end of
the 1950s. The success of Fidel Castro's ragtag revolutionaries un-
leashed a massive wave of Cuban exiles, almost 600,000 between 1959
and 1973, most of whom settled in Miami and who gradually began to
change Miami into a bilingual, multicultural city. Thus, a new Miami,
and a new kind of national imagery, began to emerge side by side with
the old--a city of exile newcomers soon putting down more permanent
roots and living out the American Dream, but also a city of militant
anticommunists, many of whom inhabited the dark, shadowy world of
the CIA and international intrigue.5
The two separate Miami's coexisted uneasily through the 1960s
and 1970s. In retrospect, the place was experiencing enormous social,
economic, and cultural change during those years, although for the most
part the political structure of the area remained in old, familiar hands.
And so it went until 1980, an incredible year in which Miami once again
exploded into the national consciousness. Nineteen-eighty was the year
of the Liberty City riots, a rage of black ghetto violence that harked back
to the racial disorders of urban America in the 1960s. In the same year,
Americans watched with fascination the exodus to Miami of 125,000
new exiles from the Cuban harbor of Mariel. During the same period,
some 50,000 or more Haitian boat people washed up on South Florida
beaches in rickety, overcrowded sailboats, some dying in the surf
almost within reach of their goal. The irony of these separate events
could not be missed. Miami's blacks were burning down their neighbor-
hoods; Liberty City had become a symbol of hopelessness and despair.
But for the new Cuban and Haitian exiles and refugees, Miami loomed
up as a symbol of freedom and hope for the future, a place to build new
and better lives.6
The fact that each of these events was televised nightly over
several months into the living rooms of America brought South Florida,
and Miami, especially, to national prominence once again. And the
attention continued into the decade of the 1980s, with more riots, more
refugees, bitterly divisive ethnic politics, high rates of crime, murder,
and drug-dealing, even an enormously popular television series cele-
brating Miami's attributes, such as they are (and I am not talking about
"The Golden Girls"). Books on Miami by T. D. Allman, David Rieff,
Joan Didion and Edna Buchanan, as well as prominent articles in
Newsweek, The New Yorker, The New York Times Magazine, and other
nationally distributed publications kept the American fascination with
Miami alive in 1987 and 1988. Miami, in short, has been a long-
standing media event of tremendous interest through the twentieth
The Hidden History of Black Miami
The problem for historians, of course, is that imagery and symbol-
ism only partially represent reality, or perhaps even distort reality con-
siderably. The national preoccupation with Miami and South Florida,
as just described, generally was based on images filtered through the
newsreels, the movies, the gossip columns, the promotional extrava-
ganzas, the television cameras, and the print media. Because percep-
tions of South Florida have for so long been shaped by such popular
imagery, it has been difficult to get beyond widespread public belief to
the underlying historical reality.
One aspect of that hidden reality can be uncovered by exploring
the history of Miami's black community. Blacks have always made up
a substantial portion of the Miami area population, but until the ghetto
riots of the 1960s and the more recent Liberty City riot of 1980, they
were segregated out of the widespread popular image of the place. In
fact, however, there is a third Miami--black Miami--whose hidden
history has never been fully explored. And when the tourist images and
promotional extravaganzas were being created, black Miami was
shuffled off into the shadows. The remainder of this paper will seek to
establish some alternative images of Miami--the black Miami--images
based not on fantasy but on the hard realities of black life in a Deep
South state before the end of official segregation.
Black Immigrants and Racism
Miami is generally thought of as a new immigrant city, but the fact
is that Miami and South Florida have always had a magnetic attraction
for peoples of the Caribbean. Black immigrants from the Bahamas, in
particular, gave immigration to Miami its special character in the early
years of the twentieth century. As the building of Miami began after the
mid-1890s, Bahamian blacks were attracted to South Florida by work
Shadows in the Sunshine: Race and Ethnicity in Miami
Bahamian families gathered in Coconut Grove for a group photo.
opportunities in housing and railroad construction, the citrus and
vegetable industries, and service jobs in tourist hotels and restaurants.
Some were migrant laborers, coming to Florida six months of each year,
but others settled permanently and began building a black ethnic
community. By 1920, almost 5,000 black islanders, almost all from the
Bahamas, made up fifty-two percent of Miami's black community and
over sixteen percent of the city's entire population. At that time, Miami
had a larger population of black immigrants than any other city in the
United States except New York.8
Like the European immigrants who were pouring through Ellis
Island in the early twentieth century, the Bahamians came to Florida
seeking economic opportunity and a better life. What they found was
not always what they had anticipated. Doubtless there was economic
opportunity for most, since the Bahamian economy had little vitality.
But going to Florida had its costs. One early twentieth-century
Bahamian immigrant interviewed by Ira Reid for his 1939 book, The
Negro Immigrant, reported his disenchantment with conditions in
Having passed the immigration and customs examin-
ers, I took a carriage for what the driver called "Nigger
Town." This was the first time I had heard that opprobrious
epithet employed .... I was vividly irked no little. Arriving
in Colored Town, I alighted from the carriage in front of an
unpainted, poorly-ventilated rooming house where I paid
$2.00 for a week's lodging. Already, I was rapidly becom-
ing disillusioned. How unlike the land where I was born.
There colored men were addressed as gentlemen; here, as
"niggers." There policemen were dressed in immaculate
uniforms, carried no deadly weapon, save a billy; here,
shirt-sleeved officers of the law carried pistols, smoked and
chewed tobacco on duty. Colored Miami certainly was not
the Miami of which I had heard. It was a filthy backyard to
the Magic City.9
While the Bahamians found economic opportunity in Florida,
they also encountered segregation and white racism for the first time.
As early as 1898, for instance, one Bahamian labor migrant in Miami
petitioned Queen Victoria for protection against lynching and injustice:
"We live in fear of mob violence from the Southern white element at all
times arising from the old curse of slavery." Police brutality directed at
blacks quickly emerged as a long-standing matter of concern among
Bahamians in Miami. In 1907, islanders complained to British Ambas-
sador James Bryce about unwarranted police shootings of Bahamians
in Key West and Miami. Bryce urged the Foreign Office to investigate,
but candidly admitted that "there seems no doubt that the aggressors
were whites and the victims blacks and, in such cases, little hope can be
entertained of getting justice in certain Southern States." In such states
as Florida," Bryce wrote, "where colored people are not treated with
much consideration, such cases frequently occur." During a subsequent
investigation in 1908, a British consular official reported that in Florida
"it is a common occurrence for negroes to be shot" by police while
allegedly evading arrest.10
Twenty years later, in 1927, a Miami police shooting of a Baha-
mian after a traffic arrest produced an international incident in which the
British government demanded compensation for the victim's family.
Miami police claimed that the Bahamian, Erskine Nemo, pointed a
Shadows in the Sunshine: Race and Ethnicity in Miami
revolver at an officer, while another policeman shot him from a distance
of ten feet. But medical evidence showed that Nemo's wounds angled
downward from his shoulder, leading one very skeptical attorney to
suggest that"in order to have inflicted them from a distance often feet,
the policeman would have been obliged to be twenty-five feet tall."11
The ubiquitous pattern of police harassment of Miami blacks is
also reported by actor Sidney Poitier in his autobiography, This Life.
The son of Cat Island tomato farmers, Poitier arrived in Miami as a
fifteen-year-old boy in 1943. He was dismayed by the white racism he
encountered in the land of opportunity, and he survived several frightful
encounters with both the Ku Klux Klan and the Miami police. As
Poitier wrote, "I decided Miami wasn't so good for me when I began to
run into its not so subtle pattern of racism." For early black immigrants
to the Magic City, Miami's tourist playground image had little relevance
Building Liberty City--A New Ghetto
Housing and neighborhood issues were matters of vital concern
among Miami blacks. By the early 1930s, most of Miami's black
population of about 25,000 was crowded into a small neighborhood of
shacks and slums just northwest of the central business district known
at the time as "Colored Town." Today it is called Overtown. Blacks
were heavily concentrated in this shacktown because local policies of
racial zoning meant that there were few other places in the Miami area
where they were permitted to live. White business leaders, however,
were interested in pushing out the boundaries of the relatively small,
downtown business district at the expense of Miami's black community.
In the mid-1930s, New Deal public housing programs provided the first
such opportunity. A black public housing project named Liberty Square
was completed in 1937 on undeveloped land five miles northwest of the
center of Miami. The city's civic elite conceived of this development
as the nucleus of a new black community that might siphon off the
population of Overtown and permit downtown business expansion.
The availability of federal housing funds mobilized the civic elite, who
seized this opportunity to push the blacks out of the downtown area. 1
Simultaneous efforts were under way at the same time to achieve
the same goal. In 1936, for instance, the Dade County Planning Board
proposed a "negro resettlement plan." The idea was to cooperate with
the City of Miami "in removing [the] entire Central Negro town to three
This aerial view of the newly built Liberty Square housing project
demonstrates its isolation in Northwest Miami.
Negro Park locations, and establishment there of three model negro
towns." Located on the distant agricultural fringes west of Miami, the
three proposed black towns would be served by "an exclusive negro bus
line [linking] these negro areas to the heart of Miami," where blacks
worked primarily in service jobs in the city's tourist economy. A year
later, in a speech to the Miami Realty Board, Coral Gables developer
George Merrick proposed "a complete slum clearance ... effectively
removing every negro family from the present city limits." As late as
1945, Miami civic leaders were still discussing "the creation of a new
negro village that would be a model for the entire United States." 14
These proposals were never implemented, but New Deal housing
agencies such as the Home Owners Loan Corporation and the Federal
Housing Administrationcontributed to changing racial patterns. Through
their appraisal policies, both agencies redlinedd" Miami's black com-
munity and nearby white areas of "transition," thus hastening the
physical decay of the inter-city area. In fact, the Liberty Square housing
project became the center of a new and rapidly growing blackghetto--
the enormous, sprawling, fifteen-square-mile area now known as Lib-
erty City. A tacit agreement among city and county officials, real estate
developers, and some black leaders designated the northwest area of
Miami for future black settlement. Previously confined to the limited
Shadows in the Sunshine: Race and Ethnicity in Miami
territory of Overtown, blacks rapidly pushed out the boundaries of
Liberty City, sweeping into undeveloped areas as well as white work-
ing-class neighborhoods on the northern fringes of Miami. As in such
cities as Chicago and Detroit, the racial turnover of existing neighbor-
hoods in Miami was a process filled with tension and conflict over
several decades. The process was often accompanied by white protest
meetings, harassment of blacks, cross burnings, even shootings and
bombings. In 1951, for instance, the decision of a private developer to
rent apartments to blacks in a formerly all-white housing complex on
the fringes of Liberty City touched off a wave of dynamitings at the site
and throughout the Miami area.5
The effect of new public housing patterns and federal redlining
was to hasten the physical decay of the city and strengthen the process
of residential segregation. As a consequence, as several sociological
studies have demonstrated, Miami had the highest degree of residential
segregation by race of more than one hundred large American cities in
1940, 1950, and 1960, This was not a racial pattern that happened by
accident, but one that reflected the controlled expansion of black
Typical Overtown street scene during the 1960s.
A major interchange in what was the heart of Overtown. (Florida
Department of Transportation)
residential areas through most of that period. By 1970, Miami's "index
of residential segregation" had improved somewhat compared to other
Southern cities, but ninety-two percent of Miami blacks still lived in
segregated neighborhoods. In 1980, after twenty-five years of civil
rights activism in urban America, Miami still ranked near the top of a
list of sixty metropolitan areas in the extent of black residential
The Miami Expressway and Overtown
Liberty City became the nucleus of a new black ghetto, as Miami's
white business leaders of the 1930s anticipated. But their plans to
eliminate Overtown--to move all the blacks out of Miami and beyond
the city limits--were unsuccessful by the 1950s. In the late 1950s and
early 1960s, the federal interstate highway program provided a new
opportunity to raze the Overtown community and push the blacks to
more distant residential areas on the northwest fringe of the metropoli-
tan area. At the same time, Miami's white civic leadership perceived the
Shadows in the Sunshine: Race and Ethnicity in Miami
new urban interstate as a massive building project that might stimulate
the languishing central business district and permit future expansion
ARIP MIAlM oI 1 IMSI
Poster from the early 1950s advocating for public housing in
Miami. (From the papers of Elizabeth Virrick)
Take A Whiff
63 OUR GU'ZIS
Political cartoon from the Miami News in the 1950s, in support of
slum clearance efforts.
In retrospect, it is clear that the construction of the interstate
highway system has had an enormous impact in reorganizing and
reshaping the spatial order of American metropolitan areas. In urban
Shadows in the Sunshine: Race and Ethnicity in Miami
areas across the nation, the interstates drove to the hearts of cities. In
the process, they destroyed wide swaths of built-up urban land, often
uprooting entire communities--usually black or working-class ethnic
neighborhoods. By the mid-1960s, when interstate construction was
well under way, it was generally believed that the new highway system
would ultimately displace at least a million people from their homes. A
general pattern developed of using highway construction to eliminate
what were called "blighted" neighborhoods and to redevelop valuable
inner-city land. In most big cities, the forced relocation of blacks and
other low-income urbanites from inner-city housing triggered a spatial
reorganization of residential neighborhoods throughout urban areas.
As inner-city housing was destroyed, rising black population pressure
meant that dislocated blacks began moving into neighborhoods of
transition--formerly white districts on the fringes of the black ghetto
where low-cost housing predominated. This process of residential
movement and change underlay the creation of what historian Arnold
S. Hirsch has called, in a study of post-war Chicago, the "second
The building of Interstate-95 in the Miami metropolitan area pro-
vides a devastating example of the human and social consequences of
urban expressway construction. A 1955 plan for the Miami express-
way, prepared by the Miami City Planning Department, routed a North-
South Expressway along the Florida East Coast Railway corridor into
downtown Miami-- a route that had little impact on housing in nearby
Overtown. However, a new plan prepared in 1956 for the Florida State
Road Department shifted the route to the west and directly through
Overtown. Despite community objections, the new route was accepted
by the road department and supported by various downtown Miami
officials and groups like the Chamber of Commerce. Specifically, the
Florida East Coast Railway right-of-way was rejected, as the planning
documents stated, in order to provide "ample room of the future expan-
sion for the central business district in a westerly direction."18
Consequently, the new expressway ripped through the center of
Overtown, wiping out massive amounts of housing as well as Over-
town's main business district--the business and cultural heart of black
Miami. Some 40,000 blacks made Overtown home before the interstate
came, but less than 10,000 now remain in an urban wasteland dominated
by the expressway. One massive expressway interchange alone (1-95
and 1-395) took up about twenty square blocks of densely settled land
and destroyed the housing of about 10,000 people. By the end of the
expressway-building era, little remained of Overtown to recall its days
as a thriving center of black community life, and when it was known as
the Harlem of the South.19
The dislocation of blacks from Overtown also stimulated the
growth of the second ghetto in Miami, as Liberty City began pushing out
its boundaries into nearby white neighborhoods. Since the 1960s, a
large corridor of black residential housing has emerged in the northwest
quadrant of Dade County, reaching beyond Liberty City to Opa-locka
and Carol City. The concentration of blacks in this area stemmed from
the racial zoning and housing decisions of earlier decades. But it is also
quite clear that the outflow of black population from Overtown after
expressway construction and other urban development in the 1960s
intensified the transformation of Miami's residential space.20
Expressway building through Overtown also left a legacy of mis-
trust and suspicion among Miami's black leaders. The story of what
happened to Overtown has become part of the political folklore of black
Miami. Black politicians and civic leaders regularly remind the white
establishment of what they did to Overtown. "Overtown still bears the
scars of the highway," a black city planner in Miami noted in 1981. T.
Willard Fair, director of the Greater Miami Urban League, recalled in
1986 that "urban renewal and the coming of the expressway helped to
destroy the community." The Reverend Bryan Walsh, director of the
Catholic Services Bureau in Miami and a long-time activist in commu-
nity relations, stated in a 1981 interview: "I believe that 1-95 represents
a sociological disaster for Miami. Many of the problems faced by the
city today are traceable to 1-95 and not to the refugee influx .... What
is clear is that the planners had little understanding or concern for the
human problems involved." As one Miami Herald reporter put it in
1983, "a whole generation of wary black leaders suspect the latest re-
development plans are the final land grab in a long history of official
deceit." The traumatic events of the expressway-building era have
remained etched in the historic memory of black Miami.21
This point brings us back to the national imagery with which this
paper began. Buried beneath the avalanche of promotional extavagan-
zas and media attention and hyperbole, there have always been other
Miamis. Black Miami has been hidden in the shadows, but it has always
been an integral part of the real Miami. Until recently, there has never
Shadows in the Sunshine: Race and Ethnicity in Miami
been much hoopla in this city over police misconduct, housing discrimi-
nation affecting blacks, and public policy decisions such as expressway
construction that uprooted entire communities. But it should be quite
clear that such actions and such decisions have had an enormous impact
in shaping the physical and social development of the Miami metropoli-
tan area. As the events outlined here suggest, public perception and
national imagery must be modified to account for and to incorporate the
black Miami, as well as other Miamis created by Cubans, Haitians,
Nicaraguans, and other newcomers to this sunbelt metropolis.
1. L. H. Cammack, What About Florida? (Chicago: Land and
Lee, Inc., 1916), 147. On Flagler's boosterism in Florida, see Sidney
Walter Martin, Florida's Flagler (Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia
Press, 1949); David Leon Chandler, Henry Flagler: The Astonishing
Life and Times of the Visionary Robber Baron Who Founded Florida
(New York: Macmillan, 1986); and Edward N. Akin, Flagler: Rockefeller
Partner and Florida Baron (Kent, Oh.: Kent State University Press,
1988). On Carl Fisher, see Jane Fisher, Fabulous Hoosier: A Story of
American Achievement (New York: Robert M. McBride and Co.,
1947); and Joe McCarthy, "The Man Who Invented Miami Beach,"
American Heritage, 27 (December, 1975), 64-71. On Merrick and
Coral Gables, see Kathryne Ashley, George E. Merrick and Coral
Gables, Florida (Coral Gables: Crystal Bay Publishers, 1985). On the
Florida boom generally, see Victor Rainbolt, The Town That Climate
Built: The Story of the Rise of a City in the American Tropics (Miami:
Parker Art Printing Association, 1924); Stuart B. Mclver, The Greatest
Sale on Earth: The Story of the Miami Board of Realtors, 1920-1980
(Miami: E. A. Seemann Publishing, Inc., 1980); David Nolan, Fifty
Feet in Paradise: The Booming of Florida (San Diego: Harcourt Brace
Jovanovich, Publishers, 1984); and John Rothchild, Up for Grabs: A
Trip Through Time and Space in the Sunshine State (New York: Viking,
2. "Paradise Regained," Fortune, 13 (January, 1936), 35.
3. Henning Heldt, "Miami: Heaven or Honky-Tonk?" in Robert S.
Allen, ed., Our Fair City (New York: Vanguard Press, Inc., 1947), 79.
4. Ibid., 88-91; Miami Herald, May 4, 1955; "Miami: Mob Town,
U.S.A.," Newsweek (February 13, 1967), 38-39; Hank Messick, Syn-
dicate in the Sun (New York: Macmillan, 1968).
5. On the changes brought to Miami by the Cuban exodus, see
Thomas D. Boswell and James R. Curtis, The Cuban-American Expe-
rience: Culture, Images, and Perspectives (Totowa, N.J.: Rowman and
Allanheld, 1983); Joel Garreau, The Nine Nations of North America
(Boston: HoughtonMifflin, 1981), 167-206; Raymond A. Mohl, "Miami:
The Ethnic Cauldron," in Richard M. Bernard and Bradley R. Rice, eds.,
Sunbelt Cities: Politics and Growth Since World War II (Austin:
University of Texas Press, 1983), 58-99; Barry Levine, "The Capital of
Latin America," The Wilson Quarterly, 9 (Winter 1985), 47-69; Joan
Didion, Miami (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987).
6. U. S. Commission on Civil Rights, Confronting Racial Isola-
tion in Miami (Washington, D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Office,
1982); Bruce Porter and Marvin Dunn, The Miami Riot of 1980: Cross-
ing the Bounds (Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1984).
7. T. D. Allman, Miami: City of the Future (New York: Atlantic
Monthly Press, 1987); David Rieff, Going to Miami: Exiles, Tourists,
and Refugees in the New America (Boston: Little, Brown and Co.,
1987); Edna Buchanan, The Corpse Had a Familiar Face: Covering
Miami, America's Hottest Beat (New York: Random House, 1987);
David Rieff, "The Second Havana," New Yorker, 63 (May 18, 1987),
65-69; Robert Sherrill, "Can Miami Save Itself?" New York Times
Magazine (July 19, 1987), 18-24; Tom Morganthau, et al., "Miami:
America's Casablanca," Newsweek (January 25, 1988), 22-29.
8. On the Bahamian immigration generally, see Raymond A. Mohl,
"Black Immigrants: Bahamians in Early Twentieth-Century Miami,"
Florida Historical Quarterly, 65 (January 1987), 271-297; Howard
Johnson, "Bahamian Labor Migration to Florida in the Late Nineteenth
and Early Twentieth Centuries," International Migration Review, 22
(Spring 1988), 84-103.
9. Ira De A. Reid, The Negro Immigrant: His Background,
Characteristics and Social Adjustment, 1899-1937 (New York: Co-
lumbia University Press, 1939), 189.
10. Charles A. Perpall to Queen Victoria, May 22, 1898, CO 23/
251, Public Record Office, England; James Bryce to Edward Grey, June
21, 1907, CO 23/262, ibid.; Bryce to Grey, April 1, 1908, CO 23/264,
ibid.; H. W. Kennard, "Report on Enquiry into the Circumstances of the
Death of Robert Hulbert, a British Subject at Miami," March 29, 1908,
CO 23/264, ibid.
11. Nassau Tribune (Bahamas), July 8, 1931.
Shadows in the Sunshine: Race and Ethnicity in Miami
12. Sidney Poitier, This Life (New York: Ballantine Books, 1980),
1, 36-52, quotation on 42-43.
13. Raymond A. Mohl, "Trouble in Paradise: Race and Housing
in Miami During the New Deal Era," Prologue: The Journal of the
National Archives, 19 (Spring 1987), 7-21.
14. Dade County Planning Board Minutes, August 27, 1936,
George E. Merrick Papers, Box 2, Historical Association of Southern
Florida, Miami, typescript; Dade County Planning Council, "Negro
Resettlement Plan," 1937, National Urban League Papers, Part I, Series
VI, Box 56, Library of Congress, mimeo; George E. Merrick, Planning
the Greater Miami for Tomorrow (Miami: Miami Realty Board, 1937),
11; Miami Herald, April 5, 1945.
15. Mohl, "Trouble in Paradise," 14-20; Charles Abrams, Forbid-
den Neighbors: A Study of Prejudice in Housing (New York: Harper
and Brothers, 1955), 120-136; Reinhold P. Wolff and David Gillogly,
Negro Housing in the Miami Area: Effects of the Postwar Housing
Boom (Coral Gables: University of Miami, 1951); Harold M. Rose,
"Metropolitan Miami's Changing Negro Population, 1950-1960,"
Economic Geography, 40 (July 1964), 221-238.
16. Donald 0. Cowgill, "Trends in Residential Segregation of
Non-Whites in American Cities, 1940-1950," American Sociological
Review, 21 (February 1956), 43-47; Karl E. Taeuber and Alma F.
Taeuber, Negroes in Cities: Residential Segregation and Neighbor-
hood Change (Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, 1965), 39-41;
Annemette Sorenson, et al., "Indexes of Racial Residential Segregation
for 109 Cities in the United States, 1940-1970," Sociological Focus, 8
(1975), 125-142; Douglas S. Massey and Nancy A. Denton, "Trends in
the Residential Segregation of Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians: 1970-
1980," American Sociological Review, 52 (December 1987), 802-825;
Douglas S. Massey and Nancy A. Denton, "Suburbanization and
Segregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas," American Journal of Sociol-
ogy, 94 (November 1988), 592-626; Miami Herald, December 30,
17. National Commission on Urban Problems, Building the Ameri-
can City (Washington, D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1969),
81; Thomas H. MacDonald, "The Case for Urban Expressways,"
American City, 62 (June 1947), 92-93; Thomas H. MacDonald, "The
Interstate System in Urban Areas," May 16, 1950, mimeo, Thomas H.
MacDonald Papers, U. S. Department of Transportation Library,
Washington, D.C. See also Arnold S. Hirsch, Making the Second
Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago, 1940-1960 (Cambridge, Eng.:
Cambridge University Press, 1983); and Mark I. Gelfand, A Nation of
Cities: The Federal Government and Urban America, 1933-1965 (New
York: Oxford University Press, 1975), 222-234.
18. Miami Planning and Zoning Board, The Miami Long Range
Plan: Reporton Tentative Plan for Trafficways (Miami: City of Miami,
1955); Wilbur Smith and Associates, A Major Highway Plan for
Metropolitan Dade County, Florida, Prepared for State Road Depart-
ment of Florida and Dade County Commission (New Haven: Wilbur
Smith and Associates, 1956), 33-44.
19. Raymond A. Mohl, "Race and Space in the Modem City: Inter-
state-95 and the Black Community in Miami," paper presented at
annual meeting of Organization of American Historians, Reno, Ne-
vada, March 24, 1988.
20. Psycho-Social Dynamics in Miami (Coral Gables: Center for
Advanced International Studies, University of Miami, 1969), 531-554;
Metro-Dade County Planning Department, Mobility Patterns in Metro-
politan Dade County, 1964-1969 (Miami: Metropolitan Dade County,
1970); Teresa Lenox, "Opa-locka: From Dream to Ghetto," graduate
seminar paper, Florida Atlantic University, 1988; Metro-Dade County
Planning Department, Population Projections: Race and Hispanic
Origin, Dade County, Florida, 1980-2000 (Miami: Metropolitan Dade
21. Miami Herald, November 29, 1983; Miami Times, March 20,
June 5, 1986; interview with Rev. Bryan Walsh, December 23, 1981,
interview conducted by Jennifer Braaten. See also Athalie Range,
"Citizen Participation in the Metropolitan Transportation Planning
Process," in U. S. Department of Transportation, Metropolitan Trans-
portation Planning Seminars: Miami, Florida, January 7-8, 1971
(Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation, 1971), 39.
List of Members 81
LIST OF MEMBERS
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Each membership category offers the benefits as outlined above,
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During the past year seventy-six members upgraded their level of sup-
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institutions that have paid dues since August 1988; those who joined af-
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CATEGORIES OF MEMBERSHIP
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Any changes in the level or listing of membership should be reported
to the membership office at 375-1492.
Honorary Life Membership is voted by the Board of Trustees to rec-
ognize special service to the association. The symbol ** indicates
Founding Members; the symbol indicates Charter Member.
Eagle Brands. Inc.
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Southern Diesel, Inc.
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Hisner & Lubin
Farrey's Wholesale Hardware Co., Inc.
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List of Members 83
Adkins, Wayman L.
Anderson, Ms. Marie W.
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Davis, Mr. and Mrs. James L.
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De Carion, Mr. George H.
DaFoor, Mr. and Mrs. J. Al-
Dellapa, Mr. and Mrs. Gary
Donbrowsky, Mr. Alan H.
Dowlen, Mr.LeonidasW. Jr.
Dunwody, Mr. Atwood
Durbin, Ms. Grace Y.
Ehrhard. Ms. Harriet
Eaton, Judge and Mrs. Joe
Ellenburg, Mr. and Mrs.
Evoy, Mr. and Mrs. Bill
Pinley, Ms. Jane
Fojo. Dr. and Mrs. Roberto
Ford, Mr. Richard E.
Gaby, Mr. and Mrs. Donald
Gaffn, Mr, and Mrs. Harold
Ganguzza, Mr. Joseph H.
Gardner, Mr. and Mrs.
Gerhart, Mr. Franklin
Gibson. Mr. David C,
Glaer, Mr. andMrs. Donald
Gonzalez, Mr. Alvaro Jr.
Goodman, Mr. andMrs. Jer-
Goodman, Mr. and Mrs.
Gossett, Mr. and Mrs. Rich-
Grier, Ms. Helen R.
Gufirie, Mr. Robert D,
Hasa, Mr. and Mrs. George,
Hancock, Mr. Eugene A.
Hansen, Mr. William M.
Hardin, Mr. Henry C. Jr.
Harrison Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Haverfield, Ms. Shirley
Helms, Mr. and Mrs. Brent
Hearings, Mr. and Mms.
'Hcrir, Judge and Mrs. Wil-
Alernathy, Mrs. Ann F.
Abraham, Ms. Nonna
Adair,.Mr.John H., III
Adarm, Mr. Andrew D.
Adams, Mr, and Mrs. James
Ajami, Mr. and Mrs. Raffoul
Albin. Dr. and Mrs. Eric L.
Albrecht, Mr. and Mrs. Say-
Anderson, Mr. and Mrs.
Anllo, Mr. Bill
Arnold, Ms. Patricia
Arstark, Ms. Francine
Azcuy. Ms. Ana M.
Ball, Mr. and Mrs. Ivan E.
Bander, Mr. and Mrs. Mi-
Barker, Mr. and Mrs. Char-
Barket, Mrs. Sybil
Bawch, Mr. Gustavus
Baumberger, Mr. and Mrs.
Bechamps, Mr. andMr. John
Belair, Ms. Rcra J.
Bell. Mr. Paul
Hollinger, Mrs. Barbara
Homatmi, Mrs. Noerts S.
Hunter, Dr. and Mrs. Burk.
Hunter, Dr. Caroline B.
Jaffe, Dr. Jonathan R,
Jamieson, Mr. Lewis C.
Jefferson.Dr. and Mrs. Tho-
JiEks, Mr. and Mrs. Larry
Jotffr, Dr. and Mrs. John
Kern, Mrs, George S.
Keen. Ms. Patricia F.
Keller, Mr. Bruce A.
Kelton, Mr. Steven M.
Kicnzle, Mr. Carl R.
Kleinberg. Mr. and Mrs.
Kniskern, Mr. and Mrs.
Kotih,Mr. andMrs.James E.
Koss, Mr. and Mr. Abe
Landau, Mr. and Mrs. Calvin
Lau-r, Mr, and Mrs. Johnia F.
Lawrence, Mr. and Mrs. Jo-
Leake, Mr. and Mrs. Martin
Lcvinc, Me. and Mrs. Arthur
Lewis, Mrand Mrs. John M.
Lewis, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
London, Mr. and Mrs. I.
Longshore, Mr. Frank
Longntreh, Mr. Bob F.
Masvidal, Mr. and Mrs.Rai
Matheson, Mr. and Mrs.
Maxted, Mr. and Mrs, FJ.,
May, Mr. and Mrs. Damon
McArdle, Mr. and Mrs.
Merrill, Mr. Arthumr E.
Meyer, Mr. ,id Mrs. Sylvan
Mislch. Mr. Roger G.
Mizcll, Mr. and Mrs. Earl S.
Molina, Mr. and Mrs. Luis
Munroe, Mrs. Wirth M.
New, Mr. and Mrs. Edwin E.
Ncwconib, Mr. "ard Mrs.
Norton, Dr. Edward W.
Norwood, Mr. and Mrs.
Oliver, Dr. and Mrs. Robert
Padron, Dr. Eduardo J.
Pancoast, Ms. Katherine F.
Peck. Mr. George W., Jr
Pickard, Ms. Carolyn
Psevat Mr. andMrs.Preston
Radr.laan, Mr. andMrs.Fred
Rawls, Mr. andMrs. Edward
Rcbozo, Mr. C. G.
Rowell, Mr. and Mrs.Donald
Ruggles, Mr. and Mrs. Read
Rutter, Mr. and Mrs. Natha-
niel P., III
Santiago, Mr. and Mrs. Eu-
Sarafoglu, Dr. and Mrs.
Shapiro, Ms. Myron
Shay, Mr. and Mrs. Rodger
Shertman. Mr. and Mrs.
Smith, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel
Spak, Mr. and Mrs. Theo-
Steinberg, Mr. Alan W.
Stirrup, Ms. Edane W.
Sures. Mr. and Mrs. J.
Swenson, Mr. and Mrs.
Edward F., Jr.
ThosnpsonMr.Lyle B., P.A.
Thoridilk, Mr. and Mrs.
Tharnton, Mr. and Mrs.
Tribble, Mr. and Mrs. James
Tanatall, Mr. and Mrs. Jack
Vasquez, Mrs. Olga
Winick, Ms. Paulime
Wood, Mrs. Warren C,_ Sr.
*Woare Mrs. Margaret B.
Wragg, Mr. and Mrs. Otis
Wyllic, Mr. and Mrs. Stuart
Wynne, Mr. James R.
Yates, Mrs. Eunice P.
Berman, Mr. Neil J.
Bisncnfeld, Mr. and Mrs.
Bormar, Mr. and Mrs. Tho-
B rovay,Mr. and Mrs. Start
Bramson, Mr. and Mrs. Seth
Brand, Mr. and Mrs. Ray-
Brctos, Dr. and Mrs. Miguel
Brewer, Mr. David E.
Brigance, Mr. and Mrs.
Brinker, Mr. and Mrs. Rich-
Brown, Mr. andMd s.JackN.
Buerran, Mrs. Linda
Bukstell,Mr. and Mrs.Leslie
Caldwell, Mr. and Mrs. Al-
Caraphbcl, Mr. Frances
Cannichael, Dr. and Mrs.
Carison, Mr. and Mrs. Art
Chiaro, Ms. Maria, J.
Claughton, Mr. and Mrs.
Cahn, Dr. and Mrs. Martin
Cran, Mrs. Dec M.
Coaover, Mrs. Trudy W,
Corson, Ms. Ruth D.
Crawley, Mr. and Mrs. Jo-
Curtis, Mr. and Mrs. Donald
Danforth, Mr. and Mrs. Dan
Davis, Mr. Roger B.
de Castro, Mr. Raymon-d
De Guevara, Mr. and Mrs.
Diamond, Mr. and Mrs. J.
Dibeler, Mr. Jonl B.
Dinnerstein, Ms. Jeanne
Doherty, Mr. Robert G,
Dougherry, Mr. and Mrs.
Dowdell, Mr. and Mrs. SH.
Dunan, Mr. and Mrs. Geo.
Eisnor, Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Fabeloa, Mr. and Mrs. Hum-
FairbairnMr. andMrs. Ralph
Farrell, Ms. Marge
Plomandmz,Mr. and Mrs.John
Finkelstein, Mr. and Mrs.
Fishman, Dr. and Mrs. Law-
Fitzgerald, Mrs. W.L.
Fitzgerald, Mr. and Mrs.
Fleischmanm, Ms. Pam
Pontaine, Ms. Bertha
Friedman, Dr. and Mrs. Evan
Gabler, Mrs. George B.
Gallw.y, Mr. William J., III
Gardcr, Mrs. Dick B.
Garis, Mrs. Millicent
Garner Mrs. Stanley G.
Gleason, Mr. W. Lansing
Gold, Mr. and Mrs. David H.
Goldwyn, Dr. and Mrs.
Gonzalez-Viara, Mr. Raul
List of Members 85
Goodson, Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Goosen, Mr. rid Mrs Pre-
Gordon, Ms. Gail
Green, Dr. and Mrs. Edward
CGren, Ms. Marcia RL
Greere, Mr. and Mrs. Stan-
Greenfield, Mr. and Mrs.
Guerra, Mr. and Mrs. Phil
Guttenarac.er. Mr. Edward
Hammond. Mr. and Mrs.
Hanley, Mr. and Mrs. Peter
Harrington, Ms. Nancy K.
Harrison, Mr. and Mrs. John
Harter, Ms. Nancy
Hauser, Mr. and Mrs. How-
Heath, Mr. and Mrs. Bayard
Hellmann, Mr. and Mrs.
Hicks, Mrs. Margaret D.
Hicks, Mr. Stephen M.
Hilliard, Ms. Marjery
HindsMr. andMrs.L.F., Jr.
Hipps, Mrs. T.F.
Hirsch, Mr. and Mrs. Sol
Hodges, Mr. and Mrs. Rich-
Holbrook, Mr. and Mrs.
Holder, Mr. and Mrs, Hal
Holliday, Ms. Mary Anne
Horacck, Mr. and Mrs.
Horand, Mr. andMrs.James
Howe, Mrs. Helen D.I
Jenkins, Mrs. Mary D.
Jimnnez, Mr. Juan
Jollivette, Mr. Cyrus M.
Jones, Mr. and Mrs. Ray-
Jaones, Dr. and Mrs. Walter
Jorgensen, Mr. and Mra.
Juncona, Mr. Ralph A.
Junkin, Mr. and Mrs. John
Kaplan, Mrs. Betsy
Kenin, Mr. and Mrs, David
Kessler, Ms. Betty
Kistler, Mr. Robert S.
Abbott, Mr. and Mrs. Henry
Aborman, Mr. and Mrs.
Abrams, Mr. and Mrs. Ken-
Klingensmith, Mr. Charles
Krause, Mr. and Mrs. Tho-
Lamphear. Mr. and Mrs.
Land, Mr. David B.
Lara, Mr. and Mrs. Jerry R.
Layton, Dr. and Mrs Robert
Levine, Mr. andMrs, Martin
Levy, Ms. ElEanor F,
Levy, Mr. and Mrs. Leonard
Losak, Mr. and Mrs. John
Lotspichi, Mrs. Jay W.
Ludwig, Mr. and Mrs. Sid-
Maga, Mrs. There
Malonm, Mrs, Katherine
Mannis.Dr. and Mrs. Arnold
Marokus, Capt. and Mrs.
Martinz-Cid, Ms. Recy
Mas, Ms. Marilyn A.
Mathews, Mr. and Mrs. IF.,
*Mateson, Ms. Eleanor E.
McAliley, Ms. Janet R.
MClhasiky, Mr. and Mrs.
Robert M.. Jr.
McCreary, Ms. Jane
McKey, Dr. and Mrs.Robert
McMinn, Mr. John M.
Mesh, Mr. and Mrs. Howard
Meyer. Mr. and Mrs. Jack L.
Meyers, Mr. and Mrs. Frank
Michelson, Mr. andMrs. Don
Mitchell, Ms. Flora
Mohr, Mr. Alfred B.
Morilla, Ms. Laura C.
Morris, Mr. and Mrs. David
Muhtar, Mr. and Mrs.
Murray, Mrs. Mary R.
Myers, Ms. Ruth D.
Natiello, Dr. Thomas A.
Needell, Dr. andMrs, Mervin
Ncemoi, Mr. Joseph C.
Owen, Mr. and Mrs, David
Palmieri, Mr. andMrs. Pablo
Parrish, Mr. Richard K., 11
Pearce, Ms. Libby
Pepper, Mr. and Mrs. Sidney
Perez, Mr. and Mrs. John
Peskie, Mr. and Mrs. Thio-
Pfenniger, Mr. Richard C.
Porter, Mr. Wayne E.
Quinton, Mr. andMrs. A.E,,
Adler, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel
Admire, Mr. and Mrs. Jack
Agilcra, Mr. andsMrs. Pablo
Ramsey, Mr. and Mrs, John
Rapa, Mr. Vicene.
Reed, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas
Re-se, Mr. John
Reid, Mr. and Mrs. Edward
Reilly, Mr. Phill
Railly, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Reynaldos, Mr. Miguel
Righetti, Dr. and Mrs. Tho-
Roach, Mr. and Mrs. Patrick
Robertson, Dr. andMr,E,.G.
Rosenthal, Mr. and Mrs.
Rubin, Mr. andMrs. Herman
Rubin, Mr. Jack
Rmnaey, Mr. and Mrs. John
Ryan, Ms. Colleen A.
Salome, Ms. Patricia
Samberg, Mr. and Mrs. Mike
Sandler, Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Schafer, Mr. Thomas F.
Schenkman,Mr. and Mrs.R.
Schoen, Mr, and Mrs. Marc
Schuh, Mr. and Mrs Robert
Scott, Ms. Frieds
Scott, Ms, Martha M.
Scipp,Mr.. andMr., John C.,
Selig, Mr. and Mrs. J.R,
Sewell, Mr. John W.
Shcehan, Ms. Elaine
Sherman, Mr. John S., Sr.
Shouse, Ms. Abbie H.
Siegel,Mr. and Mrs.Mark A.
Silvers, Mr. and Mrs. Bruce
Simon. Mr. and Mrs. Edwin
Smith,Mr, andMrs, William
Snyder. Mr. and Mrs. Philip
Spalding, Mr. Gerald C.
Stone, Ms. Jacquelyn C.
Stone, Ms. Lynda
Strozicr, Mr. Thomas B.,
Summers, Ms. Lynn M.
Sutton, Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
SwansonMr. and Ms.Mark
Aguilar, Ms. Sylvia
Aguirre, Mr. and Mrs. Louis
Aixala, Mr. and Mrs. Angel
Akarman, Mr.amd Mrs.John
Swecney, Mrs. Edward C.
Thorpson, Mr. and Mrs.
Thurer, Mr. and Mrs. Rich-
Tilghman, Mr. ands Mrs.
James B., Jr.
Traamell, Mr. Marshall, Jr.
Troia.Mr. andMrs. Anthony
Tranor Dr. andMrs.Michacl
Trysor, Mr. and Mrs. Mi-
Tyson, Ms. Christiane M.
Underwood, Dr. and Mrs.
Underwood, Mr. and Mrs.
Unitaga, Ms. Caroline L..
Vaughan, Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Vernay, Mr. Daniel
Villa, Dr. and Mrs. Luis, Jr.
WeasMr. andMrs. Maxwell
Walfish, Mr. and Mrs. Rich-
Warner, Mr. and Mrs. Jon-
Warren, Dr. and Mrs. Rich-
Warshaw, Mr. and Mrs. Nat
Webb,Mr. andMra. William
Weinberger, Mr. and Mrs.
Basrctt N.,, Esq.
Weingrad, Dr. and Mrs.
Weisenfeld. Mr. and Mrs.
Werner. Mr. and Mrs. Mi-
Whalin, Mr. Michael J.
White, Mr. and Mrs.William
Williams, Mr. and Mrs.
Williams, Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Wilson, Mr. Daniel F.
Wolfsor, Ms. L.
Wolfson, Ms. Lisa
Worley, Mr. and Mrs. Jack
Wright, Mr. and Mrs. James
Zagray, Mr. and Mrs. Law-
Zdan, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph
Alejandro, Mr. and Mrs. Joe
Allen, Mr. Paul
Allen, Mr. and Mrs. Ray
Allenson, Mr. and Mrs. Her-
Al-Manea, Mr. Mohammed
Alspach, Dr. and Mrs. Bruce
Alvarcz, Mr. and Mm. Le-
Alvo, Mr. and Mrs. ke
Anderson, Mr. and Mrs,
Anderson, Mr. and Mrs.
Anderson, Mr. andMrs.John
Anguish, Mr. and Mrs. Don
Apgar, Mr. and Mrs. Ross H.
Arch, Mr. and Mrs. Ted
Archer, Mr. Edward M.
Arguelles, Mr. and Mrs.
Arrbrister, Mrs. Estler M.
Armdt, Mmr. Jo-Ann
Arrington, Ms. Viviana
Athan, Mr. and Mrs. Peter
Atkins, Judge and Mrs. C.
Atkins, Ms. Lorea and Mr.
Atlass, Mr. and Mrs. Alvin
August, Mrs.. Blanche T.
Auslander, Mr. and Mrs.
Avant, Mr. andMn.John L.
Averbrook, Mr. and Mrs.
Aye, Mr. and Mrs. Charles
Ayer. Mr. and Mrs. H.E., Jr.
Babcock, Mr. and Mrs.
BaRchr, Mr. and Mrs. Louis
Baer, Mr. and Mrs. Ken
Baisman, Mr. Oscar
Baker, Ms. Darlene H.
Baker, Mr. and Mrs. John W.
Ball, Mr. and Mrs. Charles
Ball, Mr. and Mrs. Rod C.
Ballard, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Banks, Col. and Mrs. Rich-
Barbanera, Mr. and Mrs.
Barber, Mr. and Mrs. Earl
Bare, Mr. and Mrs, Charles
Barfield,Mr. and Mrs.James
Barkin, Dr. and Mrs. Jarnic
Barko, Mr. and Mrs. Paul J.
Banihill, Mr. andMrs.Lester
Barrand, Mr. and Mrs. Ha-
Barry, Mr. and Mrs. David
Barry, Mrs. Matrina E.
Bass, Mr. and Mrs. Michael
Bass, Dr. and Mrs. Robert T
Baliast Ms. Maria C.
Barnael, Mr. and Mrs. Rey
Baurngartner, Mr. and Mrs.
Bavly, Mr. and Mrs. Harry
Baya, Mr. George J., Esq.
Beard, Mr. Wendall
Beck, Mr. andMrs. Allen M.
Becker, Mr. and Mrs. Char-
Becker, Dr. and Mrs. Earl
Beckharn, Mr. Walter H., Jr.
Beds, Mr. Robert
Beer. Mr. and Mrs. Albert J.
Begeman, Mr. and Mrs.
Behorana, Mr. andMrs.John
Beiley, Mr. Stanley A.
Belcher, Mr. and Mrs. Edwin
Bell, Mr. and Mrs. Ross T.
Bendler, Mr. and Mrs. Fred
Becnren, Mr. and Mrs. An-
Benowitz, Mr. H. Allen
Bensan, Mr.andMrs. Edwin
Belndey, Mr. C. P.
BerardMr. uandMrs. JulioF.
Berg, Mr. and Mrs. Randall
Berger, Mr. and Mrs. A.
Berke, Mr. and Mrs.Michael
Bcnnan, Mr. and Mrs. Leslie
Bertnstin, Mr. and Mrs.
Berrin, Mr. and Mrs. Ray
Bertalson, Mr. and Mrs.
Bothuar, Ms. Mildred L.
Better, Mr. and Mrs. Jer-
Beyer, Dr. and Mrs. Robert
Bigelow, Mr. and Mrs. John
Birk. Mr. and Mrs. Richard
Birmingham, Mr. and Mrs.
Bischoff, Ms. Connie
Bichoff, Mr. andMrs. Rich-
Biver, Mr. and Mrs. Marvin
Bivios, Mr.and Mrs. Charles
Bjorkruan, Mr. William
Blackbum, Mr. and Mrs.
Blake, Mr. and Mrs. Tim
Black, Mr. and Mrs. Ber-
Blanco, Mr. and Mrs. Jose
Blanco. Mr. and Mrs, Jose
Blazevic. Mr. and Mrs. Ray-
Blechman, Dr. andMrs. W.J.
Block. Mr. and Mrs. Jeffrey
Bloom, Mr. and Mrs. Ken-
Bludworh, Mr. and Mrs.
Blue, Mr. and Mrs. Charles
Blue, Mr. and Mrs. Ted R.,
Blumberg, Mr. andMrs Phil-
Bobes, Mr. and Mrs, Steven
Bocgen, Mr. and Mrs. R. W.
Ms. Ellen Kanner
Bolton. Dr, and Mrs. John
Bond, Mr. and Mrs. Vernon
Boundy, Mrs. Helen M.
Boure, Ma, Benita
Bowen, Mrs. R.
Boyd, Ms. Debrah L.
Bloz, Ms. Cara and Mr.
Boyrrer, Mr. Leonard
Brady, Mr. and Mr. Daniel
Brake. Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Brant, Mr. William
Brantley, Mr. and Mrs. Bill
Brecher, Mr. John
Brennan, Mr. and Mrs. Bob
Brenner, Mr Frederick
Breit, Mr. Charles, E.
Breslin, Mr. and Mrs. John
Bridges, Mr. and Mrs. Roger
Broas, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Brodcur, Mr. and Mrs. G.
Brody, Mr. andMrs. Alsm C.
Brody. Mr. and Mrs. Jon
Broker, Mr. Douglas C.
Bronsn, Mr. Danicl B.
Brooke, Mr. and Mrs. Peter
Brookrnr, Mr. and Mrs.
Brooks, Mr. and Mrs, Ed-
Brown, Mr, and Mrs.
Brown, Mr. and Mrs.Edward
Brown, Mr. and Ms. Harvey
Brown, Mr.and Mrs. JackN.
Brown, Mr. and Mrs. Jaose
Brown, Mr. and Mrs. James
Brown, Mr. and Mrs. Roger
Brown, Mr, andMrs. Ronald
Brown, Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Browndll, Mr. and Mrs. ER.
Brmce, Mr. and Mrs. Thor W.
Brumbaugh, Mr. and Mrs.
Brumer, Ms. Charlotte R.
Buchbinder, Mr. and Mrm.
Buhler, Mr. and Mrs. JeanE,
Buhrmnaster, Mr. and Mrs.
Burdin, Mr. and Mrs. Jamn e
Burgin, Mr. and Mrs. James
Burke, Mr. and Mrs. Gordon
Burke, Ms. Mary E.
Burton, Mr. and Mrs. L.-
*Burton, Col. and Mrs.
Robert A., Jr.
Bush, Mr. Jesse
Butler, Mr. and Mrs. Donald
Butler, Mr. and Mrs. John T.
Butler, Mr. Kevin and Ms.
Cahill, Mr. and Mrs. Lau-
Calluandr, Mr. and Mrs.
Calanias, Mr. and Mrs. Erik
Calvert, Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Camrbes, Mr. Lymn M.
Camp,Dr. andMrs. RobertJ.
Campbell, Mr. and Mrs. C.
Campbell. Mr. and Mrs.
Campbell, Mr. and Mrs. John
Camps, Mr. and Mrs. Carlos
C annnDr. andMr. Starney
Capon, Mr. andMrs.Richard
Carbone, Mrs. Grace C.
Carbonell, Mr. J. R.
Card, Mr. and Mrs. James
Carey, M. Utc
Caribach, Ms. Diane G.
Carlisle, Mr. and Mrs. David
Carnona, Mrs, Judy
Carr, Ms. Barbara J.
Cart. Mr. and Mo. Jack
Carrasco, Mr. as Mrs. An-
Carroll, Dr. and Mrs. La.-
Carroll, Ms. Susan
Caruso, Mr. and Mrs. Char-
Cassini, Mr. and Mrs. Char-
Cast, Mr. andMrs.RobertB.
Castro, Mr. and Mrs. Manuel
Catasus, Mrs. Graciela C.
Caulder, Mr. and Mrs. Mark
Chait, Mr. and Mrs. Irving H.
Chamberlain, Mr. and Mrs.
Chareoess, Ms. Patricia
Chandler, Dr. and Mrs. J.R.
List of Members 87
Chang, Mr. and Mrs. Francis
Chapman, Mr. and Mrs.
Charles, Mr. and Mrs. David
Chase, Mr. Ronald
Chastain, Mr. and Mrs. R. B.
Chavin, Mr. Robert H. and
Chawllk, Mr. and Mrs. Wal-
Chesney. Mr. and Mrs. Wal-
Christen n, Mr. and Mrs.
Church, Mr. and Mrs. David
Cieaszko, Mr. and Mrs. L.
Cieslinski, Mr. and Mrs.
Ciochon. Dr. and Mrs.
Citrin, Mr. and Mrs. Charles
Clark, Mr. and Mrs. D. M.,
Clark,Mr.and Mrs. JsmesK.
Clark, Ms. Lydia S.
Clark, Mr. and Mrs. Sidney
Clarke, Mr. andMrs. Ronald
Claypool. Mr.and Mrs. Wil.
Clayton, Mr. and Mr. C. G.
Cleary, Mr. and Mrs. Timno-
Clenments, Mr. Joey
Cleveland, Mr. and Mrs.
Clin, Mr. Stephen
Cochran,Dr.ard Mrs, Henry
Codina, Mr. Armnando
Cody, Mr. and Mrs. Dennic
Coffan, Mr. and Mrs. Wal-
Cogswell, Mr. and Mrs. T. .
Cohen, Mr. and Mrs. George
Cohen, Mr. snd Mrs. Stanley
Cohen, Mr. and Mrs. Victor
Coan, Dr. Lton F.
Cole, Mr. and Mrs Philip
Colcman, Mr. J.
Colsky. Dr. Ithe
Comyns, Mr. and Mrs, Ken-
Congdon, Ms. Diane M.
Conger, Mr. and Mrs. Tho-
Conley, Dr. and Mrs. Jares
Connolly. Mr. and Mrs.
Connor, Mr. and Mrs.
Canor, Dr. and Mrs. Mor-
Come, Mr. andMrs. Aexan-
Cook, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Cook, Mr. and Mrs. William
Cool, Mr. and Mrs. Stephen
Coorny, Mr. and Mrs. Tho-
Cooper, Mr. and Mrs. Marc
Cooper, Ms. Wendy K.
Coords,M. and Mrs. Robert
Carbitt, Mr. and Mrs. Ver-
Cosgrove. Rep. John
Covenran, Mr. and Mrs.
Cowan, Ms. Lois
Cowling, Mr. and Mrs. John
Crosby, Ms. Karla.
Curran, Mr. and Mrs. Char-
Curtis, Mr. andMrs. DeVcre
Culie, Mr. and Mrs. Guill-
Dabnry, Mr. and Mrs. Char-
Dailey, Mr. Richard H.
Daly, Mr. andMrs. Jose Luis
Danirel Mr. and Mrs. H.
Daniels, Mr. and Mrs. Albert
Danicll, Mr. andMrs. Martin
Davenport, Mr. and Mrs. E.
Davidsin,Mr. andMrs. Barry
Davis, Ms. Bobbie A.
Davis, Ms. Maria L.
Davis, Mr. and Mrs. Ronald
Day, Mr. and Mrs. Carl B.
de Cardenas, Mr. Jorge L.
de Gario, Mr. and Mrs.
dc Groot, Ms. Annika
dc laTorriente, Mr. and Mrs.
Dr Tchon, Mr. and Mrs.
DcAguaro, Mr. and Mrs.
Decker, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Degloppcr, Mr. Daniel A.
DeKonschin, Mr. and Mrs.
Delgado, Ms. Patricia
DcMalling, Mrs. Mary
Demi, Ms. Barbara
Denaro, Mr. and Mrs. Jack
Dendy, Dr. Jack and Mrs.
Joetla P. Good
Denis, Mr. andMrs Eduardo
Denton, Mr. and Mrs. R.P.
Derces, Mr. and Mrs. Don
Deutsch, Mr. Hunting
Diaz, Mr. and Mrs. Eduardo
Diaz. Ms. Mayra
Diaz, Mr. and Mrs. Odilio
Dickey, Dr. Robert F.
Didomenico, Mr. and Mrs.
Diehl, Mr. and Mrs. Ronald
Dictrichson, Mr. and Mrs.
Dillon, Mr. and Mrs. Jack
DiPictro, Mr.andMrs. James
Dix, Dr. and Mrs. John
Dombro, Mr. and Mrs, Roy
Dominguez, Mr. and Mrs
Donnelly, Mr. and Mrs. J. F.
Donner, Mr. and Mrs. Chris
Dom, Mr. and Mrs. Michael
Dorsey, Mr. Michael
Doss, Mr. and Mrs. William
Doucha, Mr. andMrs. Roger
Dougherty, Mr. and Mrs.
Dougherty, Mr. and Mrs.
Doyle, Mr. and Mrs. James
Drake, Mr. and Mrs. RBert
Drawner, Mr. and Mrs. Jack
Dubbin, Mr. and Mrs. Mur-
Dubitaky, Mr. and Mrs. Ira
Du Bois, Mr. and Mrs. Gcr-
Dumas, Mr. Ermest
Dunan, Mr. and Mrs. Otis E.
Duncan, Mr. Edward
Dunlap, Mr. andMr. Robert
Dunn, Mr. and Mrs. Charles
Dunn, Mr. and Mrs. D.
Dunn, Mr. and Mrs. R. T.
Dumberg,Mr. andMrs, Carl
Dut-hr, Mr. and Mrs. David
Duvall, Mr. and Mr.Walkrr
Dye. Mr. Michael
Dyer, Judge and Mrs. David
Eagan, Mr. and Mrs, Lance
Eaglstein, Dr. and Mrs. Wil-
Eason, Mr. and Mrs. Vemon
Eaton, Mr. and Mrs. Joel D,
Eck, Mr. and Mrs. Gunnar
Eckblom, Mr. and Mrs. Eric
Eckhart,Mr. and Mrs. James
Edelson, Mr. and Mrs Ed
Edison, Mr. and Mrs. Lewis
Edwards, Mr. and Mrs.
Eggert, Mr. and Mrs. Chris-
Egglestn. Ms. Jeanette M.
Ridenire, Mr. andMrs. Todd
Eilertsen, Mr. Kjell
Einspruch, Mr. and Mrs.
Ellis. Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth
Elsasser. Ms. Ruth B.
Emersn, Dr.and Mrs. Rich-
England, Mr. and Mrs.
Entenmann, Mr. and Mrs.
Erikson, Mr. and Mrs Henry
EscobarMr. andMrs. Henry
Esserman, Mr. and Mrs. Jim
Estes, Mr. Donald W.
Esteves, Mr. andMrs. Robert
EBston, Mr. and Mrs. Gre-
Evans, Mr. and Mrs. Bill
Evans, Mr. and Mrs. David
Evans, Ms. rcia
Evans, Mr. and Mrs. Herbert,
Evans, Mr. and Mrs. James
Ew.ius. Mr. and Mrs. Mi-
Eyes, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Fales, Mr. and Mrs. Gordon
Fancher, Mr. and Mrs. Char-
lea E., Jr.
Farrey, Mr. F. X., Sr.
Farrell,Mr. and Mrs. John S.
Feingold, Dr. arndMrs. Alfred
FPingold, Dr. and Mrs. Jef-
Fels, Mr. and Mrs. Leonard
Felser, Ms. Fran
Fmnnell. Mr. and Mrs. Tho-
mas A., Jr.
Ferguson, Mr. and Mrs. John
Femandez, Mr. and Mrs.
Fernanlez, Mr. and Mrs.
Ferrcr, Mr. and Mrs, Jorge
Fiac, Dr. Ellen
Fise, Mr. andMrs. Martin
Finkelstein, Mr. and Mrs.
Finlay, Mr. and Mrs. James
Fischborn, Ms. Gage
Fischer, Mr. and Mrs. Frank
Fisher, Mr. Al
Fisher, Mr. and Mrs. Dennis
Falttry, Mr. and Mrs. Mi-
Fleaming, Mr. and Mrs. Harry
Fleming, Mr. and Mrs. Jo-
seph Z., Esq.
Flick, Mr. and Mrs. Charles
Flinn, Mr. and Mrs. Tom
Flipse, Mr. and Mrs. Donan
Flowers, Ms. Dorothy
Fogg, Mr. and Mrs. Stephen
Fang, Mr. Michael C.
Forecki, Mr. and Mrs. Ken-
Former, Mr. and Mrs. Daniel
Arrest, Mr. and Mrs. Dar-
Forthman, Mr. and Mrs.
FPoster Mr. and Mrs. David
Poster, Mr. and Mrs, Pal P.
Fox. Mr. "nd Mrs. Spencer
Foyc, Ms. Nancy R.
Fraga, Mr. Ramon J.
Franco,Mr. andMrs. Edward
Frankel, Ms. and Mrs. Linda
Fraynd. Mr. Paul and Ms.
Linda Sua Stein
Frazicr, Mr. and Mrs.Dwight
Freidricksea, Mr. and Mrs,
Free. Ms. Mary
Freedlinc, Dr. and Mrs.
Freedman. Mr. and Mrs,
Freeman, Mr. and Mrs,.
Freeman, Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Freidin, Mr. and Mrs. Philip
Fmristat, Mr. and Mrs. Scott
Freund, Mr. and Mrs. Rich-
Friberg, Mr. and Mrs. Rich-
Friedian, Mr. and Mrs.
Frost,Mr. andMrs. Raymond
Frmm, Mr. and Mrs. David
Fudali, Mr. and Mrs. Peter
Fuentes, Mr. and Mrs. Gill-
Funk, Mr.andMrs. ArthurL.
Furst, Mr. and Mrs. A. J.
Gach, Ms. Laurin
Gaiter, Mrs. Darothy
Gale, Mr. and Mrs, Stephen
Gallagher. Mrs. Aliac C.
Gallagher. Mrs. G. A.
Gallo, Mr, and Mrs. Jorge
Gallogly, Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Gannon. Mr. and Mrs.
Garcia, Ms. Maria E.
Gardner, Mr. and Mrs.
Gardner, Mr. and Mrs. Jo-
Gardner, Mr. and Mrs. Sey-
Garvett, Mr. and Mrs. Peter
Gaub, Dr, Margaret L.
Gaul, Mr. and Mrs. A. K.
Gaunt, Ms. Nan
Gautier, Mr. and Mrs. Larry
Gelberg, Mr. Robert
Geldc.s, Mr, Edward
Geller, Dr.and Mrs. Edmund
Gent, Mr. and Mrs. Patrick
Gentile, Mr. and Mrs. Joe
Gentry, Mr. Hugh E.
Geraldi, Dr. and Mrs. M.,
Ocycr, Mr. and Mrs. Russll
Giegel, Mr. and Mrs.Joseph
Gill, Ms. Jeanne B.
Gilltn, Mr. and Mrs. John
Giiler, Mr. andMrs. Noanan
Gilmore, Mr. and Mrs. John
Ginsburg, Mr. and Mrs.
Gjebre, Mr. and Mro. Wil-
Gladstonr, Honorable and
Mrs. William E.
Glass, Mr. James T.
Glasser, Mr. and Mrs.
Glatstain, Dr. and Mrs. Phil
Gluckasran, Dr. and Mrs.
Gluistad, Mr. and Mrs. Sig
Goeser, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Goldberg, Mr. and Mrs.
Goldberg, Dr. and Mrs.
Goldman, Mr. and Mrs.
Goldman, Ms, Sue S.
Goldson, Mr. and Mrs.
Goldstein, Mr. and Mrs.
Goldstein, Mr. and Mrs.
Goldweber, Mr. and Mrs.
Gormi, Ms. Marisa B.
Gonzalcz, Mr, and Mrs,
Gonzalez, Mr. and Mrs, Jose
Gonzalez, Mr. and Mrs.
Gonzalez, Mr. and Mrs.
Gooden, Mr. and Mrs. B. F.,
Goodrich, Mr. and Mrs. Gary
Gooidwin, Mr. and Mr. C.
Goraczko, Mr. and Mrs.
Gordon, Dr. and Mrs. Mark
Gordon, Mr. and Mrs. Reed
Gorson, Dr. and Mrs, David
Gort, Mr. and Mrs. Willy
Gorlicb, Mr. and Mn. Char-
Grabiel, Mr. and Mrs. Julio
Grable, Mr. and Mrs. Hogen
Grad, Mr. and Mrs. Edward
Graham, Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Grant, Mr. andMrs.Leslie L.
Grand, Mr. and Mrs, David
Gray, Mr. and Mrs. James
Gray, Mr. James
Gray, Mr. and Mrs. Maurice
Gray, Ms. Nancy R.
Graysoo,Mr. andMrs. Bruce
Green, Mr. and Mrs, Donald
Greenberg, Mr. and Mrs.
Greenblatt, Mr. and Mrs.
Greenfield, Mr. and Mrs.
Greenfield, Mr. and Mrs.
Greenfirdd. Mr. and Mrs.
Greenfield, Dr. David
Greenhours, Mr. and Mrs.
Greenspan. Mr. Ranald and
Mrs. Barbara Mulvaney
Greer,Dr. and Mrs. PdroJ.,
Gregory. Mr. and Mrs. James
Griffin, Mr. and Mrs. Gerald
Griffith, Mr. and Mrs. Tho-
Grill, Ms. Joanne
Grimrm, Rev. and Mrs. Robb
Grodson, Mr. and Mrsa, An-
Gross, Mr. andMrs.Lslic J.
Grossbard, Ms. Judy
Groasman, Mr. Robert
Grunwell, Mr. and Mr.
Guilfoyle, Mr. Thomas D-.
Gumnan, Mr. andMrs. Rich-
Guytan, Dr. and Mrs. Tho-
Haai, Mr. and Mrs. Thco-
Hacklcy. Mr. and Mrs.
Hades. Mr. Martin S.
Hagermann, Mr. Gary
Hahn, Mr. and Mrs. JackD.
Halcrow, Mr. and Mrs.
Hall, Mr. andMr.M. Lewis,
Hall, Mr. and Mrs. Maonro
Hallstrand, Mr. and Mrs.
Hambright, Mr. Thomas L.
Hanunond, Dr. Jeffrey
Han, Dr. and Mrs. Gregory
Hanafourdc, Ms. Lucy H.
Handler. Mr, and Mrs. Leon
Hansn, Mr. andMrs. CarlT.
Hansin, Mr. and Mrs. Chris-
Hardy, Mr. H. Lawrence, P.
Harlte, Mr. John W., Jr.
Harper, Mr. George R.
Harriel, Mr. and Mrs. Albert
Harris, Mr. Robert
Harrison, Mr. and Mrs. M.
Hart, Mr. and Mrs. Ray L.
Hartz. Mr. and Mrs. C. M.
Htatield, Mr. and Mrs. Mll-
Hathorn, Mr. Donald B.
Haverck, Mr. and Mrs, Fred
Hawkins, Mr. W. Roger
Hayes. Mr. and Mrs. W.
Hayo, Ms. Barbara
Heckcriing, Mr. and Mrs.
Hccb, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph
Helffrnan,Mr. adMr. Jerry
Helene, Ms. Carol J.
Heller, Mr. and Mrs. David
Helmers, Mr. and Mrs. Le-
Helms, Mr. and Mrs. David
Helwcick, Mr. and Mrs.
Henderson, Mr. and Mrs.
Henlinski, Mr. and Mrs.
Henry. Mr. Buddy
Henry Mr. andMrs. Edmund
Henry, Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Hernandez, Mr. and Mra.
Hcrran, Mr. James
Herskowitz, Mr. and Mrs.
List of Members 89
Hester, Mr. and Mrs. Gerald
Hesiter, Mr. and Mrs. W.
Hiliner, Dr. and Mrs. Frank
Hinckley, Mr. and Mrs.
Hinds, Mr. and Mrs. L.F. Jr.
Hinson, Mr. and Mrs. John
Hirschl, Dr. and Mrs Andy
Hirsh, Mr. and Mrs. Clhis
Hobbs, Mr. and Mrs. James
Hodges, Mr. and Mrs. Char-
Hoeffel, Mrs. Kenneth M.
Hoelle, Mr. Thornton
Hopwer, Mr. and Mr. Thro-
Hoffman, Dr. and Mrs. Wil-
Holcomb, Mr. and Mrs. Lyle
Holland, Mr, and Mrs. John
Holsenbecko. K s. J. M.
Holtzran, Mr. and Mrs, RF
Horraycut, Mr. and Mrs.
Hooper, Mr. and Mrs. Lam-
Hopkins, Mr. Carter W.
Horan, Mr. and Mrs. Janres
Horwich, Mr. Harry and Ms.
Horzltz, Mr. David
Hostetler, Mr. and Mrs.
Houghton, Mr. Peter
Hourihan, Mr. and Mrs. Jo-
Howard, Mr. and Mrs. Gene
Howard, Dr. and Mrs. Paul
Howl, Mrs. Martha L.
Huber, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph
Hudson. Mr. Shecrill W.
Huguelet, Mr. andMrs.David
Hurmkly, Mr.andMrs. JocE,
Hundcvadt, Mr. and Mrs. R.
Hunke, Mr. and Mrs. Date
Hunt, Mr. and Mrs. Charles
Hunter, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Hurst, Ms. Peggy
Hurwitz, Ms. Marilyn
Hush, Dr. and Ms. JubranA.
Huston, Mr. Edwin
Hutchinson, Mr. and Mrs. J.
Hutchinson, Mr. and Mrs.
Hutson, Dr. and Mrs. James
Hyde, Mr. and Mrs. John L.
Hyman, Mr. and Mrs. Mi-
Hynes, Ms. Christine
Hyes, Mr. and Mrs. Ken-
Infante, Mr. and Mrs. Jose
Irvin, Dr. and Mrs. George
laen, Mr. and Mrs. Leo
Isicoff, Mr. and Mrs. Steven
Jackson, Mr. and Mrs.Frtder-
Jackson, Mr. and Mrs. Kril
Jackson, Mr. andMrs.Robert
Jacobs, Mr. and Mrs. Rich-
Jacobson, Dr. and Mrs. Jed
Jacobson, Mr. andMrs.Lanry
Jacoby, Mr. Chales
Jacowitz, Mr. and Mrs.
Jaffr, Mr. andMrs. Harold
James, Dr. and Mrs. Edward
James, Mr. and Mrs. Jaanms
James, Mr. and Mrs. Ralph
Jeffers. Mr. and Mrs. Jares
Jenkins, Mr. and Mrs. Den-
Jenkins, Mr. Frank
Jenks, Mr. andMrs. Thomas
Jcrnsc, Mr. and Mrs. John
Jensen, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Johnsaon, Mr. and Mrs. David
Johnson, Mr. and Mrs. Lyle
Johnson, Mr. and Mrs. Wal-
Jones, Mr. and Mrs. Bardy
Jones, Mr. and Mrs. Daniel
Jones, Mr. and Mrs. Darrell
Jones, Mrs. Diane C.
Jlons, Mr. and Mrs. RE Dar-
J-nes,Mr. andMrs. ErnstP.
Jones, Mr. andMrs. Frank E.
Joseph, Mr. and Mrs. Tho-
Julsrud, Mr. and Mrs. Her-
Justiniani, Dr. and Mrs. Fed-
Kaiser, Mr. and Mrs. George
Kalback, Mr. and Mrs. Irv-
Kambour, Dr. and Mrs. Mi-
Kamnoer, Mr. and Mrs.
Kane, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur
Kanold, Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Kanter, Mr. and Mrs. Stan
Kaplan, Mr. and Mrs.
Kaplan, Mr, and Mrs. Law-
Karl, Dr. and Mrs. RobertlH.
Karras, Ms. Knstantine
Kasdin, Mr. andMrs. Neisen
Kates, Mr. and Mrs. John E.,
Kathn, Mr. and Mrs. Guy
Katsir, Mr. and Mrs. Shlono
Kat., Mr. and Mrs IHy
Katzker, Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Kaufman, Mr. and Mrs.
Kcarncy,Mr. and Mrs.Robert
Keefe, Dr. and Mrs. Paul H.
Keep, Mr. and Mrs. Oscar J.
Keller, Mr. Walter
Keonmbeck, Mr. and Mrs.
Kennedy, Ms, Trian P.
Kennon, Mr. and Mrs. Char-
lei L., Jr.
Kenyon, Mr. and Mrs Nor-
Kerr. Mr. and Ms. Oliver
Kessler, Mr. and Mrs. Ha-
Keusch, Dr. and Mrs. Ken-
Keyes, Mr. and Mrs. Gary
Kiemn, Mr. and Mrs. Stanley
Kilmartin, Ms. Patricia J.
Kilpsiricl, Mr, Clarle. W.
Kinear, Mayor and Mrs. M.
Kipniy, Mr. and Mrs. Jerome
Kirby, Mr. andMrs.N, Riley
Kirkland, Mr. George D.
Kirschmnr, Mr. and Mrs.
Klausner, Mr. and Mrs.
Klein, Mr. and Mrs. Gene
Klein. Mr. and Mrs. Harris
Kligler, Ms, Judy
Kluthe, Mr. and Mrs. Harold
Knescvich. Mr. and Mrs.
Knight, Ms. Karen
Knotts, Mr. and Mrs. Trn
Knowles, Mr.and Mrs.Mark
KonopkA, Mr. Riehard
Konopko, Mr. and Mrs. Joe
Koper, Mr+ and Mrs. Teho-
Kossman, Mr. and Mrs,
Kouchalakos, Mr. and Mrs.
Kovach, Mr. and Mrs. Paul
Kozyak, Mr. and Mrs. John
Kraslow, Mr. David
Kraus, Mrs. Sally P.
Krauter, Dr. Susan and Dr.
Kteis, Mr. and Mrs. Fritz H.
Krome, Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Krug, Mr. and Mrs. Warren
Krupatic, Mr. and Mrs. Jon
Kukic, Mr. and Mrs. Toma
Kuper, Mr. and Mrs. Jack
Kurosad, Mr. and Mrs. Ted
Laffoon, Mr. and Mrs. Polk
Lair, Mr. and Mrs. David E.
Laird, Mr. and Mrs. Peter
Lake. Mr. John
Lambert, Mr. Robert
Lancaster, Ms. Dorma A.
Landy, Mr. and Mrs. Burton
Lane, Mr. StephbenJ.
Lann, Mr. and Mrs. Martin J,
Lantaff, Mr. Court
Largay, Mr. and Mrs. Char-
Larkin. Mr. Paul
Larsen, Mr. Paul W.
LaRusse, Mr. and Mrs. Law-
Lana, Mr. and Mrs. Luis RI
Lamour, Mr. and Mrs. Tony
Laughlin, Ms. Meg
Lawrence, Mr. and Mrs.
Lazaridis, Mr. and Mrs.
Lazarus, Mr. and Mrs. Frank
Lazarus, Ms. Pearl J.
Lem, Mr. and Mrs. Roswell E.
Lee,. Mr. ad Mrs. Terry R.
Leftwich, Mr. and Mrs.
Lehman, Mr. Douglas K.
Lahman, Ms. Joan
Lenhman, Mr. Richard L.
Leibe, Mrs. Bette
Leon, Mr. and Mrs. Abilio
Leon, Dr. and Mrs. Rafael
Leonard, Mr. and Mrs. Mi-
Leposky, Mr. and Mrs.
Lester, Mr. and Mrs. Paul
LiSucr, Ms. Elizabeth
Levin, Dr. and Mrs. Herbert
Levine, Dr. Harold
Levitt.Mr. and Mrs. Richard
Lewis, Mr. and Mrs. Marvin
Lewis,Mr.and Mrs. Richard
Lewis, Dr. and Mrs. Sylvan
Lewis, Mr. andMrs. Wallace
Lex, Mrs. Debra
Lianzi, Mrs. Margaret
Lichtenfold, Mr. and Mrs.
Liebman, Dr. and Mrs. Nor-
Liedlcer, Mrs. Janet
Lindsay,Mr. andMrs. Guon
Lipoff, Mr. and Mrs. Nor-
Lipp, Mr. and Mrs. Allan
Little, Mr. DcWaync
Little Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Livesay, Mr. and Mrs. Leigh
Livingstaon, Mr. Don R.
Lodge, Ms. Patricia
Logue, Mr. and Mrs. Tom
Lamboan, Mr. and Mrs.
Lombardo, Mr. Tony
Lomonomoff, Mr. and Mrs.
London, Ms. Marilyn
Long. Mr. Glenn and Ms.
Long, Mr. and Mrs. James D.
Longo, Mr. Demnis
Lopez, Mr. and Mrs. Carlos
Lopez, Mr. and Mrs. Jose
Lopez, Mr. and Mrs. Lou
Lopez, Ms. Millie G.
Lopez, Dr. and Mrs, Ray
Lorczo.Mr. and Mrs. Man-
Lorcs, Dr. and Mrs. Edward
Lore, Mr. andMrs. Rafael T.
Lomda, Mr. and Mrs. Mark
Loth, Mr. and Mrs. Stan
Low, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur
Lowell,Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Lubin, Dr. Jack
Ludovici, Mr. andMrs. Philip
Ludwig, Dr. and Mrs. Wil-
Luginbill,Mr. WndMrs. Mark
Luker, Mr. and Mrs. Robin
Lummus,Mr. and Mrs. Lynn
Lutton, Mrs. Stephen C.
Luyt2s, Mr. and Mrs.Jan B.
Lynch, Mr. and Mrs. George
Lyons, Mr.andMr. Richard
MacCullough, Mr. and Mrs.
MacDonald, Mr. and Mrs.
MacDowell, Mr. David M.
Mack, Mr. and Mrs. Stephen
Magidson, Mr. and Mra.
Magocnick, Ms. Rena
Maingot, Dr. and Mrs. An-
Maivet, Mr. Larry and Ms.
Maloy. Mr. and Mrs. Rich-
Manduley, Mr. Rafael
Manfiedi, Mr. and Mrs. Marc
Mak, Mr. andMrs. PhilipJ.,
Manlio, Dr. F. L.
Mann, Mr. Michael
Mannion, Mr. Jan T.
Mamship, Mr. and Mrs. E.K.
Marchman, Mr. Ray E.
Marcos, Mr. and Mrs. Anto-
Marcus, Mr. and Mrs. Jerry
Markowitz, Mr. and Mrs.
Marks,Dr. andMrs. Clifford
Marks, Mr. and Mrs. Joel
Marmoas. Dr. and Mrs. Mi-
Marotti, Mr. and Mrs. James
Marshall. Ms. Dawn
Martcll, Mr. and Mrs. James
Martin, Mr. and Mrs. Frank
Martinez, Mr. and Mrs. Pran-
Marrimz, Mr. andMrs.Louis
Marticz-Ramos, Mr. and
Masson, Ms. Tesalia E.
Mastmsmon, Mr. and Mrs.
Matheson, Mr. and Mrs.
Mtlhirs, Mr. G. Dodson
Matlack, Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Mathews, Mr. and Mrs, Sam
Maxwell. Mr. and Mrs.
Maxwell, Mr. and Mrs. Mi-
Maxwell, Mr. Thornms C.
Maydak, Mr. and Mrs, John
Mayo, Mr. and Mrs. John A.
McAuliffe, Mr. and Mrs.
Thoras P., III
McCabe, Dr. and Mrs. Robert
McCormnick,Mr. and Mrs. C.
McCready, Dr. James W.
McDanicl,Mr, andMrs. Scott
McDonald, Ms. Gail
McDonald, Ms. Kimberly
McDowell. Mr. C. P
McEnany, Mr. and Mrs.
McGilvray, Mr. and Mr.
McGovern, Mr. and Mrs.
McGuinness, Mr. and Mrs.
McGuirmess, Mr. and Mrs.
McHugh, Ms. Ceraldidn
Mclvcr, Mr. and Mrs. Stuart
McKinley, Mr. and Mrs.
McKirabhan. Mr. James
McLean, Mr. and Mrs. Bart
McLmorne, Mr. and Mrs.
McMeniman, Mr. and Mrs.
James F., Jr.
McNaughton, Dr. and Mrs.
McQuale, Mr. and Mrs. Jack
McSwiggan, Mr. Gerald W.
McTagne, Mr. and Mrs. R.
Means, Dr. and Mrs. Wil-
Megeo, Mr. and Mrs. B. L.
Meginlry. Mr. and Mrs, Don
Mekras, Mr. andMr. George
Merndlsohn. Mr. Mel
Mcndoza, Mrs.Enid D.
Metcalf, Dr. George
Mctcalf, Dr. Rlizaieth
Mctka, Mr. Joseph A., Jr.
Mcyers, Mr. and Mrs. Ad-
Mezcy, Mr. and Mrs. Ciff
Mijar s, Mr. and Mrs. An-
Millard, Mr. and Mrs. John
Millard, Dr. and Mrs. Max
Millas, Mr. and Mrs. Aris-
Miller, Mr. and Mrs. Alfred
Miller, Mr. and Mrs. Edward
Miller, Mr. nd Mrs. Graham
Miller, Mr. andMrs. H. Dale
Miller, Mr. and Mrs. H. HE.
Miller, Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Millott, Mr. and Mrs. Daniel
Milner, Mr. Charles W., IT
Mint, Mr. and Mrs. Sanford
Mitchell. Mr. and Mrs.
Mitchell, Mr. and Mrs, Wil-
Mirach, Mr. Larry
Mocllsr, Mr. andMrs. Loyd
Mooller, Mr. William
Molt, Mr. and Mrs. Fawdrcy
Monkus, Dr. EllenF.
Monroc, Mr. anid Mrs. Wil-
liam P., Jr.
Montano, Mr. and Mrs,
Monsanto, Judge and Mrs.
Montcagudo, Mr. and Mrs.
Monzon, Mr. Jorge
Moady, Mrs. Alleta M.
Moore, Mr. andMrs. Donald
Morales, Mr. are Mrs. J. R.
Morales, Mr. and Mra. San-
Moran, Mr. and Mrs. Ramon
Morcman, Ms. Lucinda A.
Morenu, Mr. and Mrs.Sergio
Morris, Mr. and Mrs. Melvin
Morris, Ms. Thomasine
Morrison, Mr. and Mrs.
Moses, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur
Moses, Mr. andMrs. Michael
Moss, Mr. Alfred I.
Moss, Mr. and Mrs. Ambler
Moss, Mr. and Mrs. Lyman
Moss, Mr. and Mrs. Michael
Mone], Ms. Claire
Moya, Mr. and Mrs, F. A.
Muir, Mrs. Helen
Muir. Mr. and Mrs. William
Mulcahy, Mrs. Irene D.
Muller, Mr. and Mrs. Ken-
Muncey, Mr. and Mrs. John
Munoz, Ms. Mary
Munroc, Mr. and Mrs. Char-
Murai, Mr. and Mrs. R ne
Murphy, Mr. Edward W.
Murphy, Mr.Eugencand Ms.
Murphy, Mr. and Mrs. Roger
Murphy, Mr. and Mrs. Tho-
Murray, Mr. and Mrs. O.C.
Mmrell, Mr. and Mrs. John
Mustard, Misses Margaret
Mycrs, Mr. and Mrs. Stanley
Myscich, Mr. Edward
Naehwalter, Ms. Irene
Nadji, Mr.andMrs. Mchrdad
Nagel, Mr. and Mrs. Craig J.
Nagy, Mr. Shirley L.
Nammur, Mr. and Mrs.
Nance, Mr. and Mrs. G.
Napoli, Mr. and Mrs. Darn-
Naro, Mr. and Mrs. James
Nava.ro, Mr. and Mrs. Edu-
Ntaler, Mr. and Mrs. Jim
Neidhart, Mr. and Mrs. Paul
Nelson,Mr. andMrs. Stephen
Norney, Mr. and Mrs. Denis
Newman, Mr. Fred C.
List of Members 91
Netsky, Mr, and Mrs. Martin
Newport, Ms. Card
Ncwton-Moantl, Ms. Brandj
Nichols, Mr. D. Alan
Nichols, Mr. and Mrs. Frank
Nicjadlik, Dr. andMrs, Ken-
Nielsen, Mr. and Mrs. Ralph
Nobles, Mr. and Mrs. James
Nordt, Mr. and Mrs. John C.
Norman, Mr. C.C., Jr.,
Norman, Mr. and Mrs. Col-
Norton, Mr. and Mr. Henry
Nostro, Mr. and Mrs. Louis
Novack, Mr. and Mrs. Ben
Nuckols, Mr. and Mrs. B.P.,
Nuchring, Mr. and Mrs.
O'Bries, Mrs. Norman P.
O'DoEnell, Mr. and Mrs.
ODonnell, Mr. andMrs.Jim
O'Malley. Mr. and Mrs. Bill
Ohashi, Mr. and Mrs.
Oiatcr, Mr. and Mr. W.P.,
Olcott, Mr. ti Mrs. Charles
OllU, Mr, andMrs. Denms J.
Olsson, Mr. Fred R.
O'Ncil, Mr. Sandy
Onopri eko, Mr. and Mrs.
Oppcrhein er, Mr. and Mrs.
Oremrland, Mr. and Mrs.
Oroshnik, Mr. and Mrs.
Ortega, Mr. and Mrs. Jose L.
Ortiz, Mr. Ramiro
Otto, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas,
Ovcrbeck, Mr. and Mrs.
Owen, Mr. and Mrn. James
Owenw, Mr. and Mrs. John
PacR&r, Ms. Betty 0.
Page, Mr. and Mra. Alan
Poaula, Mr. and Mrs. Arnold
Palmer, Mr. and Mr. Carl
Palow, Mr. and Mor. Wil-
Pampc. Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Pare, Dr.ndMrs,Robert T.,
Pepper, Mr. and Mrs. Em-
Parker, Mr. and Mrs. Austin
Parker, Mr. and Mrs. Garth
Parker, Mr. David R.
Parker, Ms. Janet
Parker, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph
Parker, Mr. and Mrs. Robin
Parncs,Dr. andMrs. Edmund
Parsons, Mr. andMr. Huber
Parsons, Mr. and Mrs. Van
Paul, Mr. Robert
Paulk, Mr. Jule
Pavlow, Ms. Shara T.
Pawlcy, Ms. Anita
Paxton, Dr. and Mn. G.B.,
Paynej Mr. and Mrs. W.E.
Peacock, Mr, and Mrs.Larry
Pearn, Dr. F.H.
Pearlman, Dr. and Mrs,
Peddle, Mr. and Mrs. Grant
Pedrajo, Mr. and Mrs. Dario
P .hr,Mr, andMrs. MarvnS.
Peltz, Mr. R.
Pena, Mr. and Mrs. Walter
Pernnkamip, Mr. John D.
Pearz-Stabld, Ms. Alina
Pergiais, Mr. and Mrs. Paul
Perkins, Mr. and Mrs. Jay
Perlmutter, Mr. Bernard aid
Ms. Pamela Chamberlain
Perry, Mr. and Mnr. Michael
Perse, Mr. and Mrs. .A.
Perse, Mr. and Mrs. Michael
Perwin, Mrs. Jean
Peters, Mr. and Mrs. Jerry L.
Peterson, Mr. and Mrs.
FPtry, Mr. and Mrs Roder-
Petrico-n, Mr. and Mrs.
Pettigr-nw, Mr. and Mrs.
Phclps, Mrs. Dorothy
Phillips, Mr. and Mrs. Henry
Phillips. Mrs. Kathloen
Philotls, Mr. and Mrs.
Piccini, Mr. and Mm. Silvo
Picrini, Mr. and Mrs. Fred
Pierce, Mr. Julius E.
Pietro. Mrs. Virginia R.
Pictsch,Mhr. and Mn. Geoff
Pijuan, Mr. andMrs.Edward
Pimr, Mr, and Mrs. Gordon
Pistorino, Mr. and Mrs. John
Pins, Mr. and Mrs. Victor H.
Platt, Ms. Anne F.
Plehaty, Mr. William
Plotkin, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Plumer, Mr. and Mrs. Rich-
Plummer, Mr. and Mrs.
Pollack, Mr. and Mra. David
Pollack, Mr. Richard A.
Pollard, Mr. and Mrs. Mur-
Poole, Ms, Joanctte
Pooley. Mr. and Mrs. Ed C.
Porfiri, Mr. and Mrs. Austin
Poaer, Mr. John E.
Porter, Mr. and Mrs. Ray-
Poses, Mr. and Mrs. Mark
Post, Mr. and Mrs. Budd
Powell, Mr. andMrs. Larry
Power, Ms. Shirley
Pazzessere, Mr. and Mrs.
Prentiss, Mr. and Mrs. Won-
Price. Mrs. Dorothy M.
Price, Ma. Judith and Mr.
Price, Mr. Leo
Prie, Mr. and Mrs. Miles
PrimakMr. andMs. Arthur
Primus, Mr. RichardL.
Prio-Odio, Mo. Maria A.
Prospero, Dr. and Mrs. Jo-
Provenzo, Dr. and Mrs. Eu-
Pruitt, Mr. PetrT.
Pugs. Mr. and Mrs. J. David
Puglise, Mr. andMrs,Robert
Quackenbush Mr. and Mrs.
L. Scot 1
Quartin, Mr. and Mrs. Her
Quentel, Mr. Albert D.
Qusenberry, Mr. and Mr.,
William F,, Jr.
Quick, Mr. and Mrs. David
Quilian, Dr. Warren, II
Rabin, Ms. Sharla
Rabun, Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Rad, Mr. and Mrs. Jesus S.
Railey, Mr. and Mrs. Con-
Raim, Mr. and Mrs. Jerome
Rainey, Mr. and Mrs. Gary
Ramirez, Dr. and Mrs. Sal-
Ramos, Mr. and Mrs. Victor
Ramsey, Dr. and Mrs. David
Ramsey, Mrs. Manuela M.
Randall, Mr. and Mr. Wil-
Randolph, Mr. and Mrs.
Rapaport, Mr. Leonard
Rape, Mr. and Mrs. Stuart
Rappsrport, Dr. and Mrs.
Rapport, Mr, Stephen R.
Rauzin, Mr. and Mrs. Alan
Reddick, Mr. David
Rcdding, Ms. Susan P.
Rocd, Mr. and Mrs. Barrie T.
Reichmuth, Mr. George
Reiner, Mr. and Mrs. Theo-
Reisman, Mrs. Gail
Res, Mr. and Mrs. Lwis M.
Reubert, Ms. Millie
Reyna, Dr. L. J.
Rcyna, Mr. and Mrs. Patrick
Rhodes. Dr. and Mr. Milton
Rice, Mr. and Mrs. Ralph E.
Rich, Dr. and Mrs. Patrick
Richards, Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Richter, Mr. and Mrs. Char-
Rider, Dr. Dorothy and Mr.
Riemer, Dr. and Mrs. WE.
Ricira-Gomez, Mr. E. R.
Rionda, Mr. and Mrs. Carlos
Risi, Mr. and Mrs. Louis, Jr.
Rist, Mr. and Mrs. Karsten
Roche, Mr. andMrs, Robert
Roadman, Mr. Ross C.
Robbins Mr. and Mrs, Wil-
liart R, Jr.
Roberts, Mr. and Mrs. Mike
Robertson, Mr. andMra.Neil
Robins, Dr. and Mr. Rich-
Roca, Mr. and Mr. Pedro L.
Rodgrs,Mr. andMrs. Robert
Rodgrigusz, Mr. and Mrs
Rodriguez, Ms. Concepcian
Rodriguez, Dr. andMrs.Jose
Rodrigueo, Ms. Lydia
Rodriguez-Mmro, Mr. and
Rodwell, Mr. and Mrs, Jim
Rogers, Mr. and Mrs. Char-
Rogge, Mr. and Mrs. Jim
Rojas,Mr. and Mrs. Esteban
Rojas, Mr. and Mnr. Jose
Roldan, Mr. and Mrs. Enmi-
Romano, Mr. andMr. James
Romncy, Mr. Hervin
Root, Mr. and Mr. Keith
Rosen, Mr. and Mrs. Britt J.
Rosen, Mr. and Mrs. Nor-
Rosenberg, Mr. and Mrs.
Rosenberg,Dr, ndMrs. Mi-
Rosenberg, Ms. Norma,
Rosenberg, Mr. and Mrs.
Rosenblatt, Mrs. Bernard
Rosenbluth, Ms. Joanne
Rosendorf, Mr. and Mrs.
Rosenthal, Dr. and Mrs. A.
Rosinck, Mr. and Mrs. Jef-
Ross, Mr. and Mrs, Jay
Ross, Ms. Renec M.
Rosin, Mr. Jay
Rosamrore, Mr. Allan R
Rosso, Mr. and Mr. Daniel
Roth, Mr. Burnett
Rothblatt, Ms. Emma A.
Rothanr, Mr. and Mrs. Max
RothsteinMr. andMs. Mike
Roulean, Ms. Carolyn F.
Routh, Mr. and Mrs. Donald
Rowlcy, Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Roazen, Dr. Simron
Rubin, Dr. and Mrs. Richard
Rubinson, Dr. and Mrs.
Racker,Mr. andMn. Stephen
Rudolph, Mr.and Mrs.Jamre
Ruffeir, Mr. Charles L.
Ryan, Mr. Janmes W.
Ryder, Mr. andMrs.William
Ryrner, Mr. and Mrs. John
Ryskamp, Judge arind Mrs.
Sacher, Mr. and Mrs. Char-
Sackett, Mr. and Mrs.Joseph
Sadowski, Mr. andMrs. Bill
Saffir, Mr. and Mrs. Herbert
Sager, Mr. and Mrs. Bert
Sager, Mr. and Mrs. Louis
Sain, Ms. Dosha and Ms.
Sakhnovsky. Mr. and Mrs.
Sales, Mr. Jerry
Sallcy, Mr. and Mrs. George
Salow, Mr. and Mrs. Arturo
Samen. Mr. and Mrs. David
Sanabria, Mrs. Idella
Sanberg, Mr. and Mrs. Bur-
Sanford, Mr. E Philip, Jr.
Santarlla, Mr. and Mrs Jo-
Sapp, Mr. and Mrs. Stephen
Sarbey, Mr. and Mrs. Larry
Sataloff, Mr. and Mrs. Barth
Saulson, Mr. andMrs Stanley
Sauri, Ms. Sofic
Savard, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur
Schaefer, Ms. Norah K.
Schater,Mr. andMrs. Gorge
Schaub, Ms. Louise
Schchrnan, Ms. Ricky W.
Scherrel, Mrs. Katherine
Schenkcr, Capt. and Mrs.
Schindler,Mr. andMrs. Irvin
S chmacenberg,Mr. andMrs.
Schmand, Mr. and Mrs.
Sclanidr. Mr. and Mrs. Eric
Schmutz, Mr. and Mrs. Alan
Schemn, Mr. and Mrs. Roy E.
Scholl, Mr. and Mrs. Bill
Schooranmakr, Mr. and Mrs.
Schreiber, Mr. and Mrs. Sol
Schroedar, Mrs. EdBs M.
Schultz, Mr. and Mrs. Ed
Schultz, Mr. and Mrs. Mark
Schrimecher, Mr. and Mrs.
Schwartz, Mr. and Mrs. Al-
Schwartz, Mrs. Jay R.
Schwart, Mr. ad Mrs.Lany
Scbwartz, Mr. and Mrs. Sol
Schwedel, Mr. and Mrs.
Scott, Mr. and Mrs. Jares H.
Scroggs, Mr. and Mrs. Barry
Scurti, Mr. andMrs. JohnC.
Segal, Mr. and Mrs. Scott
Segor. Ma, Phyllis L.
Seibert. Mr. and Mrs. Roy J.
Seideanani, Mr. and Mrs.
Seigel. Dr. and Mrs. Paul
Seixas, Ms. Margarita E.
Sekoff, Dr. Jed and Dr.Cindy
Scltzr, Mr. and Mrs. AXF.
Selvaggi, Mr. and Mrs. Al-
Shack, Mr. and Mrs. Richard
Shafer, Mr. and Mn. Ron C.
Shapiro, Dr. and Mrs. Alvin
Shaw, Ms. Ernili M.
Shaw, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Shealey, Mr. and Mnr. Wal-
Shehel, Mr. and Mrs. Phillip
Shef fman, Ms. Tarmara
Shepard, Mr. and Mrs.
ShYroit, Mr. and Mrs. Ed-
Shey, Mr. and Mrs. Leo
Shilcn, Dr. andMrs. Thomas
Shipley, Mr. and Mrs.Vcrgil
Shippee, Dr. and Mrs. Robert
Shoaf, Mr. and Mrs. David
Shoemaker, Mr. and Mrs+
Shoffr n, Mr. and Mrs. A.
Shobat, Mr. Edward R.
Short, Mr. Keith
Short, Rev, and Mrs. Riley
Shrewsbury, Mr. and Mrs.
Shugar, Mr. and Mrs. Irving
Siferd, Mr. L-. Frances
Sigler, Ms. Victoria
Silvewran.Mr. andMr, Saul
Simon, Mr. and Mrs. Gary
Simon, Mr. and Mrs. Larry
Simon, Mr. Laura B.
Simonet, Mr. and Mrs. Jose
Simons, Mr. and Mrs. Paul
Simpson, Mr. arid Mrs. Eu-
gene H., Jr.
Sims, Mr. and Mrs. Howard
Sims, Dr. and Mrs. Murry
Singer, Dr. and Mrs. Joseph
Singer, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Skaggs, Dr. and Mrs. Glen O.
Skor, Mr. and Mrs. Richard
Slesnick, Mr. and Mrs.
Slosetr, Mr. and Mrs. Gaius
Slotnick, Mr. and Mrs. Mi-
Smiley, Mr. Nixen
Smir, Mr. and Mrs. Richard
Smith, Mr. andMrs. Charles
Smith, Mr. Chestrefield, Sr.
Smith, Mr. and Mrs. Chis-
Smith, Mr. and Mrs.Dwight
Smith, Mr. and Mrs. Edward
Smith, Mr, Kenneth andMs.
Norrma lean Barker
Smith, Ms. Lillian N.
Smith, Mr. and Mrs. Mark
Smith, Mr. and Mrs. R.C.
Smith, Mr. Ralph K.
Smith, Mr. and Mrs- Richard
Smith, Mr. andMrs. Thormas
Snow, Dr. and Mr. Selig D.
Snyder, Mr. and Mrs. Larry
Soldinger, Mr. and Mrs.
Soliday. Mr. edMrs. John
Solis-Silv, Mr.and Mrs.Josc
Solloway, Dr. and Mrs. Mi-
Solomon, Mr. and Mrs. Jo-
Sounmerville, Mr. and Mrs.
Soper, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Soto, Mr. and Mrs. Edward
Sotnile, Mr. and Mrs. Jamres
Spare, Mr. Elizabeth W.
Sparks, Mr. Bradlcy
Spatz, Mr. and Mrs. Carl A.
Spencer, Mr. and Mrs. J.
Spilis, Mr. and Mrs. James
SpitZer, Mr. adMra.JaniH.
Splane.Mr. and Mrs. George
Squillante, Ms. Judith
Stachura, Mr. and Mrs. Mike
Stadlcr, Mr. and Mrs. John
Stadler, Mr. Nomsan
Stanfill, Dr. and Mrs. L.M.
Stein, Dr. and Mrs. Elliot
Stein, Mr. and Mrs. Gerald
Stein, Mr. and Mrs. Michael
Steinberg, Mr. and Mrs.
Stcinbcrg-Roqow, Mrs. Jac-
Steiner, Mrs. Barbara
Steinhard, Mr. and Mrs.
Steinhaucr. Mr. and Mrs.
Steinertz, Mr. Keith
Stnge], Mr. Nrman
Stephens, Mr. Leonard
Stem, Mr. and Mrs. Harry
Stevens, Mr. Murk
Stewart, Mrs. Cynthia
Stewart, Mr. and Mrs. Ray
Stewart, Mr. and Mrs. Rich-
Stieglitz, Mr. and Mrs. Al-
Stillnmar, Mr. and Mrs.
Stocks.Dr. Mnd Mrs. G.J., Jr.
Stokesberry, Mr. and Mrs.
Stone, Mrs. Muriel E.
Straight, Dr. and Mo. Jacob
Strauss, Mr. Robert C.
Strehlow, Mr. and Mrs.
Stubins, Mr. and Mrs. Mor-
Struhl,Dr. andMrs.ThIodo -
Suchman, Mr. and Mrs.
Suarer, Mrs. Amanda
Surle.s,Mr.and Mr. JaresP.
Sussex, Dr. ard Mrs. lames
List of Members
Sssmnan, Mr. and Mrs, L-
Sussman, Ms. Patricia.
Sutton, Mr. Barry
Sweet, Mr. and Mrs. George
Tankslcy, Judge and Mrs.
Tansey, Mrs. Barbara W.
Taracido, Mr. and Mrs.
Tarr,Mr. ad Mrs.Dea isL.
Tartak, Mr. and Mrs. Nathan
Tare, Mr, andMrs. Theodore
Tatham, Mr. and Mrs. Tho-
Taylor,Mr nd Mrs. FrcdE.
Teems, Mr. and Mrs. David
Trnkin, Mr.andMrs. Ronald
Tcndrich, Mr. and Mrs,
Tepper, Dr. andMrs. Warren
Terman, Mr. and Mrs. Her-
Theobald, Mr. and Mrs.
Thomas, Mr. and Mrs.
Thompson, Mr. and Mrs.
Thompason, Mr. and Mrs.
Thurlow, Mr. and Mrs. Tom,
Tilson, Mr. Donn
Tornko, Mr. and Mrs. Mi-
Tones, Mr. andMrs. Charles
Toupin, Mr. and Mrs. Ed-
Train, Mr. Samn
Traum, Mr. andMrs. Sidney
Trcitman, Mr. and Mrs.
Tchumy, Mr. andMr. Wil-
liam E., Jr.
Tucker-Griffith, Dr. Gail
Tuggla. Mr. and Mrs. Auhy
Turner, Mr. and MRs. Clark
Turnoff, Judge and Mrs.
Tyre,Mr. andMrs. RobertS.
Ulah, Mr. and Mrs. William
Adams, Ms. Betty R.
Adams, Mrs. EB.C
*Adams, Mrs. Faith Y.
Adams, Mr. Gus C.
Adams, Ms. Lamar B,
Unger, Dr.andMrs. Stephen Weissenbrmn, Mr. and Mrs.
Usategui, Mr. Ramon Lee
Vadia, Mr. and Mrs. Jorge Weisser, Mr. arid Mrs. Mi-
Valdcz-Fauli, Mr. and Mrs. chael
Raul Wdbaunm, Mr. and Mrs. R.
Valla, Mr. and M ArthurP. Earl
Valledor, Mr. and Mrs. WellsMr.andMrs.PeterD.
Robert L. Wenak, Mr. and Mrs. Jamns
VanBrec, Mr. anMrs.Tho- H.
ma Werner. Mr. and Mrs. Start
Vanderwyden, Mr. William A.
P. West. Mr. and Mrs. Everett
Van Etten, Mr. Thomas G. "
Van Orsdcl, Mr. and Mrs. West, Mr. John
Clifford D. Wcatfall, Ms. Bette
Voenstra, Mr. and Mr. Tom Wetli, Dr. Charles V.
H. Wettrer, Ms. Barbsra
Viadera, Mr. Joaquin P. Whatlcy, Mr. Keith L.
Viser, Mr. and Mrs. Paul Whealer, Mr. Willard L
Vitagliano, Mr. and Mrs. White, Mr. Hugh B., Sr.
Francis White, Mr. Robert
Vladimir, Mr. and Mrs. White, Mr. and Mrs. Theo-
Andrew dare E.
Voker, Mrs. Mary F. Whiterid, Mr. andMrs.iric
Voss, Dr. and Mr. Gilbert Whitman, Mr. and Mrs.
Vroman, Mr. and Mrs. Rich- Stanley F.
ard Wick, Mr. and Mrs. Daniel
Wagner, Ms, Owen A., Jr.
Wagner. Mr. and Mrs. James Wickctt, Mr. Richard
Waldin, Mr. and Mrs. Earl H.
D., Jr. Wilcoky, Mr. and Mrs.
Walker,Mr.andMrs. George Robert W.
S. Willcriky. Ms, Margie
Walker, Mr. J. Frost, Il Williams, Ms. Celia
Walker, Mr. and Mrs. Tho- Williams. Lt. Col. and Mrs.
mas B., Jr. Froeman J.
Wall, Mr. and Mrs. Bernard Williams, Dr. and Mrs
B. George, Jr.
Wallace, Mr. and Mrs. Mi- Williams, Mr. Paul T.
chdel Williams,Mr. andMr. Rich-
Wallace, Mr. and Mrs. Wil- ard H.
liam L. Willis, Ms. Helen
Ward. Mr. andMrs. Joseph WiUlis,Mr.andMra,Normanu
Wasenrman, Mr. and Mr. Wills, Mr. James
Martin W. Wills, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas
Watkins, Mr. and Mrs. Ger- Wilson, Ms. Barbara W.
ald M. Wilson, Mr. and Mrs. David
Watson, Ms. Hattie B. L.
Watson,, Ms.Lori Wilson, Mr. and Mrs. Pted
Wanus, Ms. Stephanie Wilson, Mr. and Mrs. Gary
Wax, Dr. and Mrs. Herber Wimbhish, Mr. and Mrs. Paul
Weaver, Mr. and Ms. David C,
Webber, Mr. and Mrs. Wind,Mr.David
Conrad Windhorst, Mr. Kent A.
Wcms,Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Windirm, Mr. and Mrs. Bill
Weinberg. Mr. and Mrs. Winslow, Dr. and Mrs. Phil-
DavidL. lip M.
Weiner.Mr.andMrs.Robert Winston, Mr. and Mrs, Mi-
Weibrg, Mr. and Ms. Alan chapel
Weisberg, Mr. and Mrs. Winter, Mr. Calvin
Maxwell L. Wirkus, Mr. and Mrs. Le-
Wesa, Mr. and Mrs. Daniel onard V.
Adams, Ms. Sharce Allen, Mrs. fugenia
Adams, Mr. Thomas L. Allsworth, Mr. and Mrs. E.
Aibel, Mrs. Harold H.
Aiello, Ms. Josephine Al-Quscims, Mr. Jabir
Akrldund, Ms. Sue Aluaman, Mr. Richard
Albietz,Ms. Carol Altman, Ms. Ruth B.
Wisham, Mr. and Mrs. D.
Wintoky, Mr. and Mrs. Se-
Witesteiin, Mr. and Mrs.
Wolf, Dr. and Mrs.Benjamin
Wolfson. Mr. and Mrs. Jerry
Wdltson, Mr. and Mrs. Rich-
Wolpe, Mr. and Mrs. Joel
Wood, Mr. and Mrs. Gerald
Wood, Mr. andMrs. Thomas
Wood, Mr. andMr. Warren,
Wood, Mr. andMrs.William
Woodlncy, Mr. Thomas
Woods, Mr. and Mrs. Tho-
Wooten, Mr, and Mrs.Jrames
Woriey. Mr. and Mrs. Eug-
Worley, Mr. and Mrs. Jack
Worm, Ms. Rita, Adminis-
Worth, Mr. and Mrs. James
Wronki, Mr. andMrs. Char-
Wrmble, Dr. and Mrs. Lloyd
Wundcrlc, Mr. Horacc
Yanno, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Yarborough, Mr. French
Yasin, Mr. and Mrs. Salih
Y.hle, Mr. and Mrs. Larry J.
Yeomaa, Mr. and Mrs.
Young, Ms. Barbara
Young, Mr. ard Mr. John F.
Zane, Dr. and Mrs. Sheldon
Zannis, Mr. Thomas
Zapetis, Mr. and Mrs. James
Zaverinik, Mr. andMrs.John
Zeder, Mr. and Mrs. Jon W.
Zelonker, Mr. and Mrs.
Zies, Dr. and Mrs. Peter
Ziff, Mr. and Mrs. Sanford
Zigmont, Mr. and Mrs. Law-
2zckierman, Mr. and Mrs.
Zwick. Mr. Charles J.
Alvarez. Mrs. Gloria
Atomnate, Ms. J.E.
Amdur, Dr. Phyllis
Ammidown, Ms. Margot
Amsterdam, Mr. Carl D.
Ancina, Mrs. John
Anderson, Mrs. Betty M.
Anderson, Dr. Raymond T.
Anderson, Ms, Relm L.
Andrcozzi, Mr. John, Jr.
Andrews, Mr. Harold D.
Anholt. Ms. Betty P.
Arias, Ms. Anna Maria M..
Armbrust=r, Ms. Ann
Aronson, Mrs. Fayr
Arredondo, Dr. Carlos LR.
Artigas. Mr. Willy
Ashley, Ms. Pat
Atwood, Mr. Anthony D.
Avery, Ms. Anne
Ayer, Mr. John H.
Babcock, Ms, Mary A.
Babson, Mrs. Dorothy S.
Bacon, Mon. Jones
Bagg, Mrs. John L., Jr.
Bianbridge, Ms. Lois M.
Baker, Mr. George G.
Baker, Mr. Mark A.
Baker, Ms. Susan
Baldwin, Jackson C
Balfe, Mr. Alex M.
Balfe, Mrs. E. Hutchins
Balfe. Ms. Roberta
Ballesteca, Ms. Carla P.
Balli, Mr. Charles H., Jr.
Ballot, Ms. Grace L.
Barkdal, Mr.ThornasH., Jr.
Barnes, Ms. Ava R.
Barnetie, Ms. Betty
Banett. Mr. J.T.
Barrios, Ms. Nellie M.
Baucons, Mrs. Ruth Kaune
Baumez, Mr. WL.
Beagle, Mr. Ja rs
Beamish, Mr. Christopher
Beamish, Ms. Josephine P.
Bcardinore, Mr. Doug C.
Beatty, Ms. Jacqueline
Beazel, Ms. Mary G.
Becton, Ms. Irene
Benn, Ms. Nathan
Bennett, Ms. HBarbera K.
Bennert, Ms. Dorothy
Bennett, Ms. Dorothy S.
Bennett, Ms. Sharon
Beonrtt, Ms. Hazel M.
Bennett, Ma. Sarah L,
Benovits, Dr. Larry P.
Bcrcovich, Ms. Gertnide
Beriault, Mr. John G.
Being, Ms. Cyanc H.
Bicdrcn, Mrs Stanley
Bielawa, Mr. R.A.
Bilbao, Ms. Carman T.
Bills, Mrs. John T.
Binai, Ma. Elizabeth
Biondi, Mrs. Jerris
Birchmire, Mrs. Thomas H.
Bishop, Ms Elthbnel D.H.
Bishop, Mr. Jamca E.
Bitinter, Mrs. Barbara
Black, Rev. Raymondd
Black, Ms. Sandra
Blackwell, Mr. Stephen 0,
Blake, Ms. Lucille E.
Blake, Ms. Susan J.
Blakeslee, M. Zola Mac
Blatcer, Mr. Glann
Blount. Ms. Sylvia S.
Blyth. M. Mary S.
Boas, Mrs. Alfred
Bofill. Ms. Crmen L.B
Boldrick, Mr. Samuel J.
Bordeaux, Ms. Celia S.
Boaselman, Mr. Fred P.
Boaswell, Mr. James A.
Bower, Mr. Roy P.
Braddick, Mr. Holmes
Bradfisch, Ms. Jean
Bradley. Mr. William B.
Brady, Ms. Margaret R.
Brady, Mr. Raymond G.
Brannan, Mri. H. Stilsoa
Brent, Mrs. Anna L.
Braunstein, Dr. Jonashan J.
Breeze, Mrs. K.W.
Brewer, Ms. Charlrifo
Bridges, Ms. Kathy
Brooks, Mr. and Mrs. J. R.
Brown, Mr. AL., Jr.
Brown, Mrs. Andrew
Brown, Mrs. Cares
Brown. Mr. Prank
Brown, Mrs. hInm M.
Brown. Ms. Lynn W.
Brown. Mrs, Pauline
Brush, Mr. Robert W.
Bryant, Mr. Thomas M.
Buckle, Mrs. Bernice H.
Buckley, Mrs. Irhen
Buhlcr, Mr. Emil, II
Burler, Mrs. Paul H.
Burgess, Mr. Gordon
Burntt, Ms. Sandy
Bumbham, Ms. Sandra
Burrows., Mr. David W.
Burrms, Mr. E. Carter, Jr.
Busby. Mr. George
Bush, Mr. Gregory W.
Bunsai, Ms. Ann
Byrd, Ms. Barbara 0.
Bymc, Mr. Bob
Calhoun, Ms. Ann
Caplc, Ms. Robin
Capraro, Mr. Franz
Carbajo, Mr. and Mrs. Anto-
Caridad, Mr. Miguel
Carroll, Mrs. Edith A.
Carruthers, Mr. John, U
Carter, Ms. Carla A.
Cason, Mr. Robert M.
Cassel, Mr. John, MD.
Cater, Mrs. George B.
Caster, Dr. P.
Castro, Mr. Andy
Catlow, Mrs Party M.
Cauce, Ms. Elena M.
Caudell, Ms Helen
Cervoni, Ms. Casey
Chaills, Mr. Joseph H.
Chang, Ms. Iris
Chapell, Ms. Connie
Chapman, Mr. and Mrs.
Chauncey, Mr. Donald E.
Chatharn, Mr. Edwin H., Jr.
Chrsley, Ms. Josephine C.
Chctham. Mr. John H.
Chezcnm, Ms. Jan C.
Chicvara, Ms. Cathbrin= L.
Childs, Mrs. Marina
Chin, Mrs. Sandy C.
Christ, Mr. Anita
Chrislensrtn Mrs. Charlo e
Chrisatnan, Mr. Steve
Christopher, Mrs. J. J
Chrystic, Ms. Margot
Cibula, Ms. Cathy
Ciltron, Ms. Elizabeth
Clapp, Ms. Allyce
Clark. Mrs. Mae K.
Cark, Mr. Paul D.
Clark, Mr. Robert V.
Clarke, Ms. Patricia M.
Clay, Ms. DanaL.
Clay, Ms. Madelin M.
Clopton, Ms. Paggy
Cobb, Ms. Jeffi A.
Coburnm, Mr. Louis
Cohan, Ms. Lori
Cohen, Dr. Gilbert
Cohen, Mrs. Nancy
Coleman, Ms. Hannah P.
Collins, Ms. Mary E.
Collins, Ms Theors
Ccndo, Ms. Mabel
Conduitte, Ms. Catherine J.
Caoc, Mr. Larry B.
Caensa, Ms. Lillian
Conlon, Mr. Lyndon C.
Connellan, Ms. Barbara E.
Conner, Mrs. Daphne W.
Coate, Ms. Marha
Cook. Ms. Darlene
Cook. Mr. R. Marvin
Cook, Ms. Ruth
Cookc, Mrs. Francis N.
Cooper, Mr. Paul B.
Corbelle, Mr. AnonandH.
Corarn, Mr. Hal D.
Costello, Mr. Jamnes
Cox, Mrs. Ptey
Cox-Jones, Mrs. Janice
Craig, Ms. Dorothy A.
Craig, M Normnna J.
Cramer, Mr. Lowell
Crampton. Dr. Donald R.
Cred, Mr. Earl M,
Creel, Mr. Joe
Crosa, Mr. David S.
Cross, M J. Alan
Croucher, Mr. William J.
Crowell. Ms. Sylvia C.
Crump, Mrs, Dorothy
Culmer, Mrs. Leone
Cumming, Mr. George, Ill
Cunningham, Mr. Charles
Cunnungham, Mr. Frank
Cud, Mr. Donald W.
Curry, Ms. Bettye F.
Dacy. Mr. George
Daniels, Mr. Fred P.
Danko, Ms. Casie L.
Dansky, Mr. King
Darwick, Mr. Nornnan
Daughtry, Mr. and Mrs.
Daum. Mr. Phillip
David, Ms. Anne
Davidson, Ms. Ursula M.
Davila, Ms. Tees a
Davis, Mr. Allow A.
Davis, Mr. Jim P.
Davis, Mnrs, Karen
Davis, Ms. Marion P.
Davison, Mrs. Walter R.
Dawson, Ms. Phyllis M.G.
Day, Ms. Jane S.
Dayhoff, Ms, Sandy
De los Santos, Ms. Adele
Deans, Mr. Douglas W.
DeNics, Mr. Charles PF,
Dcrleth, ML Linda A.
Dorvishi, Mr. Brian S.
Deville, Ms. E. Josephine
DoWald, Mr. Bill
Diaz, Ms. AliciaL.
Diaz, Mr. BrunoM.
Dia, Ms. Louise V.
Dickey, Ms. Dorothy S.
Dieterich, Ms. Emily P.
Dinda, Mr. John
Diprisna, Ms. Adri-cne A.
Dinsmore, Mrs. Marion E.
Dittrich, Mrs. Mildred
Dobrow, Mr. Stephen
Doerer. Mrs. Rosemary
Dorsey, Mrs. Mary
**Douglas. Ms. Marjory
Dowlan, Fitzgerald, and
Drew, Mrs. H. E.
Drulard, Mrs. Mamin L.
DuBois, Miss. JohnR.
DaBois. Miss Winifred H.
Dugas, Mr. Faye
Dunnum, Mr. Hampton
Duvall, Mrs. John E.
Eakins, Mr. William J.
Easton, Mr. Edward W.
Eaton, Ms. Sarah
Edclen, Ma. Ellen
Edierr, Ms. Normnna
Edward, Mr. Jim
Edwanda, Mr. Kevin B,
Ellison, Dr. Waldo M.
Emerick, Ms. Roberta F.
Engel, Dr. Gertrude
Ernst, Ms. Patricia G.
Errickson, Mr. David
Etling. Mr. Walter
Evans, Mr. Don
Evans, Ms. Linda
Ewald, Ms. Joan B.
Ewell, Mr. A. Travers
Hyster, Mr. living R.
Fairbrothlr, Ms. Bette D.
FPrkas, Ms. Klara
Farrell Mr. John R., P.A.
Fascll,RCp. andMrs. Dantr
Feshan, Mr. Paul
Feinbcrg, Ms. Elaine
Feingold, Mrs. Natalie
Feman dez, Ms. Keiko
Femandez, Mr. WilfredoM.
FPurtado, Ms. Mary L.
Fields, Mrs. Dorothy
Fineberg, Mrs. Rosa C.
Finenco, Mrs. John
Finley, Mr. George T.
Fisch, Sister Jean R.
Fischer. Ms. Elaine R.
Fisher, Mr. Ray
Fishman, Mrs. Bibi
List of Members
Fishwick, Mr. Joseph
Pitzgerald-Bush. Mr. Frank
Fitzgerald, Mr. James
Fitzgibbon, Dr. J. M.
Flipse, Mr. Fred C.
Flores, Mrs. Maria
Florez, Mr. Leopoldo
Floyd, Mr. Robert L.
Foote, Mrs. Edward T.
Foote, Miss Elizabeth
Frankel, Mrs. Blossom K.
Franz. Mr. John B.
Freeman, Ms. Susan
Friedmsan, Ms. Emily
Freier, Ms. ArlenC
Frisbie, Ms. Annette
Fritarh, Ms. Rance Z.
Frohbose, Ms. Elizabeth J.
Frohock, Mr. John M.
Fuchs, Mr. Richard W.
Fuater, Ms. R.
Galatis, Ms. Marjorie L.
Gamble, Ms. Stacey L.
Garcia, Mrs. Joyce V.
Gardirer, Ms. Janet P.
Gargano, Ms. Caron
Garrad, Ms. Jeannr
Garrett, Mr. Frank L.
Garrison,Dr. and Ms. Bruce
Garrison, Ms. Pamela
Gauger, Ms. Marcia
Gautney, Mrs. Tony
George, Dr. Paul S.
Gcrace, Mrs. Tcr-ncer
Gerardo, Ms. Pramla
Gcrhart, Mr. George W.
Gibbs, Mr. W. Tucker
Giesler, Ms. Bortc T.
Gillies, Ms. PariciaL.
Ginn, Ms. Alida V.
Ginsburg, Mr. R.N.
Gladstane, Mr. John
Glacso, Ms. Barbara
Glass, Ms. Miroa L.
Glassman, Mr. Stephen
Glattmaer, Mrs. Alfred
Glickman, Ms. Rather
Goldenberg. Mrs. Anna C.
Goldatein, Mr. Albert M.
Goldstein, Mr. Edward S.,
Goldstein, Judge Harvey L.
Gonzalez, Mr. George E.
Gonzalez, Mr. Jorge E.
Gonzalez, Mr. William
Goodin, Mr. Jack, Jr.
Gopnan, Ms. Both
Gordon, Mr, Harold H.
Gordon, Ms. Polite
Gottfried, Mrs. Theodore
Gould, Ms. Bemice
Gowin, Dr. Thomas S.
Gaza, Mr. Willam
Graiftn, Mrs. Edward G.
Grant, Mr. Stuart M.
Graves, Mr. Kenneth
Green, Ms. Ann
Grcen, Ms. LUoma G.
Greenberg. Mrs. Daniel
Gregory. Mr. Ledford G.
Grelst. Mr. John D.
Grentmer, Ms. Lynn
Griffith, Mr. Glenn
Gross, Ms. Sherry L.
Gross, Dr. Zadc B.
Grossman, Mr. Jeffrey
Grout, Ms. Nancy
Grover, Ms. Marlenc
Gruttbach, Mrs. MargaretlR.
Guerra, Ms. Mirtha
Guiilari, Ms. Alexis
Haddock, Ms. Nancy F.
Hale, Ms. Kay K.
Hall, Mr,. Frank D.
Hall, Ms. Isa
Hall, Mr. andMrs. M. Lewis,
Halprin, Mrs. Maxino R.
Halyburton, Ms. Marian
Hamrick, Mr. David H.
Hanaoaurde, Mrs. John K.
Hananian, Ms. Juliet
Hancock, Mrs. Jamres T.
Hanft, Ms, Marjory S3,
Hanley, Ms. Barbara
Harring, Ms. Margie
Harris, Ms Eleanor
Harris, Mrs. Henrietta
Harrison, Mr. Robert J.
Harwell, Ms. Wanda
Harwood, Mrs. MalnonE,
Hauser, Mr. Leo A.
Hawes, Mr. Leland M, Jr.
Hawkes, Ms. Evangelina
Heard, Dr. Joseph G.
Hecht, Mrs, Isadore
Heckerling, Mrs. Philip
Heldt, Ms. Agneta C.
Helfand, Ms. Rosaleo
Helliwcll, Ms. Anne E.
Helms, Mr. Roy V.
Helsabcck, Ms. Rosemary E.
Henkin, Dr. and Mrs. Jeffrey
Hepler, Mrs. Charlrne
Herin. Mr. Thomas D.
Herring, Mrs, V.R.
HeIsl, Mr. Hecnman, Jr.
Hertz. Ms. Linda C.
Hertzenberg, Mr. David J.
Hen, Ms. Marilyn P.
Hickey, Ms. Amy K.
Hill, Mr. Gregory
Hiller, Mr. Herbert L.
Hilhman & Carr
Hilton, Ms, Joan M.
Hies, Ms. Phyllis
Hipsmnan, Mr. Mitchell
Hodge, Ms. Ncdra A.
Hodus, Mr. Jack
Hoehl, Mr. and Mrs. John R.
Hoffmnann, Ms. L.A.
Hofstetter, Mrs. Ronald
Hogg. Mr. John F.
Holland, Mr. Charles W., Jr.
Holzman, Ms. Tressa A.
Hooper, Ms. Patricia
Hoppenbrouwer, Mr. Walter
Hort, Ms, Teresa
Hoskins, Mrs. Eddie
Homuse. Mr. Hugh A.
Howell, Mr. Roland M.
Huber, Mrs, Anna L.
Habsch, Mr. Robert H., Sr.
Hudnall, Mrs. Helen B.
Hunister, Ms. Frances G.
Hunter, Mr. William A.
Hurst, Ms. Jennifer
Hyde-Antwi. Mr. Prank
Ilson, Ms. Sandra
Ingraham, Mr. William A.,
Irwin, Ms. Barbara
Jacobson, Dr. and Mrs.
Jacobstein, Dr. Helen
Jacaway, Ms. Taffy
Jacobi, Ms, Beth
Jacobs, Mrs. Ruth
Jafic. Ms. L:ah S.
James, Mr. and Mrs. Edward
James, Ms. Mary C.
JaIrell, Mr, Howard R.
Jenkins, Mr. Todd E.
Jerome, Dr. William T., Ill
Johnson, Mr. Fredrick L.
Johnson, Ms. Jean
Johnston, Ms. Sauanoe B.
Jolley, Mr. Robert F.
Jnres, Ms. Anne F.
Jones, Ms. Denna Jean
Jones, Mrs. Henrietna
Jones, Ms. Jacqueline
Jones, Ms. Sally
Jones, Mr. Thompson V.
Jordan, Mrs. June T.
Jordan. Ms. Katherine R.
Jurika, Mr. Louis
Kaincs, Mr. Denns G., Esq.
Kaiser, Ms. Roberta
Kallweit, Mr. Lothar M.
Kaplan, Mr. Elliott
Karlin, Ms. Sydell
Kashner, Ms. Ann R.
Kassewitz, Mrs. Ruth B.
Kavanargh, Mr, Daniel A.
Keaton, Ms. Martha
Keely, Mrs. Lucile F.
Keith, Mr. Scott G.
Keller, Ms. Barbara P.
Kelley, Dr. Robert L.
Kelly, Ms. Pat
Kelly, Dr. Tarance J.
Kennedy, Ms. Patricia
Kent, Mrs. Frederick A.
Kern, Ms. Carolyn M.
Kessler, Ma. Loraine
Keys, Ms. Carol F.
Kilberg, Mra, AJ.
King, Mr. Arthur, Sr.
King. Mr. Dennis G.
Kirsch, Mr. Louis
Kline, Ms. Debbie
Klein, Mr. Mason S.
Kline, Mr. Gene
Knapp. Mr. and Mrs.Morris,
Knight, Mr. Jeffrey D.
Knott, Judge James R.
Kocsfline. Ms,. Frances G.
Kokenzie, Mr. Henry
Kolski, Mrs. Patricia M.
Komorowski, Ms. Camila B.
Kononoff, Ms. Haze) N.
Kops. Ms. Karin
Koski, Ms. Antoinette M.
Kotler, Mr. Meyer
Kramer, Ms. Judi
Kramer, Ms. Sandra G,.
Kriabs, Mr. Robert V.
Krieger, Mr. Stanley L.
Krinaman, Mr. Alan
Kristal, Mr. Marvin J.
Krog, Ms. Kathleen
Krop, Dr. Michael
Kubota. Mr. Micko
Kupper, Mr. Ken
La Belle, Mr. Dexter
La Plate, Ms. Leah
Laabs, Ms. (audirm
Lacey, Mr. Robert
LaFontairn, Ms. Patricia
Lamme, Mr. Robert E.
Lamronte, Ms. Caroline
Lancaster, Ms. Patricia
Lancaster, Mr. R1 D.
Landau, Dr. Sol
Lang, Mr. Richard
Langeron, Ms. Luci rne
Lane, Ms. Elizabeth A.
LaRouc, Mr. Samuel D., Jr.
LaRussa, Ms. Lynne M.
Lavin, Ms. Mayola L.
Lawson, Dr. H.
Laxso, Mr. Dan D., Sr.
Laason, Mr. Danny D., Jr.
Lazarus, Mrs. Theodora
**Leary, Mr, Lewis
Leavitt, Mr-. Steve
Leduc, Ms. Charlotte J.
Loe, Ms. Beryl
Lee, Ms, Catherine D.
Lee, Mr. Roswell E.
Leesha, Ms. Sara
Lehann, Mtr. David M.
Leiber, Mr. Robert B.
Leirmnr, Ms, Ruth
Lamos, Mr. Ramaon
Lenox, Ms. Teresa
Leon, Mr. Salvador, Jr.
Laonard, Mr. Joseph S.
Leslie, Ms. Nancy L.
Leslie, Ms. Sylvia A,
Levin, Mr. Marc
Levine, Dr. Robert M.
Levitz, Ms. Esther M.
Le Wells, MH. Gena
Lewemoshn, Mr. San
Lewis, Mrs. Gerald J.
Liddell, Ms. Lynn
Lieberman, Ms. Eleanor
Liebman, Mrs. Malvina
Liles, Mr, E. Clark BE.
Lindsley, Mrs. A.R.
Lis-back, Ms. Janet A.
Linchan, Mrs. John
Link Mrs. E.A.
Lippert, Mr. Kemp
Lipscomrnb, Mrs, Elizabeth
Livingston, Mr. Robert
Locrky, Ms. Donna
Lombardo, Ms. Barbara A.
Londmno, Ms. Joyce B.
Looncy, Ms, Evelyn 0.
Lorncz, Ms. Valarie
Love, Ms. Mildred A.
Lowery. Mrs. Norida
Lowry, Mr, James R., Jr.
Lubel, Mr. Howard
Luce, Ms. Marjorie
Lukens, Mrs. Jaywood
Lurnmus, Ms. Martha F.
Lunaford, Mrs. E.C.
Lyda, Ms. Eloie B.
Lynch, Mr. James
Lynch, Mrs. Jeanette W.
Lynfield, Mr. H. Geoffrey
Lyons, Mrs. Rita
Macklr, Ms. Milbrey W.
MacLaren, Ms. Valarie
Maholm, Rev. Richard D.
Mahoncy, Mr. Michael B.
Malafrorna, Mr. Anthony F.
Malone, Mrs. Randolph A.
Malvido, Ms. Emma
Manley, Ms. Joan
Manly, Ms. Grace
Marchmnan, Mr. Dennis L.
Marcns. Mrs. Besasie
Markuns, Mr. Daniel
Markus, Mr. Victor G.
Marotti, Dr. Prank, Jr.
Martin, Mr. Alfed B.
Martin, Mrs. Edna P.
Martin, Mr. Em'ett E., Jr.
Martin, Dr. John B., Jr.
Mason, Mrs. Jo J,.
Massa, Mrs. Jeanamarie M.
Masterson, Ms. Loc A.
Matheson, Mr. JanmsF.
Maurm, Ms. June
Maxwell, Ms. Marjorie P.
Mazotti, Mr. Frank J.
McAllister, Mr. Jim
McCulloch, Mr. John E.
McIntosh, Ms. Jeanette C.
McKenna, Mra. Alice M.
McKinney, Mr. Bob
McLean, Ms. Lemareo
McNally, M- June S.
McNally. Rev. Michael J.,
McNaughton, Ms. Virginia
McWilliams, Ms. Phyllis
Medina, Mr. Robert K.
Mejias, Ms. Asmara D.
Meltzer, Ms. Toni
McndMe, Mr. Jesus
Menendez, Mr. Peter
Mcrlo, Mrs. Kathy
Merritt, Mrs. Isabel
Mesics, Ms. Sandra
Metz, Mr. 1J. Walter, Jr,
Meyer, Mr. Richard G.
Meyers. Mrs. Burt
Middlethon, Mr. WilliamR.,
Miclke, Mr. Timothy R-
Millar, Mrs. Gavin S.
Miller, Mr. Dean R.
Miller Ms. Eleasir
Miller, Ms. Gertrude
Miller, Ms. Huntley
Miller, Ms. Margaret L.
Mitchell. Mr. Thomas A.
Mohl, Mr. Raymond A., Jr.
Monbhan, Dr. Kathleen
Monk, Mr. Floyd J.
Montague, Mrs. Charles H.
Moore, Mrs. Jack
Moore, Mr. Patrick P.
Moore, Mr. William
Moram, Ms. Lucita L.
Mordamt, Mr. Hal
Morgan, Mr. Gregory A.
Moss, Ms. Parnla
Moss, Mr. Steve
More, Mrs. EdwinP.
Moylan, Mrs. E.B., Jr.
Moynahan, Mr. John H.
Mroek, Mr. Ronald W.
Muir, Mr. William W.
Mulcronm, Ms. Judy
Mullehoff, Ms. Jeanne M.
Muller, Ms. Barbara F.
Muniz, Mr. Manual I.
Myers, Ms. Lillian G.
Naranjo, Mr. Xavier
Namup, Mrs. Mavis A.
Nasca, Ms. Suzanne
Neil, Ms. Nancy K.
Nelson, Mr. Jonathan
Nelson, Mr. Theodore R.
Nelson, Ms. Winifred H.
Nemtei, Mr. Gay M.
Neway, Ms. Roberta
Newman, Mr. Peter
Newton, Capt. WL.., Ill
Niles, Mr. James P.
Ninrmicht, Mrs. Helen
Nimnicht, Mrs. Mary Jo
Noble, Dr. Nancy L.
Nodarc, Ms. Anita,
Norman, Mr. Walter H.
O'Connell, Mr. Peter J.
O'Neal, Mr. Alan
Older, Mr. Brian S.
Oren, Ms. Karen
OrgclI, Mr. Wallace H.
ODren, Ms. Roberta C.
Orlin, Ms, Karen
Oscar, Ms. Marie
Osman, Mr. Peter
Osnowitz, Ms, Myrna
Ostainko, Mr. Witold, Sr.
Ostrout, Mr. Howard P., Jr.
Oswald, Mr. JacksonoJ.
Otterson Ms. Dana
Overantreet, Ms. Eastllc C.
Oversteet, Mr. Jaencs D. Jr.
Owen, Ms. Eliabcth.J.
Padgett, Mr. Inman
Palen, Mr, Frank S.
Palozzi, Mr. Michael J.
Paparella, Mrsa Denil
Park, Mr. Dabney 0., Jr.
Parker, Mr. Crawford H.
Parka, Ms. Jeanne M.
Parks, Mrs. Merle F.
Parsons, Mr. Edward 0.
Paugth Mr. Gerald L.
Paul, Miss Judithl
Paul, Mrs. Kenneth
Peabody, Mr. Edward L.
Pearce, Mrs. Edgar B.
Pearson, Ms. Madeline S,
Peeler, Ms. Elizabeth
Peoples, Mr. Vernon
Pell, Ms. Gloria
Pelton, Dr. Margaret M.
Peoples. Ms. Amuta J.
Pemer, Mrs. Henry J.
*fters, Dr. 'chlma
Pfeffer, Ms. Karen
Pierce, Mrs. Margie K.
Pierce, Ms. Rence
Pittman, Mrs. Robert W.
Ponce, Mr. James
Porter, Mr. Daniel
Posncr, Mr. Joseph
Postlcthwaite, Ms. Nina
Prado, Ms. Miriam
Pravda, Mr. Don
Price, Mr. Bedford W.
Proenza, Ms. Christina D.
Provost, Mr. Orville I.
Pardy, Ms. Betty A.
Puavis. Mrs. Hugh F.
Quainey, Ms. Suzanne F.
Ragan, Ms. Patti
Rahm, Mrs. Virginia S.
Raiden, Mr. Michael E.
Ramas, Ms. Pauline E.
Ranki, Ms. Sally
Rappaport, Dr. Edward
Rasmussen, Mrs. Ray S.
Reagan, Mr, A. Janes, Jr.
Reck, Ms. Margot
Roed, Ms. Donna V,
Reed, Mrs. Elizabeth A.
Reed, Mr. Richard E.
Rndir, Mr. Lawrence
Reeder. Mr. William P.
Rehwoldt, Mr. Ralph T.
Rein, Mr. Martin
Rempe. Ms. Lois D.
Renick, Mr. Ralph
Rmnninger. Ms. Julie B.
Resnick, Mr. Larry
Rico, Sister Eileen FP.
Rice, Mr. RJH., Jr.
Richard, Mr. Ralph
Richards, Ms. Rose C.
Richheirnr, Ms. R.
Ricketts, Mrs. Ronald R.
Riley, Mrs. O.V.
Riley, Ms. Sandra
Rinehart, Ms. Gwen M.
Risley, Mr. Douglas L,
Ritter, Mrs. Emma B.
Robbins, Mrs. Alice
Roberts, Ms. Ruth
Robertson, Mr. Mark
Robertson, Mrs. Paul H.
Robertson, Mrs. PirdadP.
Rodrigucz, Ms. Ofllas M.
Rogers, Mr. John H.
Rogers, Mrs. Shirley H.
Rollins, Ms. Annie L.
Rood, Mr. Nathan B.
Roper. Ms. Margarct M.
Rosea-Guyon, Mr. Luis L.
Rosen, Mr. Robert R.
Roscr, Ms. Aliz A.
Remow, Mrs. Ruth
Rowen, Mr. David
Rubelman, Ms. Myrnah
Ruden, Mrs. Eliza P.
Rullman, Ms. Joan M.
Russell. Ms. Darlene
Ryan, Mr. AJ., Jr
Ryan. Mr. Patrick W.
Sackiana, Ms. Arlene
Safer-Saffer, Mrs. Miriamn
Sala, Ms. Carin
Salerno, Ms. Evelyn
Salley. Mrs. Sadie S.
Salomo n. Mr. Carlos M.
Salzman, Ms. Phyllis S.
Samson, Dr. Stapheo
Sanchez-Pando,Dr. Jos fina
Sand, Ms. Joni
Sanders. Mrs. Zannie W.
Santa-Maria, Ms. Yvomnne
Santo Pietro, Mr. James J.
Santos, Mr. Arnold
Samnos, Ms. Elizabeth
Sax, Ms. Connie A.
Scarborough. Mrs. Chaffer
Schacffer. Mrs. Oden A.
Scharlin, Mr. David
Schechter, Mr. Roy
Scherr, Mrs. Ruth E.
Schneider, Mr. A.
Schoenfeld, Mr. David
Scholte, Ms,. Mary
Schuh, Mr. Niles
Schulte, Mrs. William
Schultz, Mrs. Tom G.
Schuman, Ms. Barbara
Schwartz, Mrs. Geraldine
Schwarz, Mr. Thomas
Scott, Ms. Kathy A.
Scott, Mr. Patrick S.
Segal, Mr. Martin E.
Segal, Mrs. Natalie J.
Selinsky, Dr. Herman
Sell, Ms. Helm E.
Sellati, Mr. Kenneth
Selva, Ms. Mary Lou
Semres, Rev. Robert L.
Seng, Mr. William R.
Seplcr, Mr. Richard M.
Serakin, Mr. Manuel
Sessions. Ms. Ellen G.
Shafer, Ms KathrynE.
Sharer, Mr. Cyrus J.
Sharlow, Mrs. Evelyn W.
Sharp, Ma. Sandy
Shaw. Mrs. Henry 0.
*Shaw. Dr, Martha L.
Shaw. Mrs. W. F.
Shearer, Ms. Juanita D.
Sheeran, Ms. Kathy
Sheffield, Mrs. Charlotte
Shelton, Ms. Betty
Shepard, Mrs. Sara FP.
Shon. Ms. Palma
Shula, Mrs. Don
Siao, Ms. Siu Kim
Sigale. Mr. Merwin
Silver, Mrs, Doris S.
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Silver, Mrs. Sam I.
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Sloan, Mr. Jim
Slusser, Mr. Bruce
Smith, Mrs. Avery C., Jr.
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Smith, Ms. Lynette M.
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Smith, Ms. Rebecca A.
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Stella, Ms. Beatrice
Stevens, Ms. Anne L.
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Stevens, Ms. Nancy
Stewart, Ms. Ruth A.
Stickler, Mr. Robert
Stiles, Ms. Doris B,
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Stock, Ms. Ruth V.
Stockheim, Ms. Jeanne S.
Stofik, Ms. Marty
Stone, Mrs. A.J.
Stone, Dr. Airline M.
Stone, Mr. Robert L., Jr.
Storm, Ms. Larse
Stovatl, Ms. Lucy P.
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Strobl, Ms. Annetta
Sturrock, Ms. Elsie
Suiter. Ms. Patricia A.
Sullivan, Mr. Patrick R.
Sundquist, Mr. Percy U.H.
Suris, Ms. Beatrice G.
Swartz, Ms. Donna C.
Swart. Mr. Kenncth
Swartz, Mr. Thomas A.
Swischer, Ms. Parm
Swisher, Mr. John E.
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